Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 139 journals)     - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals) BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)
 Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment       (Followers: 19) Academia : Architecture and Construction       (Followers: 2) ACI Structural Journal       (Followers: 20) Advances in Building Education       (Followers: 4) Advances in Building Energy Research       (Followers: 11) Anales de Edificación Asian Journal of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 2) Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building       (Followers: 8) Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management       (Followers: 5) Bautechnik       (Followers: 1) Beton- und Stahlbetonbau       (Followers: 1) Building & Management       (Followers: 2) Building Acoustics       (Followers: 4) Building Services Engineering Research & Technology       (Followers: 3) Buildings       (Followers: 7) BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology       (Followers: 2) Built Environment Inquiry Journal Built Environment Project and Asset Management       (Followers: 13) Built-Environment Sri Lanka Case Studies in Construction Materials       (Followers: 8) Cement       (Followers: 1) Cement and Concrete Composites       (Followers: 17) Cement and Concrete Research       (Followers: 17) Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters       (Followers: 4) Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters       (Followers: 3) Change Over Time       (Followers: 3) City, Culture and Society       (Followers: 23) Cityscape       (Followers: 10) Clay Technology Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo Construction Economics and Building       (Followers: 4) Construction Engineering       (Followers: 9) Construction Management and Economics       (Followers: 24) Construction Research and Innovation       (Followers: 4) Construction Robotics       (Followers: 4) Corporate Real Estate Journal       (Followers: 4) Dams and Reservoirs       (Followers: 3) Developments in the Built Environment Energy and Built Environment Engineering Project Organization Journal       (Followers: 6) Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management       (Followers: 11) Environment and Urbanization Asia       (Followers: 2) Facilities       (Followers: 4) Frontiers in Built Environment       (Followers: 1) FUTY Journal of the Environment Glass Structures & Engineering       (Followers: 1) HBRC Journal Housing and Society       (Followers: 6) HVAC&R Research Indoor and Built Environment       (Followers: 4) Informes de la Construcción Intelligent Buildings International       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering       (Followers: 25) International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration       (Followers: 12) International Journal of Architectural Computing       (Followers: 5) International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability       (Followers: 3) International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials       (Followers: 9) International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management       (Followers: 9) International Journal of Construction Management       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis       (Followers: 9) International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation International Journal of Protective Structures       (Followers: 4) International Journal of River Basin Management International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics       (Followers: 7) International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development       (Followers: 11) International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology       (Followers: 7) International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics       (Followers: 2) International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management       (Followers: 5) International Journal of Ventilation Journal for Education in the Built Environment       (Followers: 3) Journal of Aging and Environment       (Followers: 4) Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management       (Followers: 11) Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research       (Followers: 10) Journal of Building Engineering       (Followers: 4) Journal of Building Materials and Structures       (Followers: 2) Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation Journal of Building Performance Simulation       (Followers: 5) Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology       (Followers: 14) Journal of Civil Engineering and Management       (Followers: 8) Journal of Computational Acoustics       (Followers: 5) Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering       (Followers: 21) Journal of Construction Business and Management       (Followers: 2) Journal of Construction Engineering       (Followers: 10) Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management       (Followers: 6) Journal of Facilities Management       (Followers: 3) Journal of Green Building       (Followers: 10) Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction       (Followers: 4) Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law       (Followers: 5) Journal of Structural Fire Engineering       (Followers: 4) Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment       (Followers: 2) Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 2) Journal of Transport and Land Use       (Followers: 26) Journal of Urban Technology and Sustainability Landscape History       (Followers: 15) Materiales de Construcción       (Followers: 1) Mauerwerk Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings | Naval Engineers Journal       (Followers: 1) Nordic Concrete Research Open Construction & Building Technology Journal PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning       (Followers: 11) Revista ALCONPAT Revista de la Construcción Revista de Urbanismo       (Followers: 2) Revista Hábitat Sustenable Revista Ingenieria de Construcción       (Followers: 1) Revista INVI RILEM Technical Letters Room One Thousand Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment) Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology Science and Technology for the Built Environment Smart and Sustainable Built Environment       (Followers: 8) Steel Construction - Design and Research       (Followers: 3) Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie Structural Concrete       (Followers: 4) Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings       (Followers: 2) Sustainable Buildings       (Followers: 3) Sustainable Cities and Society       (Followers: 22) Technology|Architecture + Design Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments       (Followers: 3) The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice       (Followers: 4) The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering       (Followers: 5) The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)       (Followers: 2) Tidsskrift for boligforskning

Similar Journals
 Glass Structures & EngineeringNumber of Followers: 1      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2363-5142 - ISSN (Online) 2363-5150 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Pseudo static experimental study on spider-supported glass curtain walls

Abstract: Abstract Glass curtain walls (GCWs) are among the most commonly used building envelope components in modern buildings, and they can be divided into point-supported or frame-supported GCWs. Much of the current literature on the seismic performance of GCWs has focused on frame-supported GCWs, resulting in a dearth of data about point-supported GCWs. In this work, a pseudo-static experimental study was performed on spider-supported GCWs, a common type of point-supported GCW, with three different types of glass, namely monolithic, laminated, and insulating glass. The damage characteristics and seismic performance of each type of glass and the spiders were studied. For the tested 1.2 m by 1.2 m panels, the ultimate approximate inter-story drift ratios for monolithic, laminated and insulated glass panels were: 1/23, 1/28, and 1/24 rad, respectively. The integrality of the glass panels was believed to be the main reason for different behaviors of the tested specimens. Both monolithic and insulating glass specimens cracked abruptly and ejected numerous fragments onto the ground. The fragments of laminated glass panels would stay attached to the polymer film even after failure, preventing the ejection of fragments. The spiders were found severely deformed when the glass panels failed. More works are necessary to further systematically test and analyze their mechanical performance with more specimens under different height-to-width ratios, interlayer materials, glass thickness, and environmental temperatures.
PubDate: 2022-04-29

• High strain rate characterisation of soda-lime-silica glass and the effect
of residual stresses

Abstract: Abstract A ring-on-ring test configuration for the equibiaxial flexural testing of flat samples was integrated into a novel modified split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) setup. The established modifications enabled high-speed cameras for fracture assessment and non-contact optical deflection measurements using stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC). In the present paper, this setup was utilised to characterise the flexural surface strength and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of circular, as-received soda-lime-silica glass samples at high strain rates. The effect of residual stresses was also studied by including thermally tempered glass samples divided into four residual stress groups. Despite the frequent application of glass products in the built environment, often post-processed into tempered or laminated glass, these investigations are still rare and thus highly demanded when designing for extreme events such as extreme weather, ballistic impacts, or blast loads. A total of 315 samples were tested at a quasi-static and a dynamic loading rate ranging from 2.0 to $$4.3\cdot 10^6\,\hbox {MPa}\,\hbox {s}^{-1}$$ . It was found that the flexural strength of the glass across residual stress groups was strongly dependent on the applied dynamic loading rate, while the residual stresses themselves showed no significant effect on the loading rate dependence. At the dynamic loading, the strength increased between 60 and 86%. Within the two tested loading rates, strength increased expectedly with compressive surface stress. From the stereo-DIC deflection measurements, no change in Young’s modulus with loading rate was observed.
PubDate: 2022-04-27

• Celebrating the international year of glass

PubDate: 2022-04-22

• Sustainable concrete for circular economy: a review on use of waste glass

Abstract: As a result of socio-economic growth, major increase in solid waste generation is taking place which can lead to resource depletion and environmental concerns. To address this inefficient cycle of make, use and dispose, the concept of circular economy has recently been proposed that de-linearizes the current relationship between economic growth, environmental degradation and resource consumption thorough its 6Rs (Reuse, Recycle, Redesign, Remanufacture, Reduce, Recover). In the construction sector, currently the production of binding agents and transportation of virgin aggregates is associated with considerable environmental pollution. As a result, major attempts are taking place to substitute such ingredients with more sustainable and potentially cheaper materials. With waste glass having a production of roughly 100 million tons annually, and its low recycling rate of 26%, there is a growing number of studies unlocking its potential as an eco-friendly substitute for Portland cement (with particle size of below $$100\ \upmu \hbox {m}$$ ) or fine aggregate (with size of below 4.75 mm) in concrete. As a result, this article intends to review the connection of construction sector and circular economy with recycled glass in its center. Accordingly, by partially replacing cement or aggregate with recycled glass, on average, up to 19% greenhouse gas, and 17% energy consumption reduction as well as major cost savings can be made. Additionally, in technical concrete terms, better fresh properties and fire resistance, as well as lower permeability, and in fine grades, favorable cementitious properties are reported as major benefits of using waste glass as a sustainable construction material. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-04-01

• Engineered calculation of the uneven in-plane temperatures in Insulating
Glass Units for structural design

Abstract: Abstract Insulated Glazed Units (IGUs) are composite elements formed by two or more glass panes held together by structural edge seals, entrapping a gas for thermal and acoustic insulation. There is a wealth of evidence that they are prone to cracking due to an uneven temperature distribution within each glass pane, caused in particular by solar radiation, enhanced by the shielding of contour-frame and cast shadows. The accurate assessment of the temperature field in the glass is the input datum to calculate the thermal strain and the consequent state of stress. An engineered method for calculating the temperature field in the glass panes of multiple IGUs, of arbitrary composition, is developed here. This method considers the various sources of thermal exchange: conduction between the exposed, shadowed and border regions of each pane, convection and radiation with the surrounding environment and between the panes, heat storage. Proper coefficients are defined for multiple reflective phenomena of radiant energy between the various glass layers. The proposed model is applied to explanatory case studies, accounting for the daily variations of the external temperature and solar radiation.
PubDate: 2022-03-19

• The influence of fracture pattern on the residual resistance of laminated
glass at high strain-rates: an experimental investigation of the
post-fracture bending moment capacity based on time-temperature mapping of
interlayer yield stress

PubDate: 2022-03-14

• Cantilevered laminated glass balustrades: the Conjugate Beam Effective
Thickness method—part II: comparison and application

Abstract: Abstract Cantilevered laminated glass installed in continuous U-profile base shoes are regularly constructed as structural glass guards, parapets, and windscreens. The structural performance of laminated glass is strongly dependent on the shear coupling offered by the interlayer, between the bounding layered and monolithic limits of the glass lites. The most common simplified design approach consists of defining the effective thickness, i.e., the thickness of a monolithic section with equivalent properties. However, established effective thickness methods lack correlation with stress and deflection observed in numerical models simulating bearing support of cantilevered laminated glass in an ordinary U-profile. The analytical Conjugate Beam Effective Thickness (CBET) method proposed in Part I of the present work accounts for the influence of different boundary and loading conditions, and is readily applied to evaluate the flexural performance of two-ply cantilevered laminated glass beams. In this paper, results evaluated with the proposed CBET method are compared with existing analytical methods and numerical results for case study examples, demonstrating improved accuracy with respect to existing effective thickness methods for cantilevered laminated glass beams. The obtained closed-form formulas for evaluation of deflection- and stress-effective thickness are summarized in tables to facilitate the practical application of the CBET method in the design practice.
PubDate: 2022-02-10
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00165-7

• Experimental and numerical characterization of twisting response of thin
glass

Abstract: Abstract The use of new generation thin, lightweight and damage-resistant glass, originally conceived for electronic displays, is moving its first steps in the built environment, in particular for adaptive and movable skins and façades. Its experimental characterization represents pearhaps one of the main open problems in glass research and engineering. Indeed, standard methods to test the glass strength cannot be used, due to geometrical nonlinearities, thwarting the correct procedure and the strenght calculation. Here, an innovative test procedure is proposed, where a rectangular thin glass element is twisted with high distortion level, while rigid elements constrain two opposite plate edges to remain straight. A dedicated experimental apparatus, that can be used to test specimens with different size and thickness, has been designed and used to test, up to rupture, chemically tempered thin glass with thickness of 1.1 mm and 2.1 mm. Experimental results have been compared to those of numerical analyses, with particular regard to the influence of different constrain conditions on the plate response.
PubDate: 2022-02-09
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-022-00166-0

• SoundLab AI-Machine learning for sound insulation value predictions of
various glass assemblies

Abstract: Abstract Modern architecture promotes a high demand for transparent building envelopes and especially glass facades. Commonly, facades are designed to fulfill a multitude of objectives such as superior aesthetic appearance, a higher degree of weathering reliability, quick installation, high transparency as well as economic and ecologic efficiency. For such glazing applications, often an assessment of acoustic properties and especially sound insulation abilities are required. Because of the complexity of such an experimental or computational investigation given the framing systems and glass unit compositions, a reliable and fairly accurate estimation of sound insulation properties of such systems becomes time-consuming and demanding. This paper provides a Machine Learning (ML) based estimation tool of acoustic properties (weighted sound insulation value $$R_W$$ , STC and OITC) of different glazing set-ups. A sufficiently rich database was used to train several machine learning algorithms. The acoustic properties are determined by comparing the third-octave or octave band spectrum of the sound reduction index with a reference curve (typical curve for solid construction elements) specified in the standard DIN EN ISO 717-1. Sound insulation values can currently only be determined by complex and expensive experimental investigations or numerical simulations for certain glass set-ups. Hence, there is no efficient tool for convenient and reliable estimation of the sound insulation performance of glazing systems available at the moment. To this end, the engineering team led by the authors conducted extensive studies on various glazings consisting of different glass assemblies with varying glass, cavity and interlayer thicknesses and different types of interlayer and gas fillings. Based on our research outcomes, a comprehensive web-based prediction program, the so-called AI Tool, has been developed recently. This program can provide a quick analysis and accurate prediction of arbitrary glazing set-ups, interlayers and glazing infills. A series of laboratory tests were conducted to validate the predictions by the AI Tool. The goal of this program is to provide designers, engineers, and architects an effective and economically efficient tool to facilitate the design w.r.t. acoustical properties.
PubDate: 2022-02-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-022-00167-z

• Structural performance of a novel liquid-laminated embedded connection for
glass

Abstract: Abstract Connections between load-bearing glass components play a major role in terms of the structural integrity and aesthetics of glass applications. Recently, a new type of adhesive connection, known as embedded laminated glass connections, has been developed where a metallic insert is embedded within a laminated glass unit by means of transparent polymeric foil interlayers and assembled through an autoclave lamination process. In this study, a novel variant of this connection, consisting of a thin steel insert encapsulated by a transparent cold-poured resin, is proposed and examined. In particular, the axial tensile mechanical response of this connection is assessed via numerical (FE) analyses and destructive pull-out tests performed on physical prototypes at different displacement rates in order to assess the effect of the strain rate-dependent behaviour of the resin interlayer. It was found that the pull-out stiffness, the maximum load-bearing capacity and the failure mode of the connection are significantly affected by the imposed displacement rate. The numerical (FE) analysis of the pull-out tests, performed in Abaqus, showed that the complex state of stress in the vicinity of the connection is the result of two load-transfer mechanisms and that the relative contribution of these mechanisms depends on the insert geometry and the relative stiffnesses of the constituent materials. Overall, it is concluded that the prototypes are promising in terms of manufacturability, aesthetics and structural performance and thus the novel variant connection considered in this study offers a promising alternative to existing load-bearing connections for laminated glass structures, but further investigations are required to ascertain its suitability for real-world applications.
PubDate: 2021-12-21
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00162-w

• A connected glass community

PubDate: 2021-12-17
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00164-8

• Enhanced engineered calculation of the temperature distribution in
architectural glazing exposed to solar radiation

Abstract: Abstract The precise assessment of the temperature distribution on glass panes, whether they are single windows or façade components, is of paramount importance for the safety and durability of building skins, because many experienced breakages are due to the thermal stress resulting from solar radiation. Here, an enhanced engineered method for the calculation of the temperature field in the panel is presented, which takes into account the different heat exchange phenomena that influence the temperature distribution. The possible presence of shadows and of a contouring frame is considered by dividing the panel in regions considered to be thermally homogenous and, for each region, the time-dependent temperature is evaluated by establishing a transient energy balance. The proposed model is compared, both from a qualitative and a quantitave point of view, with the formulations of current Standards and design rules. Paradigmatic case studies are considered, taking into account the daily and seasonal variations of the external temperature and solar radiation. The effects of the size and shape of the shaded regions are also investigated in a parametric analysis. Once the temperature distribution is known, the stress state in the glass can be readily calculated with most commercial FEM codes.
PubDate: 2021-12-02
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00163-9

• A durable coating to prevent stress corrosion effects on the surface
strength of annealed glass

Abstract: Abstract The durability of an innovative polymeric coating recently developed by the authors to prevent stress corrosion in annealed glass is herein examined. The coating, having functional graded properties through the thickness, is optimised to provide a very good adhesion with glass and an excellent hydrophobic behavior on the side exposed to the environment, thus creating a good barrier to humidity, which is the triggering agent for stress corrosion. Three scenarios are analysed in terms of ageing: (i) cyclic loading, accomplished by subjecting coated samples to repetitive loading; (ii) natural weathering, performed by exposing coated samples to atmospheric agents; (iii) artificial weathering, carried out by exposing coated specimens to fluorescent UV lamps, heat and water. The durability of the coating is assessed indirectly, on the base of its residual effectiveness in preventing stress corrosion, by comparing the bending strength, obtained with the coaxial double ring test, of aged coated glass specimens with that of un-coated and freshly coated specimens. The obtained results prove that the proposed formulation is almost insensitive to cyclic loading, maintains a very good performance in case of natural weathering, whereas is slightly more sensitive to artificial weathering.
PubDate: 2021-09-21
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00161-x

• Experimental study and comparison of different fully transparent laminated
glass beam designs

Abstract: Abstract Laminated glass beams without metallic or polymeric reinforcements generally lack post-breakage strength and ductility. This paper aims to perform a comparative study by testing five different fully transparent laminated glass beam designs in order to see how parameters such as the number and thickness of glass sheets (3 x 10 mm or 5 x 6 mm), the interlayer material (PVB Clear or SentryGlas), and the thermal treatment of glass (annealed or heat-strengthened) affect the pre-breakage performance and post-breakage safety. A buckling analysis is also performed using a numerical model with ABAQUS CAE. The study includes a comparison between the results of different experimental mechanical tests on laminated glass beams, including the tests presented in this paper, as well as other tests found in the literature. All designs presented a linear elastic behaviour until initial breakage. The interlayer material mainly affected the crack shape of laminated glass beams. Beams with five sheets of annealed glass had a more progressive breakage, and therefore a safer behaviour, than beams with three sheets of annealed or heat-strengthened glass.
PubDate: 2021-09-16
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00160-y

• Topical issue “Projects and case studies”

PubDate: 2021-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00159-5

• Repositioning Messeturm–Maximum Transparency

Abstract: Abstract The Messeturm (“Trade Fair Tower”) in Frankfurt is currently adjusted to the requirements of a modern office building. The lobby area has been enlarged by a highly transparent façade consisting of oversized insulating glass (IG) units. The IG units are curved and have a size of up to 17 m  $$\times$$  2.8 m. To obtain a perfectly curved façade, the IG units were fabricated with laminated cold-bended glass panes. Horizontally the IG units are supported by tapered stainless steel fins. Inclined steel beams connect the top of the façade fins with the tower structure creating a rounded roof. The vertical façade with its glass roof allows maximum transparency for people inside the lobby as well as for people passing by outside to the nearby trade fair grounds. The glass was fabricated by sedak. The façade was installed by seele on behalf of the owner OFFICEFIRST, the asset-management of Blackstone.
PubDate: 2021-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-020-00140-8

• Conceptual design and FEM structural response of a suspended glass sphere
made of reinforced curved polygonal panels

Abstract: Abstract The paper introduces a novel concept for structural glass shells that is based on the mechanical coupling of double curved heat-bent glass panels and a wire frame mesh, which constitutes a grid of unbonded edge-reinforcement. Additionally, this grid has the purpose of providing redundancy. The panels have load-bearing function, they are clamped at the vertices and dry-assembled. The main novelty lies in the use of polygonal curved panels with a nodal force transfer mechanism. This concept has been validated on an illustrative design case of a 6 m-diameter suspended glass sphere, in which regular pentagonal and hexagonal spherical panels are employed. The good strength and stiffness achieved for this structure is demonstrated by means of local and global FE models. Another fundamental feature of the concept is that the reinforcement grid provides residual strength in the extreme scenarios in which all panels are completely failed. A quantitative measure of redundancy is obtained by comparing this scenario with the ULS.
PubDate: 2021-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-020-00130-w

• The skypool: bringing architectural imagination to life

Abstract: Abstract The Sky Pool in Nine Elms, London, is the world’s first fully transparent, suspended swimming pool—allowing residents to swim 15 m between two buildings 10 floors up—and will become a landmark and an unprecedented feat of architecture for the capital. The Sky Pool was conceived as a bold, innovative and thrilling unique selling point for Embassy Gardens, one of the leading riverside development in zone 1 central London that provides 1500 new homes, world-class amenities, 40,160 $$\mathrm{m}^2$$ of office space across two buildings and 12,100 $$\mathrm{m}^2$$ of retail spaces and cafes, bars and restaurants. Phase 1 and Phase 3 of Embassy Gardens was delivered by Ballymore, and phase two by a Joint Venture between Ballymore and EcoWorld. Wrapped around the new U.S. Embassy, the 8ha riverside neighbourhood has a prominent location in one of Europe’s most significant regeneration projects that covers the 227 ha Greater London Authority’s Vauxhall Nine Elms Battersea investment opportunity area, Nine Elms London (Development sites, 2021) bringing in 20,000 new homes (Fig. 1). The original concept from the architect, Arup Associates, was to use glass for its construction, however, initial studies showed that the structural glass was not the most efficient material choice. The shortcomings on strength were particularly exacerbated by the requirement of joining glass panels together which provided areas of increased stress. Furthermore, the possibility of damage and expensive replacement brought the idea of using PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), commonly referred to as Acrylic for the project. The use of casting PMMA in such large sizes presented significant construction challenges, including having to build an entirely new building to fabricate the structure, conceive of new ways to fabricate and bond the panels and to enhance already tight quality control. The design included the structural considerations of the pool being supported by two independent buildings which could sway and settle independently and to control and adapt to the issues of differential thermal expansion.
PubDate: 2021-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00158-6

• Cantilevered laminated glass balustrades: the Conjugate Beam Effective
Thickness method—part I: the analytical model

Abstract: Abstract The proper assessment of shear coupling is necessary for the evaluation of laminated glass performance between the bounding layered and monolithic limits. The most common simplified design approach consists in defining the effective thickness, i.e., the thickness of a monolithic section with equivalent flexural properties. Cantilevered laminated glass balustrades are common applications of structural glass. However, the use of existing effective thickness methods presents strong limitations for their design. Here, the conjugate beam effective thickness (CBET) method is presented, based on the conjugate beam analogy recently proposed to evaluate the response of inflected laminates formed by external elastic beams bonded by an adhesive ply. The conjugate beam analogy, applied to laminated glass beams, allows accurate evaluation of the shear stress transmitted by the interlayer, based on the response of a monolithic conjugate beam, with the option to constrain relative sliding of plies at a beam end. Once the shear coupling is known, the effective thickness may be evaluated with the proposed CBET model by comparing the maximum stress and deflection of the laminated beam with a monolithic Euler–Bernoulli beam. The CBET method’s formulas can be readily applied to evaluate the maximum stress and cantilever free-end deflection for different load and boundary conditions, representative of cantilevered laminated glass balustrade supported in a U-profile.
PubDate: 2021-08-19
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00156-8

Abstract: Abstract Experimental strength tests are performed on two series of nominally equal plate specimens of annealed soda-lime glass subjected to either ring-on-ring or ball-on-ring bending. The Weibull effective area which represents a fictitious surface area exposed to uniform tension is calculated using closed-form solutions. Finite-size weakest-link systems are implemented numerically in a computationally intensive procedure for random sampling of plates extracted from a virtual jumbo pane whose surface area contains a set of stochastic Griffith flaws. A non-linear finite element analysis is conducted to compute the bending stresses. The glass surface condition is represented in different flaw-size concepts that depend on a truncated exponentially decaying flaw-size distribution. Stress corrosion effects are modelled by implementation of subcritical crack growth. The effective ball contacting radius is determined in a numerical computation. The results show that surface size effects in glass are not only a matter of strength-scaling, as also the shape of the distribution changes. While the lowest strength value, as per the major in-plane principal stress at the recorded fracture origin, in the respective data sets is very similar, the strongest specimen observed in ball-on-ring testing is over 70% stronger than the correspondingly strongest specimen observed in ring-on-ring bending. The Shift function is used to make visual comparisons of the difference in quantiles in the observed data sets. Use of an ordinary Weibull distribution leads to non-conservative strength predictions on smaller effective areas, and to too low strength predictions than are viable for glass design on larger areas. The numerical implementation of finite-size weakest-link systems can produce better predictions for the strength-scaling compared to a Weibull distribution, in particular when the flaw-size concept is modified to include a doubly stochastic flaw-size distribution or a random noise added to each subdivided region of the discretized surface area. The simulated ball-on-ring fracture origins exhibit greater spread from the centre point than otherwise observed in laboratory tests. It is indicated that the chosen representation of surface condition may not be accurate enough for the modelling of all fracture origins in the ball-on-ring setup even though acceptable results are obtained with the ring-on-ring model. There is a need for more insight into the surface condition of glass which can be conducive to the development of flaw-size based weakest-link modelling.
PubDate: 2021-08-03
DOI: 10.1007/s40940-021-00157-7

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