Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 139 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cityscape     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access  
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access  
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access  
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Construction Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Urban Technology and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access  
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nordic Concrete Research     Open Access  
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access  
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Indoor and Built Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.525
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1420-326X - ISSN (Online) 1423-0070
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Exploring the possibility of using CO2 as a proxy for exhaled particles to
           predict the risk of indoor exposure to pathogens

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      Authors: Dadi Zhang, Philomena M Bluyssen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Airborne transmission has been confirmed as one of three principal ways of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 indoors, understanding the distribution of respiratory droplets (or aerosols) present in human breath seems therefore important. To study whether the CO2 concentration can be used as a proxy for the number of exhaled particles present in an occupied space, the distribution of particles with different diameters (0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 μm) and CO2 concentrations were monitored in a classroom setting with six healthy subjects. Additionally, numbers of particles with the same sizes were measured in the breath of the same six healthy subjects separately. Results showed that (1) on the contrary to CO2, the main source of indoor particles came from outdoor air, and not from occupants; (2) the impacts of ventilation regimes on indoor particle numbers were different to the impacts on CO2 concentrations; and (3) almost no significant relationship between the number of indoor particles and CO2 concentration was observed. Based on these results, this study could therefore not conclude that the CO2 concentration in a classroom can be used as a proxy for the number of exhaled particles by the occupants.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T09:08:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221110043
       
  • Characterization and size distribution of initial droplet concentration
           discharged from human breathing and speaking

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      Authors: Shihai Pan, Chunwen Xu, Chuck Wah Francis Yu, Li Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A study of the aerodynamic characteristics of aerosol expiration is important for understanding the size distribution of droplet concentration in COVID-19 disease transmission. This study measured the initial concentration and size distribution of droplets released during four breathing processes: nose breathing, mouth breathing, reading alphabets and counting numbers. Influencing factors on droplet generation were studied by statistical analyses. Significant differences in droplet concentration among the four breathing activities in pairs were found (p < 0.001), except for reading alphabets and numbers (p = 1). The droplet concentration during nose breathing (p < 0.05), but not mouth breathing (p = 0.136), of male subjects, was found significantly higher than that of female subjects. The droplet concentration generated by speaking during letters reading with special phonemes, for example, /i:/, was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than reading letters without phonemes. The discharged droplet sizes from four breathing activities were dominated by small droplets (dp < 1.037 μm of over 50% and dp < 2.642 μm of over 80%). Basically, no particles larger than 8 μm were detected by the aerodynamic particle sizer. The inference indicates a possible aerosol transmission of disease during non-symptomatic aerosol-producing activities such as breathing or speaking and may elucidate the disease transmission pathway of COVID-19.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T07:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221110975
       
  • Investigation on improving fume hood performance via elimination of
           internal vortices: Experiments and CFD

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      Authors: Chuang Meng, Dong Liu, Naiping Gao, Lirong Li
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The design elements of a fume hood and the synergy between them are essential for a fume hood to be used for containment in a chemical laboratory. A computational fluid dynamic simulation with an orthogonal design was validated and executed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the fume hood. The ventilation efficiency, that is, the ratio of tracer gas concentration in the exhaust outlet to the hood chamber was introduced as an indicator to evaluate fume hood performance. The ventilation efficiency was found to vary between 4.7 and 12.9 with different baffle opening ratios. The designed doorsill could effectively inhibit the separation of the air boundary layer and thus avoids vortex generation behind the doorsill. The auxiliary air supply would eliminate the eddies behind the sash and could further increase the ventilation efficiency to 13.9. All the designed elements above jointly contribute to the absence of vortices in the flow pattern that is within the hood chamber. The airflow would move from top to bottom and from outside to inside, which would minimize the spread of pollutants to the breathing zone. This paper is intended to contribute to the optimization of the aerodynamic design of fume hoods in chemical laboratories.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T06:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221108865
       
  • Evaluation and measurement methods for the surface radon exhalation rate
           of buildings

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      Authors: Lidan Lv, Zhengzhong He, Shoukang Qiu, Quan Tang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Half of the natural radiation dose to the human body comes from indoor radon and its progeny, inhaling of which plays a key role in the development of lung cancer. Given the relationship between the radon exhalation rate (RnER) and the indoor radon concentration, accurate determination and control of the former directly affect the control and protection of the latter. In this study, a method was developed to estimate the actual RnER of building walls through building material samples. The surface RnER of the wall of any thickness that was constructed of any building material could be calculated by its intrinsic RnER value and radon diffusion length, which could be obtained by measuring the RnER of the pre-treated building material sample models through the activated carbon box-γ spectroscopic method. The experimental results indicated that the deviation between the calculated wall surface RnER of the building and the measured wall surface RnER of the building was
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T08:35:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221109754
       
  • Using random forests to predict passengers’ thermal comfort in
           underground train carriages

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      Authors: Kangkang Huang, Shihua Lu, Xinjun Li, Weiwei Chen
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This research developed an intelligent ensemble machine learning prediction model for the thermal comfort of passengers inside the compartment of the subway. Data sources used for data-driven modelling were obtained from on-site measurements and passengers’ questionnaires in the compartments of the Nanjing subway. The four models were established using methodologies of Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Decision Tree (DT) in machine learning, respectively. The performance of the RF method was compared with DT, LR and SVM in terms of conventional statistical metrics, namely, Mean Squared Error (MSE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation Coefficients squares (R2). Thermal Sensation Vote with the seven-level indicator (TSV-7) and Thermal Sensation Vote with the three-level indicator (TSV-3) were employed to obtain passengers’ thermal comfort and evaluate the models’ predictions. In this study, the R2 value of the RF model is 0.6527 and 0.6607 for TSV-7 and TSV-3, which shows higher accuracy than DT, LR and SVM models in predicting the two kinds of Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV). The results show that the predictive performance of the proposed RF model is outstanding, and it can predict the TSV value of passengers inside the compartment of the subway more efficiently.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:58:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221110046
       
  • Impacts of low atmospheric pressure on distribution of indoor hot air jet
           in plateau area

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      Authors: Jiale Hu, Yingying Wang, Dengjia Wang, Jie Song
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The existing design parameters of hot-air heating for local buildings do not consider the distinctive low-pressure that can be experienced in the plateau regions, resulting in significant inefficiency. In this study, a numerical model based on the Reynolds time-averaged method coupled with the RNG k–ε turbulence model was established by considering the air thermal properties influenced by pressure. Four atmospheric conditions of 101.325 kPa, 84.547 kPa, 70.093 kPa and 57.708 kPa were selected to simulate the velocity and temperature fields of the horizontal and vertical hot-air jets. The influence of low pressure on the flow characteristics of hot-air jets was analyzed subsequently. The results suggest the jet flow patterns are essentially similar under various pressures. The horizontal hot-air jets bent upward more significantly and the diffusion range of the vertical jets was reduced under low pressure. The jet velocity decayed faster at low pressure, and the axial velocity of a vertical jet at 57.708 kPa was 0.26 m/s lower than that at 101.325 kPa. The temperature gradient of the room with a hot-air jet was increased with decreasing pressure, which was 5.0 K/m at 57.708 kPa. This study should be helpful to the detailed design and efficient operation of hot-air heating in buildings in the plateau regions.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T08:08:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221108183
       
  • Optimization of ventilation performance of side air supply for large
           indoor spaces using deflectors and slot air outlets

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      Authors: Haorui Wang, Junqi Wang, Zhuangbo Feng, Chuck Wah Yu, Shi-Jie Cao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the large height and span of indoor spaces, efficient indoor ventilation performance may be difficult to achieve using the side air supply for large halls, to control the indoor air pollutants or reduce the infection risk, such as the transmission of COVID-19 within the breathing zone of occupants. An efficient Ventilation Mode with Deflector and Slot air outlets (VMDS) was developed by this study. The use of a deflector with slot air outlets was introduced by utilizing jet collision and adhesion effect to accentuate the ventilation performance of the side air supply for the large space. The numerical simulation model used in this study was validated experimentally. The VMDS was compared with three other side air supply modes used in large spaces, and the results were evaluated comprehensively. The results show that VMDS is effective in reducing indoor air pollutant concentrations and transmission of infectious diseases in large spaces while satisfying the energy efficiency and thermal comfort requirements. Compared with the common side-supply and side-return ventilation modes, VMDS can reduce indoor air pollutant concentration by nearly 40%, reduce the transmission risk of infectious disease to less than 1% at a low air change rate and increase the ventilation efficiency from about 0.85 to about 1.2. In addition, VMDS can theoretically reduce ventilation energy consumption by about 85%.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T02:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221108587
       
  • Influence of building envelope characteristics on the effectiveness of
           PMV-based controls for schools located in Saudi Arabia

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      Authors: Alaa Alaidroos, Ayad Almaimani, Moncef Krarti, Emad Qurnfulah, Alok Tiwari
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper summarizes the results of a comprehensive analysis to investigate the performance of both thermal comfort-based and temperature-based controls for schools in harsh hot climates of Saudi Arabia. The analysis considers the impact of building envelope characteristics including thermal insulation level of exterior walls and air leakage rate on the ability of both control options to maintain indoor thermal comfort while minimizing cooling energy consumption. The analysis utilizes a calibrated energy model for an existing Saudi school with monitored energy consumption data. The analysis results indicated that the thermal comfort-based control is able to maintain the predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) value at 5% throughout the year for any combination of the exterior wall’s R-value and air infiltration rate unlike the case of the temperature-based controls that do not maintain acceptable indoor thermal comfort conditions. However, the thermal comfort-based controls consume more cooling energy than the temperature-based controls. The analysis also revealed that the difference between the annual cooling energy of the PMV-based control and the temperature-based controls increases almost linearly with the cooling degree days of the site where the school is located. The analysis results indicate that acceptable indoor thermal comfort levels can be achieved using temperature-based controls when optimal temperature set points are used.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T08:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221107504
       
  • Improving the indoor thermal environment in lightweight buildings in
           winter by passive solar heating: An experimental study

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      Authors: Fangcheng Kou, Shaohang Shi, Ning Zhu, Yehao Song, Yu Zou, Jinhan Mo, Xin Wang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional lightweight building envelopes with constant thermal properties are of small heat capacity and large thermal resistance. Lightweight building envelopes with variable thermal conductivity and variable equivalent specific heat capacity can promote passive solar heat gain for clean heating and improve the indoor thermal environment in winter. In this paper, a real-scale lightweight solar house integrated with flat gravity-assisted heat pipes and PCM (phase change material) was built up, and the indoor heating effects of four forms of the solar house were experimentally studied. The results showed that (1) the heat pipes efficiently transferred solar heat absorbed by the exterior surface of the south envelope into the indoor environment during the day and increased the average daytime indoor air temperature by 3.8°C, but this benefit was not proportional to the area of heat pipes. (2) The PCM effectively stored solar energy during the day and released heat to the indoor environment at night, and the daily range of indoor air temperature was reduced by 8.7°C, with only 81% mass and 33% volume of concrete block, respectively. (3) The solar house increased the effective proportion of solar energy for indoor heating from 8.7% to 57.5% in the form of DHP + PCM house.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T01:15:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221091448
       
  • Progress and prospect of research on the non-uniform indoor environment

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      Authors: Xianting Li, Jiaan Zhao, Chuck WF Yu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T08:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221106279
       
  • Dynamic prediction of the pre-dehumidification of a radiant floor cooling
           and displacement ventilation system based on computational fluid dynamics
           and a back-propagation neural network: A case study of an office room

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      Authors: Meng Su, Jiying Liu, Shiyu Zhou, Jikui Miao, Moon Keun Kim
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study was carried out to solve the problem of condensation in radiant floor cooling systems. Computational fluid dynamics simulation and back-propagation neural network prediction were employed to conduct thorough research to predict the effects of the displacement ventilation dehumidification phase in an office building located in Jinan, China. The effects of the air supply temperature (Tas), air supply flow rate (Vas), air supply humidity ratio (Has), floor temperature (Tfloor), initial indoor temperature (Tini) and relative humidity (Hini) on the duration and energy consumption of pre-dehumidification were investigated. The big data show the air dew point temperature (Tad) produced the most significant effect on the pre-dehumidification duration and energy consumption, while Tas would cause the least significant effect. With the decrease of Tad, the pre-dehumidification duration and energy consumption were, respectively, decreased by 59.1% and 44.2%. Furthermore, with the variation of Vas, the energy consumption exhibited a fluctuating trend. This study provides a novel and effective method to assess the pre-dehumidification control of radiant floor surfaces by considering different initial indoor conditions and air supply parameters.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T03:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221107110
       
  • Does the marine environmental carrying capacity of the Yellow Sea’s
           large marine ecosystem maintain sustainable development' – Evidence
           from Shandong China

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      Authors: Su Wang, Gang Zhou, Zhuo Chen, Daokui Jiang, Guilin Dai
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Under the framework of sustainable development of the marine economy, much consideration has been given to various coastal states for the large marine ecosystem (LME) concept. The Yellow Sea LME (YSLME) is one of the most heavily exploited LMEs in the world, and its sustainable development has been heavily threatened by human activities, with negative impacts on the economies of bordering countries, such as China. With the aim of mitigating environmental threats by developing a low-carbon economy based on low pollution, low energy consumption and low emission, an index system for evaluating marine environmental carrying capacity (MECC) was established in this study based on the entropy method, and gray relation analysis (GRA) was carried out to assess the MECC of three main coastal cities (Qingdao, Yantai and Weihai) along the YSLME in China. The results verified the importance of the environmental carrying capacities (ECCs) of marine resources, marine economy and marine environmental governance for the sustainable development of the YSLME, and revealed paths for improving the MECC of the studied cities. Based on the results, suggestions for ecosystem-based management of a low-carbon economy were provided to help government departments to reasonably develop and utilize marine resources, protect the marine environment and implement sustainable development strategies.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T10:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221099121
       
  • Environmental co-benefits of urban design to mitigate urban heat island
           and PM2.5 pollution: considering prevailing wind’s effects

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      Authors: Ming-Rui Meng, Chang Xi, Zhuangbo Feng, Shi-Jie Cao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The impact of PM2.5 pollution and urban heat island (UHI) on sustainable urban development and human health has been a major concern for governments. Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and on-site monitoring, this study investigated the airflow velocity, PM2.5 concentration and urban heat island intensity (UHII) distribution in the urban area at different prevailing wind directions, from the perspective of urban design. In order to validate the accuracy of CFD simulation results, on-site monitoring of temperature and airflow velocity was conducted on the roof of a building. A low-dimensional model was adopted to improve the efficiency of CFD data analysis. Moreover, based on the results of the low-dimensional model, PM2.5 concentration and UHII in urban areas at different prevailing wind directions were assessed by clustering analysis. The findings showed that when α = 0° and 90°, the average PM2.5 concentration was 28.9–56.8% (8.76–27.66 μg/m³) lower and the average UHII was 23.4–34.2% (0.8–1.15°C) higher, compared to α = 30°, 45° and 60°. Meanwhile, the downwind area suffers from more serious PM2.5 pollution and UHII than the upwind area. These findings could potentially provide a guide for future building/urban design to improve the urban environment from the perspective of building and road construction.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T10:09:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221076815
       
  • Thermal comfort evaluation in architectural studio classrooms – A summer
           study in a warm to moderate Indian climate

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      Authors: Naveen K. Khambadkone, Prabhukumar Madhumati, Mavukere Nanjundappa Ranganath
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports the findings from a thermal comfort field study conducted in institutional studio classrooms in the warm-to-moderate climate of Tumkur in Karnataka, India. A total of 506 datasets were obtained in the questionnaire survey consisting of students of architecture. The survey was carried out during the hot-dry months of March, April and May 2019 using subjective questionnaires during which indoor environment variables were measured simultaneously in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 55 Class II protocols. A comfort temperature of 30.4°C was obtained using Griffith’s method, and the comfort band was found to be between 25.0°C to 32.5°C on the central sensation scale for 80% acceptability for the summer (hot-dry) season. Subjects showed greater tolerance and adaptation to warmer conditions with the main means of adaptation by opening windows, wearing lighter clothing, use of ceiling fans, drinking of cold water and use of curtain blinds. Comparison of the field study results with international standards shows that the standards failed to capture the comfort limits and adaptations of subjects in tropical climates of India. Findings of the present study bear significance in developing guidelines for thermal comfort for institutional buildings in the warm-to-moderate climate of India.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T05:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221098552
       
  • A global challenge for smart and healthy care homes for the elderly

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      Authors: Huai-Wen Wu, Prashant Kumar, Chuck Wah Yu, Shi-Jie Cao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-22T02:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221103381
       
  • Insights into the house dust-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and
           their potential human health risk in Greater Cairo, Egypt

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      Authors: Salwa K Hassan, Asmaa El-Mekawy, Mansour A Alghamdi, Mamdouh I Khoder
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Data dealing with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in settled dust of Greater Cairo houses (GCH), Egypt, and their implication on human health risk are scarce. The goal of this study was to gain insights into the characterisations of PAHs in settled dust in GCH and their associated carcinogenic and mutagenic risks. ƩPAH concentrations were 3125 and 268 ng/g in settled dust in GCH and rural houses (RH), respectively. Heavier congeners (4–6 aromatic ring PAHs) represented 86.5% (GCH) and 92% (RH) of ƩPAHs. Houses on main streets are exposed to higher levels of PAHs than those on the side streets. The main sources of PAHs in GCH and RH were vehicular emissions (pyrogenic sources) and PAHs in GCH come from local emissions and in RH from the surrounding urban cities. Results showed that the carcinogenicity of PAHs associated with dust exceeds their mutagenicity. Based on Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) estimations, the order of cancer risk (CR) was as follows: urban houses (UH)> suburban houses (SUH)> RH. CR and ILCRs calculations suggest that children and adults exposed to settled dust-bound PAHs in GCH and RH have an increase in CR, as CR and ILCRs values exceeded accepted levels.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T04:57:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221092130
       
  • Understanding lifetime and dispersion of cough-emitted droplets in air

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      Authors: Kai Lordly, Leya Kober, Mehdi Jadidi, Sylvie Antoun, Seth B Dworkin, Ahmet E Karataş
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To understand the exact transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 and to explore effects of time, space and indoor environment on the dynamics of droplets and aerosols, rigorous testing and observation must be conducted. In the current work, the spatial and temporal dispersions of aerosol droplets from a simulated cough were comprehensively examined over a long duration (70 min). An artificial cough generator was constructed to generate reliably repeatable respiratory ejecta. The measurements were performed at different locations in front (along the axial direction and off-axis) and behind the source in a sealed experimental enclosure. Aerosols of 0.3–10 µm (around 20% of the maximum nuclei count) were shown to persist for a very long time in a still environment, and this has a substantial implication for airborne disease transmission. The experiments demonstrated that a ventilation system could reduce the total aerosol volume and the droplet lifetime significantly. To explain the experimental observations in more detail and to understand the droplet in-air behaviour at various ambient temperatures and relative humidity, numerical simulations were performed using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. The simulations show that many of the small droplets remain suspended in the air over time instead of falling to the ground.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T06:19:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221098753
       
  • Farmers’ livelihood strategies and sensitivity to climate change:
           Evidence from southwest China

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      Authors: Jing Lan, Biqing Song, Qiuming Li, Zhen Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Although urbanization has deeply changed farmers’ livelihoods, the improvement of their adaptation to climate change is not yet particularly clear, due to many interactive pressures and complex differences in farmers’ livelihood strategies. This study uses 2-year household survey panel data from Na’Yong and Zhen’Xiong in southwest China, both of which are typically affected by meteorological disasters. First, we constructed a multi-dimensional induction of sensitivity indicators. Then, we divided farmers’ livelihood strategies and identified their sensitivity levels. Finally, we extracted the typical characteristics of farmers’ livelihood strategies that contribute to low sensitivity. The research shows that although non-agricultural labour can improve the income level of farmers, there is no clear positive relationship between farmers’ income and their sensitivity. Levels of sensitivity depend not only on the risk of farmers with a higher exposure to the natural environment but also on the ability of farmers to disperse and avoid natural risks. Livelihood strategies with lower sensitivities have three main characteristics: diversification, marketization and ecological sustainability. This study provides a practical basis for the sustainable livelihood of farmers in the context of climate change and attempts to provide a reference for other developing countries towards the end of achieving ecological poverty alleviation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T09:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097065
       
  • Numerical study of heat losses of building walls containing reflective
           foils

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      Authors: Tomáš Ficker
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In external building walls, air cavities are occasionally used to reduce heat losses. Closed air cavities improve the thermal resistance of building structures, especially when the inner surfaces of the cavities are covered with low-emissivity materials such as metalized foils. With these structures, the problem of accurate determination of radiative heat arises. In this contribution, radiative heat transfer is determined by the precise algebraic radiosity method, so far not applied in the field of thermal building technology. Radiative heat computed by the radiosity method has been coupled with convective heat evaluated by the correlation functions of the Nusselt numbers. The combined radiative-convective heat transfer through a sandwich wall containing an air cavity with metalized surfaces (aluminium foils) has been analysed. A computer program has been developed to quantify the real insulation effect of reflective aluminium foils. The sandwich building structure has been subjected to real one-month winter conditions as defined by official meteorological data valid for the city of Brno. The software is based on an iterative procedure that solves the combined radiative-convective steady heat transfers by means of one-day average temperatures and wind speeds. Various arrangements of foils in the cavity have been explored to achieve the maximum value of thermal resistance. The corresponding heat savings have been quantified. The best configuration of foils in the cavity has been found to ensure maximum thermal savings. The insulation system that uses foils has been compared to the system that uses mineral wool. The comparison was based on economic considerations.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T10:22:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221082467
       
  • Informal settlements in the context of COVID-19: Pandemic restrictions and
           the building of community resilience

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      Authors: Chun Wang, Haoyi Xu, Aiping Lin
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      As the fundamental unit of urban governance, communities are the grassroots for responding to and facing disasters directly, and their resilience to disaster risks has garnered increasing consideration. Despite the large body of community resilience research that now exists, few studies have considered the resilience of informal settlements such as ‘urban villages’. In fact, the high density of building facilities in informal settlements, the diversity and mobility of their populations, their lack of public space and infrastructure and all kinds of managerial problems have become more prominent in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of the migrant populations and healthy living environments of informal settlements, sum up the pandemic prevention measures and their effects, study the community resilience of informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic and summarise the strategies to build resilience. Our research results can be utilised to (1) enrich the content of existing community resilience research and promote the resilience of the whole city system in the face of public health events, and (2) provide a scientific basis for comprehensive management of informal settlements and optimise the living environments of migrant populations from the perspective of resilience.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T08:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097821
       
  • A spatiotemporal passenger distribution model for airport terminal energy
           simulation

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      Authors: Xianliang Gu, Jingchao Xie, Chengyang Huang, Jiaping Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Airport terminals provide a safe, convenient and comfortable environment for passengers. Over 50% of energy in terminals was consumed by the HVAC system. The number of passengers and their constant flow distribution in the airport is an important consideration from the operational perspective to influence the energy consumption. This paper proposed a spatiotemporal passenger distribution model. In this model, a terminal was divided into 13 different zones along the departure or arrival process, and the passenger variation for each day was described for each zone. Over a year, 12 monthly average passenger flow values were adopted instead of the peak hour passenger flow to represent the yearly passenger flow distribution. The model was validated by the operation data of the Nanning Airport and compared the data against the validated people movement model of passengers’ flow profile in each zone and occupant densities. The model was then input into an energy simulation software to verify the impact of the passenger flow on energy consumption. Based on the spatiotemporal passenger distribution model, the annual cooling consumption could be reduced by 17.14% compared to results based on the traditional passenger flow calculation method which has a simple assumption of daily constant passenger flow.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T02:53:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221074222
       
  • A semi-empirical mesh strategy for CFD simulation of indoor airflow

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      Authors: Yang Liu, Zhengwei Long, Wei Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Proper meshing is critical for accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. In the three stages of CFD simulation, pre-processing accounts for about 40–60% of the total time. In this study, the performance of the grid for a large number of numerical simulations was analyzed, and base mesh sizes were recommended for different indoor geometric models. The simulation results for temperature, velocity, mesh resolution and computation time were compared, and mesh types were recommended for different models. Considering factors such as wall function, wall y+, face quality of the mesh, grid volume change rate and prism layer setting, a semi-empirical mesh strategy was presented. This strategy was verified in three cases with different geometric complexity. The verification results showed that the mesh strategy can yield reasonable simulation results. The root-mean-square error of the velocity simulation results of the optimized grid can be reduced by nearly 20%. This strategy can save nearly 50% of the mesh adjustment time. Through analysis and fitting of the grid results, the evaluation criteria for this mesh strategy were obtained. The criteria can be used to evaluate the cases using this mesh strategy.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T10:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221089825
       
  • Multiscale analysis of material flow and computational fluid dynamics for
           predicting individual diethyl-hexyl phthalate exposure concentration in
           indoors

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      Authors: Ryota Muta, Sung-Jun Yoo, Hyuntae Kim, Toru Matsumoto, Kazuhide Ito
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The establishment of a healthy indoor environment requires the accurate evaluation of an individual’s exposure to pollutants. The concentration of indoor chemical pollutants is a representative indicator for such evaluation and is generally measured on-site. Moreover, material flow analysis (MFA), using macroscopic statistical data, is a reasonable method for objectively evaluating pollution on a wide scale; however, no effective strategy exists for the prediction of indoor air pollution, nor for the assessment of an individual’s exposure from social stock data. Accordingly, we developed a novel integration method comprising MFA and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a computer-simulated person (CSP) to establish a framework for evaluating indoor pollutant concentration and individual exposure of residents. We focused on diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and first estimated the amount of DEHP-containing product accumulation in Japan by MFA. Second, we conducted a thorough survey and measurement of DEHP emission rates. Using these results as boundary conditions for indoor CFD with CSP, the individual exposure of a resident, in a standard residential house, was quantitatively evaluated. The total daily exposure per unit of body weight was estimated to be more than 100 (μg/kg/d) in the worst-case scenario which was considered the upper limit for exposure in this analysis.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T11:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221092613
       
  • Improving hosts’ pre-interaction capabilities for sustainability based
           on Airbnb host content emergence characteristics

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      Authors: Bo Wang, Xin Jin, Chuang Qu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The sharing of accommodation as a sustainable environmental solution for the lodging market is prevalent all over the world. However, the rapid expansion and low occupancy rate could be due to the accommodation hosts’ lack of attention to the pre-interaction content while reducing their carbon footprint, which have caused a significant impact on guests’ decision-making and prevented sharing accommodation. To improve the host pre-interaction capabilities and achieve the environmentally friendly potential of sharing accommodation, this research aims to explore the host expression characteristics including important topics and keywords of host pre-interaction content from a symbolic interaction perspective. Conducting the latent Dirichlet allocation machine learning model, keywords clustering characteristics emerged as main topics based on 38,814 listings from Airbnb in Beijing. The result of investigating the features in these topics and the word distribution in three types of properties shows that in a homogenous accommodation community, hosts who make the pre-interaction have more orders than those who do not. At the same time, the focus of hosts on expressing explicit and abundant topic symbols can effectively increase the attractiveness of their listings. However, accommodation hosts who just post a long text but do not emphasize listing key topics would not convince guests to use the accommodation. A variety of practical implications of findings has been discussed for sharing accommodation practitioners to answer the challenge of sustainability.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T10:15:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097279
       
  • Internet of things and machine learning applied to the thermal comfort of
           internal environments

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      Authors: Matheus Nascimento, Paulo Lopes
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The internet of things connects objects to the internet, enabling the dialogue between devices and users, providing new opportunities for applications, such as thermal comfort. In the research, adequate sensors were used to measure the heat index, the thermal discomfort index and the temperature and humidity index based on the temperature and relative humidity of a remote indoor environment. This research evaluated the level of thermal comfort in real-time using tools of storage, processing and analysis of big data information from the collection of IoT devices. With the analysis of the environment, it is possible to intelligently monitor the level of comfort and alert possible hazards to the people present. Machine learning algorithms were also used to analyse the history of stored data and formulate models capable of making predictions of the parameters of the environment. Health researchers, for example, have the necessary knowledge to evaluate clinical data, but they are not used to using data analysis resources and machine learning algorithms. The platform was developed to reduce dependence on data experts and encourage healthcare researchers to develop their own models by automating the steps required for model development, using automated machine learning (AutoML).
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T06:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221097338
       
  • The correlation between the overall thermal comfort, the overall thermal
           sensation and the local thermal comfort in non-uniform environments with
           local cooling

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      Authors: Yuemei Wang, Zhiwei Lian, Haoyu Chang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The evaluation of overall thermal comfort in non-uniform thermal environments has not been fully clarified; it was therefore studied in this paper. For this aim, a series of experiments were conducted under non-uniform thermal environments with local cooling, where subjects’ thermal responses were surveyed by questionnaires. The correlations between the overall thermal comfort, the overall thermal sensation and the local thermal comfort were explored under both steady and unsteady states. As well, the relationship between the overall thermal comfort and the local thermal comfort was examined under steady-state conditions. The results indicated that the overall thermal comfort was dependent on the overall thermal sensation and also on the local thermal comfort at the body parts exposed to local cooling, whether in steady or transient states. Considering the two factors, the overall thermal comfort models were proposed for steady and unsteady states. Also, the overall thermal comfort was approximated by the average of the maximum and minimum local thermal comfort under steady states. Another overall thermal comfort model was therefore proposed. The two overall thermal comfort models for the steady state were verified by experimental results.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T07:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221079819
       
  • Review of calculating models of unsteady natural ventilation rate due to
           wind fluctuations

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      Authors: Xue Xiao, Junli Zhou, Wei Yang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Natural ventilation is an important form of sustainable building technique that can be used to adjust the indoor environment to ensure indoor thermal comfort and maintain acceptable indoor air quality. Correct estimation of the ventilation rate is a necessary step in natural ventilation design. Natural wind fluctuation and interaction between the wind and buildings determine models of mean flow rate inaccuracy in predicting actual ventilation. In this paper, a summary of calculation models for unsteady natural ventilation is given. Unsteady natural ventilation mechanisms are classified into continuous airflow, pulsating flow, eddy penetration and diffusion phenomena. The theories of different ventilation mechanisms and the differences between various research reports are expounded and discussed. Additionally, an in-situ measurement of the eddy penetration caused by wind turbulence at the opening was conducted to verify the proposed model. The actual application condition of different eddy penetration models is proposed via the comparison between previous models. With respect to the ‘pumping’ mechanism, this is regarded as a special type of eddy penetration for the first time. Research on ‘pumping’ airflow has just started, the mechanism and influencing factors of which will need to be further explored.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T08:40:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221084033
       
  • The effect of thermal environment on stress and thermal comfort of college
           students under acute stress

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      Authors: Yalong Yang, Yunfei Bai, Rui Zhang, Xulai Zhu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The main purpose of this study is to explore the impact of the indoor thermal condition on people’s stress and thermal comfort under acute stress. Therefore, an experiment was carried out on 20 human subjects in the climate chamber. Three thermal conditions (PMV = −1, PMV = 0 and PMV = 1) were created. Trier social stress test was used as the program to stimulate acute stress and was divided into three stages: Pre-stressor, Stressor task and Post-stressor under each thermal condition. To analyse stress and thermal sensation, a survey was conducted and human subjects completed questionnaire provided about their responses. Furthermore, the psychophysiological responses of subjects were measured by electroencephalogram at different thermal conditions. The results indicate that subject’s stress is not significantly related to the thermal environment conditions in the stage of Pre-stressor. However, a neutral and slightly cold environment can reduce the stress of the subjects in the Stressor task, while a slightly warm environment would increase more acute stress. The thermal environment and psychological stress were found to have a combined effect, which could affect the thermal sensation, thermal comfort and acceptability of the environment when subjects were under acute stress stimulation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T05:01:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221086193
       
  • Population characteristics and source analysis of microorganisms in a
           regularly disinfected library

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      Authors: Ge Zhang, Yang Li, Zhangyu Song, Yang Hao
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the impact of regular disinfection on the concentration of microbial aerosol and the distribution of microbial species in a university library and analysed the main sources of microorganisms. The microorganisms in the air were sampled by six-stage Andersen cascade impactors, and their diversity was explored based on ribosomal DNA site amplification and sequencing technology. The statistical analysis found that the average concentrations of bacteria and fungi in this library were 149 ± 36 CFU/m3 and 118 ± 33 CFU/m3, respectively. The concentration in the reading rooms, the hybrid rooms and the stack rooms decreased in succession. The disinfection effect was significant comparing the result with non-disinfected libraries reported in literature. The concentration ratio of indoor and outdoor microorganisms (I/O) was greater than 1, and the concentration of microbial aerosol was positively correlated with the concentration of CO2 and particulate matter. The results indicate that the microbial concentration was mainly from indoor occupants. The most prevalent microorganisms were Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. This species' distribution was not affected by disinfection measures. The median diameter of microbial aerosols in most rooms was less than 5 μm. The use of disinfectants did not affect the particle size distribution of microorganisms.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T03:49:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221084036
       
  • The predicted effect of climate change on indoor overheating of heritage
           apartments in two different Chinese climate zones

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      Authors: Muxi Lei, Twan van Hooff, Bert Blocken, Ana Pereira Roders
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the effects of climate change on building indoor thermal conditions is of importance for providing a comfortable thermal environment for occupants. Some multi-family dwellings have already been listed as heritage in China (hereinafter referred to as heritage apartments), limiting modifications to the building envelope. However, the effect of climate change on thermal comfort in heritage apartments with a compact interior (i.e. without a living room) built before the 1980s in different Chinese climate zones has seldom been studied. This study focuses on the current and future thermal comfort in two-bedroom heritage apartments in China. The study was conducted for two different Chinese climate zones, that is, a cold climate zone (Beijing), and a hot summer and cold winter climate zone (Shanghai) and both current climate scenarios (typical meteorological years) and future climate scenarios (2050) were used. The results indicate, among other things, increases of 58%–60% and 41%–44% in the predicted average number of overheating hours in 2050 compared to the current climate for the studied bedrooms on the first floor in dwellings in Beijing and Shanghai, respectively.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T04:50:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221085861
       
  • Predicting the infection probability distribution of airborne and droplet
           transmissions

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      Authors: Miguel Yamamoto, Akihiro Kawamura, Shin-ichi Tanabe, Satoshi Hori
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Herein, a method is proposed to predict the infection probability distribution rather than the room-averaged value. The infection probability is predicted by considering both airborne and droplet transmissions based on CO2 concentration and the position of the occupants in a room. The proposed method was used in an actual office setting, and the results confirmed that it could provide a quantitative prediction of the infection probability by integrating the ventilation efficiency and the distance between occupants (i.e. social distancing). We verified the ability of the method to analyse the relative effectiveness of countermeasures for airborne and droplet transmissions. The proposed strategies can be implemented by a facility manager and can enable facility users to check the infection probability distribution in real-time to select a seat with the minimum risk of infection.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T01:31:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221084869
       
  • Comparison of airborne bacteria and fungi in different types of buildings
           in a temperate climate zone city, Kunming, China

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      Authors: Shengqi Wang, Hua Qian, Zongke Sun, Guoqing Cao, Pei Ding
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in different types of buildings are still unclear. This article applied the culturing and next-generation sequencing methods to characterize the airborne bacteria and fungi in five types of buildings during winter in Kunming, China. Results showed that the mean concentrations of fungi in different buildings were similar (approx. 387 ± 388 CFU/m3). The highest culturable bacterial concentration was found in residences, while the lowest was in the library. Lowering relative humidity, PM2.5 concentration and occupant density can reduce the bacterial concentrations. The major bacterial size in residences and in a hospital was 1.1–2.1 μm, while in other buildings was 2.1–3.3 μm. The PM2.5 concentration and occupant activities are key factors that could affect the microorganism size distributions. The community structures of the bacteria in the library and fungi in the hospital showed distinctive differences from the results in other buildings. The community structure of outdoor microorganisms showed great differences between soil and air samples. This study is helpful to give practical implications for assessing microbial characteristics in different types of buildings and provide valuable data for the formulation of indoor bioaerosol standards in China.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T01:40:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221082198
       
  • Performance study of heat and mass transfer in a counterflow liquid to air
           membrane-based parallel-plate dehumidifier

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      Authors: Abir Taous, Kaouther Ben Nasr, Amen Allah Guizani
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Liquid to air membrane energy exchanger (LAMEE) is the most important component in a liquid desiccant air conditioning system. Three main configurations of LAMEE are presented in the literature: co-current, counterflow, and cross-counter flow. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of a counterflow LAMEE dehumidifier in terms of its cooling capacity (CC) and moisture removal rate (MRR). A numerical model was developed and validated with experimental results. The impact of solution properties and inlet air characteristics on the LAMEE’s performance were investigated. Simulation results show that CC and MRR are enhanced by decreasing the temperature and increasing the concentration of the liquid desiccant simultaneously. In order to obtain an optimal performance of the LAMEE, the solution mass flow rate should be equal to or slightly higher than the inlet air mass flow rate. On the other hand, we found that both CC and MRR increase with increasing inlet air temperature and relative humidity. Even though solution properties and inlet air characteristics affect the MRR and the CC, they have a negligible effect on the required air sensible cooling to meet the supply air condition (Qsen). The characteristics of outlet air provided by the LAMEE are in a stable state condition, which proves that the LAMEE has a wide range of adaptability in different operating conditions.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T12:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221080360
       
  • Balancing daylight in office spaces with respect to the indoor thermal
           environment through optimization of light shelves design parameters in the
           tropics

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      Authors: Ali Ahmed Salem Bahdad, Sharifah Fairuz Syed Fadzil, Hilary Omatule Onubi, Saleh Ahmed BenLasod
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The study aims to investigate the preferred daylighting availability ranges for the best visual and thermal comfort in office workspace through optimal modifications light-shelve parameters, grounded on parametric design and optimization, with a focus on its visual and thermal indices. To identify the final optimal solutions, single and multi-optimization scenarios were used. The findings revealed that optimizing for a single objective might obstruct the attainment of other goals. In other words, the first scenario, optimization only for daylight availability, results in an increase in temperature. While optimizing for indoor thermal performance solely, none of the preset daylight availability acceptance requirements were met. However, multi-objective optimization solutions were the final optimal solutions nearest to the ideal. Final optimum solutions of the best design parameters of light shelves can improve the total average of daylight availability by 56.25%, 50.63%, 57.50% and 71.88%, and the indoor thermal performance was improved by decreasing the average temperature for thermal environmental performance indicators by 4.15%, 3.27%, 3.17% and 4.76%, respectively, in March, June, September and December. The study concludes that daylighting levels of 500 lux to1300 lux provide the best range of optimal daylighting for visual and thermal comfort indicators for office spaces in the tropics.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T03:06:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221086537
       
  • A prediction model of emission characteristics of oil particles induced by
           milling process: Emission rate and size distribution

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      Authors: Fei Wang, Zhenhai Li, Xin Wang, Yang Yang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The use of metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the milling process can cause emissions of a large amount of oil particles, which can induce respiratory and immune system diseases of workers. This work examined the emission characteristics of oil particles caused by the milling process. A closed test chamber containing a real milling machine was built. The emission rates of oil particles in various sizes using five kinds of MWFs were measured, and the influence of the rotation speed of the spindle in the milling machine and the physical properties of MWFs on the oil particle emission characteristics was analysed. In addition, a prediction model of emission rate and size distribution of oil particles was introduced. Based on the measured data of oil particle emission rates in each size, the morphological particle size, distribution index and atomization coefficient in the prediction model are fitted. The deviation between the predicted and measured values of the emission rates is about 5%, which confirms the accuracy of the model. The prediction model is helpful for pollution control and ventilation strategy formulation in typical machining plants.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T05:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221082201
       
  • Characteristics of indoor human-induced particle resuspension under
           different ventilation conditions

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      Authors: Zenan Sun, Shuihua Zheng, Yueyao Fu, Min Chai
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study performed a series of experiments to study the characteristics of human-induced particle resuspension under different ventilation conditions. Four modes of supplied airspeed were evaluated: no wind, low wind (2.742 m/s), medium wind (3.849 m/s) and high wind (4.422 m/s). Results show that the steady-state particle concentration can be approximated as a linear function of the airspeed. Human walking and ventilation conditions can have a significant and coupling role in particle behaviours. In particular, human walking provides initial energy for resuspension by disturbing the local fields, and thus increases the resuspension, especially for large particles of 5–10 μm in size. The wind has two competitive effects, that is, supplying energy to keep particles suspended and pushing the particles downward, and the latter becomes dominant when the airspeed was too high. Consequently, intermediate airspeeds can intensify the effect of human walking, and introduce higher peaks of particle concentration in the human-walking stages. As for the particle number density, similar conclusions can be drawn that the effect of ventilation conditions is more pronounced on small particles less than 1 μm while that of human walking is on large particles. This work lays a foundation for revealing the particle resuspension mechanism.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T06:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221084032
       
  • Effect of the air supply angle of swirling diffusers on the air diffusion
           performance index in a vehicle assembly workshop

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      Authors: Can Li, Huali Zi, Xiaoqing Wei, Jiayuan Xiong
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Airflow improvement in a large industrial building is one of the most effective ways to improve the thermal comfort of workers. Air Diffusion Performance Indices (ADPI) of an industrial workshop area under different air supply angles (15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90° in summer and 90° in winter) of the ceiling-mounted swirling diffusers were evaluated by on-site measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. The measurement data was used to verify the CFD numerical model. The temperature and velocity field of the working area were simulated and analysed under seven operating conditions of swirling diffusers. The findings showed that in summer, the increase of the swirling air supply angle would increase the air velocity. When the air supply angle was larger than 75°, a draughty wind speed (>0.3 m/s) in the local working area, was produced. When the air supply angle was 30°–75°, the indoor design comfortable temperature range (26°C–28°C) was produced. The ADPIs of the workshop were 100% with the air supply angles of 45° and 60° in summer and 90° in winter, respectively. The research findings should provide a reference for improving the airflow organization in the working area of a tall factory building.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:20:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221087571
       
  • Regional and urban heat island studies in megacities: A systematic
           analysis of research methodology

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      Authors: Mekonnen Amberber Degefu, Mekuria Argaw, Gudina Legese Feyisa, Sileshi Degefa
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The paper provides a systematic review of satellite-based regional and urban heat island (RHI and UHI) studies in cities and their challenges, from 2010 to the present based on visualizing scientific landscapes (VOS) viewer analysis and Scopus and science database search using a set of standard criteria. The review results show that 52.17% of the studies used Landsat images followed by MODIS (36.65%). Based on VOS viewer analysis author keywords, remote sensing was strongly linked to urban heat island, urban greenspace, and improvise surface, respectively. Regarding, Co-authorship network China, Canada and the United kingdom’s authors actively collaborated with different world researchers. The most frequently studied regions and periods of research are China and summer daytime, respectively. A total of 55% of the articles reported the use of a mono-window algorithm for retrieving LST from sensors. On the other hand, remotely sensed UHI studies have been facing a series of challenges, including differences between remote sensing satellite-derived LST and air temperature, impacts of clouds and other factors on LST data, methods to quantify UHI, accuracy assessment and attribution of RHI and UHI. Thus, consideration was given to the understudied cities, the methods to compute RHI and/or UHI intensity, inter-annual variability and modeling in the future.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T01:21:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211061491
       
  • A methodology to determine appropriate façade aperture sizes considering
           comfort and performance criteria: A primary school classroom case

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      Authors: Yiğit Yılmaz, Kenan Eren Şansal, Mine Aşcıgil-Dincer, Sinem Kültür, Sezin Hatice Tanrıöver
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      School environments have a profound effect on pupils. The building envelope, particularly the façade, has a significant role in determining thermal, visual, acoustic comfort, energy usage and life-cycle cost as it regulates the relationship between the exterior and the interior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of a multi-perspective approach in the literature, assessing the façade as the key feature for achieving the comfort and performance criteria. Therefore, this paper aims at proposing a methodology to determine appropriate facade aperture sizes through examining a primary school classroom case. For the comfort and performance analyses, a typical Turkish primary school classroom was modelled. The aperture size was assumed to vary for the window to wall ratio from 28.54% to 71.34% with seven options. Analysis results revealed that aperture orientation was more important than its size. The smallest aperture was found to be better for visual, acoustic and thermal comfort. The heating setback strategy appeared to be an effective parameter for thermal comfort as much as the aperture size. A multi-criteria decision-making method, modified weighted sum model, was used to assess the results to decide on the appropriate option and also present a methodology that can be used in different cases.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T06:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221080566
       
  • How does industrial agglomeration affect firms’ energy consumption'
           Empirical evidence from China

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      Authors: Wei Wei, Li Zhao, ZhongXing Liu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Industrial agglomeration is the main engine of economic growth and also the major source of CO2 emission that can have an effect on the social well-being of people in the built environment. This paper investigates the impact of industrial agglomeration on firms’ energy consumption intensity, using Chinese industrial firm data and Chinese industrial firm pollution emission data from 1998 to 2012. We found evidence that industrial agglomeration could effectively cut down firms’ coal consumption intensity and thus reduce the CO2 emission, which shows the positive environmental externality of industrial agglomeration. This finding is robust after carefully dealing with the potential endogeneity issues, while by taking advantage of the rich variations of our dataset, we also found heterogeneous effects across firm ownership, industry and region. In mechanism analysis, we document that specialized agglomeration plays an important role in reducing firms’ energy consumption intensity, and the decline in firms’ energy consumption intensity is mainly caused by the reduction in coal consumption.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T05:02:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221080671
       
  • A new dynamic zOnal model with air-diffuser (DOMA) - Application to
           thermal comfort prediction

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      Authors: Ahmed Megri, Yao Yu, Rui Miao, Xiaoou Hu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A new Dynamic zOnal Model with Air-diffuser (DOMA) was developed. Several case studies were investigated and tested to evaluate and validate this program using measurement data. This new model was integrated into a TRaNsient SYstems Simulation program library and coupled with the multi-zone thermal model. The DOMA/TRNSYS coupled model was then used to predict room temperature distribution over an entire day of a single-zone building. The results show that increasing the heating outputs of the electric floor system, for example, from 75 to 200 W/m2, would not effectively improve the indoor thermal comfort, since the thermostat will reach the set point first and then turn off the system before the room gets enough heat and reach a comfortable level. This indicates the importance of selecting an appropriate location and set point for the thermostat when using a floor heating system. This potential thermal comfort issue can only be identified through the two-node model with a dynamic zonal model rather than the conventional PMV model, which thus suggests that for optimizing indoor thermal comfort of a building equipped with a time-sensitive control strategy and/or HVAC system, the TSENS results obtained from the two-node model integrated with DOMA are more appropriate than PMVs.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T03:43:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211060486
       
  • Horizontal heat impacts and shading effects of buildings on surface soil
           layer in Beijing, China

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      Authors: Hongxuan Zhou, Xinye Yan, Biao Ge, Dan Hu
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Thermal condition of the surface soil layer was neglected due to much concern of the urban heat island effect, which has an important impact on cities. In this study, on-site measurements of surface soil layer temperatures were conducted between two east-west oriented buildings in the winter, spring and summer. Building shade was shown to reduce average surface soil layer temperatures to 0.33, 0.33 and 0.37°C in three seasons, respectively. The horizontal heat flux between the building and the soil was calculated and showed different intensities at various monitoring sites. Additionally, the building shade could reduce and stabilize the surface soil layer temperature. According to the analytic hierarchy process, among six energy factors only horizontal heat flux between the building and the soil was correlated significantly (p
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T03:37:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221078996
       
  • A review of human thermal plume and its influence on the inhalation
           exposure to particulate matter

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      Authors: Jie Zong, Jiying Liu, Zhengtao Ai, Moon Keun Kim
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reviews studies on the human thermal plume and its influence on the inhalation exposure to particulate matter in the breathing zone under different conditions. The human thermal plume transports particle pollutants from the floor to the breathing zone, increasing the inhaled particulate matter concentration. The concentration can be four times higher than that in the ambient environment. Studies have reported that the human thermal plume may prevent particulate matter from entering the breathing zone under specific conditions. Indoor airflow patterns significantly affect the dispersion of pollutants, especially in rooms equipped with displacement ventilation at low airflow velocities. It has been shown that the particle concentration is two times lower in the breathing zone of a rotating manikin than a static manikin. Understanding the characteristics and influencing factors of the human thermal plume is crucial to formulate measures to mitigate the inhalation exposure to particulate matter, achieve independent and personalized control of the human microenvironment, and create a healthy, intelligent and energy-saving indoor environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T12:54:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221080358
       
  • Numerical study of the effect of gender composition and partitioning
           boards on evacuation in a two-line transfer transit rail subway station

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      Authors: Linhua Zhang, Xiaolong Wang, Huixin Fang, Wenjun Lei
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Subways for transit rail can solve urban congestion problems. Many people use transit rail subways during rush hours. Taking Jinan Wangfuzhuang subway station as the research object, the influence of different gender compositions on the evacuation process was analysed and discussed in this study. The results show that the evacuation efficiency of passengers that include a high proportion of males in subway stations is higher than that for passengers with a high proportion of females with the same age composition. According to the field observation and numerical calculation results, congestion readily occurred at the subway station exits and automatic ticket gates, and partitioning boards are added to alleviate congestion. Adding partitioning boards at automatic ticket gates can shorten the evacuation time. The calculated critical length of a partitioning board is 1.5 m, and the evacuation time can be shortened by 9.6% compared with the case without partitioning boards. Additionally, the evacuation time can be shortened by installing partitioning boards at exits. The results show that when the length of partitioning boards at exits is 1.5 m, the critical distance between adjacent partitioning boards is 1.5 m, and the evacuation time can be shortened by 16.9% compared with the case without partitioning boards.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T04:14:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221079215
       
  • The role of waiting area typology in limiting the spread of COVID-19:
           Outpatient clinics of Erbil hospitals as a case study

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      Authors: Faris Ali Mustafa, Shayan Shero Ahmed
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the post-healthcare context, protecting patients against pandemic diseases like COVID-19 has become designers' responsibility; the amount and effectiveness of change are unknown, particularly in terms of future design. This study explores the potential significance of waiting area typology within outpatient clinics in generating a healthy and therapeutic environment for patients and users in terms of social distancing, as well as whether there is a relationship between outpatient and the provision of social distancing. This study employed a quantitative approach based on space syntax theory, through four different syntactic maps (Isovist, Axial, Convex and Visibility Graph Analysis), to depict hospitals in Erbil city by adopting five outpatient layout typologies such as centralized and decentralized (linear, lobby, sectoral and mixed), through measuring wayfinding, accessibility, privacy, density and circulation as outpatient layout typology factors. Results identified that there is a clear effect of outpatient layout typology factors on providing social distancing especially in waiting areas, the decentralized outpatient layout represented by both sectoral and linear typologies is the most useful typology based on social distancing compared to others. Given the influential role of outpatient layout in providing a healthy and safe healing atmosphere with more social distancing for patients, research findings provide a useful resource for healthcare designers, particularly for waiting areas within outpatient clinics.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T03:48:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221079616
       
  • Effects of makeup air on atrium smoke conditions: A review

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      Authors: Wenjun Lei, Yue Qi, Angui Li, Sen Mei
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Makeup air is important for fire smoke control systems, and the effects of makeup air on atrium smoke conditions have long been a concern. Requirements for makeup air velocities and makeup air inlet arrangements are too broad in most standards. Herein, the relevant requirements for the design parameters of makeup air given in standards are summarized, and a comprehensive review of factors that influence makeup air and the corresponding effect on smoke management during atrium fires is provided. These influencing factors are divided into uncontrollable factors (wind, external temperature, the location of fire development and the power of the fire) and controllable factors (layout of makeup air inlets and mechanical makeup air velocity). Due to advancements in makeup air systems, the behavioural characteristics of occupants can now be taken into account in the design stage of makeup air systems. Regarding air supply in the breathing zone, the fresh air provided by a makeup air system can be directly supplied to occupants to reduce harmful effects of smoke and avoid casualties. However, determining how to effectively design a makeup air distribution system and the applicability of this type of air distribution in various complex fire conditions requires further study.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T04:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211059132
       
  • Investigation on the fire behaviour and propagation rule of fire overflow
           in the high-rise concave building structure

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      Authors: Xin-Xiao Lu, Guo-Yu Shi, Si-Yuan Song
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The concave building structure (CBS) featured with a partial sunken façade is prevalent in the high-rise residence and comprehensive buildings. The building is a 3/4 enclosed longitudinal shaft that creates a new channel for longitudinal fire propagation. The objective of the paper is to reveal the dynamic mechanism of fire propagation in CBS. A small-scale experiment and Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) were conducted to investigate the fire behaviour. The results show that CBS could enhance the longitudinal propagation velocity of the flame and smoke with a slender profile. It could reduce the heat loss and create a higher space temperature than no-concave building structure (NBS). The maximum temperature and smoke concentration extended from the external facade centre to two flanks with the building height increase. Raising the structure factor extended the flame length from 7.0 m to 8.6 m. It exhibited a typical three stages of entrainment velocity growth: rapid growth, medium growth and slow growth. The flame transferred from the external façade to the lateral façade when the heat release rate was 8–10 MW. The research is essential to distinguish the hazardous region and provide a basis for architectural design and personal safe evacuation in the CBS fire scenario.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T04:00:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211067704
       
  • An analysis of Spatio–temporal patterns of fires in an Iranian city

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      Authors: Alireza Mohammadi, Shahrooz Shahparvari, Behzad Kiani, Sepideh Noori, Prem Chhetri
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Exploring Spatio–temporal patterns of fire incidents provides important information to help develop strategies to prevent and mitigate fire risk based on geographical knowledge. This study aims to map and analyse the Spatio–temporal patterns of urban fire incidents. Fire incident data were obtained from Ardabil Municipality Fire Department and Emergency Services and analysed using radial shape charts, kernel density estimation and average nearest neighbour to quantify spatial and Spatio–temporal patterns of fires. The results show that the Spatio–temporal fire patterns vary, depending on time, their types and causes. Interestingly, results indicate that fires are most likely to occur on Tuesdays and Thursdays and during summer. The study provides evidence to enhance decision-making on resource allocation in terms of establishing new fire stations and deploying an additional workforce to more vulnerable localities, or to formulate prevention strategies, such as education campaigns, to mitigate fire risk.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T06:49:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211055782
       
  • Fire safety of building integrated photovoltaic systems: Critical review
           for codes and standards

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      Authors: Yoon Ko, Monireh Aram, Xin Zhang, Dahai Qi
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A critical review of current regulations and standards is presented pertaining to the fire safety of the integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into buildings. Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems need to meet both fire safety requirements as PV systems as well as the building fire codes requirements as building structural components (e.g. facades, roofing and glazing). However, the current building codes do not provide provisions that cover various applications of BIPV. Furthermore, the new building materials of glazing, tiles and claddings with the added function of solar energy collection are beyond the scopes of most of the current codes and standards. The present study also identified gaps in addressing the fire risk of BIPV systems with respect to the application to buildings considering potential fire hazards specific to the application.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T11:59:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211073130
       
  • Experimental investigation on thermal performance of water wall systems
           exposed to fire

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      Authors: Uthpala Rathnayake, Tharindu LW Karunaratne, Shousou Han, Denvid Lau, Cheuk L Chow
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Water wall systems (WWSs) are increasingly being used as glass façades in modern green buildings owing to their enhancement in building energy efficiency. However, little is known about their performance when exposed to fire. In this study, 500 × 1000 mm2 sized water wall systems with 30 mm, 50 mm and 100 mm thick water columns were tested and compared to the thermal performance of a 500 × 1000 mm2 sized single skin glass façade system. These façade systems were heated by a 400 × 600 mm2 isopropanol pool fire. The distance from the pan centre to pane 1 of the façade was 350 mm. Time to first crack and surface temperatures were measured. The experimental results indicate that single skin glass façades are more vulnerable to cracking than water wall systems, but exposed glass pane fallout can easily occur in water wall systems compared to single skin façades. Since the overall performance is dependent on the failure of the fire unexposed glass pane, water wall systems are more fire resistant than single skin glass façades. The water layer thickness significantly affects the WWS thermal performance, where a 50 mm thick water layer would result in a longer time to first crack. The experimental findings of this study are useful for developing practical guidelines for fire-safe glass façade designs.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T11:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211057446
       
  • Effects of water spray on smoke layer in buildings with natural venting

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      Authors: Cunfeng Zhang
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Fire safety is always an important issue in the indoor and built environment. There might be hidden conflicts among different systems such as suppression and smoke control. The effect of water spray on smoke movement in halls with natural venting system is reported in this paper. A series of scale modelling experiments were carried out to study the temperature variation under water spray. A small vent on the opposite side of fire source would intensify smoke stratification and result in a higher smoke temperature. Water spray would weaken the smoke stratification due to the cooling effect on the smoke and the downward drag on the smoke layer. The temperature development of smoke was the result of competition of these two effects on the smoke layer. When the effect of water spray was stronger, the average smoke temperature tended to be lower, and the temperature difference of the ceiling to the smoke layer interface was smaller. When the effect of the opening dominated, the results were reversed. These results would be useful for providing fire safety in indoor and built environment.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T01:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211067138
       
  • Resilience, fire and the UK Codes and Standards. Where are they and where
           could they go'

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      Authors: Martina Manes, David Lange, David Rush
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The term resilience is being more widely adopted in fire safety engineering, however, its comprehensive description is not clearly explained or correctly applied in practice. This study, therefore, defines the categories, dimensions, characteristics, capacities, objectives and missions possessed by resilience to provide a holistic understanding of the term. This is followed by an analysis and classification of the UK Standards and Codes addressing resilience considering their administrative and engineering features of resilience, and their resilience dimensions with definitions of fire resilience measures and approaches. A practical example of a fire resilience framework is applied in educational buildings considering internal resilience for a safe facility, risk reduction and disaster management, and external resilience involving redundancy of resources and community support. Finally, a fire resilience design framework is created in which structural and fire safety engineering are considered clarifying the steps to follow in a comprehensive design process based on a flow chart. This paper will contribute to the creation of a unified terminology and understanding of the concept linked to resilience to be adopted in various disciplines.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T01:26:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211054423
       
  • Fuzzy-based escape route fire-vulnerability assessment model for indoor
           built environment

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      Authors: Nilüfer Kızılkaya Öksüz, Ali Murat Tanyer, Mehmet Koray Pekeriçli
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Fire safety evaluation is rarely involved in the iterative building design process except for legislative approval phases compared to other building objectives. However, regardless of architectural design priorities, all buildings should have adequate fire protection. This research develops a fire vulnerability assessment model based on the impact of architects on fire protection and effects of building design characteristics on fire safety. Inherent to the uncertain nature of fire safety evaluation practice, this study proposes a fuzzy vulnerability decision-making methodology to detect and visualize escape route vulnerabilities, which have the highest impact on the interoperability of fire safety and architectural design practices. The model was validated in an opera house building since the assembly occupancies have specific importance due to the significant number of fire causalities. The escape routes of the case study building were evaluated for materials’ fire reaction, route flow, route equipment, means of egress, dimensions and layout input variables. The output vulnerability levels were discussed to enhance the understanding of critical building design factors that contribute to fire vulnerability. The results confirm that the model is fairly effective in the detection and visualization of vulnerability sources by reducing communication time delays and preventing human-induced mistakes.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T12:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211045735
       
  • Smart textiles and the indoor environment of buildings

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      Authors: Georgios Priniotakis, Urszula Stachewicz, Joost van Hoof
      First page: 1443
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T04:32:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211067596
       
  • A numerical study on changes in air temperature around buildings due to
           retrofits in existing residential districts

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      Authors: Ruixu Li, Weirong Zhang, Luo Qiu, Huibo Zhang
      First page: 1464
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Cities comprise many residential districts, facing environment and energy problems. Therefore, the retrofit of these existing residential districts is the main part of city renewal. Some retrofit strategies may affect the thermal microclimate environment and lead to changes in the energy demand of buildings. Few studies had evaluated these retrofit effects, which has brought the motivation for this study, to determine the microclimate changes surrounding buildings due to residential district retrofits and the corresponding impact on the cooling load of buildings. The most general retrofit strategies were selected, including greening rate, ground pavement materials, wall materials and roof materials. They were applied to a prediction model for the selected residential district in the simulation tool. The mean reduction of air temperature around the building has been used to evaluate the impact of retrofit strategies on the microclimate in the district. The results showed that greening had the greatest impact on the mean air temperature around buildings, followed by the pavement material, the roof and the wall material. Ground greening, wall material and roof material decreased the total cooling load, while pavement material increased it.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T01:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211055818
       
  • Development of a corrective model of short-term radon concentrations to
           estimate annual effective doses in the primary schools of the
           Doukkala-Abda region, Morocco

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      Authors: Saad Ouakkas, Aziz Boukhair, Maged Ahmed Saleh Abdo, Mohammed Benjelloun
      First page: 1482
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In order to assess the radiological impact of radon on>250,000 students, the total annual effective dose was estimated inside 204 Moroccan primary schools sampled in the Doukkala-Abda region. The measurement of indoor radon concentrations was conducted using the LR115 detector for each month, each season and throughout the year. The evolution of indoor radon concentrations showed a decrease in annual average radon concentrations of 20–26% and 10–14%, respectively, compared to the monthly and seasonal annual average radon concentrations. For this purpose, a corrective model of short-term radon concentrations was developed to calculate the seasonal correction factors in order to estimate the annual indoor radon concentrations. For the qualitative evaluation of these factors, a percentage of deviation between the measured and estimated annual radon concentrations was calculated. Almost half of the estimated annual concentrations were 10% less than the measured concentration and the majority of these estimated values were within 40%. The estimated total annual effective doses received by students, except those in the Sidi Bennour city, were higher than the world average (1.15 mSv/y). Nevertheless, all these doses remained below the permissible limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (3–10 mSv/y).
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T03:31:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211059134
       
  • Hygro-thermo-chemical transfer analysis of clothing microclimate using
           three-dimensional digital clothing model and computer-simulated person

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      Authors: Kei Murota, Yujin Kang, Sena Hyodo, Sung-Jun Yoo, Kazuki Takenouchi, Shin-ichi Tanabe, Kazuhide Ito
      First page: 1493
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Several studies regarding indoor environmental quality assessments based on computational human models have been reported. Recently, various computer-simulated persons for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that reproduce a detailed human body geometry has been developed. However, clothing is usually treated with simplification as a resistance to heat/contaminant transfer, and detailed hygro-thermo-chemical transfer phenomena in clothing-centred area with complex geometry have not been fully discussed. It is also important to investigate the ventilation characteristics inside the air gap between the clothing and the human body. Thus, this study aimed to develop an analytical method of three-dimensional clothing model that can be applied to a computer-simulated person (CSP) for indoor computational fluid dynamics analysis. To identify the impact of the clothing model on the human and the microclimate around the body, hygro-thermo-chemical transfer analyses were conducted in a virtual simplified model room. By reproducing the detailed clothing geometry, ventilation inside the air gap and clothing-centred hygro-thermo-chemical transfer characteristics were quantitatively investigated. The data analysis technique established in this study could contribute to preparing foundational data for simplification of numerical modelling of clothing.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T01:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211059449
       
  • Louver and window position effect on cross-ventilation in a generic
           isolated building: A CFD approach

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      Authors: Tayyebeh Yazarlou, Esmaeil Barzkar
      First page: 1511
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Natural ventilation has been used to increase indoor air quality, remove pollutants, and remove heat absorbed in the building structure. Some architectural features such as wind-catcher systems are used to induce airflow into buildings, and openings equipped with louvers are employed to reduce solar daylight while allowing natural ventilation. Earlier studies on ventilated louvers and wind-catchers have shown the impact of the louvers’ opening positions and slat angles. However, their combination with each other has been less studied. This paper presents CFD simulations of cross-ventilation in a generic isolated building integrated with a one-sided roof-top wind-catcher and the outlet opening, both equipped with louvers for three different window opening positions. The isothermal 3D steady RANS equations were solved with the Standard k-ε method. The CFD simulations with CFX software were validated with the wind-tunnel experiments. The results show that the lowest dimensionless wind velocities inside the building were observed for the arrangement “Down” for both cases with and without louvers. In contrast, the highest air exchange efficiency and dimensionless wind velocities inside the building were measured for the arrangement “Up” for the case with louvers. This research can be considered as an architectural strategy to improve indoor natural cross-ventilation.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T02:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211061685
       
  • The differential dynamic model for the implicit safety culture
           dissemination in nuclear power plants

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      Authors: Da Yuan, Hanqing Wang, Hui Zhu, Wangping Xiao, Chuck W Yu
      First page: 1530
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper evaluates the implicit safety culture (ISC) and the dissemination among staff in a nuclear power plant. The Schein’s cultural hierarchy theory was adopted to compare implicit aspects of different organizational cultures, and to explore the application of both explicit and implicit cultures, to define the ISC of a nuclear plant and to summarize its characteristics. The dissemination system and the mechanism of the ISC was scrutinized based on dynamic and superimposing effects, which are regarded as a unity of opposites. A differential dynamic model of the ISC dissemination of the nuclear power plant was established by this study. Results of the model indicated that the ISC could be disseminated freely within the power plant when the dissemination was at an unstable equilibrium point. However, the ISC would not disseminate effectively and might disappear gradually in the power plant when the dissemination was at an asymptotic equilibrium point. The application of ISC is a crucial issue to improve the safety and benefit of the management of the nuclear power plant, including measures such as intensifying the collaboration and communication of departments, and setting a special department for the ISC dissemination and some incentive protocols in the nuclear power plant.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T07:48:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211059739
       
  • Investigation of thermal comfort performance and optimization of a novel
           refrigerant-heated radiator

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      Authors: Huan Zhang, Ming Tao, TingTing Jiang, Wandong Zheng
      First page: 1540
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a novel refrigerant-heated radiator (RHR) was introduced and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to investigate the influence of RHR structure parameters on indoor thermal comfort under heating and cooling conditions. Results show that the heating capacity and thermal comfort are improved with the increase of length-to-height ratio, while the thermal comfort is infringed if the length-to-height ratio is too large in cooling conditions. The length-to-height ratio of the RHR with 2.22–3.71 is recommended to meet the thermal comfort requirements in heating and cooling conditions. Comparisons were made between the RHR and air conditioner on indoor thermal comfort, which indicates that the RHR has a better thermal comfort in heating conditions in terms of temperature field, velocity field and thermal comfort indices. Under cooling conditions, the air conditioner has lower temperature distribution and more uniform vertical temperature distribution in human activity area, while the RHR has the excellent performance in the velocity distribution and thermal comfort indices. The findings show RHR has a better thermal performance than air conditioners in terms of overall thermal comfort. The research provides a guide to the benefit of RHR and improves the thermal comfort of ASHP system.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T09:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211059131
       
  • The home environment and current dermatitis in Japanese junior high school
           children in Kansai area

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      Authors: Motoko Takaoka, Kyoko Suzuki, Dan Norbäck
      First page: 1557
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      There is little information on indoor risk factors for dermatitis in Japan. We studied associations between dermatitis in Japanese junior high school students in Hyogo prefecture and the home environment. A standardised questionnaire was sent to students in four schools (12–15 years old), 1048 (99%) participated. Data on the home environment was collected by the questionnaire. Associations were analysed by multilevel logistic regression in mutually adjusted models, calculating odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 15.2% reported current dermatitis, 8.8% cat allergy, 6.1% dog allergy, 6.0% mould allergy, 25.7% pollen allergy and 32.3% any allergy (a history of atopy). Female gender (OR 1.65), a history of atopy (OR 2.14), new building materials (indoor paint or floor materials) (OR 1.59), dampness or indoor mould (OR 1.51) and windowpane condensation in winter (OR 1.45) were associated with current dermatitis. The association between window pane condensation and dermatitis was stronger in students without a history of atopy (interaction p=0.02). In conclusion, dampness, indoor mould and window pane condensation in wintertime can be household risk factors for dermatitis in adolescents. Chemical emissions from new building materials, especially paint and floor materials, can be another risk factor.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T03:30:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211061855
       
  • Source apportionment and health risk assessment of indoor volatile organic
           compounds

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      Authors: Li Bai, Huageng Dai, Jun Wang, Guangming Li
      First page: 1564
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In extremely cold areas with long winter months and exceptionally cold weather, classrooms are inadequately ventilated, resulting in the continuous accumulation of indoor air pollutants that may endanger human health. This article uses adsorption tube sampling-thermal desorption-gas chromatography mass spectrometry to analyze the type and concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the classroom. The source analysis and health risk assessment were performed, and the real-time concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) was computed using the multifunctional ventilation. The result shows that the air in the classroom contains 25 kinds of VOCs. Among them, the carcinogenic risk value of seven kinds of VOCs (3.40 × 10-5) exceeds the acceptable risk value (1 × 10-6) given by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). There are 17 kinds of VOCs that pose a certain non-carcinogenic risk to the human body. After quantitative analysis by the principal component analysis (PCA) and the characteristic quantity concentration ratio method, human activities, furnishings, outdoor penetration, etc., were found to be main sources of VOCs in the classroom. In addition, TVOC concentration is directly proportional to class time. In winter, classrooms in severely cold areas must take necessary measures to reduce the concentration of VOCs and ensure students' health.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T01:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211065043
       
  • Evaluating the overall comfort of undergraduates by using the punishment
           substitution method

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      Authors: Hongmin Liu, Hao Shi
      First page: 1577
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the overall comfort of humans in thermal, light, acoustic and air quality environments was studied in a university classroom in Shanghai, and the actual overall comfort vote index was evaluated. The dimensionless function of each environmental evaluation index and human comfort level was established by a combination of subjective questionnaire assessment and objective parameter measurement, and the weight of each environmental evaluation index was obtained by the method of vector similarity. The overall comfort evaluation model was synthesized by using the punishment substitution method, dimensionless function and weight. The influence of different environmental combinations on the overall comfort evaluation model was explored, and the results indicated that the more a single evaluation index deviated from its comfort zone, the more obvious the change it caused in comprehensive comfort. The model can be used to adjust classroom environmental parameters to improve comprehensive comfort, and the results should provide a reference for evaluating the overall comfort of the classroom environment and a reasonable basis for classroom environment design parameters.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T09:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211060758
       
  • Health risk assessment of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons in
           particulate matter adsorbed by indoor air purifiers

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      Authors: Chunhui Li, Li Bai, Zijian He, Yujie Wang
      First page: 1594
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Particulate matter (PM) adsorbed by air purifiers, normally used in residential buildings, was collected and analysed by this study. The concentrations of eight heavy metals and 16 poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The health risk of heavy metals and PAHs was assessed using the health assessment model recommended by the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA). The results showed that the total concentrations of heavy metals during the heating period and non-heating period were 771.27 mg/kg and 441.10 mg/kg, respectively. The carcinogenicity and non-carcinogenicity of chemicals found are higher during the heating period than the non-heating period. The exposure of children was higher than that of adults. Eight heavy metals would pose non-carcinogenic risks for children, but four of these would pose carcinogenic risks for adults and children. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs during the heating period and non-heating period were 106.69 μg/kg and 68.72 μg/kg, respectively. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQs) were 16.37 μg/kg and 9.20 μg/kg, respectively. Among them, 4-rings PAHs accounted for the highest proportion, followed by 5-rings PAHs and 6-rings PAHs. The proportion of 2-rings and 3-rings PAHs were the lowest. 16 PAHs could pose a high carcinogenic risk to adults and children during the heating period, and there was a potential carcinogenic risk during the non-heating period.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T03:21:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211052239
       
  • Investigation of thermal comfort and adaptation among the residents of
           cold climate in the lower Himalayan region of eastern India

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      Authors: Samar Thapa
      First page: 1613
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Thermal comfort standards are required for overall indoor satisfaction and energy conservation. Even though the lower Himalayan region of Darjeeling has seen rapid growth in population due to its temperate type of climate, and thus resulting in manifold construction of concrete buildings, very few research on the built environment are reported from the region. In this paper, the author has discussed the yearlong thermal comfort study conducted in a naturally ventilated 3-storey un-insulated concrete building located at lower Himalayan region of Darjeeling, India. The mean indoor operative temperature were 16.7°C, 19.0°C and 22.3°C, the clothing insulation were 0.94 clo, 0.78 clo and 0.57 clo and the mean Griffiths’ comfort temperature were 18.1°C, 19.6°C and 22.4°C during the cool, moderate and warm seasons, respectively. Seasonal and gender-wise differences are reported in the paper. A logistic regression is presented to show the variation of single and multiple layers of clothing used by subjects to adapt with the plummeting temperature. A modification in the comfort standards for the region with lower and upper limits as 16.2°C and 23.3°C is also proposed.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T08:55:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211067136
       
  • Pollutant capture efficiencies in and around the opening surface of a fume
           hood under realistic conditions

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      Authors: Ryota Muta, Juyeon Chung, Cong Li, Sung-Jun Yoo, Kazuhide Ito
      First page: 1636
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Fume hoods are an indispensable instrument for experimental operations dealing with hazardous chemicals, wherein safety operations are strictly adherent to regulations. Within this context, few cases exist wherein the ventilation efficiency and pollutant capture efficiency inside fume hoods are precisely analyzed and quantitatively visualized. In this study, the pollutant capture efficiencies of a fume hood were analyzed by computational fluid dynamics as functions of exhaust airflow rate and according to the posture of workers in front of the fume hood. The indices for ventilation efficiencies, that is, age of air (SVE3), net escape velocity (NEV), and local purging flow rate (L-PFR), were adopted to quantitatively evaluate the pollutant concentration distributions formed inside the fume hood. NEV analysis revealed that the presence of a worker at the front of the fume hood did not significantly affect the pollutant capture efficiency at the opening surface of the fume hood. Changing the exhaust airflow rate resulted in changes in the size of the circulation flow formed in the upper part of the chamber. The circulation flow was found to have a dominant effect on the distribution of SVE3 and on the formation of the pollutant concentration distribution in the chamber.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T02:55:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211066538
       
  • A new LED luminaire system architecture for energy saving

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      Authors: Hankun Li, Simon Diederich, Hongyi Cai
      First page: 1654
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated a new light-emitting diode (LED) luminaire system architecture in low profile to harvest the otherwise wasted heat generated by LEDs for integrative lighting and heating in buildings. A portable calorimeter was built, commissioned and calibrated in a well-controlled Cold Room for measuring the ‘conditioned space/ceiling plenum split’ of the heat generated by LED luminaires. Two prototypes LED luminaires that adopted the new system architecture were tested together with two off-the-shelf commercial LED luminaires with conventional system architectures for comparison. Each luminaire was either ceiling recessed or ceiling surface mounted in the calorimeter, both were evaluated in summer and winter conditions. The measured ‘conditioned space/ceiling plenum split’ was then used as an input in Energy Plus, with two assumptions, for estimation of the annual heating, reheating and cooling energy consumptions of each luminaire once implemented in a primary school classroom. The simulation results revealed that the new luminaire system architecture especially when surface mounted can outperform the conventional architectures to slightly reduce the building annual heating and reheating energy consumptions without significantly increasing cooling energy consumption. This study validated the potential of integrative lighting and heating. Further studies are necessary to overcome several limitations.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T06:52:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211052529
       
  • Effects of different environment combinations on the comfort and
           productivity of researchers in winter

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      Authors: Zhiheng Li, Eunyoung Kim
      First page: 1675
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Indoor environmental quality is considered an important indicator of the sustainable development of architecture. It not only reflects the comfort level of occupants in the building but also affects their productivity, particularly in research institutions. However, due to the inherent correlation among various environmental indexes, it is difficult to evaluate the influence of specific physical parameters on the occupant’s comfort and research performance. This paper is based on an experiment conducted in a controlled research office in a pharmaceutical research company in the Northeast of China. The controlled research office was equipped with a radiant floor heating system that supplied heating in winter. We recruited 32 researchers and divided them into four subgroups. Each subgroup of researchers was required to conduct daily research activities under 12 different environment combinations. Data were collected from physical environment measurements, questionnaire surveys and performance tests. The results reflected that under the condition of radian floor heating in winter, changes in thermal, visual and acoustic environments could have a significant influence on occupants’ satisfaction with the environment. However, the research performance was affected only by thermal and acoustic conditions. There was a weak correlation among thermal, visual, acoustic and indoor air quality comfort.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211073497
       
  • Reconnaissance study of air quality in traffic tunnels: A case study of
           Aba-Saleh Al-Mahdi tunnel, Iran

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      Authors: Azadeh Tavakoli, Arezoo Tavakoli
      First page: 1688
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Traffic tunnels have the potential to reduce the traffic congestion, but in some cases, they lead to the accumulation of air pollutants. The present study focused on the analysis of chemical and biological pollutants inside and outside of the largest tunnel in Iran. The measurements were done during different hours and days in four seasons (2018–2019). The collected data showed that the inside of the tunnel was more polluted than the outside, and the type, the number of passing cars and the weather condition had an effect on concentrations. Winter, summer and evenings are the most polluted periods. Comparison of data with national and WHO standards revealed that SO2 is a critical pollutant for all periods; NO2 is a problem during summer, winter and evenings. The concentration of PM2.5 exceeded these standards in the evenings. A high correlation between PM2.5 and PM10, in concentration, changes and spatial distribution points to the same emission sources. For biological pollutants, a high microbial population was found during the summer and afternoons. Among the isolated Gram-positive bacterium, the Bacillus sp (38%) and Aspergillus sp (32%) were the highest population of bacteria and fungi, respectively. Measurement results in combination with a high rate of hospital admissions emphasized the poor air quality inside the tunnel and the necessity for the installation of mechanical ventilation systems.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T05:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211068658
       
  • Simple correlations between point daylight factor, average daylight factor
           and vertical daylight factor under all sky conditions and building design
           implications

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      Authors: Danny HW Li, Shuyang Li, Wenqiang Chen, Siwei Lou
      First page: 1700
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The customary method for calculating daylight illuminance in a building is the daylight factor approach, which is assumed under the conventional overcast sky. However, such an approach is not flexible enough to predict diffuse illuminance in the presence of non-overcast skies. The daylight factor is invariant to building orientation and cannot take realistic and time-varying climatic conditions into account. Daylight in buildings is estimated using computer simulation techniques. However, full-scale computer simulations can be costly and time-consuming. Practitioners welcome simple calculation aids established via comprehensive analysis. Such easy tools would give building professionals and students basic and concise insight into the independency of different daylight parameters. Recently, daylight factor calculations have been extended to non-overcast skies. It means that the daylight factor approach can be a dynamic metric. This paper presents the calculation of the point daylight factor, the average daylight factor and the vertical daylight factor under all sky conditions, as well as building façade design implications. The performance of the three types of daylight factor for a typical room at various scattering angles is elaborated and evaluated; simple correlations between them are developed.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T12:47:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X211061111
       
  • Unsteady characteristics of sleeping thermal comfort during defrosting of
           a T-ASHP system

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      Authors: Ning Mao, Hao Yu, Tianbiao He, Yingjie Xu
      First page: 1715
      Abstract: Indoor and Built Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Defrosting is necessary for the normal operation of air source heat pump (ASHP) units to solve the frosting in the winter, which deteriorates the performance of ASHP. During this defrosting period, the ASHP cannot provide heat to the indoor space, leading to adverse thermal comfort, which may reduce the sleep quality. Hence, a task/ambient ASHP (T-ASHP) system was designed in this study, and the transient thermal environment was investigated through a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. The duration of toz (average air temperature in the occupied zone) increase period was 4.33 times as long as toz decrease period, although the duration of the phase 1 heating period was 1.9 times as that of defrosting period. During the defrosting procedure, the PMV value decreased to the lowest value of −0.83, and the period of feeling cool and slightly cool lasted for 45.4 min. The hand, foot and leg parts were much cooler than the whole body, and the non-uniformity of the PMV value on body parts was obviously enlarged during the defrosting period. Higher draught risk around 22% near the head and trunk regions was found during the defrosting period and was significantly reduced in the follow-up heating period.Practical application: The results from this study emphasize the sleeping thermal comfort during defrosting of air source heat pumps. The present study gave a map of transient thermal comfortable levels influenced by the operating of defrosting and re-heating. These results should serve as a recommendation to air source heat pump designers to determine suitable defrosting technology to maintain normal indoor thermal comfort.
      Citation: Indoor and Built Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T11:58:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1420326X221079227
       
 
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