Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 139 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cityscape     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access  
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access  
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access  
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Construction Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Urban Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access  
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nordic Concrete Research     Open Access  
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access  
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1563-0854 - ISSN (Online) 2522-011X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Seismic performance evaluation of steel beam to concrete confined with FRP
           tube column connections

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      Abstract: Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been widely used for retrofitting concrete structure and in new constructions in the form of concrete filled FRP tube (CFFT). There are many researches related to the behavior of CFFT columns under different types of loading that prove the practical, durable, and significant advances of these composites. However, there is no efficient connection method of CFFT with other members, which has impeded the widespread application of the system in frame structures. This study proposed a blind bolted sleeve connection between CFFT column and steel beam and then investigated its seismic performance using finite-element (FE) approach. The FE model was validated by reproducing the experimental tests available in literature. Then an extensive parametric study was performed on the component, load, and material-related parameters that affect the structural behavior of the composite connection. From the results it was observed that an increase in diameter of blind bolt from M12 to M20, pretension load from 0.25Po to Po, grade of blind bolt from 8.8 to 10.9, and endplate thickness from 12 to 24 mm improved the moment capacity of flush endplate specimen by 116.8%, 155.6%, 6.3%, and 66.3%, respectively. However, the effects of column related parameters, such as in-filled concrete grade, amount of longitudinal reinforcement, and axial load level was negligible.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Quasi-static in-plane behavior of full-scale unreinforced masonry walls
           retrofitted using ferro-cement overlay

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      Abstract: This study presents an experimental investigation on the behaviour of in-plane loaded Unreinforced Masonry (URM) wall retrofitted with ferrocement technology. Quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale URM walls have been performed. Unreinforced masonry walls were built with clay bricks and were placed on a reinforced concrete base slab. Wall assemblies had aspect ratio of 0.75. Walls were investigated for full ferrocement coverage with an extra joint lamination between the base slab and the wall panel. Steel wire meshes having opening size 12.5 × 12.5 mm were considered for ferrocement overlay. Behaviour of the strengthened walls under a combination of a vertical load and lateral reversed cyclic loading was compared to the control models to observe improvement of lateral load resistance capacity. Equivalent viscous damping of the walls was calculated to be within the range of 8–22%. The initial stiffness amplified up to 52% in case of samples retrofitted with ferrocement. Before formation of the first crack, the specimen retrofitted with ferrocement overlay withstood about two times more lateral load than the corresponding unretrofitted specimen. The post-cracking strength was greatly enhanced by the presence of ferrocement, which was almost 1.6 times for the failure load. Strengthening of the walls also improved the total energy dissipation by a factor ranging from 49 to 68%. The energy dissipation was almost 1.4 times higher than that of the control wall. Hysteresis loops showed higher ductility for retrofitted specimen than that of the control specimen. Unretrofitted specimen exhibited rocking failure pattern, whereas retrofitted specimen showed a combination of rocking and flexural mode of failure. Finally, it is concluded that retrofitting URM walls with ferrocement overlay may be a practical option as it can be applied easily by ordinary construction workers, at an affordable cost.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Drivers of sustainable site management for green construction: an Indian
           construction perspective

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      Abstract: The construction sector has been a major source of global greenhouse gas emissions over the years, and as a mitigation measure the concept of green construction has been gaining more significance. This study investigates green construction from a new perspective concerning site management methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The potential driving measures for site management were systematically analysed in three phases of green construction (G.C.), including pre-construction, construction, and post-construction. Quantitative data were collected through surveys and analysed using AMOS 26.0 software to generate a structural equation model (SEM). The developed SEM showcased the essential driving paths, measures contributing to the site management, and their interrelation in the three essential phases of green construction. The proposed theoretical framework can assist as a foundation for sustainable site management involved in green construction. This study also prescribes the appropriate measures and practical guidance for promoting site management while choosing green construction.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Thermo-mechanical behavior of fire insulated fiber-reinforced polymer
           (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete square column

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      Abstract: Abstract Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), a polymer matrix composite material, has been established as one of the possible techniques to strengthen concrete beams in flexure and shear. It has demonstrated good performance in retrofitting and repairing deteriorated reinforced concrete (RC) structures. However, FRP has the tendency to lose bond with the substrate due to the low glass transition (Tg) of its matrix polymer. Currently, very little information regarding to fire endurance of FRP-strengthened RC square column and the performance for insulated FRP-strengthened RC has also not been clearly addressed. This paper presents a full-scale fire resistance experiment on unstrengthened (bare) and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) strengthened RC with and without insulator column specimens. Ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composite (UHPFRCC) material composed of high alumina cement (HAC) and ground granulated blast slag (GGBS) in equal proportion was used to insulate the bare RC column and the column strengthened with CFRP. Two types of UHPFRCC cladding skin with one contained only polypropylene (PP) and another one with hybrid containing PP and basalt fibers were adopted. A comparison was made between the fire endurance characteristic between strengthened and unstrengthened; those with UHPFRCC insulated and those without insulator. It was found that CFRP-strengthened columns failed 15 minutes later than the unstrengthened column. In a nutshell, the developed UHPFRCC made of equal proportion of HAC, GGBS containing only 1% PP fibers improved the fire endurance of unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened RC column significantly.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Proposals for critical temperature of cold-formed steel compound sections
           under various load patterns

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      Abstract: Abstract Past research has mostly focused on using a single loading pattern on the member (i.e. 4-point loading or uniform moment mostly) to study cold-formed steel (CFS) at elevated temperature. However, in actual loading scenario, the load pattern on a member may vary, thus it becomes crucial to understand the behaviour of the CFS member under different loading scenarios. This study presents a numerical investigation using commercially available program ABAQUS, and compares the effects of loading patterns on the critical temperature of the CFS compound section (I-section). Using developed finite element (FE) based model, an extensive parametric study covering 1080 members is conducted considering 45-member geometry (9-cross-section, and 5 spans), two steel grades, and four loading patterns for three initially applied load levels. Four loading patterns considered in this study are 4-point loading, 3-Point loading, uniform moment and uniformly distributed load. From the results of the parametric study, it is found that the loading pattern has a direct influence on defining the critical temperature of a member. The results of this investigation showed that the lowest critical temperature for a member is governed by uniform moment on the section, whereas highest critical temperature is observed for uniformly distributed load at the same applied load levels. Depth and span of the member are found to be one of the influencing factors for the critical temperature of members. Finally, two proposals are presented to predict the critical temperature for the CFS compound members under simply supported boundary conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
       
  • Seismic vulnerability assessment of RC high-rise building considering
           soil–structure interaction effects

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      Abstract: Abstract A rapid visual survey is conducted in Patna city to understand the building stock and its characteristics. The stock is classified per FEMA 154. Reinforced concrete moment resisting frames constitute the majority of the buildings in Patna and the ratio of low-, mid- and high-rise buildings are in the ratio 2:2:1. The percentage of soft storey buildings in Patna is 23.37%. The finite element model of a representative 15-storey special moment resisting frame building is modelled utilizing the survey data. It is modelled with and without soil–structure interaction (SSI) effects to access the variation in the structural responses with and without SSI effects. The fundamental time period is underestimated in the fixed base model by 1.38 times when compared to the model with SSI effects. A set of raw acceleration time histories is obtained from PEER NGA WEST2 database and scaled to bedrock site-specific design spectra for Patna. The time histories are further checked for soil amplification and the ground motions representative of surface motions in Patna are generated. The seismic vulnerability of the representative building is assessed by Incremental dynamic analysis. Floor displacement and inter-storey drift are significantly underestimated in the fixed base model when compared to the SSI model. A realistic building located in the study region is also studied with and without soft-storey effects. The maximum IDR gets concentrated on the first floor with the ground floor as soft storey and the seismic risk is highly amplified by the use of soft storey.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
       
  • Jacketing with steel angle sections and wide battens of RC column and its
           influence on blast performance

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      Abstract: Abstract Occurrence of extreme loadings on the structure caused by man-made or accidental explosions is not uncommon. Such loadings jeopardize the safety/stability of structure if the key load-carrying member(s) are damaged. Strengthening of compression members of the buildings which is more vulnerable to blast loading may be required, and therefore, is of considerable interest to the structural designers. Confining of the concrete using seismic confining lateral reinforcement of reinforced concrete (RC) column is considered which is not found to control the damage and maximum displacement. The blast performance of RC column may also be improved by enlarging its size using additional concrete and steel, which may not be the choice of the owner of building, or may not be allowed as it might affect the functionality of the building. The objective of this study is to enhance the blast performance of the seismically designed axially loaded square RC column without increasing its cross section using a novel approach wherein four angle sections made of structural steel along the vertical edges throughout the length of the column are taken. The angle sections are connected on the four faces of the column over the regions of confining reinforcement as well as mid-height region using battens/plates. Analyses have been carried out employing ABAQUS software with explicit dynamic solver. The Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) model including the strain rate effect as per CEB-FIB MODEL CODE 2010 is used to model the concrete material behavior to blast loading. Proposed strengthening technique enhances the blast performance of the square RC column significantly. This work is useful to lessen the vulnerability of the compression member(s) failure of which tends to contribute to local hazard amounting to severe damage to the buildings and loss of lives.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • Investigating applicability of sawdust and retro-reflective materials as
           external wall insulation under tropical climatic conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract Buildings require energy to maintain their performance. In consequence, built environments cause a surge in the world’s energy demand. Providing passive measures is an effective method of optimizing operational energy usage. In this study, we propose insulation materials (thermal barrier type and resistive insulation) for the walls of a building. Experiments were performed on small-scale physical models constructed with; (a) no insulation, (b) sawdust–cement mortar, and (c) retro-reflective (RR) material for external walls. In addition, regression models were developed to predict indoor air temperature with insulation. Subsequently, associated operational energy-saving and decrease in emissions were estimated for each material. The comparison reveals RR (sawdust–cement mortar) is effective in warm (overcast) climatic conditions. Developed regression models have shown a good agreement with experimental results (R > 0.8). Moreover, sawdust–cement mortar (RR) materials contributed a 9% (13.4%) reduction in operational energy and a 9% (13.3%) decrease in CO2 emissions. The project highlights the potential to utilize sawdust—a waste material—and RR material as wall insulation to decrease intense operational energy demand.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
       
  • A comparative study on structural irregularity of open-office buildings

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      Abstract: Abstract Modern-day open-office buildings are a convenient way of implementing the concept of vertical cities in the otherwise cramped space scenario of metro cities. Certain aspects of these buildings induce special loads whose asymmetrical placement proves to be a compelling case for research with regards to the irregularity induced in the building. This paper attempts to compare the structural irregularity of buildings based on the guidelines of the plan and vertical irregularity specified in ten international codes and guidelines. A total of nine buildings (including the symmetric model) of nine stories high and nine bays (along each direction) were modelled with induced asymmetries resulting from four factors namely: asymmetrical placement of lift (and the resulting asymmetry of shear walls), infinity pool at rooftop, heavy landscape with differing patterns of placement and nominal variation of live load along with the building. The models, after analysis using ETABS and subsequent check for structural safety and drift were examined for the presence of irregularities based on the provisions. Based on the study, the extend of irregularities associated with the four factors considered is presented along with the comparative study of irregularity guidelines of different codes and the inherent flaws and difficulties associated with the implementation of certain guidelines.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
       
  • Experimental study of the influence of opening size and additional
           reinforcement around opening on seismic performance of reinforced concrete
           walls

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      Abstract: Abstract Openings in walls greatly influence the stiffness and strength of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls. Several parameters influence the reduction in strength and stiffness, such as size, shape, and location of the opening, reinforcement around the opening, and failure mode of walls (flexural or shear critical). The influences of each opening parameter on the structural performance of RC walls are still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of two parameters—opening size and additional reinforcement around the opening using six reinforced concrete wall specimens. They were tested under a novel test setup capable of applying pure shear cyclic loading. In addition, a simplified analytical model is proposed to calculate the initial stiffness of RC wall with a single opening. Results showed that the reduction in strength follows a linear pattern with the increase in opening size. However, the initial stiffness follows a nonlinear pattern associated with a large drop in stiffness for the big opening size. In addition, the additional reinforcement around the opening had improved maximum strength but had an insignificant influence on the initial stiffness of RC walls. Finally, the proposed analytical model for initial stiffness was verified with the test results and was depicted close agreement with the test.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • A simple numerical approach for the pushover analysis of slender
           cantilever bridge piers taking into account geometric nonlinearity

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      Abstract: Abstract The response of slender bridge piers to horizontal actions may be significantly influenced by geometric nonlinearities. In such conditions, the use of sophisticated models implemented in complex structural analysis software can be economically disadvantageous, especially in the preliminary design phases. This paper proposes a simple numerical procedure to compute the nonlinear pushover response of cantilever bridge piers subject to horizontal loads. The procedure is based on an iterative approach to enforce the element equilibrium under large displacements, efficiently accounting for P-Delta effects induced by vertical loads. Evaluation of the bending moment–curvature response of the pier base cross section is required and used as basic input data. For fast preliminary analyses, sectional response can be manually computed in simplified linearized form, thus completely eliminating the need to use structural analysis software. Indeed, the entire procedure can be implemented in standard programming codes, such as PythonTM or Matlab®, and used to evaluate the pushover response of piers with arbitrary cross section. Comparison with experimental test results and solutions based on Finite Element models shows that proposed procedure can be used to get a fast, yet accurate, estimate of the entire force–displacement curve and, in particular, of the pier ultimate displacement.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
       
  • Effect of open-ground storey on RC frame buildings incorporating
           soil–structure interaction

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      Abstract: Abstract In practice, buildings with open-ground storey (OGS) are the most common types of vertically irregular buildings. Such a building may fail due to the low stiffness strength of the ground storey. Such failures are due to faulty design of not considering the effect of infill and soil–structure interaction in the building model. RC frame buildings of various heights are analysed as per BIS 1893 (Indian standard criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures. Bureau of Indian Standards 2016), and the performance of buildings are evaluated through nonlinear time history analysis (NLTHA) and pushover analysis. Initially, buildings are analysed without considering infill strut elements in the computer model and, later on, the infill strut elements are incorporated while analysing. Five different spectrum compatible ground motions (SCGMs) are considered for NLTHA. This study evaluates the performance of ground soft storey buildings. It is observed that the difference in the period of the OGS building without strut elements is higher than the OGS building with strut elements; after introducing the strut element in the OGS buildings, the IDR is reduced by a significant factor for all buildings. Buildings with strut elements, IDR is within the acceptable limit of codal provision (0.004) except for the ten-storey building. Whereas in building without strut elements, IDR is > 0.004 for all the buildings.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
       
  • Solving Richard’s partial differential equation via Enriched Firefly
           Algorithm

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes a novel technique to solve either ordinary or partial differential equations and handle their different boundary conditions. For this aim, firstly, a meta-heuristic algorithm, such as Enriched Firefly Algorithm (EFA), is utilized to optimize the proposed procedure, and a penalty function is employed for satisfying boundary conditions as constraints of the problem. The proposed method is compared with analytical solutions. Finally, the technique is applied to one of the most challenging differential equations in soil mechanics, i.e., Richard’s Equation. The numerical examples are compared with the GeoStudio commercial program’s results, and the proposed method’s performance is proved.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
       
  • Improvement in field applicability of concrete using fly ash and ground
           granulated blast furnace slag by sodium silicate activation

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      Abstract: Abstract The engineering capabilities of Alkali-Activated Concrete (AAC) are superior to those of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)-based concrete. Fly ash and Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) are readily available as industrial waste and are commonly used as raw materials for AAC. The objective of this study is to formulate an AAC mixture that is safe and cost-effective for use in precast products. Various mixtures of Fly ash and GGBS were activated using Sodium silicate and cured at ambient temperature. The compressive strengths of these AAC mixtures increased with GGBS content. The addition of Fly ash reduced shrinkage cracks and enhanced workability. Minimum compressive strengths (30–60 MPa) were found to be higher than OPC based concrete. We demonstrated that the engineering properties of AAC were not compromised by eliminating caustic soda or by curing it at ambient temperature. We also demonstrated the occupational safety and feasibility of adopting AAC as a greener alternative to traditional cement.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
       
  • Experimental testing and numerical modelling of CFST columns under axial
           compressive load

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      Abstract: Abstract The concrete-filled steel tubes (CFST) are used in the construction of various buildings, bridges and other high-rise structures. CFST structures are considered efficient and reliable, as they can improve the strength of the structure significantly and provide high resistance to compression in concrete and resistance to tension in steel structures. The steel tube will withstand partial axial load while providing confinement to the infill concrete under axial compression. The steel tube confinement provides a substantial part of the CFST columns' high axial strength capacity. In this study, CFST specimens with a concrete core of M15 and M20 mix are tested under axial compressive load. Load on the CFST samples is applied in two ways; when the load is applied on the whole and when it is applied only on the concrete portion. Three samples of CFST are tested in each case; thus, overall, 24 specimens of CFST stub columns are cast. These stub columns are tested against the cylindrical concrete specimen. The size of the cylindrical concrete specimen is 150 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height. The size of the steel tube used has an inner diameter of 150 mm, the thickness of the tube is 2 mm, and the height of the specimen is 300 mm. Overall, 12 specimens of concrete and 24 specimens of CFST are cast. Half of the samples are tested at 14 days, and the other half is tested at 28 days. The properties of steel tubes are tested through the tensile coupon test. The results of the axial compressive test are noted, and average values are used. The models were then numerically analyzed in ABAQUS and ANSYS to compare the behaviors simulated by both finite element software.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
       
  • A risk-based approach for assessment and improvement of fire safety in
           existing buildings

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      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, the occurrence of fires in some important buildings such as Plasco took the attention of engineers and authorities to the importance of fire safety in existing buildings. The aim of this paper is to present a regulatory framework for assessment and improvement of fire safety in existing buildings. The proposed framework is based on fire risk assessment and comparison with prescriptive standard values. A safety scoring system was developed to assess fire protection measures in buildings. Sixteen effective parameters and corresponding sub-parameters were defined by method developers. The scores corresponding to parameters and sub-parameters were further refined using an expert panel. Means of egress, detection and warning system, and fire compartmentation were among the highest contributing parameters. The importance of buildings was classified and the minimum required safety scores for each class of importance level were prescribed. To consider other safety measures including preventive and management measures, a qualitative fire risk analysis system was developed for the entire building. At the end, considering the results of scoring system and total fire risk assessment, an action plan should be designed for upgrading the building fire safety. The method is proposed as a regulative framework and can be used by local authorities, corresponding to the conditions and local fire codes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-20
       
  • Self-buckling-restrained steel plate shear wall made by two diagonally
           corrugated infill plates

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the seismic behavior of a novel steel plate shear wall (SPSW) has been presented. This SPSW consists of two diagonally corrugated infill plates (2DCIPs) which were tied to each other as an infill plate and a one-bay one-story moment-resisting frame as a boundary element. The direction of two diagonally corrugated infill plates (DCIP) is reversed. When one of the DCIPs is compressed, the other DCIP is tensioned providing the lateral support for the DCIP in compression. The behavior of the SPSW with 2DCIPs was compared to one Solid Infill Plate (SIP) and with one Corrugated Infill Plate (CIP) to show the advantages and disadvantages of the new SPSW. According to the results, the advantages of the new SPSW can be the shear strength increase (in infill plates with a thickness greater than 8 mm), energy dissipation increase, a suitable response modification factor, reduction of the force applied to the column from the infill plate, limitation of the buckling on the infill plate and the prevention of the resistance drop (in the CIP). In general, it can be said that the new SPSW, has almost all the advantages of SIP and CIP. Further, a set of parametric studies was performed to investigate the hysteretic behavior of the SPSW with 2DCIPs. These parameters included the infill plate thickness, the angle of the DCIP with the frame, the wave length of corrugation, the angle of the sub-plates of the DCIP and the adhesive thickness.
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
       
  • Performance-based efficient seismic design of reinforced concrete frames
           with vertical irregularities

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      Abstract: Abstract Distribution pattern for the equivalent static lateral force in the seismic design process appears to be based on elastic approach. On the contrary, during extreme events such as seismic load, structures experience inelastic range. Consequently, the assumed lateral load distribution pattern for the seismic design does not remain applicable in the inelastic range. Thereby, some members of the structure go through extreme stress/deformations and the other experiences minor stresses/deformation. Current paper presents near optimum (i.e., efficient) design of reinforced concrete (RC) frames with structural irregularities applied to seismic excitations based on the model of uniform distribution of deformation and thereby damage. The efficient design is achieved by moving the material (i.e., steel reinforcement) from the members with minor deformation/damage to the member with extreme deformation/damage. The efficient design procedure for multiple performance objectives is demonstrated through the examples of irregular frames. The study illustrates that for same damage, efficient design requires less material (i.e., steel) than the design based on practicing code; again for the same amount of material (i.e. steel), efficient design gives less structural damage compared to the design based on practicing code.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
       
  • Investigation of the effect of mineral additives on concrete strength
           using ANN

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      Abstract: Abstract In addition to cement, sand, gravel, and water, the current investigation of the influence of additives on the compressive strength of concrete at 28 days includes fly ash, silica fume, and slag. 315 concrete compositions with various amounts of additives are trained and tested using an artificial neural network. Concrete strength is largely affected by the specific gravity of cement and the specific gravity of fine and coarse particles, according to the studies. For greater compressive strength, it is preferable to use materials with a higher specific gravity. Compressive strength has grown as the amount of silica fumes has increased. Increased amounts of slag or superplasticizer resulted in the same behavior. When the amount of fly ash was increased, the compressive strength of the material decreased.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
       
  • Experimental investigation on crumb rubber based concrete bricks along
           with polypropylene and steel fibers

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      Abstract: Abstract The application of crumb rubber concrete bricks CRCB’s is limited due to the poor performance of rubber in concrete. To overcome this problem, potential elements such as polypropylene (PP) and steel fibers (SF) were suggested which lead to improve the performance of CRCB. Thirteen mixes were prepared with varying percentage (up to 40%) crumb rubber (CR) along with 0.2% polypropylene and 0.5% steel fibers of constant volume fraction. The specimen’s density, mechanical, durability and microstructural properties were studied. Further, the global warming potential was calculated relative to the carbon dioxide emission. The cost analysis was performed as well as the best mix among the chosen mixes were obtained using a multi-criteria ranking method. It was observed that the highest reduction in density was 20% on mix SPCR-40 (0.2 PP + 0.5 SF with 40% CR) as compared to the control mix. It was also observed that the mechanical properties of CRCB’s specimens were found to decrease with an increase of CR, however, the energy absorption capacity of bricks was improved significantly. The water absorption of the control mix was 1.23% whereas the same was 5.25% on mix SPCR-40. It was revealed from the microstructural analysis that the incorporation of crumb rubber increases the porosity in the matrix. The carbon emissions were found negligible due to PP fibers, however, the same was found to increase by 31% in the case of mix with steel fiber as compared to control mix. It was concluded that the SPCR-10 was designated as the most optimized mix whereas the second most optimized mix was PCR-10.
      PubDate: 2022-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s42107-022-00428-w
       
 
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