Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Indoor and Built Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.525
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1420-326X - ISSN (Online) 1423-0070
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1151 journals]
  • A prediction model of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon quarterly emissions
           based on GDP from a government policy perspective
    • Authors: Yutong Jing, Li Bai, Zhao Chen, Yixian Xue
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a kind of carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic pollutants that exist widely. In this study, a quarterly emission inventory of 16 PAHs listed as the US EPA priority pollutants was established by using the emission factor (EF) method. The results showed that the distribution of PAHs in different industries varied greatly with different year and quarter. The main characteristics of PAHs seasonal emission are that Q1 emission is the most and Q4 emission is the least. Among them, naphthalene and phenanthrene are the most important compounds. There are significant differences in PAHs emissions from different sources. Traffic and civil use emissions are the main sources. For example, in 2019, traffic emissions accounted for 20.9% and civil use emissions accounted for 78.3% of the total emissions. Then, a linear multiple regression model was established to predict the quarterly emission of PAHs. A vector autoregressive (VAR) approach was applied to analyse the correlation between the gross domestic product (GDP) and other macroeconomic parameters. This study could be used as a guide to provide recommendations for government policy and macro-control efforts.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-05-04T05:56:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211011698
  • Prediction of phthalates concentration in household dust based on back
           propagation neural network
    • Authors: Chanjuan Sun, Kexiu Li, Jialing Zhang, Chen Huang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Field or laboratory measurements are commonly conducted to determine phthalates concentrations in spaces. This study investigated the association between various influencing factors and indoor phthalates concentrations. Back-propagation (BP) Neural Network was employed to verify a prediction model of indoor phthalates concentration with 80% of experimental data and 20% remaining data. The validation of remaining data shows a reasonable accuracy for model application, where the ratios of standard deviations were all greater than 0.45, most ERMS were close to 0 and all the EMR were less than 15.5%. In addition, we used relevant data from the China, Children, Homes, Health (CCHH) study conducted in Tianjin for further inspection. The prediction on di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) concentration was performed, which indicated a high accuracy. Furthermore, the Monte-Carlo simulation was applied to quantify the effect of temperature on phthalates concentration combining with the prediction model. When the temperature increment value was 4°C, the average relative decrease ratio of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), DEHP, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) concentration was about 7.8%, 12.8% and 9.3%, respectively. The findings have established the validity of the prediction model and provided a quantification of the influence of temperature on the concentration of phthalates in the indoor dust phase.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-05-03T05:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211010212
  • Numerical simulation of the effects of canopy properties on airflow and
           pollutant dispersion in street canyons
    • Authors: Le Wang, Wen-Xin Tian, Xiu-Yong Zhao, Chuan-Qing Huang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The air flow and pollutant concentration fields in a street canyon affected by trees could affect the comfort and health of residents. At present, the description of the non-uniform/discontinuous distribution of leaves is difficult. In this study, the leaf distribution in the canopy was characterized by establishing non-continuous (uniform/random) algorithm based on a numerical simulation method, and the effects of canopy properties including, height, porosity and uniform/random leaf distribution, on the airflow and pollutant concentration fields in urban street canyons were investigated. The position of the tree canopy was found to directly affect the airflow field form and the air velocity distribution in the street canyon at low inflows. The average air velocity in the street canyon could be reduced significantly when the top of the tree canopy is near the top of the street canyon. The air velocity and pollutant concentration in the street canyon would vary only slightly due to the canopy porosity. Due to the increasing canopy porosity, the air velocity would increase, and the pollutant concentration would be reduced. The leaves are non-continuous and uniformly distributed at constant porosity, which does not significantly change the velocity distribution and pollutant concentration in the street canyon.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-04-28T06:09:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211005174
  • Assessment of process parameters in a dehumidification process using
           biomass-based wood shaving as a packing material
    • Authors: Sampath Suranjan Salins, S. V. Kota Reddy, Shiva Kumar
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the current study, the performance of the counterflow dehumidification test rig using wood shaving packing has been analysed. Wood shaving packing with the density 500 kg/m3 was used along with the CaCl2 desiccant with varying concentration. Mass flow rate of air was varied and the dehumidification performance parameters like moisture removal rate, dehumidification efficiency, coefficient of performance, change in relative humidity, change in the pressure and mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. Output parameters were compared with the commercially available cellulose packing with the wettability of 632 m2/m3. Results showed that, even though the performance of wood shaving packing is slightly less than the Celdek packing, performance of wood shaving is promising at 40% desiccant solution concentration. Maximum relative humidity difference, coefficient of performance and dehumidification efficiency obtained with wood shaving pad material were found to be 19%, 1.88 and 69.5%, respectively.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T05:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211008509
  • Optimal diameter of district heating pipe network based on the hybrid
           operation of distributed variable speed pumps and regulating valves
    • Authors: Li Bai, Hongkai Liu, Chuck Wah Yu, Zhen Yang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The district heating system that uses the hybrid operation of distributed variable speed pumps and regulating valves can effectively reduce the pressure level at the far-end of the heating network, while retaining the energy saving advantages of the distributed variable speed pump system and ensuring the safe operation of the heating network. In this study, pipe network optimization based on genetic algorithm was used to determine the pipe diameter required for the hybrid operation of distributed variable speed pumps and regulating valves. A mathematical model was established to evaluate the economic efficacy based on the annual equivalent cost. The zero-pressure difference point was evaluated to optimize the pipe diameter. A real pipe network was assessed to evaluate the efficacy of the method, and a sensitivity analysis of pressure constraints and economic factors was conducted. Our results show the system of hybrid operation of distributed variable speed pumps and regulating valves can reduce the annual equivalent cost by about 10.35% compared to the conventional central circulating pump system. In addition, the annual energy consumption due to heat loss and pump operation is only 0.36% higher than that of the conventional central circulating pump system.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T05:44:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211007893
  • Increase associated risk of gynaecological cancer due to long-term
           exposure to high concentration of atmospheric SO2 industrial pollutant
    • Authors: Qian Xu, Chan Lu, Rachael Gakii Murithi, Lanqin Cao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A cohort case–control study was conducted in XiangYa Hospital, Changsha, China, which involved 305 patients and 399 healthy women, from June 2010 to December 2018, to evaluate the association between Chinese women’s short- and long-term exposure to industrial air pollutant, SO2 and gynaecological cancer (GC). We obtained personal and family information from the XiangYa Hospital electronic computer medical records. Using data obtained from the air quality monitoring stations in Changsha, we estimated each woman’s exposure to the industrial air pollutant, sulphur dioxide (SO2), for different time windows, including the past 1, 5, 10 and 15 years before diagnosis of the disease. A multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the association between GC and SO2 exposure. GC was significantly associated with long-term SO2 exposure, with adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.56 (1.10–2.21) and 1.81 (1.07–3.06) for a per interquartile range increase in the past 10 and 15 years, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that different groups reacted in different ways to long-term SO2 exposure. We concluded that long-term exposure to high concentration of industrial pollutant, SO2 is associated with the development of GC. This finding has implications for the prevention and reduction of GC.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T05:23:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211003655
  • Evaluation of indoor disinfection technologies for airborne disease
           control in hospital
    • Authors: Zhuangbo Feng, Fangzhen Wei, Hui Li, Chuck Wah Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-04-09T06:17:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211002948
  • What makes a place special' Research on the locality of cities in the
           Yellow River and Rhine River Basins based on Street View Images
    • Authors: Fang Wang, Congcong Yuan, Jianing Li, Binyi Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Globalization and urbanization have caused unprecedented impacts in local identification and cultural protection, and rivers that cross administrative boundaries have attracted attention in the protection of local cultural heritage, resource integration and mobilization. This study selected several cities in the Yellow River Basin and the Rhine River Basin as examples, using street view images, combining locality theory with computer vision analysis methods, and proposing a framework for quantitative research on locality expression. Then the generation mechanism of the local characteristics was discussed. The results show that the cities in the two countries show significant differences, whereas some cities in the basin are similar. The images of the ‘Built Environment' and ‘Social Life' are more conducive to identifying the cities. The construction qualities of ‘Remains' and ‘Water' are the key built environmental factors for the coexistence of locality differences and similarities. The protection of historic buildings and less manual intervention in the water environment are of great significance to the local shaping of German cities and have reference value for developing Chinese cities. The research responds to the homogenization of the urban landscape, the symbiotic relationship between cities and water, and sustainable development in river basin cities.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T06:24:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21999102
  • Challenges and emerging technologies for sustainable smart cities
    • Authors: Awais Ahmad, Gwanggil Jeon, Chuck Wah Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-03-16T04:30:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211001698
  • Fire hazard assessment with indoor spaces for evacuation route selection
           in building fire scenarios
    • Authors: Yiquan Song, Lei Niu, Pengfei Liu, Yi Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A safe and effective evacuation route is important for reducing casualties during building fires, and this topic has been a long-term focus of emergency management. Indoor space is a space within one or multiple buildings consisting of architectural components and is the basis of indoor route analyses. Based on indoor space, an indoor network model is designed that considers fire protection design, spatial matching between fire information and the indoor space, and the passability of the indoor space during a fire. Then, an evacuation route selection algorithm that considers hazard and time is proposed. The key features of the route selection algorithm, which include assessing the fire hazards, evacuation time in each indoor space and parallel computing in the route selection algorithm, are subsequently presented. Finally, taking a gymnasium as an example, case modelling and fire information integration are performed to investigate two fire scenarios and the optimal evacuation routes over time are identified in each scenario.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T04:39:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21997547
  • Evaluation methods of the daylight performance and potential energy saving
           of tubular daylight guide systems: A review
    • Authors: Hanlin Li, Dan Wu, Yanping Yuan, Lijun Zuo
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the past 30 years, tubular daylight guide systems (TDGSs) have become one of the most popular ways to transport outdoor natural light into the inner space in building design. However, tubular daylight guide systems are not widely used because of the lack of methods to evaluate methods on the suitability of the TDGSs. This study therefore summarizes the daylight performance metrics of TDGSs and presents the estimation methods in terms of field measurements, simulation and empirical formulae. This study focuses on the daylight performance and potential energy savings of TDGSs. Moreover, this study will be helpful for building designers to build healthy, comfortable and energy-saving indoor environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T05:54:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21992419
  • Study on the smoke propagation characteristics of metro tunnel fire under
           the effects of piston wind
    • Authors: Fei Wang, Fang Liu, Imad Obadi, Miaocheng Weng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Metro trains running in tunnels cause piston wind, and when a metro train stops in a tunnel due to a fire, the effect of the piston wind on smoke propagation characteristics cannot be ignored. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the unsteady flow theory of the Bernoulli equation was established to describe the change in piston wind speed under fire conditions. The characteristics of the smoke propagation in tunnel fires under the effect of the piston wind were analysed by means of numerical simulation. The result indicates that the piston wind has a significant effect on the characteristics of smoke distribution. In a longitudinally ventilated tunnel, whether the direction of piston wind is the same as that of longitudinal ventilation could seriously affect the control of fire smoke. When the direction is the same, the piston wind could enhance the smoke control effect of the longitudinal ventilation. Otherwise, the smoke control effect could be significantly diminished, and the smoke control by the critical wind speed of longitudinal ventilation would fail. The findings could contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of tunnel fire to control smoke spread under the influence of piston wind.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T05:35:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21998420
  • Evaluation of dynamic airflow structures in a single-aisle aircraft cabin
           mockup based on numerical simulation
    • Authors: Congcong Wang, Jie Zhang, Jiangyue Chao, Changle Yang, Hongbing Chen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The airflow distribution characterised by different large- and small-scale eddies in the aircraft cabin is the most important factor to maintain passengers' thermal comfort and to remove contaminants. The airflow distributions in narrow-body aircraft cabins are based on the principle of mixing ventilation. Opposing jets from air diffusers can cause stream deflection and oscillation, which results in the asymmetry of large-scale instantaneous airflow structures. This dynamic airflow structure is very important for analysing time series parameters. Therefore, this study applied numerical simulation to examine the oscillation and asymmetry of instantaneous airflow field structures and phase space reconstruction and used spectrum analysis to evaluate the oscillation amplitude and period of dynamic airflow structure. We also studied the factors that influence the dynamic airflow structure, such as air supply speeds, air supply angles and the strength of the thermal plume. The results showed that as the air supply speed increased, the swing amplitude of the instantaneous airflow structure increased, while the period decreased. The air supply angle affected the jet attachment and collision angle, which in turn affected the swing amplitude and period. The thermal plume restrained the formation of large-scale swings and contributed to the appearance of small-scale structures.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T05:24:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21992094
  • Evaluation of the heat changes in an ancient church because of restoration
           works: A microclimatic study supported by thermal images
    • Authors: Stefano Ridolfi, Susanna Crescenzi, Fabiana Zeli, Stefano Perilli, Stefano Sfarra
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This work is centred on an ancient Italian church. Since 2011, a restoration plan has been undertaken by following sequential phases. The methodological approach to restoration was guided by environmental monitoring campaigns. In particular, two thermo-hygrometric campaigns were carried out during the warm months of the years 2015 and 2016. The first set of measurements was executed during the restoration of facades and roofs, making it possible to reach even areas that are usually difficult to access. The second set was performed to evaluate the indoor thermo-hygrometric conditions following the work of the previous year. This was intended to assess their differences in variability, the influence of the outdoor environment and any real and perceived improvement. Results demonstrate that thermal images helped in identifying both the heat sources causing thermal discomforts and the good thermal capacity of masonries. Concerning the heat index (HI), the church showed an improvement in the trend of malaise perceived by people during the second summer period (∼2°C lower than 2015). Finally, in the last microclimate monitoring, the roof structure no longer acted as an amplifier for daily temperature excursions.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T04:33:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21994625
  • Impact of climate change on future bioclimatic potential and residential
           building thermal and energy performance in India
    • Authors: Naveen Kishore
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper aims to investigate the implication of present and future bioclimatic potential of passive heating and cooling design strategies for climate change scenarios of five locations covering all climate zones of India. Weather data for future climate change were developed for A2 (medium-high) scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for four time slices, namely TMY (Typical Meteorological Year), 2020, 2050 and 2080. A case study residential building was used for calibration and validation of the bioclimatic potential using EnergyPlus simulation. Results show a strong correlation between the annual bioclimatic summer and winter discomfort hours and the corresponding annual cooling and heating energy load for the changing climate scenarios. Results also show an overall increase in annual cooling energy load, over and above the base case, ranging from 18% to 89% among the five cities in 2020; 32% to 132% in 2050 and 58% to 184% in 2080 if residential buildings continue to be operated in the same manner as it is done today without passive strategies. The use of passive strategies may reduce the annual cooling load by about 50%– 60% in residential buildings in future.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-02-21T04:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21993919
  • An experiment of double dynamic lighting in an office responding to sky
           and daylight: Perceived effects on comfort, atmosphere and work engagement
    • Authors: Ellen Kathrine Hansen, Thomas Bjørner, Emmanouil Xylakis, Mihkel Pajuste
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The experiment was targeted to develop design strategies and methods by testing the complex interplay between the dynamics of daylight and electrical lighting in an office. The double dynamic lighting design concept is based on the idea of adding task lighting, with a directionality referring to the daylight inflow and a variation on direct/diffuse lighting and respective changes in colour temperature respond to sky conditions and daylight levels. The experiment was conducted in an office space at Aalborg University in Copenhagen from September to December 2019. Four participants moved in and worked in the office with four-week periods of respective standard static lighting as a baseline, and dynamic lighting. In a parallel mixed method approach with interviews and questionnaires, the dynamic lighting was compared to the baseline and to a control group. The results indicate that the dynamic lighting periods had a positive effect on visual comfort, perceived atmosphere and work engagement. The studies helped to develop the definition of five dynamic light settings. Seasonal changes, time of day, dynamic sunscreens and individual needs for task lighting can be implemented in future field experiments as additional dynamic parameters to meet individual needs and circadian potentials for double dynamic light.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T05:48:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21991198
  • Inhalation dose from exposure to radon, thoron and their progeny in
           indoors around a nuclear power generation facility in Uttar Pradesh, India
    • Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Anshu Agrawal, B. K. Sahoo
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Radon, thoron and their progeny concentration have been measured in dwellings located within a 90 km2 area around a nuclear power plant using solid-state nuclear track detectors. Time-integrated measurements were carried out on a four-month cycle, making three measurements in each dwelling throughout the year. In total, 145 dwellings were selected for the study. The measured values of gas and their progeny concentrations were used to determine the equilibrium factor for radon and thoron indoors and annual inhalation dose. The average value of the equilibrium factor indoors was found to be 0.44 ± 0.23 for radon and 0.015 ± 0.010 for thoron. The annual inhalation dose for the public living around this plant was found to be 0.97 ± 0.55 mSv. Results were analysed for different seasons and different categories of dwellings for their construction type.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T04:58:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21990824
  • Diffusion characteristics of the industrial submicron particle under
           Brownian motion and turbulent diffusion
    • Authors: Chengjun Li, Hanqing Wang, Chuck Wah Yu, Dong Xie
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The industrial release of submicron aerosol particles at workplace could cause undue health effect on workers. To effectively capture and remove airborne particles, we need to study the characteristics of various interactive particle motion forces (drag force, Brownian force, Saffman lift force, etc.) and the dispersion of these aerosol particles in indoor air. In this study, the dominant force of submicron particles was determined by calculating the acting forces with different particle sizes. Then, a Discrete Particle Model (DPM) was used to calculate the trajectory of particle movement in turbulent thermal plume flow. Horizontal dispersity (DH) was defined to evaluate the horizontal diffusion of the particulate matter. The impact of different particle diameters, heat source temperatures and initial relative velocities on DH was investigated. This study showed that the main acting forces for submicron aerosol particles were drag force, Brownian force, Saffman lift force and thermophoresis force. Brownian force cannot be ignored when the particle diameter was below 0.3 µm, which would promote the irregular movement of particles in space and enhance their diffusion ability. The smaller the particle size, the higher the heat source temperature and the lower the particles' initial velocity would lead to the increase of DH.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T04:53:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21991055
  • The influence of local temperature and air velocity changes on the thermal
           sensations of users' working in surgical clothing
    • Authors: Magdalena Młynarczyk, Anna Bogdan, Tomasz Jankowski
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Thermal conditions in operating rooms are mainly dictated by the need to meet the safety/comfort requirements of the patient. However, the accuracy of performed surgical procedures depends on the surgeon and others members of medical team. Hence, their comfort sensation should be also factored in. The study sought to find out how thermal sensations of people working in surgical clothing can be modified through a local change in air velocity and temperature around the user. A series of tests was carried out with a thermal manikin to make an accurate assessment of the effectiveness of this type of equipment. The tests included changes of the ambient temperature, supply air temperature and air velocity. The operational efficiency was assessed on the basis of the equivalent temperature index (teq). Results show that the final result of teq was mostly determined by air velocity rather than the supply air temperature.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T03:50:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21990815
  • The performance of a novel window with energy-saving potential in cold
           regions of China
    • Authors: Zhiqiang Wang, Yousef G Akhlaghi, Qi Tian, Yuanda Cheng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The thermal insulation performance of a building's windows can have an important role in its energy-saving capability. In this work, we proposed a novel, energy-saving insulated window (ESIW) and investigated its winter insulation ability by conducting temperature, comfort, energy and entropy analyses of a house outfitted with the ESIW system. The natural indoor temperature of houses with ESIW(A) structure windows was generally higher than that with some single-layer functional glasses. Furthermore, it costs less, and therefore demonstrated the highest cost benefit performance. Then, four different ESIW structures (A to D) were designed and tested. The inner ESIW(D) system with 3-cm insulator thickness and an 8-cm air layer had 4.3% superior performance in energy saving relative to the outer ESIW(A) system, which was comprised of 2-cm insulator thickness and an 8-cm air layer. The lower the insulation level, the greater the energy loss with a decrease in the predicted mean vote of occupants. While the predicted percentage dissatisfied of occupants, entropy of energy loss (Sg), and entropy difference of the whole insulation system (ΔSiso) would be increased. Finally, the period from 22:00 to 8:00 appears to be the optimal time interval for the use of a roller curtain.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-02-05T05:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20979727
  • Comparison of thermal comfort in different kinds of building spaces: Field
           study in Guangzhou, China
    • Authors: Peihao Wu, Yuchun Zhang, Zhaosong Fang, Yafeng Gao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In addition to typical indoor and outdoor spaces, there are numerous transitional spaces in a building that are unlike indoor and outdoor spaces, where most people spend time for entertainment. There is a need to investigate the comparison between these three types of spaces, including indoor spaces, transitional spaces and outdoor spaces. In this study, the thermal responses and thermal environmental parameters of the indoor, outdoor and transitional spaces were simultaneously recorded. Values of standard effective temperature (SET*), physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI) were calculated, and relationships between mean thermal sensation vote (MTSV), SET*, PET and UTCI were also analysed. The results indicate that the air velocity fluctuation and mean radiant temperature of the outdoor space were more significant than those of other two spaces. The neutral thermal indices of the outdoor space were higher than those of the indoor and transitional spaces. Additionally, regression models between MTSV and thermal indices (SET*, PET and UTCI) were analysed. There are strong linear relationships between MTSV and SET* in all spaces. The linear relationships between MTSV were significant when compared with PET and UTCI. Thus, the adaption of thermal indices for evaluation of different spaces must be considered.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T05:40:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20981714
  • Assessment of risk from irradiation originating from mortars with mineral
           waste addition
    • Authors: Adriana Estokova, Eva Singovszka
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      With the ever-increasing trend of incorporation of various wastes into building materials, monitoring the potential rise in the radioactive load due to used waste is needed. This paper presents the results of our investigation into the radioactivity of cement mortars of various percentage of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS). The calculated gamma indexes, Iγ, reached 0.19–0.22 and thus did not exceed, in case of any sample, the required level (Iγ = 1) for bulk materials. Indoor gamma absorbed dose, D, ranged from 41.08 to 47.80 nGy/h being lower by 47% than the world average ones are. The excess life cancer risk, ELCR70, obtained for the cement mortars ranged from 0.71 × 10−3 to 0.82 × 10−3 with the average value of 0.75 × 10−3. Linear correlation between the GBSF content and ionizing radiation was found for 226Ra radionuclide, while polynomic correlations have been found for the mass activities of 232Th and 40K radionuclides and the GBSF amount in the cement sample. Findings revealed that the overall 226Ra mass activity of the composite could be predicted based on the measurement of the mass activities of the individual input components.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T05:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20985575
  • Air pollution and health risk assessment in Northeastern China: A case
           study of Jilin Province
    • Authors: Li Bai, Chunhui Li, Chuck Wah Yu, Zijian He
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, the pollution of the air environment has been increasing, which has seriously endangered human health. The large amount of coal burning and automobile exhaust emissions in winter have caused serious regional pollution, which has greatly increased the prevalence of respiratory disease of people. The purpose of this study is to use Jilin Province as an example to map out the environmental pollution status in Northeastern China, and to provide suggestions for the improvement of the atmospheric environment. Using the annual data of China's atmospheric monitoring, the atmospheric environment in Jilin was comprehensively analysed using ArcGIS, principal component analysis (PCA) and non-carcinogenic risk model calculations. The results showed that the temporal distribution of pollutants was winter > spring > autumn > summer, and the spatial distribution is decreasing from northwest to southeast. The PCA showed that the first principal components were PM2.5 and CO, and the second principal components were PM10 and O3. The main sources of air pollution were coal-fired (62.365%) and automobile emissions (19.153%). The non-carcinogenic risks of pollutants are all within the acceptable range (1 × 10−6), but as age increases, the risk gradually decreases, and the risk value of male is higher than that of female.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-21T05:58:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20979274
  • Variations of HCHO and BTX, human health risk and indoor renovation
           characteristics of newly renovated rental apartments in Beijing, China
    • Authors: Xianglan Zhang, Zhichao Wang, Xiaofeng Li, Zhaowei Xu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The popularity of decoration and refurbishment of rental apartments in China may give rise to indoor VOC levels, posing health threats to tenants. A questionnaire was conducted on the renovation characteristics and tenant information of rental apartments in Beijing. The study selected 143 rental bedrooms to study the characteristics of HCHO and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) and assessed the health risks of tenants. The results showed that the median of HCHO concentration was 0.07 mg/m3, within one to three months of renovation. The concentration declined to 0.03 mg/m3 after one year. However, BTX concentration was increased by four times after one year of renovation, probably due to tenants’ move-in. The mean of inhalation lifetime cancer risk for HCHO and benzene was calculated as 1.15–3.63 (10−5) and 2.46–7.9 (10−5), respectively, indicating probable risk. The tenants’ health risks were: infant > teenager > adult and male > female. Benzene in rental homes posed the greater health risk to humans than previous studies conducted in ordinary residences. The results show that 45.29% of rental apartments are renovated before the new tenants move in, and 86.27% of tenants have a lease length of less than three years. These behaviours may cause exacerbation of pollutant levels in rental apartments.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-14T06:36:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20986600
  • Imagining daylight: Evaluating participants' perception of daylight in
           work environments
    • Authors: Azadeh O. Sawyer
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents an experimental research study intended to evaluate daylight perception in work environments. The current metrics for assessing daylight in work environments involve quantifying daylight and do not provide insight into the actual appearance of the space, thus overlooking the qualitative aspects of light and their effect on occupants. Conceptual content cognitive mapping (3CM), a mixed methodology, was used to obtain participants' hierarchical knowledge structure and mental model of daylight in work environments. This method was selected to understand the end users' perception of an environment rather than measuring the physical environment. A cognitive map of 50 participants, half architects and half non-architects, was created using 3CM. The results present a list of daylight lexicon and a vast selection of concepts related to physical and psychological comfort among all participants. This experiment reveals that connectivity and emotional reactions are the two dominant underlying dimensions describing daylight in work environments. The results illustrate both similarities and disjunctions between two groups of participants regarding the selected daylight terms and characterizations. The results also indicate the need to augment current planning practices with a qualitative multi-disciplinary approach to create more pleasant working environments.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T06:16:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20977600
  • Potential risk analysis of medical staff when performing endotracheal
           intubation in negative pressure isolation ward
    • Authors: He Li, Ke Zhong, Zhiqiang (John) Zhai
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated, using validated computational fluid dynamics techniques, the potential infection risks to medical staff when performing endotracheal intubation in the negative pressure isolation ward during treatment of COVID-19 patients. The research first simulated the airflow distribution in negative pressure isolation ward and then examined the potential infection risks to medical staff under two different respiratory conditions of a patient (i.e. patient with endotracheal intubation and patient with normal respiration). The results revealed that medical staff have high possibility to be contracted when performing endotracheal intubation. Personal protective equipment during endotracheal intubation is thus critical to mitigate the potential infection risk to medical staff. Space position and body posture of the medical staff (e.g. standing upright and bent over) would influence the contamination risk. Higher infection risk was noted for the medical staff who performs endotracheal intubation as compared to the other who delivers assistance. A bent-over posture of the medical staff encounters more particle exposure due to a closer distance to the patient head as well as the unfavourable airflow pattern/direction. Protection by using a plastic aerosol box over the head of the patient was studied, which shows promising improvement by preventing more than 75% of virus particles from spreading around.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-01-07T06:16:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20979015
  • Information technology methods for locality preservation and
           inheritance of settlement cultural landscape
    • Authors: Anrong Dang, Fang Wang
      First page: 437
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T04:53:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X21989829
  • Tree planting indices and their effects on summer park thermal
           environment: A case study of a subtropical satellite city, China
    • Authors: Wei Guo, Bin Cheng, Chunlu Wang, Xinyu Tang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Urban residents are suffering from serious thermal stress resulting from urban heat island and global warming. Investigators have explored several methods to address this issue. Vegetation, especially trees, were found to play a vital part in urban environments. It produces a cooling effect by reducing temperature and radiation levels. To find thermal performances of trees in detail, this study physically measured two urban parks during August 2019 in a satellite city of China regarding their thermal environments relevant to tree planting indices. There were three planting indices used, sky view factor, leaf area index and enclosure area. Through associating them with thermal indicators by linear regression, all of the indices were confirmed to have significant thermal effects. Every 0.1 increase in sky view factor resulted in an increase of 1°C air temperature, 0.16 m/s air velocity, 40 W/m2 solar radiation level and 1.6°C mean radiant temperature. Same effects were found in nearly 0.4 leaf area index decrease and approximately 20 m2 enclosure area increase. These results provide very optimistic directions for future urban forestry planning and landscaping.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-26T12:40:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20977614
  • Moisture buffering effect of hygroscopic materials under wall moisture
    • Authors: Ming Yang, Fanhong Kong, Xuancheng He
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Hygroscopic material can moderate the indoor humidity variation due to its moisture buffering effect. This effect would change when used as interior finish mainly due to air exchange and wall moisture transfer. The author focused on clarifying the extent of the wall'’s influence on indoor moisture buffering and building humidity environment. A room model was established and the situation of no wall moisture transfer was simulated by adding a vapour barrier between the interior finish and the wall. Comparing this result with wall moisture transfer, the moisture buffering effect of the wall can be quantitatively analysed. The results verify that the buffering effect and the humidity environment, especially the seasonal buffering, change with the wall moisture transfer. The wall has great impacts on buffering in the cases of thin interior finish, high moisture production and low ventilation. Because the layer under the hygroscopic material also has buffering capacity, the difference of using various thicknesses of material is not obvious. Frequent ventilation reduces the buffering effect but improves the RH optimality.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-22T07:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20975835
  • Methodology for sampling and detection of airborne coronavirus including
    • Authors: Hyunjun Yun, Jinho Yang, Ji-Hoon Seo, Jong-Ryeul Sohn
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, several epidemics by transmissible respiratory viruses have emerged, especially pandemics caused by coronaviruses. The most significant public health emergency may be the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying the transmission of infectious disease plays an important role in healthcare for protecting and implementing effective measures for public health. However, studies on SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics are lacking. Infection with the airborne virus is very important and airborne transmission is likely to cause major problems. However, research on the aerosol route of the virus is very limited. Here, we aimed to present airborne coronavirus detection methods in previous studies and address the importance of methodology for the future. In previous studies on airborne coronavirus, detection methods were different in each study. Therefore, comparison between the airborne virus detected in each study is impossible, and the risk assessment could not be properly analysed due to limitations in applying it as basic data. There is currently a risk assessment for coronavirus, but the risk assessment due to airborne transmission is insufficient. Therefore, recommending accurate guidelines for airborne transmission is difficult. Future research should be conducted to standardize airborne virus detection methods to prevent transmission through rapid risk assessment and monitoring.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-22T07:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20980160
  • Thermal sensation under high-intensive exercise in naturally ventilated
           gymnasiums in hot-humid areas of China: Taking basketball players for
    • Authors: Xiaodan Huang, Qingyuan Zhang, Zhangyuan Wang, Xiaoli Ma
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      As a public building for exercises and entertainments, gymnasiums play an important role in people's daily life. In regions with hot-humid climate, thermal sensation in gymnasiums is directly related to the human health as well as energy consumption. However, little can be found in the systematic evaluation system reported for thermal sensation of athletes in gymnasium in hot-humid climate regions; therefore, there is a need to develop a thermal sensation model for evaluating thermal sensation of athletes partaking sports in these environments. In this study, a field survey on thermal sensation of players in a basketball game was carried out in a naturally ventilated gymnasium in Guangzhou, China. The results showed that the human physiology and thermal sensation of subjects were highly different during active sport state. Moreover, the thermal sensation vote was increased with a rise in the air temperature, the mean radiant temperature and humidity ratio, while thermal sensation vote was reduced with an increase in the air velocity. The metabolic rate, systolic blood pressure and skin temperature were shown to have a positive correlation with the thermal sensation vote. According to the analysis, a predictive thermal sensation model, which has been developed by this study to estimate the thermal sensation under high-intensive sport activities in gymnasiums in regions with a high temperature and high humidity, was evaluated and validated.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-21T05:42:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20978275
  • ‘Re-socialisation' in isolated spaces: A case study on the social
           organisation of Fangcang shelter hospital patients under extreme spatial
    • Authors: Jie Li, Yeshuo Shu, Ningkang Chen, Fang Wang, Hui Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Fangcang shelter hospitals – erected by installing medical equipment in large public venues – played an essential role during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Their isolation, interior density and patients' mutual exposure deviate from normal living conditions, necessitating the study on the adaptation, social organisation and emotional response of patients. For this purpose, we conducted spatial analysis, semi-structured interviews with patients and medical workers and social media mining. We found: (1) Patients were deprived of former identities and equalised upon hospitalisation, which formed the basis of later self-organised hierarchical social relationships. (2) Intimate spatial structures expedited relationship construction among neighbouring patients and facilitated community building by expanding the influence that the more active patients exerted on the passive ones. (3) These social situations generally helped alleviate patients' anxiety. Our study reveals the social and emotional ramifications of such emergency spaces on people, thus providing insight for pandemic response and other global emergencies. It also responds to the theory of ‘the production of space' and elucidate the theory of ‘total institutions' from a new perspective.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T02:43:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20973745
  • The effect of prenatal and early-postnatal exposure to classical air
           pollution on childhood pneumonia in China
    • Authors: Yanlin Liu, Chan Lu, Miaomiao Deng, Dan Norbäck, Shujie Sun
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To investigate the role of different pattern of ambient air pollutants exposure during early life on childhood pneumonia, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 3226 preschool children aged three to six years in Shenzhen, China during 2015 to 2016. Each child's exposure to three main air pollutants (PM10, SO2 and NO2) was calculated by the inverse distance weighted method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the pneumonia risk of early life exposure to air pollution. A relatively high prevalence of pneumonia (24.3%) among preschool children in Shenzhen was significantly associated with exposure to PM10 and SO2 during the first year of life, with adjusted odds ratios = 1.24 (1.05, 1.46) and 1.20 (1.05, 1.38) respectively. However, we observed no relationship between NO2 exposure and childhood pneumonia in pregnancy and first year of life. Sensitivity analysis suggested that boys, younger children (three to four years), non-preterm children, children without parental atopy and with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke were more susceptible to the impact of exposure to PM10 and SO2 on their suffering of pneumonia during their first year of life. Early-postnatal exposure to classical air pollution at low concentration during the first year of life can have an important role in enhancing the risk of childhood pneumonia, especially with the sensitive population.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T02:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20980100
  • Numerical evaluation of contaminants mixing uniformity in a full-scale
           test chamber with mixing fan
    • Authors: Hai-Xia Xu, Yu-Tong Mu, Yin-Ping Zhang, Wen-Quan Tao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Most existing models and standards for volatile organic compounds emission assume that contaminants are uniform in the testing devices. In this study, a three-dimensional transient numerical model was proposed to simulate the mass transport process based on a full-scale test chamber with a mixing fan, and the airflow field and contaminants concentration distribution were obtained within the chamber under airtight and ventilated conditions. The model was validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The numerical results show that the contaminant source position and the airflow field characteristics have significant impact on the contaminant mixing, and the fan rotation has an important role in accelerating mixing. In the initial mixing stage, the concentration distribution is obviously uneven; as the mixing progresses, it gradually reaches acceptable uniformity except for some sensitive regions, such as high concentration region at the injection point of the contaminants and low concentration region at the air inlet. To ensure test accuracy, the monitor should avoid above sensitive regions; and some special regions are recommended where contaminant concentration uniformity can be reached sooner. The ventilated chamber results indicate that the mixture of contaminants in the chamber is actually better than the results shown by conventional test method.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-16T06:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20979021
  • Colour preference in relation to personal determinants and implications
           for indoor circadian luminous environment
    • Authors: Jaka Potočnik, Mitja Košir, Mateja Dovjak
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Colour of interior surfaces has to be considered in order to provide optimal visual and non-visual performance. Colour selection is often related to the occupant's colour preferences. First part of the presented study was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among the employees of the University of Ljubljana conducted in December 2019 in order to identify possible association between personal determinants, room typology, preferred colour of indoor surfaces and general colour preferences. Based on the findings from the survey results, a simulation study on a generic cellular office was executed in order to evaluate the implications of occupant's wall colour preference on the resulting non-visual luminous environment under the climate of Ljubljana. Results showed a strong association between the general colour preference and wall colour preference. Significant differences between gender and age groups were identified. The respondents preferred white, orange and blue coloured walls, the latter two, as deduced from the simulations, may have a substantial negative or positive impact on the spatial distribution and duration of appropriate non-visual exposure in the indoor environment. The results of the presented study highlight the importance of considering the potential impact of indoor surface colour selection when evaluating the quality of the indoor luminous environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-16T06:14:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20977609
  • Effects of solar radiation on thermal sensation and physical fatigue of
           the human body under heavy-load exercise
    • Authors: Yongqiang Xiao, Yaping Gao, Yi Wang, Xiaojing Meng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Solar radiation intensity affects both subjective reactions and physiological functions, especially for people who exercise heavily. Field experiments including a questionnaire survey at various ambient temperatures were performed; outdoor activities under shading (irradiance I = 50 ± 20 W/m2) and non-shading (I = 700 ± 50 W/m2) conditions during summer in Xi'an were recorded. The results of questionnaires indicated that when the human body reached an extremely hot state, the corresponding environmental temperature was 3.7 °C lower under the non-shading condition, and the range of actual acceptable temperatures was narrower. In terms of thermal sensation, there was a significant difference for people who exercise heavily and those who do not. The results also showed that the curve of fatigue sensation exhibited an inverse Gaussian distribution. Namely, fatigue was promoted under both colder and hotter conditions. Moreover, under non-shading condition, the lowest fatigue incidence was higher, and the corresponding ambient temperature was lower. Changes in objective physiological responses indicated that the solar radiation might cause heat stress. Therefore, when the ambient temperature was higher than 32 °C, physiological stress was higher. Under the same exercise load, the blood pressure was higher under the non-shading condition and systolic blood pressure increased with ambient temperature.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-11T05:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20974736
  • Outdoor environmental investigation of old communities during summer in
           hot summer and cold winter regions
    • Authors: Danyang Li, Kang Zhao, Jian Ge, Mengyu Ren
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The outdoor physical environments of many old communities are unable to meet modern living requirements and require improvement urgently. This is especially true for communities in regions with extremely hot summers and cold winters, which may cause additional difficulties. This study used measurements and questionnaire data to investigate outdoor environment (the thermal, sound, light environments and air quality) and resident sensations in four such communities. Results revealed some key factors affecting outdoor environmental comfort, including summer shading, winter sunlight, air temperature, air quality, the sound environment and odour. The results also revealed that the main problems were noise, insufficient illumination and high air temperatures in summer, all of which had seriously affected comfort during outdoor activities. Specifically, noise values during the most unfavourable periods were between 57.4 and 80.6 dB(A), while average air temperatures were between 32.3°C and 35.8°C, and average illuminances were below 2.9 lx. As such, this paper proposes improvement measures such as sound barriers and greening. Further, we propose a method for prioritizing these factors for such improvements based on a combination of subjective and objective factors. This study provides data and technical references for the reconstruction of old communities in regions with hot summers and cold winters.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-10T05:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20975830
  • Optimization of a neuro-human thermal model using a genetic algorithm
    • Authors: Mohamad El Kadri, Fabrice De Oliveira, Christian Inard, François Demouge
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A neuro-human thermal model was optimized to increase the prediction accuracy of the physiological variables of a group of 15 healthy male students exposed to transient environmental conditions. The effect of both the passive and active systems parameters was studied using a sensitivity analysis, and the parameters that had the most influence on the neuro-human thermal model outputs were established. A genetic algorithm was then used to optimize the model in order to determine the parameters that corresponded to the studied population. The results showed that the optimization increased the precision of the neuro-human thermal model. The mean absolute error and the maximum error between the experimental data and the numerical results for mean skin temperature were 0.13°C and 0.56°C, respectively, and we obtained 0.03°C and 0.11°C, respectively, for rectal temperature. These results show that the neuro-human thermal model can be accurately adjusted for the rectal, mean and local skin temperatures of a targeted population by using a genetic algorithm to determine the values of the parameters that correspond to this population.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-03T03:50:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20975195
  • Dynamic forecasting model for indoor pollutant concentration using
           recurrent neural network
    • Authors: Lulu Hu, Na Fan, Jingguang Li, Yingwen Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Accurate and reliable indoor pollutant concentration prediction is essential to solve the time-lag problem of indoor air quality control systems. Thus, the representation of time in pollutant forecasting models is very important. One approach is to introduce an Elman neural network using a direct inference strategy into the time series forecast of indoor pollutant concentration. In this study, measurements of CO2 (ppm), total volatile organic compounds (mg/m3), particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5; µg/m3), the indoor dry bulb temperature (°C) and relative humidity (%) were carried out in a classroom at a middle school in Beijing, China. To identify air pollution antecedents, input selection was conducted based on correlation analysis. The results show that the information provided by the PM2.5 time series can better simulate the dynamic relationship between input and output data ([math]= 0.963 and R2 = 0.928). In addition to the overall goodness of fit ([math] = 0.982) of the CO2 time series, the peak and valley prediction capability of the model was evaluated using the relative peak error (RPE) metric. Information from the valleys of the CO2 time series gives good results ([math]). Therefore, a dynamic forecasting model with a direct inference strategy is a capable tool for identifying proper air pollution antecedents.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-03T03:50:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20974738
  • A pilot study on the impact of a first-time central heating intervention
           on resident mental wellbeing
    • Authors: Richard A Sharpe, Andrew J Williams, Ben Simpson, Gemma Finnegan, Tim Jones
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Fuel poverty affects around 34% of European homes, representing a considerable burden to society and healthcare systems. This pilot study assesses the impact of an intervention to install a new first time central heating system in order to reduce fuel poverty on household satisfaction with indoor temperatures/environment, ability to pay bills and mental well-being. In Cornwall, 183 households received the intervention and a further 374 went onto a waiting list control. A post-intervention postal questionnaires and follow-up phone calls were undertaken (n = 557) to collect data on household demographics, resident satisfaction with indoor environment, finances and mental well-being (using the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing scale). We compared responses between the waiting list control and intervention group to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. A total of 31% of participants responded, 83 from the waiting list control and 71 from the intervention group. The intervention group reported improvements in the indoor environment, finances and mental well-being. However, these benefits were not expressed by all participants, which may result from diverse resident behaviours, lifestyles and housing characteristics. Future policies need to consider whole house approaches alongside resident training and other behaviour change techniques that can account for complex interactions between behaviours and the built environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-12-01T10:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20975468
  • Indoor bacterial pollution, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and
           associated risk factors of bacterial isolates among residences of Gondar
           town, Northwest Ethiopia
    • Authors: Gizeaddis Belay, Baye Gelaw, Abiye Tigabu, R. P. Raju
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundIn Ethiopia, there is not enough information about indoor air bacterial pollution. Therefore, this study aimed to determine bacterial indoor air pollution and its associated risk factors among residences of Gondar town.MethodsA cross-sectional survey of indoor air pollution was conducted on 259 selected houses from February to May 2019. Sociodemographic and housing characteristics were collected using a questionnaire and checklist. Passive settle plate method using blood culture media was employed to collect samples and identification of isolates done by both quantitative and qualitative analysis.ResultsA total of 259 houses were investigated, and 13 different types of bacterial species were isolated. Of these, Bacillus species 259 (100%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species 101 (34.4%), Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella species, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, and Pantoea species were isolates. Tetracycline and cotrimoxazole were ineffective, but ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were efficient antibiotics. Educational status, presence of domestic animals within the house, and integrated toilets were significantly associated with indoor bacterial pollution (p 
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-11-30T04:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20963377
  • The effect of the thermal plume generated by body heat dissipation on the
           containment of fume hood
    • Authors: Dong Liu, Chuang Meng, Jiaxin Chen, Lirong Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The impact of human body heat dissipation on the containment of a fume hood was conducted via experiments and numerical model. The experiments evaluated hood face velocity and the temperature around the mannequin; the results validated the simulation. The numerical model was based on the governing equations of fluid flow via the finite volume method. The face velocities (0.3–0.9 m·s−) and temperature differences (11°C, 8°C and 5°C) between the surface of the mannequin and its surroundings were used as variables. The numerical results show that in addition to the blockage effect of the worker standing in front of the fume hood, there is a more important thermal effect on the containment of fume hood. The thermal plume carries pollutants leaking out of the hood face to the breathing zone. The face velocity and dimensionless value (Gr/Re) are recommended to be 0.4–0.6 m·s− and 20–35 respectively, to reduce the influence of human thermal plume on the containment of fume hood and energy waste. The formula related to the rising distance of thermal plume, Grashof and Reynolds numbers (Gr/Re) was determined.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-11-30T04:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20974733
  • Determination of heavy metals and health risk assessment in indoor dust
           from different functional areas in Neyshabur, Iran
    • Authors: Abolfazl Naimabadi, Ali Gholami, Amir M. Ramezani
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The concentration of 10 potentially toxic heavy metals in indoor dust from homes in Neyshabur was investigated. The concentrations of heavy metals in indoor dust from homes ranged from 28.1 to 190.4 µg g−1 for Cr, 24.7 to 162.2 µg g−1 for Ni, 43.8 to 640.4 µg g−1 for Cu, 13.7 to 5,345.7 µg g−1 for Pb, 135.5 to 1,033.0 µg g−1 for Mn, 105.8 to 2,958.0 µg g−1 for Zn, 6,288.0 to 32759.8 µg g−1 for Fe, 2,916.5 to 37,990.0 µg g−1 for Al, 1.3 to 21.4 µg g−1 for Co and 0.5 to 12.9 µg g−1 for Cd. Results of the concentrations of heavy metals in this study were compared with values reported in other parts of the world. Statistical tests revealed no significant relationship between tobacco use and measured heavy metal concentrations. The range of United States-Environmental Protection Agency safe limits (1 × 10−4 and 1 × 10−6) indicates that cancer risk of Cr in age groups of both children and adults (1.6 × 10−3 and 5.5 × 10−3) is higher. For all studied elements, the obtained hazard index was found to be
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-11-17T01:57:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20963378
  • Physical-radiation shielding properties of concrete contains colemanite
           and ulexite
    • Authors: Nazım Uçar, Adnan Çalık, Muhammet Emre, Iskender Akkurt
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Radiation is an important phenomenon as it is used in a variety of different fields. However, its possible hazardous effect should be taken into account and it should be shielded. As the concrete is a widely used construction material, the mechanical and radiation shielding properties of concretes containing boron-bearing aggregate additives have been studied. The results show that the addition of colemanite or ulexite into concrete has significant effects on density, workability, compressive and flexural strength, elastic modulus and radiation shielding. The results also show that concrete containing colemanite or ulexite is no more effective in the attenuation of gamma rays than ordinary concrete.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-11-02T05:41:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20967974
  • Environmental satisfaction levels of the elderly individuals in nursing
           home gardens
    • Authors: Emine Tarakci Eren, Tuğba Düzenli, Mustafa Var
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The present study presents a three-step methodology to determine the environmental satisfaction levels of the elderly individuals in nursing home gardens. The first step comprised the selection of seven nursing homes in five provinces in the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey. In the second step, 130 participants were selected among the residents of these seven nursing homes via random sampling. In the third step, the satisfaction level of the nursing home residents with the institution gardens was determined. A correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between the environmental and individual characteristics (r = 0.554; p 
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-30T05:19:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20967721
  • Performance evaluation of climate-adaptive natural ventilation design: A
           case study of semi-open public cultural building
    • Authors: Jing Qi, Chunyu Wei
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Naturally ventilated buildings play a vital role in mitigating climate change since they produce lower CO2 emissions compared to mechanically ventilated alternatives. Also, occupants have better experiences in naturally ventilated buildings than in mechanically ventilated buildings. However, the application of natural ventilation design is often hindered by extreme weather conditions. To cope with such problems, this paper proposes climate adaptive natural ventilation designs which utilize and adapt to the local climate. The ventilation performance of this design is quantitatively evaluated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The CFD simulation is first validated against experiments and then utilized to reproduce the wind flow inside the building for all four seasons. The evaluation parameters include air changes per hour (ACH), wind speed at the pedestrian level and wind flow patterns indoors. Results showed that this climate adaptive natural ventilation meets the requirements of the Chinese green building assessment standards (GB/T50378-2019) with the highest ACH value of up to 15.8 times per hour. Furthermore, the wind speed at pedestrian level varies from 0.08 m/s to 0.39 m/s. The practice and findings reported in this paper can be useful for future development of sustainable, climate-adaptive buildings.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-29T05:20:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20961495
  • Dividing air handling loads into different grades and handling air with
           different grade energies
    • Authors: Gonghang Zheng, Xianting Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In traditional air-conditioning system, low-temperature chilled water is used to cool air. Generally, the temperature difference between air to be operated and the chilled water is high, and majority of air can be operated using water at higher temperatures. Therefore, this paper proposes the concept of grade of load and the method of dividing cooling/heating load into different grades. A traditional air cooling/heating load and energy consumption of fresh air handling unit (FAHU) in Beijing, were compared with cooling/heating loads with different grades and energy consumption of FAHU with different grade energies. The results indicate that cooling and heating loads, handled by the lowest and highest water temperatures of 9.5°C and 37.5°C, account for 27% and 25% of cooling and heating loads in design conditions, respectively. The cumulative cooling/heating load handled by water temperature with highest grade, only accounts for 47%/35% of the total cumulative cooling/heating load. As compared to traditional air handling process, the energy-saving rate of FAHU using different grade energies is 16.4% in summer and 25.6% in winter. This study shows that handling air with different grade energies has significant energy-saving potential for air-conditioning system.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T05:11:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20961508
  • The applicability of nearly/net zero energy residential buildings in
           Brazil – A study of a low standard dwelling in three different Brazilian
           climate zones
    • Authors: Jaime Resende, Marta Monzón-Chavarrías, Helena Corvacho
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Buildings account for 34% of world energy consumption and about half of electricity consumption. The nearly/Net Zero Energy Building (nZEB/NZEB) concepts are regarded as solutions for minimizing this problem. The countries of Southern Europe, which included the nZEB concept recently in their regulatory requirements, have both heating and cooling needs, which adds complexity to the problem. Brazil may benefit from their experience since most of the Brazilian climate zones present significant similarities to the Southern European climate. Brazil recently presented a household energy consumption increase, and a growing trend in the use of air conditioning is predicted for the coming decades. Simulations with various wall and roof solutions following the Brazilian Performance Standard were carried out in a low standard single-family house in three different climate zones in order to evaluate thermal comfort conditions and energy needs. Results show that in milder climate zones, achieving thermal comfort with a low energy consumption is possible, and there is a great potential to achieve a net zero-energy balance. In the extreme hot climate zone, a high cooling energy consumption is needed to provide thermal comfort, and the implementation of a nearly zero-energy balance may be more feasible.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T05:11:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20961156
  • Evaluation of membrane-based air pre-dehumidification for a capillary
           radiant air conditioning system
    • Authors: Zan-She Wang, Fang-Ting Yin, Ran Li, Zhao-Lin Gu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fibre membrane air dehumidification tests were carried out between the liquid desiccant solutions and the wet air. Three liquid desiccant solutions of LiBr solution (50%), LiCl solution (35%) and CaCl2 solution (40%) were tested under different wet air conditions. The results showed that all the membrane dehumidification processes were stable. The air moisture content in the outlet of the membrane was maintained as 6.5 g/kg (da)–8.2 g/kg (da) when the air moisture content in the inlet of the membrane was operated from 17.1 g/kg (da) to 32.4 g/kg (da). The dehumidification amount of LiBr solution (50%) and LiCl solution (35%) was more productive. On this basis, a membrane-based air pre-dehumidification process for the capillary radiant air conditioning system was built. Since the ideal dew point temperature range of the indoor air is below 14–17°C according to the cold supply water, all the air moisture content at the membrane outlet is much lower than that of the ideal dew point temperature range, which means non-condensing occurs in the capillary tube surface. The membrane-based air pre-dehumidification process can easily form an adaptive regulation process of humidity with the capillary radiant air conditioning system under different environmental parameters.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-28T05:11:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20967389
  • Towards zero-energy residential complexes in high-density conditions
    • Authors: Olga Kolodiy, Guedi Capeluto
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Carbon dioxide is the largest component of the human footprint and one of the major components of all greenhouse gases. The expected increase in population will lead to growth in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The building industry has the highest potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, buildings should become not only efficient consumers but also energy producers, not a simple task in dense cities. The paper describes the feasibility and limitations of near zero energy design in highly dense urban conditions. The study was carried out by examination and comparison of various density design, alternatives of an existing urban plot in the coastal climate zone of Israel. Increased dwelling units’ number leads to higher total energy use on the one hand and mutual shading of new high-rise residential buildings on the other. Preserving solar rights for PV systems installation become more complex. The relation between urban density and solar rights in urban design, energy consumption and energy generation within plot borders and their implications are presented and discussed in the paper.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-26T04:25:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20962161
  • Effect of roof and ceiling configuration on energy performance of a
           metamaterial-based cool roof for low-rise office building in China
    • Authors: Saihong Tang, Nevzat Akkurt, Kai Zhang, Lufang Chen, Mingquan Ma
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Cool roofs with higher solar reflectance and emittance can effectively reduce building energy consumption. However, it is still limited to use at night on account of the development of roof materials during the past decades. The newly proposed metamaterial-based cool roof (MCR) greatly improves the possibility of the radiative cooling in the daytime. To study the influence of MCR on the energy consumption for the office building, a small single-floor office was adopted to analyse the cooling performance of MCR by using EnergyPlus. In this study, the optimization analysis was conducted based on the proposed dimensionless thermal resistance (θRTR) and roof pitch (Δ). Then the annual electricity saving potential of the office building with MCR was evaluated in details based on the selected cities from all five climate zones in China. The results show that more annual electricity saving can be achieved under the optimized values of θR7 = 1.53 and Δ = 20°. Furthermore, more than 15.7% of annual cooling electricity saving can be achieved while the optimized θRTR and Δ are applied.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-26T04:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20961556
  • A proposed two-stage quarantine containment scheme against spreading of
           novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
    • Authors: W. K. Chow, C. L. Chow
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly all over the world with over 23 million infected near the end of August 2020. There are also asymptomatic patients (APs) who are difficult to identify, but they are infectious and believed to be one of the transmission sources. No specific medicine, no vaccine and even no reliable quick identification tests on SARS-CoV-2 are available yet. Workable safety management must be implemented to stop such global pandemic resulting from disease transmission, including those infected through APs. A two-stage containment scheme is proposed with quarantining people into units within blocks. The units inside a block is to be open after being closed for quarantine for an agreed period such as 14 days. The blocks would then be sealed for another period before opening. Argument of the proposal was supported by a simple mathematical approach with parameters deduced from observations on a cruise ship to estimate the infection constant. The proposed containment scheme is believed to be effective in controlling the spreading of SARS-CoV-2 and identifying APs by a more targeted screening test for the suspected group with a more acceptable environment at the second stage of containment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-26T04:25:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20962154
  • Evaluation of the effect of cover layer on radon exhalation from building
    • Authors: Chenhua Wang, Dong Xie, Chuck Wah Yu, Hanqing Wang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Radium, which is naturally present in many building materials, decays to the radioactive gas radon, which is exhaled from the surface of concrete block and is a major source of human exposure to radioactivity. In this study, an experimental evaluation of radon exhalation was conducted on a concrete block covered with mortar and acrylic render. Factors such as sand aggregates content and water content of the mortar cover layer, the thickness of the double cover layer were considered. Results showed that the radon exhalation rate was increased with an increase of sand content in mortar cover layer, and the radon exhalation rate was reduced with an increase of the thickness and water content. Besides, indoor radon concentration and effective dose estimation involving concrete block with cover layer were evaluated. The calculated indoor radon concentration was reduced from 234.9 to 201.1 Bq m−3 as the thickness of the cover layer was increased from 15 to 35 mm, and the effective dose was reduced by 0.61 mSv y−1. Therefore, the addition of a cover layer on the indoor walls, floors and ceilings could reduce the indoor radon concentration and the radon dose on exposure to occupants.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-26T03:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20963380
  • Post-occupancy evaluation: A diagnostic tool to establish and sustain
           inclusive access in Kyrenia Town Centre
    • Authors: Gizem Güvenbaş, Mukaddes Polay
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this article is to examine inclusive access criteria and explore the significance of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) for establishing and sustaining social inclusion in urban centres. Since the post-occupancy evaluation research framework was drawn on for appraising urban open space's accessibility and usability for people with and without physical disabilities, the POE methodology could be adapted for similar urban contexts and was tested on the upgrade projects in Kyrenia Town Centre (KTC) for use by both disabled and non-disabled people. A survey and structured observations with behavioural mapping were used to test urban space user's preferences, needs and satisfaction levels regarding desirable qualities of urban centres: adaptability, safety, comfort, dignity, density, legibility and autonomy. Using representative samples, a survey (sample size = 383) was initially conducted and then systematic observations (sample size = 1620) were performed to obtain data necessary to complete behavioural maps. The survey findings showed that the KTC possesses physical and social barriers, which represent challenges for both disabled and non-disabled users. Therefore, post-occupancy evaluation could be beneficial for the development of inclusive design policy and should be a necessary component of design process in order for determining what is needed to create the most inclusive environment by including disabled segments of the community.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-20T06:06:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20951244
  • The impact of mechanical ventilation operation strategies on indoor CO2
           concentration and air exchange rates in residential buildings
    • Authors: Pedro F. Pereira, Nuno M. M. Ramos
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In Portugal, residential buildings commonly have their ventilation strategy changed after commissioning. This occurs due to the building managers' willingness to reduce shared costs with the electricity needed for fan operation. However, this option is not technically supported, and the effects of such a strategy on indoor air quality-related to human pollutants are yet to be quantified. CO2 was monitored in 15 bedrooms and air exchange rates were calculated for each room. The air exchange rate values ranged from 0.18 to 0.53 h−1 when mechanical extraction ventilation was off, and from 0.45 to 0.90 h−1 when mechanical extraction ventilation was on, which represents an average increase of 119%. With the current intermittent ventilation strategy, all rooms remain above 1500 ppm for a given percentage of time, and 12 rooms presenting CO2 concentrations above 2000 ppm. Simulations of theoretical CO2 concentrations, for a non-interrupted mechanical ventilation strategy show that no rooms would accumulate CO2 concentrations above 2000 ppm, and only 25% would present CO2 concentrations above 1500 ppm. Pearson correlations between the monitored CO2 and human and spatial factors identified two relevant parameters. Those parameters correspond to ratios between CO2 generation and floor area ([math]), and airflow with CO2 generation ([math]). The proposed ratios could be used as ways to optimise ventilation costs and indoor air quality.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-19T04:17:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20960767
  • Outdoor transportation of influenza virus under natural wind field
    • Authors: Wei Liu, Chen Zhang, Yaning Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The transportation of influenza virus in a group of buildings under the condition of natural wind field was studied. The curves of natural wind power spectrum and the velocity field with respect to time were simulated by the improved weighted amplitude wave superposition with fast Fourier transform. According to Davenport spectrum, the approximation function of wind velocity field with respect to time was used to simplify the calculation efforts. The average wind field and natural wind field were adopted to simulate the microbial contamination diffusion in a group of buildings. In the case of natural wind, the virus particles are dispersed faster from buildings, and the contamination concentration is low. However, the large downwind area may face the threat of virus contamination.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T04:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20951615
  • Effects of socio-economic indicators on perceptions of urban acoustic
           environments in Chinese megacities
    • Authors: Hui Xie, Yuzhe Ge, Fangfang Luo
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The acoustic environment in an urban dwelling is a key factor in human health, especially in megacities, where there are high levels of traffic noise. This study investigated the effects of various socio-economic indicators (gender, age, roadside residence, average daily time at home) on the subjective evaluation of residential acoustic environments, employing a series of questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews in two Chinese megacities (Chongqing and Guangzhou). The findings indicate that residents in Chongqing, a typical mountainous city, are less satisfied with their acoustic environment than those in Guangzhou, a city built on a plain. However, there were no significant differences between residents in the two Chinese megacities in terms of their perspectives on their thermal, humid or luminous environments or noise-related health symptoms. Regarding perceptions of acoustic environments, there were significant differences between residents in the mountainous city and the plain city, as well as those in roadside and non-roadside homes, but no significant differences were identified between the views of men and women or the young and the old, and time spent at home appeared to have no impact. Moreover, age and average daily time spent at home are likely to be associated with noise-related health symptoms.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-09T06:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20961802
  • Particularities of indoor atmospheric corrosion of steel inside electric
           boxes in the tropical climate of Tabasco, Mexico
    • Authors: Ebelia Del Angel-Meraz, Francisco Corvo, Nancy E. Hernandez-Morales, Maria C. Tejero-Rivas
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Indoor corrosion inside electric boxes is important for the reliability of electric and electronic instruments. A parallel evaluation of indoor/outdoor atmospheric corrosion of steel, pollutants and meteorological parameters was made at two sites, i.e. a rural site and a coastal site of the Tabasco State, Mexico. Two exposure conditions were evaluated: outdoors and inside electric boxes. Very low levels of sulphur compounds have been observed at the two exposure sites and two exposure conditions. As expected, corrosion of steel in an open atmosphere is higher than indoors (electric boxes). The difference between corrosion outdoors and inside electric boxes is higher at the coastal site due to the influence of chloride deposition. Significant differences have been observed in the morphology of corrosion products formed on steel. The influence of sun radiation, rain, dew and fog causes the formation of more compact corrosion products. The influence of Time of Wetness outdoors is in some extent equivalent to the influence of relative humidity inside electric boxes. Commonly, chloride deposition is very low indoors, showing low influence on corrosion. However, in particular conditions of Tabasco coastal tropical climate, its role is significant indoors. Reliability of electric and electronic instruments could be affected.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-06T05:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20950411
  • Numerical study of the influence of ventilation modes on the distribution
           and deposition of particles generated from a specific cooking process in a
           residential kitchen
    • Authors: Yuanbo Wang, Huixing Li, Guohui Feng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Computational fluid dynamics have been used to numerically study the particle diffusion and deposition in a residential kitchen under several ventilation modes. First, combining the renormalized group turbulent model with cooking release conditions, the airflow field in a kitchen was simulated and its airflow characteristics were analysed. Second, the drift flux model was adopted to predict the spatial distribution of particles, quantifying various mechanisms that affect the particle diffusion. Finally, the deposition flux towards the wall was determined by a semi-empirical particle deposition model. The results show that the rising thermal plume has a great influence on the diffusion of particles. When particles with small sizes diffuse in the kitchen, the influence of turbulence plays a crucial role. The case studies show that the ventilation form is an important factor affecting the concentration distribution and deposition of particles. However, the ultrafine particles distribution with different sizes is little sensitized to changes of the airflow field. The results also show that the main determinant of the deposition flux is the particle concentration near the wall. There is not much difference in the particle deposition flux under different particle sizes, which is related to the larger air exchange rate.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-06T05:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20961435
  • Performance of airflow distance from personalized ventilation on personal
           exposure to airborne droplets from different orientations
    • Authors: Jingcui Xu, Sauchung Fu, Christopher Y. H. Chao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the effect of airflow distance from a personalized ventilation (PV) system on the personal exposure of a PV user to exhaled droplets from different orientations. Constant and dynamic airflow from the PV system was studied. A PV system was designed to produce both constant and dynamic airflows with different periods. Thermal manikins were used to simulate a healthy person (HP), also the PV user, influenced by a respiratory activity from an infected person (IP) at different orientations. Results show that, with a short distance of 0.2 m between the PV and the HP, both constant and dynamic PV flow can effectively protect the HP at all orientations considered; with a longer distance of 0.5 m between the PV and the HP, at some orientations, neither constant PV flow nor dynamic PV flow could protect the HP from the IP under our testing conditions. PV is a potential method to prevent disease transmission. However, a proper design is essential, and the relative position of the PV terminal, the IP and the HP and the distance of the PV from the HP are important factors to be considered so as to achieve the best performance.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-06T05:10:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20951245
  • Differences in environmental perception of gender and sleep quality in
           self-regulating sleep thermal environment
    • Authors: Ting Cao, Zhiwei Lian, Heng Du, Ryota Miyazaki, Jianke Bao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study was to explore gender differences in response to subjective comfortable thermal environment by performing human experiments in summer. A total of six discontinuous conditions for self-regulating ambient temperature were designed with five males and five females. Sleep onset latency and slow wave sleep, from the physiological indices of electroencephalograph, electromyography and electrooculography, measure sleep quality objectively. Results indicate that gender differences in subjective temperature preferences, thermal sensation and sleep quality are reflected by temperature or temperature intervals. In particular, women have a significantly higher temperature range than men. Meanwhile, the temperature sections of males and females corresponding to thermal sensation and sleep quality are summarized under the same thermal resistance. Moreover, the results of temperature difference between men and women on thermal perception and sleep quality showed that the temperature difference of subjective sleep quality coincides with the objective one, but greater than the subjective thermal perception results implying that a greater discrepancy between males and females in sleep thermal physiological needs than during their awake.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-05T06:03:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20961812
  • Thermal comfort analysis of radiant cooling panels with dedicated
           fresh-air system
    • Authors: S. Y. Qin, X. Cui, C. Yang, L. W. Jin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Radiant system has been increasingly applied in buildings due to its good thermal comfort and energy-saving potential. In this research, a simplified predicted mean vote (PMV) model and sensible cooling load equation were proposed based on human thermal comfort. Simulations were carried out using Airpak to explore relationships among thermal comfort characteristics, design and operation parameters. Results show that radiant surface temperature, fresh-air supply temperature and the area ratio are correlated approximately linearly with the indoor air temperature, while the relative humidity has little effect on the indoor air temperature. The indoor air velocity in the simulated environment was no more than 0.15 m/s, satisfying the requirements of limit values in the occupied zone. The results indicate that the optimum radiant surface temperature (tc) is 19°C to 23°C when fresh-air supply temperature (ts) is 26°C. The relative humidity (φ) should be maintained at 50% to 70%, and the area ratio of radiant panels to total surfaces (k1) should be kept within 0.15 to 0.38 when the radiant surface temperature is 20°C and the fresh-air supply temperature is 26°C. The simplified PMV model and the sensible load equation can provide reference for panel design based on characteristics of radiant cooling panels with a dedicated fresh-air system.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-05T06:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20961142
  • Experimental and simulated optimization study on dynamic heat discharge
           performance of multi-units water tank with PCM
    • Authors: Jin Li, Yin Zhang, Pei Ding, Enshen Long
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The water tank is most commonly a crucial energy storage device of a solar heating system. However, few existing studies have focused on the quantitative analysis of the heat discharge process of a square water tank. In this paper, a multi-units water tank with phase change material (MWT-PCM) was proposed. The dynamic heat discharge performances of the MWT-PCM and the conventional water tank both with 235.8 dm were compared experimentally. A validated mathematical model was established to optimize the configuration of the MWT-PCM. Results demonstrated that: (1) The water temperature of both tanks had a sharp decline at the initial stage of the heat discharge process. (2) The instantaneous residual effective heat and the instantaneous heat supply of the WMT-PCM were 127% and 45.6% higher than that of the conventional water tank on average, respectively. (3) Due to the PCM, the effective heat discharge time could be prolonged by about 90 min. (4) When the PCM was arranged in a multi-unit manner, a small flow rate operation was recommended. However, the effect of changes in the total mass of the PCM was not obvious, and thus, for the given total mass, a smaller pipe diameter was recommended.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-10-05T06:03:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20961141
  • Study on transmission characteristics and factors influencing T-elbow
           aerodynamic noise in ventilation and air-conditioning pipelines
    • Authors: Ya Lin Liu, Ke Wang, Lei Zhao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Local ductwork components, such as shunt T-elbows, generate aerodynamic noise in ventilation and air-conditioning systems where turbulent air flow dissipates pulsation. The noise generated by airflow propagates along the ductwork to the end that terminates into a room. The incident acoustic energy may affect the working efficiency and health of the occupants. In this study, computational fluid dynamics and acoustic finite element methods were used to solve the Lighthill acoustic equation and simulate the flow field through T-elbows and the noise field generated by the airflow. The goal is to explore generation and transmission of aerodynamic noise through ductwork in a ventilation and air-conditioning system. The effects of inflow velocity, flow distribution ratio and T-elbow geometry on the noise intensity and acoustic energy propagation were investigated. The results show that low-frequency noises at the branch of the T-elbow are dominant and are caused by local unsteady vortex motion when the air flow diverges rapidly. In addition, the noise intensity and the propagated acoustic energy vary with the inflow velocity, branch flow rate ratio and branch geometry. Finally, the optimal structure for reducing noise in specific conditions can be determined by analysing and comparing various T-elbow geometries.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T06:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20952519
  • Heat stress and outdoor activities in open spaces of public housing
           estates in Hong Kong: A perspective of the elderly community
    • Authors: Jianxiang Huang, Yang Chen, Phil Jones, Tongping Hao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Open spaces in Hong Kong are in short supply and they are often underused due to the adverse climate, especially in hot and humid summer. This is a missed opportunity that can be otherwise realized to promote health and social interactions for local communities. The high density urban environment makes the condition worse by raising the urban heat island effect and leaving planners with fewer mitigation options. This study aims to test the hypotheses that an unfavourable thermal environment disrupts the use of outdoor open spaces; if yes, whether such disruptions differ by age groups. On-site measurement and computer simulations were conducted in three open spaces in public housing estates in Ngau Tau Kok, Hong Kong. Thermal conditions were assessed using the Universal Thermal Climate Index. Occupant activities were recorded, together with a questionnaire survey. Results showed that an open space purposefully designed for breeze and shading was 2.0°C cooler in Universal Thermal Climate Index compared with the other two. It attracted more optional/social activities, higher frequency of visits, and longer duration of stay. The elderly activities were more susceptible to disruptions from heat stress compared with younger groups. Elderly activities largely diminish when ambient thermal environment exceed 39°C in Universal Thermal Climate Index. Findings have implications to design and retrofitting of open spaces in order to maximize their use.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T04:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20950448
  • Open-plan office design for improved natural ventilation and reduced mixed
           mode supplementary loads
    • Authors: Hardi K. Abdullah, Halil Z. Alibaba
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The hybrid philosophy behind the mixed-mode (MM) strategy aims at achieving energy-efficient buildings and sustainable development. A performance-based open-plan office design facilitates the handling of multiple design parameters to identify optimal design solutions for effective MM offices. This research presents a method of open-plan office design for an improved natural ventilation potential and reduced supplementary heating/cooling loads in the early design stage within a Mediterranean climate. Different design variables including office size, layout aspect ratio, window orientation and fraction of window opening, with several factor levels, were studied. The design of experiment developed by the Taguchi method was applied to define the most informative simulation scenarios. Analysis of variance was utilised to indicate the effectiveness of each design parameter, while the signal-to-noise ratio approach identified the near-optimal level combinations that support informed decision-making. Suggested by the EN 15251:2007 standard, the hourly dynamic simulations were conducted using TAS Engineering. The measurement criteria included airflow rate, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, adaptive thermal comfort and air-conditioning (AC) loads. The calculated indicator was the number of hours in which a specific performance criterion is met during the occupancy period and the AC loads.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T05:47:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20953458
  • The impact of workspace location and indoor environmental quality on
           employees' satisfaction within office buildings: A case study in Cairo
    • Authors: Ahmed Khaled Aboulfotouh, Osama Tolba, Sherif Ezzeldin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) could influences employees' satisfaction and performance in office buildings. Previous research have suggested that factors such as gender, age, proximity from a window could influence employees' perceived satisfaction with IEQ. This study as a part of an ongoing research attempts to investigate the impact of workspace location on employees' satisfaction with IEQ parameters and overall satisfaction with personal workspace within office buildings in Cairo. Employees' subjective evaluation of satisfaction with IEQ parameters were collected using a questionnaire as a post occupancy evaluation survey. Responses were collected and quantitatively analysed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Diversity in levels of satisfaction among employees within the same building was found highly sensitive to their workspace location. Building orientation and external views could influence employees' satisfaction with IEQ parameters and overall satisfaction with personal workspace. Employees with highest perceived satisfaction with IEQ parameters and overall satisfaction with personal workspace seem to prefer their workspaces to be located on the ground floor, away from a window, either in the middle of the building or on the southern façade and not overlooking the courtyard. The study recommends that Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification criteria should reconsider employees' satisfaction with IEQ parameters in developing IEQ credits and LEED certification process.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-03T04:53:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20944561
  • A tropical field study on outdoor bioclimatic comfort of people with
           different thermal histories
    • Authors: Chunjing Shang, Yanxi Chen, Jianhong Cai, Zhongjun Zhang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Several studies reported that the long-term thermal history of the human body affects its thermal comfort and preferences. We conducted a tropical field study in Sanya city, China; 1512 questionnaires were collected from tourists. The tourists had five thermal histories associated with five different climate regions (cold, severely cold, hot summer, cold winter, hot summer and warm winter and temperate regions). Our results showed that the human body's long-term thermal history had distinct influences on their thermal sensation, thermal comfort and preferences at their destination. Greater difference in a subject's thermal history from that of the tourist destination showed greater difference in the bioclimatic comfort and thermal preference. The neutral physiological equivalent temperature (nPET) of tourists with thermal histories in the severely cold and cold regions was 25.6°C and 25.9°C, respectively. The nPET was 1.4°C and 1.7°C higher than that of the temperate regions, respectively. The relationship between thermal acceptability vote and thermal comfort vote showed that the tourists with thermal histories in the severely cold and cold regions were more sensitive to environmental changes than those with histories from the other regions.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-03T04:52:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20951233
  • Simulated physical ageing: A prioritized persona-based model for
           accessible interiors in senior housing environments
    • Authors: Şevkiye Merve Taşoz, Yasemin Afacan
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Accessibility is a critical interior design consideration that increases performance level and allows older adults to be independent and physically active in their daily activities. This study used a case study to present a new method of combining ageing simulation with personas through importance-performance analysis (IPA) and supporting the basic activities of daily living (BADL). This study developed a prioritized persona-based (PP-B) model to create accessible interiors in senior housing environments for healthy ageing. This model was constructed based on an ontology framework. The data that was gathered through the self-assessment accessibility questionnaire by 60 older adults and it was depicted in the IPA matrix, which later translated into personas. These personas were simulated with an ageing suit by interior architecture students based on the BADL of accessible senior housing environments. This study was an initial attempt to deal with the complex nature of accessible interior design and its attributes for ageing studies, which are often considered as theoretical concepts and standards. The main innovation of this developed PP-B model was to synchronize interior design knowledge on accessibility attributes and users’ BADL performance along their accessibility importance rankings. Findings are beneficial for interior designers to make human-centred interior design decisions.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T06:41:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20952817
  • Control of temperature and fume generation by cooking in a residential
           kitchen by ceiling radiative cooling and fume hood extraction
    • Authors: Wang Li, Hanqing Wang, Chengjun Li, Chuck Wah Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The heat radiation in a residential kitchen was simulated by CFD (Computational-fluid-dynamics) to evaluate the cooling by a radiant cooling ceiling panel and pollution dispersion by the range hood and the air extraction system. The kitchen has a 2-hobs stove and a fume hood for removing waste heat and fumes. The simulation was validated by measurements in a domestic kitchen in a home in Changsha, China, where summer temperature is generally about 33 °C and often over 35–42°C. The simulation results show that the pollutant concentration in the kitchen during cooking was much lower than the Chinese standard criteria of GB/T18883-2002. A standard turbulence model was used, which indicated satisfactory distribution of temperature and airflow in the kitchen. The indoor airflow velocity was low. The airflow temperature when both hobs were used was slightly higher by 3–4°C than when a single hob was used. The temperature in the kitchen during cooking was about 28 °C, which was a degree lower than the living-room temperature, thus maintaining a comfortable thermal and healthy environment. The radiant cooling in the ceiling was shown to be a significant contributing factor. The ring suction type range hood has a sufficient capacity to remove the kitchen fume contaminants.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T05:57:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20945750
  • Affordance-based interior design with occupants' behavioural data
    • Authors: Min-Kyoung Kim
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      For affordance-based design, which is especially lacking in the architecture field, this study investigates the relationships between affordances and interior elements in the built environment by understanding intrinsic affordances by users. The ethnographic case study was conducted by unobtrusively observing participant behaviours during given tasks using video recordings, voice recordings and photographs. The 32 affordances were identified in a public space containing 22 observed affordances and 10 issue affordances. The paper defines the hierarchical nature of the interior elements, including area-level, set-level, object-level and detailed attribute-level elements. An awareness of human-based affordances, where humans can create specific affordances using their bodies and belongings, was significant in the current research. The affordance-interior design element map can be used to support the identification of interior elements that are relevant to certain affordances and to distinguish which affordances are demanded by occupants in the built environment. Overall, designers could embed the affordance concept in the early stages of the design process by choosing more critical affordances and interior elements. The affordance-interior design element matrix and the map may be developed as an initial data repository for affordance-based interior design.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-25T04:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20948015
  • Control strategies to reduce occupational dust exposure at a mechanical
           grinding workshop
    • Authors: Jun Wu, Heng-Gen Shen, Xia-Fei Zhan
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this research, real-time changes in dust concentration were monitored at a typical grinding and sealing workshop during actual operation. Results indicated that particle size was between 10.0 and 50.0 µm, and the most abundant elements were Si and Al. The average daily dust exposure value (ADD) was taken as basis when performing the occupational risk assessment. The largest ADD values for the workshop were obtained at heights between 1.5 and 3.0 m. In order to reduce workers exposure to dust, a new type of circulating ventilation and dust removal system was designed. Operation of the new system showed that the shortest response time occurred a ratio of 60.0% of circulating air and 40.0% of fresh air. These data was compared with the ADD obtained under the conventional displacement ventilation system. The results indicated that the new system designed in the present research might significantly improve the environmental quality of the whole workshop (reducing the PM10 concentration in the breathing zone by nearly 9 times) and provide a fast response (reducing the response time to half). The system could provide an efficient measure in reducing hazards in industrial grinding workshops in the future.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T04:30:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20946414
  • Blower-door estimates of PM2.5 deposition rates and penetration factors in
           an idealized room
    • Authors: Yonghang Lai, Ian Ridley, Peter Brimblecombe
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Particle deposition and penetration in buildings has been widely studied, but the effect of indoor characteristics merits further investigation, so improved experimental methods may be needed. The present study measured indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 and estimated PM2.5 deposition rates and penetration factors under a variety of different indoor situations, with a novel method (blower-door method). The blower-door method is compared with the standard decay and rebound method for an idealized room (a portable building test cell; 6.08 m [math] 2.40 m [math] 2.60 m) under eight testing scenarios (empty, cardboard boxes in three arrangements, terry cloth wall covering, and three sets of window holes); run three times to establish the coefficient of variation representing precision. Results show that higher induced indoor–outdoor pressure differences cause a larger variation of estimated effective deposition rate on different indoor surfaces. The deposition rate and penetration factor may be influenced by indoor surface materials. The blower-door method gives higher precision for the estimates, and detects subtle differences in penetration factors, which may be difficult using the decay and rebound method.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T04:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20944427
  • Effects of home environment on childhood asthma and allergies in
           subtropical South China
    • Authors: Shujuan Zhang, Zhuoyu Wu, Haozhi Jiang, Cuiyun Ou
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Association between home environment and childhood asthma and allergies among preschool children in subtropical South China is unclear. We investigated doctor-diagnosed asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis (AR) in preschool children due to the exposure to indoor dampness and residential environment. One thousand nine hundred forty-six children (3–6 years) from 22 kindergartens in Foshan participated in this study in May 2016. Associations between home environment and childhood asthma, eczema and AR were analysed by using multivariate logistic regression model in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed childhood asthma, eczema and AR in Foshan was respectively 4.6%, 34.8% and 15.5%, respectively. Family member's atopy significantly increased the risk of developing asthma, eczema and AR, and the ORs were respectively 2.663 (95% CI: 1.716–4.132), 1.810 (95%CI: 1.461–2.243) and 4.194 (95%CI: 3.218–5.467). The high humidity in children's room was a significant risk to preschool children's eczema and AR. The surrounding environment was significantly associated with childhood eczema. Our study indicates that controlling the indoor dampness and allowing less natural ventilation if living near artery or industrial area are needed to reduce the risk of childhood eczema and AR in South China.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-10T04:47:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20941572
  • Multiple conformance to hybrid-automata-modelled requirements for
           detecting indoor temperature anomalies
    • Authors: Zhengguo Yang, Toshiaki Aoki, Yasuo Tan
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Detections of different thermal problems resort to approaches that utilize different indices, respectively. From an engineering viewpoint, they are neither flexible in detecting multiple thermal problems nor flexible in dealing with new concerned thermal problems. This article proposes a multiple-conformance approach to requirements that modelled by hybrid automata for flexibly detecting temperature anomalies. Temperature anomalies could lead to thermal problems, i.e., thermal discomfort as well as serious health problems. This approach extended a conventional conformance approach. The flexibility of the proposal is reflected in two aspects. First, it is an integrated approach that can deal with multiple thermal problems at different states of hybrid automata. Second, we can devise conformance relations concerning new thermal problems, and add them to the multiple-conformance approach. Experimental results show the feasibility and high performance of our proposal in detecting indoor temperature anomalies comprehensively.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-10T04:47:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20941576
  • Estimation model for natural ventilation by wind force considering wind
           direction and building orientation for low-rise building in China
    • Authors: Tian-Wen Wang, Wei Yin, Lin-Li Fu, Zhi-Yi Zhang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Building natural ventilation can effectively prevent the building from overheating and eliminate indoor pollutants, including viral aerosols and volatile organic compounds, without consuming energy. Natural ventilation by wind force is influenced by many factors, making it difficult to calculate accurately. This increases the complexity of designing natural ventilation systems. In this study, we use a computational fluid dynamics simulation and wind tunnel verification to determine the wind pressure coefficients of each facade of a cube-shaped building and draw their corresponding curves. Subsequently, we input the climate data of 31 major cities in China to analyse their potential for natural ventilation. The results show that although some cities have long ventilation hours, the wind-forced ventilation rate is relatively low. For example, cities such as Guangzhou and Nanning that were previously considered suitable for natural ventilation have relatively small ventilation rates that may reduce the cooling capacity of natural ventilation. The ratio, 0.12, of the average airflow rate to the local average wind velocity should be used to estimate the wind-ventilation rate during the early stages of architectural design to determine the total windows area in every facade.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T04:32:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20944983
  • Transmission and exposure of kitchen particles: A case study in an
    • Authors: Jingnan Sun, Wei Liu, Zhengwei Long, Hao Zhang, Wuxuan Pan
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Particles emitted from the kitchen have been proven as one of the major indoor particulate pollutants which could pose serious risk on human health. Thus, it is critical to study the migration of kitchen particles and the impact of kitchen particles on non-kitchen zones. Since Chinese domestic kitchens are equipped with exhaust hoods, the capture efficiency of an exhaust hood in real residence was first measured. The capture efficiency was about 48% with the air flow rate of 0.125 m3/s. Second, the relative occupant exposure was calculated to quantify migration characteristics of kitchen particles under different ventilation models. Results show that the meteorological environment had little effect on migration by infiltration but significant by natural ventilation. In the dwelling layout of this study, relative occupant exposures showed an upward trend in windward and a downward trend in leeward. When the wind direction was 225°, wind speed had the greatest impact on particle migration. Finally, the effect of the opening and closing situation of kitchen door on air quality was analysed. Results show that closing the kitchen door increased the exposure in the kitchen by 30–58%, while the exposure in the study dropped to 43% of the door open status.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-08-02T11:29:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20942579
  • Effects of viewing flowering plants on employees' wellbeing in an
           office-like environment
    • Authors: Mohamed Elsadek, Binyi Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the existence of plentiful studies on how plants can positively affect human wellbeing, few have focused on the potential effects of flower colours on stressed people. The present study was designed to illustrate the psychophysiological relaxation impacts of seeing purple and blue hydrangea flowers among finance workers. Thirty employees were asked to view purple, blue flowers or an empty table for 3-min, during which we measured the participants' brain activity, heart rate variability and skin conductance. We also assessed their emotions and mood states. Findings suggest that, compared with viewing the control, viewing blue and purple flowers resulted in a significant increase in alpha relative waves in the prefrontal and occipital lobes, and a significant increase in parasympathetic nervous activity. A significant increase in the sensation vote for ‘comfort', ‘relaxation' and ‘cheerfulness', as well as a dramatic improvement in the mood state was observed. The results show clear evidence for the support of the use of blue and purple flowering plants in places where comfort and calmness are required. In addition, blue flowers were more favoured and had the greatest positive effects. Results indicate that viewing flowering plants would be a promising therapeutic approach for enhancing physiological functions and improving psychological relaxation for office workers.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T04:42:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20942572
  • Investigation on dynamic behaviour of condensation heat transfer in
           indirective evaporative cooler
    • Authors: Yunran Min, Yi Chen, Hongxing Yang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Indirect evaporative cooling is a rapidly developing air-handling technology and has great application potentials for energy recovery in hot and humid regions. The condensation in dry channels of an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) occurs when the dew point temperature of outdoor air is high. However, the dynamic heat transfer performance of an IEC during the process of condensation evolution was rarely discussed. This paper aims to experimentally investigate the dynamic behaviour of primary air condensation and its effects on the convective and total heat transfer rate of an IEC. A transparent cover plate is placed outside an aluminium heat exchanger plate to visualize the evolution process of droplets retained on the surface. The droplets' falling frequency was recorded and the accumulated condensate mass was correlated based on an analytical method taking into account the contact angle and droplet volume. Results showed that the dynamic dehumidification performance can pose great influences on the convective heat transfer in IEC. The gradually diminished dropwise regions and increase of filmwise regions deteriorate the wet-bulb effectiveness of IEC by 14.8%. The convective heat flux keeps decreasing with the accumulation of condensate retention until a dynamic equilibrium is achieved between the retained and falling droplets.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T04:42:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20944415
  • Surface distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in
           Leishenshan Hospital in China
    • Authors: Ying Wang, Fu Qiao, Fuling Zhou, Yufeng Yuan
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The global pandemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) necessitated the rapid construction of field hospitals as the main strategies to control the detrimental effects of the outbreak. Little is known about the extent of the environmental contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an urgently field hospital. A total of 66 surface samples were randomly collected from a general isolation ward and an ICU (intensive care unit) at a rapidly built field hospital (Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital) in Wuhan, China, from 12 March to 17 March 2020. The samples were used for SARS-CoV-2 detection and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) monitoring. Among these samples, 3.03% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The nurses' hands and nurse station in the ICU were weakly positive (CT value = 38.79; CT value = 37.56) and the ATP value of these two sites was higher than the mean value of all samples (ATP = 817; ATP = 577). The environmental cleaning and disinfection normalization bundle measures in Leishenshan hospital included air disinfection, object surface cleaning and disinfection, instrument equipment surface disinfection and hand hygiene, etc. These have been tested and were shown to be reliable and useful. Our experience can provide a useful reference in the fight against the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T04:42:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20942938
  • Quantitative effects of glass roof system parameters on energy and
           daylighting performances: A bi-objective optimal design using response
           surface methodology
    • Authors: Fei Yu, Jiawei Leng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In regions with a hot-summer/cold-winter climate, a balance between energy-saving and better daylighting performance is often required for the design of a glass roof system. This research aims to reduce the total energy demand and to increase the useful daylight illuminance (UDI), by introducing a response-surface-methodology-based bi-objective optimization approach for three glass roof system models (no shading, exterior blinds, interior shades). Surrogate models were generated to quantify the effect of the glazing material and shading parameters. Our findings have revealed that, in hot-summer/cold-winter climate regions like Nanjing, properties of the glazing material could substitute the effect of shading parameters to enhance energy-saving potentials. However, the use of glazing cannot make up for the effect on the daylight performance. Glass roof systems with a low U-value glazing material and small-slat exterior blinds are generally recommended as the balanced solution to lower the energy demand and raise the UDI200–2000. The substitute relations introduced in the surrogate models and optimal solutions have indicated that there are multiple choices to attain a relatively similar goal to produce an energy-efficient building design for construction.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T06:31:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20941220
  • Analysis of activity, space and user relations in urban squares
    • Authors: Habibe Acar, Aysel Yavuz, Engin Eroğlu, Cengiz Acar, Cenap Sancar, Ahmet Salih Değermenci
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      With the increasing density of built spaces in urban areas, the need for open spaces increases every day. Squares are one of the most important of these open spaces. Urban squares allow various activities and exhibit functional differences based on location and culture. The diversity of activities conducted in squares is extremely important for the quality and viability of liveable urban spaces. Urban residents prefer spaces that are suitable for individual requirements and desires and allow for a variety of activities. These spaces also contribute to social life. This article aimed to determine the user profile, occupancy, facilities and activity diversity at the Atatürk Plaza (Trabzon urban square) in Trabzon, the capital city of Trabzon Province, Turkey. The occupants of the square and their numbers were analysed via the behaviour observation method. As a result of the observations conducted in the square over one year, 17 activities were identified. The majority of these activities were necessary activities and that the most common activity was walking. The occupancy density and distribution in the square were analysed using the Geographical Information System (GIS). These research findings and analyses could serve as a guide for future urban square and urban open space designs.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T05:39:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20942271
  • Transport and trajectory of cough-induced bimodal aerosol in an
           air-conditioned space
    • Authors: Bo Zhang, Guangyu Guo, Chao Zhu, Zhiming Ji, Chao-Hsin Lin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Aerosol generated from a human cough can be a potential major indoor health risk due to the possible transmission of infectious respiratory diseases to surrounding individuals within the same room and even could spread out via air-ventilation/conditioning systems. This study aims to investigate the transport characteristics and trajectory of coughed aerosols under the influence of conditioned air ventilation as well as near-by human breathing zone using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). An experimental system consisting of air-conditioned space with multiple inlets and outlets, a cough simulator and a receiver was built to validate the CFD predictions. The comparison is in good agreement. The CFD model was established as a transient three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent Eulerian–Lagrangian model and numerically solved using commercial software ANSYS Fluent. Both gas and liquid phases were modelled as multicomponent mixtures. With this CFD model, the indoor transport and trajectory of coughed aerosols can be accounted for the distributions of portions inhaled by each manikin, deposited on surfaces of manikins and chamber walls, as well as recirculated back into the ventilation system. Results reveal that the aerosol source location and the ambient air movement can be crucial factors of aerosol trajectory in terms of direct and indirect influence.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T05:21:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20941166
  • Passive space design, building environment and thermal comfort: A
           university building under severe cold climate, China
    • Authors: Jin Dai, Shuguang Jiang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the building environment and the thermal comfort of occupants were investigated at a university building located in severe cold climate zone in the northwest of China during winter, transition and summer. First, in the two typical weather days of the year, the thermal environment of the Shihezi University building with atrium and courtyard was measured on the spot to investigate the impact of passive space design on the thermal environment of the building. Second, a questionnaire survey was used to report occupants’ subjective thermal perception and environmental variables were measured simultaneously. A total of 1346 valid subjective questionnaires and measurement data were obtained. The results showed that the thermal neutral temperature analysed by linear regression in winter, transition and summer were 24.42°C, 24.64°C and 28.10°C, respectively. The thermal comfort temperature range was from 19.59 to 29.44°C (winter) and 23.32 to 28.52°C (transition and summer). The occupants’ preference temperature was 25.14°C and 24.35°C in winter and transition. The adaptive behaviours of clothing adjustment and opening windows were closely correlated to the indoor operative temperature. Third, the correlation between indicators of thermal comfort, including subjective feelings and objective factors was also analysed.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T05:21:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20939234
  • Investigation on heat and mass transfer characteristics for a
           zeolite-coated heat exchanger using comparatively low-temperature energy:
           Heating humidification mode and cooling dehumidification mode
    • Authors: Beungyong Park, Sihwan Lee
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Desiccant-based hybrid air-conditioning technologies are currently being developed to reduce energy consumption and enhance the effectiveness of indoor thermal environmental control in buildings. The purpose of this study is to propose a compact desiccant-based outdoor air-conditioning system that directly uses heated desorption and cooled adsorption with comparatively low-temperature energy, and to propose a mathematical model for the system by investigating the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a zeolite-coated heat exchanger (ZCHE). To study the heat and mass transfer characteristics of the ZCHE, the moisture removal capacity and the moisture removal regeneration were measured at various heat source temperatures and water flow rates using an experimental model. The measured values were adopted as boundary condition for mathematical model. The results show that the air-conditioning performance of the ZCHE is strongly dependent on the water temperature under constant air conditions. The humidification capacity of the ZCHE was measured 25.0 g at 5 kW heat capacity and the humidification capacity was measured 10.2 g at 0.6 kW cooling capacity. The relative errors of mass transfer coefficient and heat transfer coefficient are ±3.6% and ±3.8%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed mathematical model fitted well with measured values.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T04:44:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20942291
  • Reduction in solar photovoltaic generation due to aerosol pollution in
           megacities in western China during 2014 to 2018
    • Authors: Liyuan Zhang, Xiaoxiao Yi, Min Zhao, Zhaolin Gu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Installed solar photovoltaic generation is expanding fast in western China, with total capacity accounting for>15% of global photovoltaic capacity. However, severe aerosol pollution over western China has weakened the solar radiation reaching the panels. We assessed the impact of aerosol pollution on photovoltaic power generation at the city level in western China from 2014 to 2018. Over northwestern China, severe aerosol pollution regions, aerosols reduced annual average photovoltaic generation by 0.15–0.31 kWh/m2/day relative to clean air conditions, a decrease of 4.8–9.0%. The impact had significant seasonal variations. Aerosols can exert an influence even as important as clouds in winter in northwestern China, with the reduction of 11.2–17.4% in December. Photovoltaic generation can be benefited from the improvement of aerosol pollution and can further improve the air quality by providing clean power.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T06:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20939310
  • Study on the relationship between the CO2 concentration and pedestrian
           flow in a building evacuation passageway
    • Authors: Wenjun Lei, Chuanliang Rong, Chuanmin Tai, Angui Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      People ubiquitously produce CO2. The quantitative relationship between the CO2 concentration and pedestrian flow needs to be determined if the CO2 concentration is to be used to reflect pedestrian flow. Therefore, a field test was carried out to measure the CO2 concentration and pedestrian flow in an evacuation passageway of a densely populated building. The results show that the variation in the CO2 concentration always lags behind the variation in the pedestrian parameters. When pedestrians enter a building evacuation passageway over a long time span with high randomness, the quantitative relationships between the pedestrian density and CO2 concentration and between the pedestrian flow rate and CO2 concentration are not clear. When all the people in the building are required to leave at the same time, the relationships between the pedestrian density and CO2 concentration and between the pedestrian flow rate and CO2 concentration can be described quantitatively. The CO2 concentration can be taken as an early warning index to manage pedestrians in evacuation passageways of densely populated buildings. Two possible methods are provided to help provide early warnings in pedestrian management. These results are expected to provide new ideas for pedestrian statistics and pedestrian flow management in densely populated buildings.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T06:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20940368
  • Effects of visible greenness, quantity and distance of indoor plants on
           human perceptions and physical parameters
    • Authors: Ke-Tsung Han
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of visible greenness rate, green coverage ratio and distance from plants on human perceptions and parameters of the physical environment. A secondary purpose was to explore the correlation between parameters of physical environment and human perceptions when indoor plants were present. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Experimental treatments were administered by placing either three or eight pots of Radermachera hainanensis Merr. in a room. Sixty students of a technology university in central Taiwan were recruited as participants, and their perceptions were collected using a questionnaire. Physical parameter data were collected using two air quality detectors. The results indicated the following: when the visible greenness rate was identical, different green coverage ratios and plant–participant distances did not exert different effects on participants' perceptions. Different green coverage ratios and distances from plants exerted differing effects on physical parameters. However, the distance from indoor plants had stronger and more consistent effects on physical parameters than the green coverage ratio. The environmental comfort of the participants increased with the CO2 level, and the lower the level of total volatile organic compound, the higher is the level of surprise.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T06:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20939595
  • Effectiveness of passive ventilation on radon indoor level in Puglia
           Region according to European Directive 2013/59/EURATOM
    • Authors: Vittoria D'Avino, Mariagabriella Pugliese, Giuseppe La Verde
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The effectiveness of the increase in passive ventilation was studied as remedial action for high concentrations of indoor radon gas activity. The rationale has been to apply the provisions of Directive 2013/59/EURATOM, partially implemented by a regional law of Puglia Region (Southern Italy). Residential buildings were selected based on characteristics common to those of commercial premises, which are the recipients of legislative obligations. The final goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of carrying out the same remediation activity for both types of buildings. From a previous survey in Puglia in 2013–2014, 18 houses were selected and passive ventilation strategy was applied in order to evaluate its effect on the radon activity concentration. A specially designed protocol defined frequency and time of windows operation. The average value of the annual measurement revealed a significant reduction of the internal radon activity concentration: mitigation ranged from 21 ± 5% to 58 ± 2% with an average value of 33 ± 3%. The results of the study showed that passive ventilation is an effective method of mitigation of the internal radon concentration if correctly designed according to the local characteristics of the buildings and habits of the occupants.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T06:07:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20940364
  • A hybrid model for predicting window opening state in buildings based on
           non-intrusive monitoring
    • Authors: Huifang Liu, Hengjie Zheng, Fei Li, Hao Cai
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Window opening behaviour is one of the most important factors for indoor air environment. The traditional models for window opening behaviour rarely focus on the window opening proportion, which has an important effect on optimal design of natural ventilation. A hybrid model combining the logistic regression model with a probability distribution model was proposed to analyse the window state distribution. A non-intrusive window monitoring method was used to sample window states, and the required sample size was analysed based on a pilot study. The Box-Cox data transformation was employed to establish a normal distribution model for the probability distribution of window opening state, and explore the relationship between outdoor temperature and the probability density function (PDF). The study found that the outdoor temperature, relative humidity and PM2.5 concentration had a significant effect on window opening states, and the outdoor temperature had a higher prediction accuracy (86.7%) for the logistic regression model. For different outdoor temperature, the parameters of PDF for window opening state were different. The mean and variance of the PDF were highest when the outdoor temperature was 20°C–25°C. This study can help to improve effective design and utilization of natural ventilation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T06:07:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20940362
  • Investigation and comparison on thermal comfort and energy consumption of
           four personalized seat heating systems based on heated floor panels
    • Authors: Guoqing Yu, Zhaoji Gu, Zhenye Yan, Hengtao Chen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The climate of Yangtze River Basin in China is cold and humid in winter. Conventional air-conditioning systems may cause high energy consumption and uncomfortable microclimatic conditions especially for lower body of indoor occupants. This study investigated four personalized seat heating systems, in a typical office room in Shanghai during winter, based on heated floor panels including heated floor panels + ordinary chair (HF-OC), heated floor panels + insulated chair (HF-IC), heated floor panels +insulated chair and leg box (HF-IC-LB) and overall personalized heating (OPH). The surface temperature of walls and heated floor panels, and the indoor air temperature at different positions were recorded with thermocouples. The hourly energy consumptions of the proposed personalized seat heating systems were measured and compared with a conventional split type air conditioner. Questionnaires of thermal sensation and comfort were carried out among 10 university students. Compared with HF-OC, HF-IC could improve the thermal comfort to a certain extent, while HF-IC-LB provided the optimal thermal micro-environment for the lower body other than other body parts. The OPH systems were proven effective to provide satisfactory thermal environment for all body parts at lower indoor temperature (12–16°C) with much less energy consumption than room air conditioners.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T09:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20939145
  • A TOPSIS optimization for the indoor thermal environment through
           oscillating airflow generated from a cassette split type air conditioner
    • Authors: Yunqing Fan
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluates the feasibility of a control method, ‘the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution’ (TOPSIS) for the optimization of the subzone thermal environment by optimizing the oscillating airflow generated from a cassette split type air conditioner. To address the quasi-dynamic thermal comfort problems, various operation swinging angles of the louvre in the supply opening of an air conditioner and swinging periods were investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The impact of air supply control strategies (louvres movement) on the indoor thermal environment was evaluated by multi-criteria operation under quasi-dynamic conditions. The operation parameters were shown to have significantly improved the deviation in thermal uniformity by 16.5% and thermal preference by 7.6%. A 40 s swing period and wider swing angles for the operation of the inner louvre would satisfy the thermal uniformity rather than other alternatives. A shorter swing period
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T09:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20939305
  • Biocontamination of surfaces in controlled environment rooms: The
           influence of environmental parameters and the design of the air
           conditioning system
    • Authors: Emiliana A. Sabuco-Tébar, Julián J. Arense-Gonzalo, F. Javier Campayo-Rojas
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This research aims to evaluate the relationship between the environmental and design parameters of the air conditioning system, and the presence of colony-forming units (CFUs) of bacteria on surfaces. This retrospective study was carried out in controlled environment rooms in 12 hospitals in Spain, as part of a periodic environmental biosecurity assessment programme. Between 2010 and 2017, a total amount of 1027 samples were collected from floors and 861 from hand contact surfaces (HCSs), and the environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity, fungal and bacterial CFUs present in the air) and design parameters (air changes per hour (ACH), differential pressure and position of the high efficiency particulate air filter) were monitored. The multivariate analysis concluded that, for each increased degree Celsius of temperature, the bacterial CFUs increased by 22.4% (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.224, 1.05–1.43) and by 25.9% (IRR: 1.259, 1.06–1.50) on HCSs and floors, respectively, and for each increase in ACH, the CFUs decreased 3.9% (IRR: 0.961, 0.94–0.99) and 2.5% (IRR: 0.975, 0.95–1.00) on HCSs and floors, respectively. Our results show the influence of the environmental and design parameters of air conditioning on the number of CFUs on surfaces and floors.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T05:25:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20938831
  • Size distribution and lung deposition of particle mass generated by indoor
    • Authors: Apeksha Vora, Marie-Cecile G. Chalbot, Jin Y. Shin, Ilias G. Kavouras
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Particle inhalation is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes including death. Particle deposition in the respiratory tract and therefore the type and severity of health outcomes depend on size that varies by type and source. The size distribution of particle mass generated by indoor activities such as cooking, cleaning, visitors, smoking and candle/incense burning was monitored in this study using a real-time cascade impactor system was measured. Particle mass measurements allow for the direct estimation of dose. The KDEP lung deposition model was used to determine the fractional deposition of particle mass in lung regions in adult males and females for each indoor activity. The average dose rate was higher for cleaning, cooking and having visitors than that computed for hookah smoking, candle and incense burning. The deposition rates for females were higher than those measured for males during cleaning, cooking and visitors, while the male deposition rates were higher than those estimated for females during smoking and candle, incense burning. The majority of particles settled in the alveolar region of lungs in males, as compared to the extrathoracic region in females. Overall, this study demonstrated that exposures to different particle size distribution vary by sex, which may have implications for different health outcomes for males and females.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T05:25:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20939249
  • Analysis of winter formaldehyde and volatile organic compound pollution
           characteristics of residential kitchens in severe cold regions of
           northeast China
    • Authors: Jun Wag, Kailiang Huang, Guohui Feng, Jiasen Song
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The formaldehyde (HCHO) and volatile organic compound (VOCs) pollution characteristics of the residential kitchen in severe cold regions of northeast China were investigated by on-site measurement, questionnaire and correlation analysis. A total of 33 residential kitchens in three cities were selected as samples. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, phenol reagent spectrophotometer and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine were applied. The change of VOC concentration during cooking was tracked by parts per billion ppb RAE detector. Moreover, the CO2 tracer gas method was used to measure air changes when the range hood was open under different window-opening angles. The results demonstrate that though the excess rate of HCHO in the kitchen was only 5.3% before cooking, the average VOC concentration (1.269 mg/m3) exceeded far beyond the standard and was obviously higher than other climate zones. During cooking, the VOC concentration was in a state of seriously exceeding standard. The average concentration of aldehyde and ketone pollutants during cooking was 0.431 mg/m3. Frying produced more VOCs than stewing. The influence factors of HCHO and VOC pollution characteristics were explored. Increasing make-up air and optimizing cooking habits are significant in alleviating kitchen pollution in northeast China.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T05:08:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20937462
  • Numerical simulation of particle spatial distribution and filtration
           characteristic in the pleated filter media using OpenFOAM
    • Authors: Zhiyong Shu, Fuping Qian, Can Fang, Jingjing Zhu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Fine dust is one of the important factors affecting precision instruments and human health, and the pleated filter media has been widely used in air filtration field. Based on the SEM image of the actual pleated filter media, a microscopic 3D model of the pleated filter media was established and the gas–solid two-phase flow was simulated using OpenFOAM. The results show that OpenFOAM can well simulate the particle deposition on the surface of the fibre filter media and the dendritic structures. The transverse distribution of the amount of deposited particle in the pleated filter media is in the form of two peaks structure, while the longitudinal distributions of the amount of deposited particle in 30° and 60° of the pleated filter media are relatively uniform with multi-peaks structure. The average relative error of the pressure drop between the simulation result and the empirical formula is 3.69%, and the pressure differential decreases first and then increases with the pleated angle, and at a gas velocity of 0.4 m/s, ΔPmin is around 5 Pa (35° of the pleated angle). Through the above studies, the results could be helpful for the development and design of the pleated filter media.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-07-06T04:06:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20931925
  • Particle detachment due to wheel rotation
    • Authors: Jinwei Song, Hua Qian, Xiaohong Zheng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Particle detachment induced by a rotating wheel was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The developed theoretical models were used to reveal how the particle detaches from a wheel surface to the surrounding air. The corresponding experiments were carried out to validate proposed models. Two groups of spherical particles were considered, i.e. silicon dioxide and aluminium oxide particles. Different forces and force moments acting on individual particles were analysed. The criteria for the rolling detachment of particles were considered. The detachment diameters under various conditions were calculated. The results show that the particle detachment was dominated by the removal and resistant forces acting on particles, including the gravity force, adhesion force, hydrodynamic force and centrifugal force. Different relevant parameters can affect particle detachment through these forces, including surface roughness, wheel speed, particle size and properties. A higher wheel speed, larger particle sizes and higher wheel surface roughness were shown to have a conducive influence on particle detachment. The resistant and removal force moments could be affected by the particle properties at the same time; therefore, the detachment diameters of the aluminium oxide particles are similar to those of silicon dioxide. This study can contribute towards the estimation of particle emissions from vehicles.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T09:30:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20935162
  • The 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in some dwellings of Mandya city and
           its surroundings, Karnataka, India
    • Authors: Kesthur Naraseyappa Narasimhamurthy, Godekere Visweswaraiah Ashok, Thuruganur Siddaiah Shashi Kumar, Ningaiah Nagaiah
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in air was carried out in 50 dwellings belonging to 20 locations in and around Mandya city, Karnataka. Annual mean values of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were found to be 22.4 ± 1.5 and 24.1 ± 1.8 Bq m−3, respectively. The total annual effective dose received by the general public due to radon and thoron was found to be 1.36 ± 0.08 mSv y−1. The doses to different organs and tissues were calculated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) model of the respiratory tract and inter-comparison was made. The flooring, roofing type and age of the buildings were noted and the radon levels with respect to these parameters were analysed and discussed. An attempt was made to predict the indoor radon levels in dwellings using the existing model which was based on the mass balance equation and the results were compared with measured values.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-21T06:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20931590
  • Comparison of common machine learning algorithms trained with multi-zone
           models for identifying the location and strength of indoor pollutant
    • Authors: Yu Huang, Zhi Gao, Hongguang Zhang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The accurate identification of the characteristics of pollutant sources can effectively prevent the loss of human life and property damage caused by the sudden release of harmful chemicals in emergency situations. Machine learning algorithms, artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbour (KNN) and naive Bayesian (NB) classification can be used to identify the location of pollutant sources with limited sensor data inputs. In this study, the identification accuracy of the four above-mentioned machine learning algorithms was investigated and compared, considering the different sensor layouts, eigenvector inputs, meteorological parameters and number of samples. The results show that the collection of pollutant concentrations over an extended period of time could improve identification accuracy. Additional sensors were required to reach the same identification accuracy after the introduction of distributed meteorological parameters. Increasing the number of trained samples by a factor of five improved the identification accuracy of KNN by 22% and that of SVM by 1.7%; however, ANN and NB classification remained basically unchanged. When identifying the release mass of the pollutant source, multiple linear, ANN and SVM regression models were adopted. Results show that ANN performs best, whereas SVM provides the least optimal performance.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T11:32:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20931576
  • Experimental study of thermo-fluid boundary conditions, airflow and
           temperature distributions in a single aisle aircraft cabin mockup
    • Authors: Congcong Wang, Jie Zhang, Hongbing Chen, Junjie Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Aircraft cabin mockup has been accepted as a benchmark tool to study the aircraft cabin environment. Some researchers used computational fluid dynamics to predict the cabin environment, but the model always needs to be validated by accurate and comprehensive experimental data obtained from the cabin mockup. This study measured thermo-fluid boundary conditions, airflow and temperature distributions by appropriate instruments in a full-scale seven-row aircraft cabin mockup. We used an improved interpolation method to obtain the airflow and temperature distributions. For airflow fields, the interpolation regions were determined based on the sampling location. For the temperature field, in addition to sampling locations, cabin wall temperatures were also needed to be set as interpolation boundary. Non-uniformity coefficient was applied to evaluate homogeneities of air supply velocities and zonal wall temperatures. The measurement error and uncertainty were quantified in detail to evaluate measurement accuracy. We found that the uncertainty of the air supply velocity measured by hot-sphere anemometers was lower than that of airflow field velocity measured by ultrasonic anemometers.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T11:32:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20932271
  • Effects of solid particles with various charging states and oil aerosols
           on the filtration characteristics of electret media
    • Authors: Yongxiang Wang, Zhongping Lin, Wanyi Zhang, Bin Xu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, electret media were loaded with neutralized and charged potassium chloride (KCl) to examine the effect of charged solid particles on loading behaviour. The media were then loaded with diethylhexyl sebacate (DEHS), dipropylene glycol (DPG) and glycerol to obtain a correlation between the efficiency degradation and liquid aerosol. The results indicated that the efficiency of electret media decreased from 72% to 46% under the neutralized KCl loading whilst the efficiency decreased from 96% to 82% under the positively charged KCl loading. Particle charging increased the initial efficiency and also effectively minimized the efficiency degradation. Given the increase in efficiency via chargers, the deposition morphology of the solid particles on the fibres was changed to mitigate the efficiency degradation. With respect to electret media loaded with DEHS, DPG and glycerol, the decrease in efficiency was associated with the solubility difference between the fibres and oil aerosols. Given sufficient affinity between the oil particles and fibres, oil molecules permeated the chain segments of the fibres and produced swelling that damaged the charge traps and decreased efficiency. The results of this study can guide practical electret filter operations and provide a better indoor environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T02:52:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20932209
  • Modelling and simulation of the urban heat island effect in a tropical
           seaside city considering multiple street canyons
    • Authors: Zhou Haizhu, Zhu Neng, Wang Qingqin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      For tropical seaside cities, the net advection heat flux plays a significant role in local urban heat island (UHI) formation during the nocturnal time. However, the net advection heat flux is usually neglected in conventional modelling methods. An improved urban canopy model (UCM) has been developed to simulate the UHI effect in the tropical seaside cities. The model was proposed by introducing an adaptive approach to estimate the airflow rate inside a street canyon. Furthermore, the airflows in multiple connected street canyons were also considered. The improvements of the proposed model were validated with experiments conducted in a typical tropical seaside city, Sanya, China. In summer, the maximum error between the measured data and the simulation result of the conventional model was 0.68°C, which was reduced to 0.21°C with the proposed model. In winter, the maximum error was reduced from 0.84°C with the conventional model to 0.49°C with the proposed model. The experimental studies also showed that the UHI in summer (0.5–1.1°C) was greater than that in winter (0.4–0.5°C). On summer nights, wind flow along the streets had a greater mitigation effect on UHI formation than that in the daytime.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T02:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20930262
  • Influence of sensible cooling load on indoor air distribution in an office
           room with ceiling cooling and mixing ventilation
    • Authors: Xiaozhou Wu, Haichao Wang, Jie Gao, Fenghao Wang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A mixing ventilation system integrated with a ceiling cooling system is a potential advanced heating, ventilation and air conditioning system for modern office buildings with a high sensible cooling load. This paper presents an evaluation of the effect of sensible cooling load on the indoor air distribution in a typical office room with mixing ventilation and ceiling cooling. The vertical distributions of indoor air temperature, air velocity and contaminant (CO2) concentration were evaluated by the vertical air temperature difference, turbulence intensity and contaminant removal effectiveness. The results showed that when the chilled ceiling surface temperature was increased from 15.0°C to 23.0°C and supply air temperature was decreased from 22.0°C to 19.0°C, the average vertical air temperature difference, turbulence intensity and contaminant removal effectiveness were 0.2°C–0.3°C, 27%–32% and 0.53–0.81 as both internal and external sensible cooling loads were 41.5 W/m2. Moreover, these evaluation indices varied slightly as the external sensible cooling load was increased from 41.5 W/m2 to 69.5 W/m2, whereas they varied greatly as the internal sensible cooling load was increased from 41.5 W/m2 to 69.5 W/m2. Hence, the external sensible cooling load could slightly affect the indoor air distribution, whereas the internal sensible cooling load could clearly affect the indoor air distribution in an office room with mixing ventilation and ceiling cooling.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-05T12:48:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20924819
  • Machine learning algorithms for predicting occupants' behaviour in the
           manual control of windows for cross-ventilation in homes
    • Authors: Junseok Park, Bongchan Jeong, Young-Tae Chae, Jae-Weon Jeong
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The manual control of windows is one of the common adaptive behaviours for occupants to adjust their indoor environment in homes. The cross-ventilation by the window opening provides a useful tool to control the thermal comfort and indoor air quality in homes. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling methodology for predicting individual occupant's behaviour relating to the manual control of windows by using machine learning algorithms. The proposed six machine learning algorithms were trained by the field monitoring data of 23 sample homes. The predictive performance of the machine learning algorithms was analysed. The algorithms predicted the occupant's behaviour more precisely compared with the logistic model. Among the algorithms, K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) shows the best fitness with the monitored data set. The driving parameters of the manual control of windows in each sample home can be clearly drawn by the algorithms. The proposed machine learning algorithms can help to understand the influence of the occupant's behaviour on the indoor environment in buildings.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T04:00:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20927070
  • Effects of visual exposure to wood on human affective states,
           physiological arousal and cognitive performance: A systematic review of
           randomized trials
    • Authors: Dean Lipovac, Michael D. Burnard
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundBringing features of nature indoors can positively influence indicators of human stress. Since wood is a natural material, it may produce similar benefits. The objective of the review was to (1) examine the influence of visual (real or virtual) contact with either real or imitated indoor wooden surfaces on certain stress indicators, that is affective, physiological or cognitive performance outcomes (compared to non-wooden surfaces) and to (2) assess the methodological quality of the reviewed studies.MethodWe conducted a systematic literature search for English articles on Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central and Google Scholar on 6 August 2019. The results of the eligible studies were synthesized narratively in light of the identified methodological shortcomings.ResultsWe reviewed nine studies with 386 participants in total. Studies with longer exposure times to wood generally observed improved affective states and decreased physiological arousal in wooden settings, but the results are not entirely clear-cut. We discuss several methodological issues uncovered in the reviewed studies and provide guidelines for future robust research.ConclusionsCurrent evidence suggests that visual wood exposure may improve certain indicators of human stress, but additional research is needed to confirm the existing findings.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T04:00:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20927437
  • Comparative research on the air pollutant prevention and thermal comfort
           for different types of ventilation
    • Authors: Yang Zhang, Wenxuan Yu, Youli Li, Han Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, a comparative study on the outdoor air pollutant prevention and indoor thermal comfort for different types of ventilation was carried out. Both objective experiment, subjective experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation were conducted to investigate the differences in air pollutant prevention and thermal comfort between four common ventilation methods, namely supplying on the ceiling and returning on the ceiling (SC-RC), supplying on the ceiling and returning on the side wall (SC-RSW), supplying on the side wall and returning on the ceiling (SSW-RC), and supplying on the side wall and returning on the side wall (SSW-RSW). Results show that SSW-RSW can provide the highest indoor air quality according to the indoor average PM2.5 concentration. Overall thermal sensation was introduced to evaluate the indoor comfort under the four ventilation methods. The voting results show that the indoor thermal comfort can be enhanced by 29–36% under SSW-RSW and SSW-RC. Therefore, SSW-RSW is more suitable for providing a healthy and comfortable indoor environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T04:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20925521
  • Particle image velocimetry investigation on air distribution of
           surface-source buoyancy plume changing heating intensity and structure
           size in a thermostatic chamber
    • Authors: Xin Wang, Yukun Xu, Yinchen Yang, Bingyan Song
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      For large space buildings like industrial plants with huge heat generation, the role that surface-source plumes play becomes more crucial. To study the air distribution and movement of plumes, the first step is to quantify how the airflow gets distributed in chambers. The experiment was carried out in a thermostatic chamber where there was no ventilation. Four hundred flow field snapshots (in each region) were measured by a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry system at a sampling frequency of 3 Hz, and the time-average flow field was processed by the adaptive correlation algorithm to quantify the air distribution of the plume. According to the measured data, the variation law of the axial velocity of the surface-source plume under different heat source parameters was analysed. The formula coefficients of the axial velocity, the extended radius and the mass flow of the plume were discussed, and the coefficients from current two mainstream methods and those obtained in this paper were compared. The results of this study will be useful to predict motion of surface-plumes and optimize airflow patterns in large spaces.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-23T06:28:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20926245
  • Factors influencing volatile organic compounds in Canadian homes
    • Authors: Sabit Cakmak, Lisa Marie Kauri, Julie Andrade, Robert Dales
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Volatile organic compounds, several of which may impact health, have many possible indoor sources. To further investigate this, we tested the association between indoor concentrations of 47 passively collected volatile organic compounds and both home characteristics and occupant behaviours in a Canadian population-based sample of 3454 participants. Homes with smokers were excluded from analysis. Homes with a door connecting to an attached garage had greater concentrations of hexanal, benzaldehyde, all the measured alkyl benzenes and ketones, most of the simple hydrocarbons and terpenes. Major home renovations within the past month were associated with higher concentrations of most or all of the volatile organic compounds in the categories of alcohols, alkyl benzenes, ketones, simple hydrocarbons and terpenes. Using paints and stains within the past week were associated with an increase in concentrations of the majority of alcohols, alkyl benzenes and simple hydrocarbons. Several building characteristics and occupant’s behaviours appear to increase exposure to volatile organic compounds. Modification of these factors is generally under the control of the occupant(s), suggesting that education could result in reduced indoor volatile organic compound exposure in the Canadian population.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-23T06:28:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20926229
  • Numerical analysis of the effect of external opening on fire safety of
           refuge floors in tall buildings
    • Authors: K. W. Lau, T. K. Yue, W. K. Chow
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Refuge floors are fire safety requirements for tall buildings in many Asia-Oceania cities. However, there are concerns on the adequate provision of cross-ventilation and drencher system to openings on refuge floors. To review the existing situation, a survey of 44 building developments involving 51 blocks of both residential and non-residential tall buildings was conducted. A new fire safety parameter, i.e. the ratio of external wall openings areas to the nominal total wall areas of refuge floors (wall opening area ratio, or WOAR), was introduced to provide a quantitative measure in analysing fire safety level of tall buildings. To study how the ventilation provision is affected by WOAR, numerical simulations for the effect of natural ventilation on fire growth on the refuge floor were conducted by incorporating the wind data collected from the tallest building in Hong Kong. In the simulations, an office layout was adopted on both upper and lower floors for the sake of illustrating the possible smoke and heat spread from lower floor to upper floor (refuge floor). Finally, fire safety issues in relation to natural ventilation on fire in tall buildings were discussed. Suggestions in improving the fire safety design of tall buildings are proposed.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-23T06:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20926251
  • Development of a simplified light reflectance value assessment tool for
           indoor surface coverings
    • Authors: Ayelén María Villalba, Juan Manuel Monteoliva, Andrea Elvira Pattini
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Light reflectance value (LRV) of indoor surfaces impacts on electricity consumption for lighting. For this reason, inner surface reflectance is one of the parameters required by building energy efficiency codes and standards. In countries with advanced building energy certification processes, the LRV of coatings and paints is given by manufacturers. However, at regional and local level, these data are generally not available. In this context, the following problem arises: regional standards demand certifiers to determine the LRV of interior surfaces for the calculation of electric energy consumption by artificial lighting without proposing any tool or methodology for its calculation. Against this background, the main objective of the present work is to develop a simplified and low cost tool for the determination of LRV of inner surfaces materials. The methodology used is divided into three stages: (i) data (LRV, colour, type of material) collection, systematization and classification of materials; (ii) statistical analysis; (iii) development of the surface material card. Results show that a sample of the same material and colour may show variations in its LRV of up to 86%. This highlights the importance of the development of methods and tools, according to socio-technological contexts, for the determination of the LRV.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T03:24:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20925138
  • Chemical composition and source characterization of PM10 in urban areas of
           Lahore, Pakistan
    • Authors: Fatima Khanum, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, George Skouteris, Devendra Saroj, Prashant Kumar
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to assess the physicochemical characteristics of the particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10) at both congested and non-congested areas of Lahore, the second-largest city of Pakistan. PM10 samples from 10 urban sites in Lahore were analysed for source apportionment. The techniques of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDX) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) were used to determine the morphology and the chemical composition of PM10. Thirteen elements including toxic metals were consequently detected and quantified: Ca (48.1%), Zn (17.0%), Fe (13.3%), Al (8.2%), Mg (6.6%), Pb (5.5%), Mn (0.4%), Cu (0.3%), Ba (0.17%), Cd (0.15%), Ni (0.04%), Cr (0.01%) and Co (0.008%). The results showed that the daily PM10 concentration was 6%–9% higher than the World Health Organization’s guideline values at all urban sites of Lahore. The congested sites showed higher contents than the non-congested areas for most of the elements, including Cd (41.8%), Cr (35.0%), Zn (19.7%), Cu (12.7%), Ni (6.2%), Ca (3.4%), Ba (1.2%), Mg (1.2%) and Al (0.07%). The non-congested areas showed higher contents only for Pb (0.07%) and Co (4.3%). The principal component analysis indicated that 72% of PM10 originates from road dust and vehicular sources, and 38% from industrial sources.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T03:24:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20924073
  • Elevated concentrations of terrestrial radionuclides in sand: An essential
           raw material used in Bangladeshi dwellings
    • Authors: Mehade Hasan, Afroza Hossain Chaity, Abu Haydar, Idris Ali, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Sand is one of the main materials used in the construction industry. Elevated concentrations of terrestrial radionuclides in sand may cause great harm to dwellers. Present study determines concentrations of terrestrial radionuclides in sand that is widely used as a raw material in the construction industry in Bangladesh, via conventional HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the analysed samples were found as 36.8 ± 3.9, 58.9 ± 6.0 and 755 ± 91 Bqkg−1 in Base sand, 68.1 ± 5.3, 185.7 ± 9.9 and 1032 ± 104 Bqkg−1 in Sylhet sand, and 38.1 ± 3.6, 74.7 ± 5.9 and 636 ± 77 Bqkg−1 in Aster sand. All data show relatively higher values than the world average of 35, 30, 400 Bqkg−1, respectively. Key hazard parameters were estimated to realize the radiation effects on human health due to the use of sand as construction and building materials. The estimated parameters for Sylhet sand show relatively higher values than the population-weighted world average values, prescribed by regulatory bodies. Results show that the Sylhet sand may pose a significant radiation hazard to the dwellers via prolonged exposure, and necessary precautionary steps need to be taken to ensure safe dwellings while using this sand for construction and decorative purposes.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T03:24:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20924835
  • An improved service quality measurement model for soundscape assessment in
           urban public open spaces
    • Authors: Rui Li, Dayi Ou, Sensen Pan
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The well-known service quality measurement (SQM) models, Importance-Satisfaction (I-S) model and Improvement index (Ii) model, have been recently proved useful in the analysis of soundscape quality. By combining the concepts of soundscape and quality management, this paper proposes an improved SQM model for soundscape assessment in urban public open spaces. Instead of using the I-S model, the Preference-Satisfaction (P-S) model was developed for soundscape quality evaluation, which can simultaneously assess the importance, satisfaction and improvement direction of soundscape elements and provide more accurate and comprehensive information for guiding the soundscape management and improvement. The proposed methods were subsequently applied to case studies in eight ordinary urban public open spaces in Fujian Province, China, and provided detailed information about the soundscape quality of these surveyed open spaces as well as their improvement strategies. The results have demonstrated the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method. To the authors' knowledge, practical applications of quality management methods (or its variations) to urban soundscape study are still limited in the literature; therefore, the proposed method and findings of the current study could be valuable for both practical soundscape design and academic research.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T03:24:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20925527
  • Investigation of window-opening behaviour and indoor air quality in
           dwellings situated in the temperate zone in China
    • Authors: Tingxuan Deng, Xiong Shen, Xiaojie Cheng, Junjie Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a key factor that could affect the indoor environment and people's health. In this study, we report a comprehensive study on IAQ in 30 dwellings in the temperate zone in China. Thirty naturally ventilated dwellings were selected in the urban area of Kunming, which is the largest city in temperate zone in China. In four seasons, short-term measurement of formaldehyde and benzene, toluene, xylenes-volatile organic compounds and air infiltration rate were conducted in these dwellings. A long-term 1-year monitoring of temperature, relative humidity, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon dioxide (CO2), window-opening behaviour and night-time air change rate (ACR) were conducted in 13 of these dwellings by remote sensors. Short-term measurements showed the mean formaldehyde concentration in summer (100.76 μg/m3), benzene concentration in winter (8.46 µg/m3), PM2.5 concentration (80.4 µg/m3) in spring of 2017 exceeded the Chinese standard, the US Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment value and the World Health Organization guidelines. The night-time ACR was the highest in summer (2.1 h−1) and the lowest in winter (1.6 h−1) in bedrooms of 13 long-term monitored dwellings due to seasonal time variation in window opening in bedrooms, which was mainly driven by CO2 concentration, indoor temperature and outdoor PM10 concentration.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-15T04:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20924746
  • An approach to predicting indoor radon concentration based on
           depressurisation measurements
    • Authors: James A McGrath, Miriam A Byrne
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Exposure to radon is recognised as the second-leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoke. The passive measurements typically take up to three months to be representative of the annual radon concentration. A recently developed approach depressurises a dwelling to heighten the convective radon flux determining radon entry rate coefficients. The current study characterises the ventilation status, air tightness and eight selected hourly air change rates measurements, of a sample of naturally ventilated dwellings in Ireland. The household averaged air change rate ranged from 0.28 to 1.87 h−1 and airtightness measurements ranged from 4.830 to 9.423 m3 h−1 m−2 @ 50 Pa, depending on the building characteristics. The experimentally obtained values were used to parameterise a computational model for these selected dwellings and to predict radon concentrations. The radon entry rate power laws ranged from 0.18ΔP0.97 to 1.28ΔP1.18 Bq s−1. Probabilistic functions were generated based on the experimental data and predicted radon concentrations were within one standard deviation of the experimentally measured values in three out of four cases. The data generated can be used in modelling simulations to predict indoor radon concentrations based on local meteorological conditions, building characteristics, ventilation guidelines and energy-retrofit measurements.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-15T04:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20924747
  • Implementing an emissions-rate model in computational fluid dynamics
           simulations of contaminant diffusion processes: A case study with xylene
           in painting workshops
    • Authors: Aihua Liu, Xiaofei Huang, Zhi Yuan, Jing Wan, Yijie Zhuang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Organic solvents frequently lead to substantial occupational health issues in secondary industries. This study examined the xylene diffusion process in painting workshops as a case study to develop a control of indoor air quality in manufacturing workshops. Three-dimensional simulations of xylene emission were built based on a ventilated chamber test to provide the source term for the mathematical model. An exponential relationship was established between xylene emissions rates and time. Numerical results obtained using the emissions rate model were more consistent with experimental data than those from constant emission rate. Owing to the property that is denser than air; therefore, given the coupled influence of molecular diffusion, gravity and environmental turbulence, the xylene concentration at a height of 0.75–2.5 m is high, and it could possibly exceed the Chinese standard, GBZ 2.1–2019 permissible concentration time weighted average (PC-TWA) of 50 mg/m3 in human-occupied zones. At the height of the human breathing zone (1.1 m), the aggregated concentration may even exceed the PC-TWA at 450 s by 100 times. Considering that the diffusion of xylene in a painting workshop represents heavy-gas pollutant diffusion problems, this study can be extended to predict pollutant concentration distributions in other secondary industrial workshops.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T04:09:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20923132
  • On-site measurement and simulation of indoor particulate matter
           distributed in a single room with stratified flow field
    • Authors: Ho-Hsiang Lin, Chung-Shin Yuan, Wang-Kun Chen, Chang-Tang Chang, Pei-Shih Chen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study combined on-site measurement and model simulation to characterize the spatial distribution of indoor particulate matter (PM) in a single room with stratified flow fields. The concentration of PM spatially distributed in a single room with natural ventilation was measured at different heights for different PM sizes. This study revealed that the PM concentration varied with height and time. Moreover, chamber test results showed that by burning Chinese worship incense, fine particles (PM0–4) accounted for 97.33% of total PM with an average emission factor of 39.54 mg/g. The results were then applied to determine the gross emission of PM and describe its spatial distribution in a single room. Model simulation results indicated that only a small amount of PM flowed out of the room due to the trap by an indoor vortex under natural ventilation. The results are crucial for characterizing the stratified PM concentration and determining the sites for PM monitoring in indoor environments.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-09T01:00:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20919788
  • Enhanced effects of footwarmer by wearing sandals in winter office: A
           Swedish case study
    • Authors: Bin Yang, Zhe Li, Bin Zhou, Thomas Olofsson, Angui Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-28T03:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20913975
  • Evaluation of resident's indoor green space preferences in residential
           complexes based on plants' characteristics
    • Authors: Paniz Mousavi Samimi, Habib Shahhosseini
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-28T03:47:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20917436
  • Effects of air temperature on cognitive work performance of acclimatized
           people in severely cold region in China
    • Authors: Cheng Sun, Yunsong Han, Lin Luo, Huixuan Sun
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T02:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20913617
  • Investigation of indoor total volatile organic compound concentrations in
           densely occupied university buildings under natural ventilation: Temporal
           variation, correlation and source contribution
    • Authors: Yabin Jia, Xu Zheng, Jun Guan, Xue Tan, Shuqin Chen, Bing Qi, Huiyan Zheng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-23T02:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20914000
  • The cooling effect of a spray fan in an indoor hot environment
    • Authors: Xiaojing Meng, Yihang Lv, Honggang Yang, Yi Wang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-21T03:41:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20914360
  • Simulation analysis and thermal comfort assessment of indoor environment
           of the heritage building in gate tower
    • Authors: Qunli Zhang, Hongbao Zhai, Xinchao Zhang, Fang Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T12:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20908920
  • Legionella species: A potential problem associated with rain water
           harvesting systems'
    • Authors: Judith A. Taylor, Rory McLoughlin, John Sandford, Ruth Bevan, David Aldred
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-31T04:48:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20911128
  • Contribution of colour-zoning differentiation to multidimensional spatial
           knowledge acquisition in symmetrical hospital wards
    • Authors: Young Hee Min, Mikyoung Ha
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-27T04:45:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20909490
  • The influence of work group size and space sharing on the perceived
           productivity, overall comfort and health of occupants in commercial and
           academic buildings
    • Authors: Maryam Khoshbakht, George Baird, Eziaku O. Rasheed
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-27T04:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20912312
  • Leaving lights on – A conscious choice or wasted light' Use of
           indoor lighting in Swedish homes
    • Authors: Kiran M. Gerhardsson, Thorbjörn Laike, Maria Johansson
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-27T04:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20908644
  • Biophilic school architecture in cold climates
    • Authors: Mélanie Watchman, Claude M. H. Demers, André Potvin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-27T04:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20908308
  • Real-time monitoring of changes in building tilt angle using double square
           artificial marks
    • Authors: Gang Yang, Jianchao Wu, Qing Hu, Dongning Lei
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T02:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20909163
  • Numerical and experimental investigation on dynamic thermal performance of
           floor heating system with phase change material for thermal storage
    • Authors: Qunli Zhang, Zhaosheng Yang, Gang Wang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-09T05:28:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19900535
  • Biophilic, photobiological and energy-efficient design framework of
           adaptive building façades for Northern Canada
    • Authors: Mojtaba Parsaee, Claude Mh Demers, Marc Hébert, Jean-François Lalonde, André Potvin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-02-13T05:19:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20903082
  • Light transmitting performance and energy-saving of plastic optical fibre
           transparent concrete products
    • Authors: Juan Shen, Zhi Zhou
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-02-13T01:25:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20903368
  • Exploring the effect of mattress cushion materials on human–mattress
           interface temperatures, pre-sleep thermal state and sleep quality
    • Authors: Xiaxia Li, Bo Zhou, Liming Shen, Zhihui Wu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-02-11T05:03:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20903375
  • Typical effects of occupants’ behaviour on indoor air-conditioned
           environments in the hot summer and cold winter region of China
    • Authors: Biao Yan, Xi Meng, Jinlong Ouyang, Enshen Long
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T05:49:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19900643
  • Effect of particulate iron on tracking indoor PM2.5 of outdoor origin: A
           case study in Nanjing, China
    • Authors: Zhitong Wang, Cong Liu, Qian Hua, Xiaohong Zheng, Wenjing Ji, Xiaosong Zhang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T12:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19899145
  • Quantified CO2-related indicators for green building rating systems in
           China: Comparative study with Japan and Taiwan
    • Authors: Ke Liu, Jiawei Leng
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-06T07:10:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19894370
  • Review of the effects of plants on indoor environments
    • Authors: Ahu Aydogan, Ryan Cerone
      First page: 442
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T04:59:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19900213
  • A study of luminous environment with prism daylight redirecting
           fenestrations in classrooms
    • Authors: Zhen Tian, Peng Lin, Ying He, Jacob C Jonsson
      First page: 461
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-09T12:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19895566
  • Influence of full-spectrum lighting on blood pressure, heart rate and
           visual comfort on young adults
    • Authors: Luyao Tang, Shaofan Chen, Muqing Liu, Chengyue Su
      First page: 476
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T05:49:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19895294
  • A field measurement of temperature and humidity in a utility tunnel and a
           brief analysis of the exhaust heat recovery system
    • Authors: Chuanmin Tai, Guansan Tian, Wenjun Lei, Jianwei Wang
      First page: 487
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-08T03:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19897097
  • Comparison between psychological responses to ‘object colour produced by
           paint colour’ and ‘object colour produced by light source’
    • Authors: Heewon Lee, Jiyoung Park, Jinsook Lee
      First page: 502
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-11T06:10:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19897109
  • Impact of thermal behaviour of different environmental conditions on
           ambient environment and thermal discomfort in Malaysia
    • Authors: Yee Yong Lee, Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Kenzo Iwao, Yeong Huei Lee, Nickholas Anting
      First page: 520
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-09T12:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19897956
  • Housing structure and occupant behaviour to increase the environmental and
           health co-benefits of housing: Insights from expert interviews in New
    • Authors: Aditi Bunker, Till Bärnighausen, Alistair Woodward, Chris Bullen
      First page: 535
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-01-09T12:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X19897965
  • Characterization of an indoor environmental chamber and identification of
           C1–C4 OVOCs during isoprene ozonolysis
    • Authors: Yan Tan, Chang Liu, Kinfai Ho, Qingxin Ma, Shun-Cheng Lee
      First page: 554
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      An environmental chamber was built up and characterized at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The chamber consists of a 6 m3 poly tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropyl vinyl ether Teflon film reactor inside a stainless-steel enclosure stocked with a series of online gas-phase and aerosol-phase analytical instruments. Temperature and relative humidity are controllable and can be set to a range of 10–40 ± 1°C and 5–85%, ± 3%, respectively. An air purification system provides zero air for the chamber with concentrations of total volatile organic compounds 
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-05-07T01:50:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20922880
  • Correlation between formaldehyde emission characteristics in enclosed
           desiccators with five different geometries
    • Authors: Yujin Kang, Sung-Jun Yoo, Kazuhide Ito
      First page: 565
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2020-03-25T02:22:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X20908918
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-