Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Building Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.753
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2352-7102 - ISSN (Online) 2352-7102
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3303 journals]
  • Optimization of high efficiency slab-on-ground floor by multi-objective
           analysis for zero energy buildings in mediterranean climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Cristina Baglivo, Paolo Maria Congedo The international scientific community believes unequivocally that, at the origin of the climate change, there are anthropic factors mainly linked to the construction sector and to the disproportionate use of fossil energy sources.The selection of building materials plays a key role in the reduction of energy consumption, especially in the Mediterranean area, where the internal overeating risk is high if the solar radiation is not controlled and the free supply of internal heat is poorly managed.Traditionally, in the Italian context, the slab-on-ground floor is made in concrete or more rarely in stone. However, it is usually recommended to minimize the use of concrete as it has a strong environmental impact, reinforced concrete is still the most recommended solution for foundations, both for regulatory and practical reasons.The present study proposes a methodology for the design of high efficiency slab-on-ground floor for warm climate through optimization code performed with the software modeFRONTIER.Starting from the traditional floor structures, the multi-objective methodology stands as an advanced step for the identification of new configurations, favoring the management of many variables, such as thermal, environmental and economic aspects. The results are characterized by high presence of local and eco-friendly materials and reduced costs. At the end, this work demonstrates that it is possible to obtain high performance solutions with also very few numbers of layers.
  • Strength performance of recycled aggregate concretes containing mineral
           admixtures and their performance prediction through various modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Sumit Arora, Balraj Singh, Bavita Bhardwaj The results of the present research study offer the twofold applications in concrete sector. Primarily it shows the results of strength performance of concrete containing partial to full replacement of Coarse Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and its substantial improvement by the addition of 5%–15% Mineral Admixtures/Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) as partial replacement of total powder material. Secondly, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), M5P model tree and Random Forest (RF) techniques were used to predict the performance of these mixes. It has been observed that the strength properties of RCA based concrete mixes improved to a greater extent with meagre replacement i.e. 5% and 10% of powder by SCMs. Further, the results of modeling techniques suggested that ANN performed considerably better followed by RF and M5P model tree in predicting mechanical properties of concrete mixes.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Multistage recovering ventilated air heat through a heat recovery
           ventilator integrated with a condenser-side mixing box heat recovery
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Tohid Jafarinejad, Mohammad Behshad Shafii, Ramin Roshandel Recovering ventilated air heat in direct expansion (DX) HVAC systems has extensively been researched and many solutions have been introduced until now, such as air-to-air heat recovery ventilator (HRV) units. The ventilated air from building itself or an HRV unit, has heat recovery potentials yet to be exploited, owing to its lower temperature compared with the ambient. On the other hand, the thermal performance of the DX HVAC system's air-cooled condenser deteriorates in hot climates. Therefore, to improve the DX HVAC system and air cooled condenser thermal performance simultaneously, this study proposes and analyzes a novel integrated multistage heat recovery system that first recovers the ventilated air heat through a heat pipe HRV unit to precool the fresh air and afterwards through a condenser-side mixing box heat recovery (CSHR) unit in order to deplete all the recovery potentials of the ventilated air and precool the condenser cooling air. A comprehensive mathematical model is presented and an algorithm is developed to quasi-dynamically simulate and assess the novel integrated multistage heat recovery system and the proposed heat recovery unit (CSHR) performance in a DOE reference commercial building model hospital, governed by ASHRAE 90.1 standards. The integrated system is compared with the conventional DX system and each recovery system standalone. In comparison with a conventional and HRV assisted DX system, the integrated multistage and CSHR heat recovery systems lead to 6.53% of energy saving and 6.26% of energy saving improvement, respectively, while prospers from less than an operational year of payback period.
  • Decentralized stochastic control for building energy and comfort
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Madiha Latif, Ali Nasir The problem of building energy and comfort management involves complex decision making in the presence of uncertainties. Therefore, it is required to model the problem in terms of a decision process that can handle uncertainties. Such model is developed in this paper using Markov decision process. The proposed model incorporates simultaneous comfort and energy management with incorporation of occupant dynamics and uncertainties. Due to high complexity of the problem, it is not practical to directly solve the resulting Markov decision process. Therefore, a distributed approach has been proposed that decomposes the problem in two dimensions. First, the problem is decomposed with respect to thermally and visually isolated zones in the building i.e. halls, rooms, closed offices etc. Second, within each isolated zone, the problem is decomposed with respect to comfort goals, i.e., thermal comfort, visual comfort, humidity and air quality. It has been shown that the reduction in computational complexity is achieved with minimal loss in optimality. This is possible due to naturally existing conditional independence among the random variables involved in problem. A comparison of the proposed approach with recent approaches has been presented that indicates that the proposed approach offers more features than any of the existing approaches. A demonstrative case study has also been included to show how the proposed approach can be implemented and how it is expected to behave. The results are encouraging towards practicality of the proposed approach.
  • Numerical analysis of the wind and thermal comfort in courtyards
           “skycourts” in high rise buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Paige Wenbin Tien, John Kaiser Calautit Over the years, skycourts have been built to solve problems of green space shortages while providing benefits towards social and environmental benefits to the urban habitat. It is an architectural feature that can provide an alternative to semi outdoors areas. Through the analysis of previous related works, it was observed that existing skycourts are not popular due to wind and thermal comfort problems. This has led to the investigation into the aero-thermal comfort in different skycourt designs within a high-rise building model using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Validation of the base model with experimental data showed good agreement. Through the simulation of several skycourt designs to obtain wind patterns across various skycourt levels, a general relationship between wind velocity of the approach flow and skycourt levels was made that lead to the determination of a wind velocity factor that allows comparison of wind comfort within any skycourt design. Using established wind comfort criteria, comfort within various skycourt regions were analysed. The results showed that skycourt designs have minimal effect on the temperature distribution particularly when vegetation is not considered. The study also investigated how skycourts would perform under more realistic conditions by adding heat sources representing internal gains within the interior spaces of skycourts. Future studies can focus on the investigation of skycourts with adjacent buildings and the effects of vegetation on aero-thermal performance. This would allow determination of skycourt performance under more realistic conditions.
  • Building status obtained before renovating multifamily buildings in Sweden
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Karin Farsäter, Paulien Strandberg, Åsa Wahlström The aim of this study was to analyse how energy use, building physics properties and indoor environment data have been obtained in the initial evaluation phases of multifamily building renovations in Sweden. Between 1964 and 1975, approximately one million homes were built in Sweden. These buildings are now in need of renovation. To perform proper status assessment of a building before a renovation is important both to make decisions on renovation measures on correct information as well as to be able to perform follow-ups of renovation projects. The analyses in this study was performed with questionnaires in eight case studies. Studied data included energy use, building physics properties and indoor environmental factors. The study shows that information about a building's status, and the subsequent renovation process, is often linked to one or just a few people involved in the project without any systematic documentation. When they leave their employment, due to changing jobs or retirement, documentation about the condition of the building, material choices and decision processes is often lost.
  • Enhancement of engineering properties of slag-cement based self-compacting
           mortar with dolomite powder
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Hoang-Anh Nguyen The current study reports influence of adding dolomite powder (DP) as partial replacement of ground granulated blast furnace slag (slag) on performance of slag-cement self-compacting mortar (SCM). The SCM with a typical slag-cement binder comprised of equivalent mass ratio of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to slag was used as the reference mixture. The effect of DP on performance of the modified SCMs was accessed by using various DP to slag ratios while fixing OPC amount at 50% in mass of total powder. Experimental results showed that DP addition substituting slag enhanced workability of the modified SCMs. Increase of DP addition induced the modified slag-cement pastes with slightly decreases in both peak of hydration heat liberation and cumulative hydration heat released during 24 h. With ages of curing earlier than 3 days, DP addition decreased the compressive strengths of the modified SCMs. After 7 days of curing, the SCMs with DP addition up to 30 mass.% replacing slag had the highest compressive strengths. Analysis on particles size distributions of the SCMs showed that the DP addition in range of 30–50 mass.% substituting slag could be the optimum amount for improving microstructure of the hardened mortars.
  • Improving thermal comfort of earthen dwellings in sub-Saharan Africa with
           passive design
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Lídia Rincón, Ariadna Carrobé, Ingrid Martorell, Marc Medrano Earthen architecture historically has been widely used for wall construction around the world, particularly in developing countries. Most of the earthen dwellings in Burkina Faso are built traditionally with adobe walls. This construction technique is low-cost but it is easily eroded by water and often lacks satisfactory thermal comfort. In this work an alternative low-cost earthen construction system, the earthbag technique is presented and combined with passive design measures to assess the improvements in thermal comfort. Inspired in a real dome-shape earthbag dwelling constructed in a Medical Training Center in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), free-floating building energy simulations were performed for both the traditional adobe Burkinabe dwelling and the earthbag dwelling using EnergyPlus. Besides free-floating direct temperature results, two indicators of annual comfort were used, namely the hours of discomfort and the discomfort degree days. ASHRAE Standard 55 Adaptive Comfort model was used to assess comfort conditions. Results show that the combination of night ventilation and roof solar protection in the high-inertia earthbag building leads to an almost total elimination of thermal discomfort during the year (only 209 h not meeting adaptive comfort and 3.1 ºC-days of discomfort). The same combination of passive measures in the traditional Burkinabe dwelling improves significantly thermal comfort when compared to the base case, but it is not as effective in providing comfort, with more than 3000 h and 200 degree-days of annual discomfort.
  • Sustainable building maintenance for safer and healthier cities: Effective
           strategies for implementing the Mandatory Building Inspection Scheme
           (MBIS) in Hong Kong
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Daniel W.M. Chan The prevailing trend of building ageing and dilapidation in Hong Kong has instigated the promulgation of the Mandatory Building Inspection Scheme (MBIS) as a statutory measure in handling the long-lasting problems related to building decay which mostly occur in existing private buildings aged 30 years old or longer. This paper aims to highlight the present situation of building deterioration in Hong Kong, and to determine and explain the effective recommendations or good practices for executing MBIS through an empirical survey. Most of the respondents perceived that: (1) Establishing detailed guidelines and clear standards for building inspection and remedial works under MBIS; (2) Offering more technical and financial assistance from the government to property owners to aid the execution of MBIS; and (3) Enhancing the public awareness on MBIS through different media, are the three most effective recommendations or good practices for MBIS. Such findings have enabled building owners and various industrial practitioners to equip with better knowledge and deeper understanding about MBIS for optimizing the implementation procedures in future.
  • Environmental assessment of cost optimized structural systems in tall
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Dimitris Mavrokapnidis, Chara Ch. Mitropoulou, Nikos D. Lagaros Building structures are considered as major contributors to global energy consumption (30–40%) and are responsible for 40–50% of greenhouse gas emissions. Due to their high energy consumption and material use, tall buildings have drawn particular attention with respect to their environmental impact. The influence of structural systems on the environmental performance of tall buildings is studied in this work, through calculating the embodied energy and CO2 emissions of construction materials. In this direction, characteristic structural systems of tall buildings are considered in order to compare their environmental behaviour and account for their differences on the amount of construction materials used for their formation. In order to achieve this comparison, the structural systems are material-cost optimized using an optimization computing platform (OCP) developed by the authors for solving real-world structural design optimization problems. The results of this research provide valuable findings for the significant role of structural optimization in sustainable design of tall buildings as well as in limiting the use of construction materials.
  • An analysis of the applicability of existing shrinkage prediction models
           to concretes containing steel fibres or crumb rubber
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Roman Chylík, Josef Fládr, Petr Bílý, Tomáš Trtík, Lukáš Vráblík Shrinkage is one of the most important phenomena influencing the long-term behaviour of concrete structures. Several models for prediction of shrinkage strains have been developed in the past. Despite the fact that all of them have been validated against large experimental data sets, they give diverse results. This paper deals with an analysis of the shrinkage behaviour of five selected concrete mixtures–normal-strength concrete without additional compounds, with crumb rubber, and with steel fibres, and high-strength concrete with and without fibres. Shrinkage strains of these concretes have been monitored for 365 days, and experimental data were compared to four shrinkage prediction models (model B3, model B4 and two Eurocode 2 models). The main objectives of the research were to study the effects of fibres and crumb rubber on concrete shrinkage behaviour and to analyse suitability of the prediction models for the materials with additional compounds, laying partly outside the applicability limits of the models. Uncertainty and variance of two input parameters (compressive strength and relative humidity) was taken into account by means of reliability analysis. Steel fibres were found to mitigate the influence of shrinkage; crumb rubber did not improve the shrinkage behaviour. Eurocode 2 and B3 models were able to predict shrinkage of normal-strength concrete well in the presence of additional compounds. B3 prediction was accurate also for fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete, while B4 exhibited the best fit in the case of high-strength concrete without fibres.
  • Thermal performance and fitness of glacial till for rammed earth
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): J. Tinsley, S. Pavía The search for sustainability caused a revival of earth construction. Rammed earth (RE) construction is often preferred as compaction and stabilization leads to stronger, more consistent materials. Tills are glacial sediments. Historically, they were used for construction and brick making. However, their heterogeneous nature has prevented standardisation into mainstream construction. This work contributes to make earth a reliable building material. It evaluates the suitability of till for RE construction by measuring its geotechnical parameters and comparing them against recommended RE values. The results are consistent with other tills and indicate fitness for RE construction. The tills were successfully stabilized with 5% lime, reaching compressive strengths c.1.09 MPa.Thermal performance is vital in construction. High thermal mass materials such as RE can lower today's unsustainable energy demand for heating and cooling. This work experimentally measures the thermal properties of the till and compares them to other constructions. The experimental values are feed into models to compare thermal performance against other REs and concretes. The rammed till has high conductivity (1.65 W/m K) and specific heat capacity (1218.66 J/kg K) indicating a substantial scope to store heat and poor insulation ability. The thermal diffusivity (7.42 × 10–7 m2/s) suggests that the till will impede heat flow to a greater extent than concrete.In the simulations, the RE assemblies showed the thermal lag typical of high thermal mass materials reducing the fluctuations of external temperature and increasing the internal thermal stability when compared with concrete. All insulated assemblies maintained thermal comfort indexes however, the RE assemblies performed slightly better than concrete; in particular the internally insulated RE, with longer times in superior comfort indices and the smallest temperature drops. The annual heat load of insulated RE is 2–4.2% lower than the concrete construction.
  • Analysis of phase change materials (PCM) for building wallboards based on
           the effect of environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): R. David Beltrán, Javier Martínez-Gómez One of the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development in the building sector is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. In this regards, it is necessary the development and promotion of efficient, affordable, and high impact technologies, systems, and practices. For this purpose, new technologies as phase change materials (PCM) is being studied to improve the energy efficiency and reduce energy usage in buildings.This research aims to analyze the selection of PCM for building wallboards and roofs by comparison between multi-criteria decision methods (MCDM) and Building Energy Simulations (BES). For this purpose, a reference generic social dwelling designed in Ecuador to shelter four people in a space of 36 m2 has been chosen to perform the study.The MCDM COPRAS-G, TOPSIS and VIKOR are considered to accurately rank PCM alternatives, taking in consideration different material selection criteria. Moreover, BES are performed to: (a) further contrast the MCDM ranking of PCM and (b) numerically assess the thermal behavior and estimate the energy consumption with the incorporation of the PCMs.The results found discrepancies between the MCDM and BES, demonstrating the importance that the environment variables play to appropriately assess the performance of PCM.
  • Evaluation of sustainable clay bricks incorporating Brick Kiln Dust
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Muhammad Hassan Riaz, Anwar Khitab, Sajjad Ahmed Bricks are extensively used building material all over the world owing to their low price, frequent availability, and ease of handling. However, as a matter of fact, they also consume a huge quantity of good quality clay. In this research, Brick Kiln Dust (BKD) was used as partial replacement of fresh clay in bricks. The replacement percentages were kept as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by mass of fresh clay. In total 300 brick samples were prepared. The bricks prepared by incorporating the waste materials were analyzed for their physical, chemical and mechanical properties and the results were compared with those obtained from the control samples. The brick specimen were evaluated for their unit weight, water absorption, apparent porosity, efflorescence, pore size distribution, micro structure, crystalline phases, chemical composition, compressive and flexural strength, and sulfate attack resistance. The results indicate that the inclusion of BKD marginally reduces the mechanical strength, increases water absorption capacity, results in lower unit weight and higher resistance to efflorescence and are useful for insulation owing to high porosity. The research concludes that the BKD may be incorporated in the production of clayey bricks, saving as much as 25% of fertile clay, which is environmentally very beneficial.
  • Improved ductility of SHCC retrofitted unreinforced load bearing masonry
           via a strip-debonded approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Gideon P.A.G. van Zijl, Dirk J.A. de Jager Retrofitting of unreinforced load bearing masonry (ULM) in seismic regions has received significant attention, motivated by the substantial stock of ULM buildings and their vulnerability in seismic action. Sprayed application of a thin overlay of strain-hardening cement-based composite (SHCC) has been developed, and showed to significantly improve in-plane shearing resistance. Multiple-cracking shear response of the SHCC overlay also has the potential to improved ductility. However, reflective cracking in the overlay limits the multiple cracking of the SHCC. This paper reports nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis of a strip debonded overlay strategy to distribute diagonal cracking in the SHCC. The FE model is calibrated against previous shear wall tests on double leaf masonry walls, retrofitted with 15 mm SHCC overlays and subjected to pull-over tests. Masonry is modelled as an anisotropic continuum with multi-surface plasticity-based limit functions, allowing compressive hardening and subsequent softening, as well as tensile softening of the masonry. A rotating smeared cracking principal stress limit function is used to model the SHCC, and Coulomb-friction is modelled for the masonry/SHCC interface. After demonstrating that the FE model simulates the in-plane shearing behaviour of the retrofitted walls, a strip debonded approach, which leaves diagonal strips of the masonry-SHCC interface unbonded, is developed and tested computationally, in order to avoid reflective cracking. Validating shear wall tests, on five shear walls, show that the debonded strips cause increased off-diagonal crack spread, and significantly improved ductility compared to a reference retrofitted wall with full interfacial bond.
  • Environmental and economic comparison of the life cycle of waterproofing
           solutions for flat roofs
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 24Author(s): Miriana Gonçalves, José Dinis Silvestre, Jorge de Brito, Raul Gomes This paper provides the environmental and economic impact comparison of the life cycle of several waterproofing solutions used in flat roofs. Data used in the comparison come from different European databases, namely environmental product declarations (EPD) or generic databases. Firstly, the stages of the life cycle of materials to be studied were defined. Then, an assessment at a national and international level, both in research studies and in databases, of the available information related to the environmental performance of these products was completed. The life cycle cost of each waterproofing solution was estimated using market data. Finally, a table was prepared for each type of flat roof, comparing the waterproofing solutions at an economic and environmental level.The waterproofing solutions considered were bitumen and synthetic membranes. For both and for each type of flat roof and accessibility, the two most significant environmental impact categories and the life cycle cost were estimated, taking into account their durability. The results of the multi-criteria assessment presented here allow, for the first time, to select at the design stage the most and least advantageous waterproofing solutions.Through the multi-criteria life cycle assessment (combining cost and environmental impacts in the life cycle), it was found that, for all roof types, the bituminous membranes were the best option and the synthetic EPDM membranes presented the highest values. However, if the weight of cost is reduced to 34%, the best option becomes TPO membranes.
  • Improving insulation in metakaolin based geopolymer: Effects of
           metabauxite and metatalc
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Ngouloure N.M. Zenabou, Nait Benoit-Ali, S. Zekeng, S. Rossignol, U.C. Melo, A.B. Tchamba, E. Kamseu, C. Leonelli To improve the thermal stability of porous geopolymers, metabauxite and metatalc were used as partial replacement of metakaolin. The results of optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), thermal sintering, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and hot disk investigations, were used to establish the effective stability of the porous composites up to 800 °C. At 1000 °C, the metabauxite based composites showed microcracks into the larger pores and small microcracks into the matrix as the results of residual poorly bounded Alumina oligomers. Metatalc based porous composites showed microcracks only inside larger pores. Those microcracks can be eliminated with the optimization of the mix-design. Despite those microcracks, the specimens maintained their integrity and stability. Above 800 °C it can be seem that the thermal conductivity of the matrices with only metakaolin increases more rapidly compared to matrices containing metatalc or metabauxite. The combination of high volume of porosity (60–65%), low thermal conductivity ( ̴ 0.30 W/m/K) and good thermal stability gives to porous refractory geopolymers a large scale of intrinsic properties that can be positively exploited in the field of incinerators, anti flames, kilns and building constructions.Graphical abstractfx1
  • A multi-criteria lifecycle assessment framework for evaluating building
           systems design
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Samer BuHamdan, Aladdin Alwisy, Beda Barkokebas, Ahmed Bouferguene, Mohamed Al-Hussein The increasing economic challenges and the environmental responsibilities the construction industry is facing necessitate reductions in the cost and environmental impact of buildings through their lifecycle without compromising the performance of building systems. In response to these challenges, this paper proposes a framework that (i) incorporates the behaviour of building systems (e.g., heating system and building envelope) to account for the interdependencies amongst the building systems, and (ii) evaluates the design of building systems in order to reduce their lifecycle cost and environmental impact. The proposed framework utilizes the failure model (i.e., the survivor function and Mean Time To Failure) of Reliability theory to model the behaviour of building systems during operations and measures the performance of these systems (i.e., assessing the time to failure) and multi-objective optimization to find the design alternative that reduces the impact of the assessment criteria and increase the performance of building systems as per the failure model. A case study is also presented in this paper in order to illustrate the application of the proposed framework during the design. The case study shows that the application of the proposed framework contributes to reducing the lifecycle negative impact of building systems on cost, fossil fuel consumption, Global Warming Potential, acidifications potentials, human health criteria, eutrophication potential, Ozon depletion potential, and smog potential, while increasing the lifespan (i.e. the selected performance measure) of the heating systems.Graphical abstractfx1
  • A multi-technique characterization study of building materials from the
           Exedra of S. Nicolò l’Arena in Catania (Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Lavinia de Ferri, Cettina Santagati, Marilena Catinoto, Elena Tesser, Eugenio Magnano di San Lio, Giulio Pojana The S. Nicolò l’Arena Exedra in Catania was built up in 1722 in front of the homonymous Monastery. The façade is composed by natural and artificial stones: Syracuse stone for portals and windows frames, lava stone for the basement and a reddish plaster for plane surfaces, typical materials of the Catania historic buildings. Its color is due to the introduction of the so-called “ghiara” in the finishing mixture. A multi-technique study is here presented: after the obtainment of a detailed surveying of the building surface through the integration of 3D laser scanner and digital photogrammetry techniques, FTIR-ATR, Raman and XRD analysis were carried out to characterize structures, materials and their alteration products.
  • Compressive strength, water absorption, water sorptivity and surface radon
           exhalation rate of silica fume and fly ash based mortar
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Daniel Hatungimana, Caner Taşköprü, Mutlu İçhedef, Müslim Murat Saç, Şemsi Yazıcı In this study, the effect of partial cement replacement with silica fume and fly ash on the compressive strength, water absorption, volume of permeable pore, water sorptivity, radon content and surface radon exhalation rate of mortar mixtures were investigated. It was observed that the compressive strength of mortar mixtures containing silica fume as partial cement replacement increased as the amount of silica fume content increased while the water absorption, volume of permeable pore, water sorptivity and radon exhalation rate of mortar mixtures decreased. The decrease in surface radon exhalation rate was ranged between 23% and 43% while that of mortar mixtures containing fly ash increased up to 15% of the rate of the control mortar mixture. Results showed that silica fume addition decreased the radon concentration and surface radon exhalation rate while fly ash showed a detrimental effect.
  • Reactive transport numerical modeling of mortar carbonation: Atmospheric
           and accelerated carbonation
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Jena Jeong, Hamidréza Ramézani, Edgar Chuta In the present paper, mathematical modeling and numerical solution for the 3D carbonation phenomenon on cement mortars involving aggregates have been investigated for the first time. To achieve this assessment, the Papadakis analytical proposal has been fully investigated under 1D and 3D considerations. The molar concentration variations of the hydrates (CSH and Ca(OH)2) and unhydrated grains (C2S and C3S) have been analyzed during carbonation, including hydration phenomenon. At the first stage, 1D numerical modeling of multi-reaction carbonation has been applied to atmospheric carbonation and verified by experiments in the literature. Afterwards, numerical simulations have been achieved on 3D numerical mortar samples for accelerated carbonation including aggregates using the relevant granulometry, whose applications sustain more realistic outcomes. The numerical solution has been done using the finite element method for the extremely non-linear transient system of PDEs. The numerical experiments have been compared to those done using the pH detector (Phenolphthalein and Thymophtaleine) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). Some conclusions and outlooks pertaining to carbonation modeling have been emphasized, including water migration and CaCO3 precipitation issues in improving the analytical modeling for accelerated carbonation cases.
  • Data- and stakeholder management framework for the implementation of
           BIM-based Material Passports
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Meliha Honic, Iva Kovacic, Goran Sibenik, Helmut Rechberger European Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry consumes a significant amount of materials like steel, aluminum, copper and plastics, thus creating a large reservoir on secondary raw materials in buildings. One of the main strategies to minimize environmental impacts and the energy consumption is maximizing recycling rates. To enable circularity, and in consequence high recycling rates, material information about the existing building stock is necessary. Therefore, new design-centric tools and methods, as well as tools, which enable a compilation of data repositories on the material composition of buildings, are required. The first aim of this research is the generation of a Building Information Modelling (BIM) - supported Material Passport (MP), which enables an assessment of the recycling potential and environmental impacts of building materials. For the compilation of the semi-automated MP, a specific methodology was developed and tested on a use case. Thereby various challenges regarding data and stakeholders were faced, such as inconsistent data and lack of collaboration between various stakeholders. These challenges lead to the second focus of this paper – the development of a data- and stakeholder management framework. The data- and stakeholder management framework presents the required collaboration of various stakeholders in order to achieve a successful implementation of the MP in the AEC industry. Results show, that a semi-automated compilation of the BIM-based MP is possible and the implementation of the MP in the AEC industry requires close collaboration of a broad spectrum of stakeholders, thus forming a need for creating digital platforms for life cycle management of buildings and material resources.
  • Assessing the potential of sludge generated by the pulp and paper industry
           in assembling locking blocks
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): A.R.G. Azevedo, T.M. Marvila, W. Júnior Fernandes, J. Alexandre, G.C. Xavier, E.B. Zanelato, N.A. Cerqueira, L.G. Pedroti, B.C. Mendes A pulp and paper industry generates a large amount of industrial solid wastes, which are mostly wet sludge, basically composed by kaolin and pulp. The National Solid Waste Policy in force in Brazil instituted as mandatory to provide the adequate destination of this material and to improve the costs involved in the process. The purpose of this work was to analyze the feasibility of incorporating sludge from the pulp and paper industry in soil-cement blocks using 10% cement and 90% compensated soil. In the composition of this compensated soil, typical from the region where the research was performed, sand and 5%, 10%, and 15% of waste were incorporated in the clay mass. Compressive strength, water absorption and durability tests were carried out with loss of mass. The results indicate that blocks produced with waste incorporation of up to 10% meet the technical requirements set by the main international standards, enabling them to be used in civil construction and thus contributing to reduce the environmental impacts regarding the waste disposal.
  • Changing significance of embodied energy: A comparative study of material
           specifications and building energy sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Saheed O. Ajayi, Lukumon O. Oyedele, Olusegun M. Ilori Despite the increasing significance of embodied impacts of buildings, efforts to reduce their environmental footprints have been concentrated on the operational impacts of buildings. This study investigates the changing significance of embodied carbon over the entire life cycle of whole buildings. A case study of an office building was modelled with Revit, and sensitivity analyses of the modelled building were performed by varying the material specification and energy use pattern for seven other typologies. Using Revit, BIMWASTE tool, ATHENA Impact Estimator and Green Building Studio, comparative life-cycle analyses were carried out for the eight building typologies.The study suggests that notwithstanding the enormous impacts of the operational stage on life-cycle carbon of fossil fuel-based buildings, embodied impacts could vary between 8.4% and 22.3%. A key determinant of the proportional impacts of embodied energy is the nature of materials used for building construction. Similarly, embodied impacts of buildings become more significant and could contribute up to 60% of their life cycle impacts as they become more energy-efficient during their operational stage. As the study confirms the varying significance of embodied energy as construction materials and energy use patterns change, it implies the need for policy measures based on a whole life assessment methodology, instead of the usual ways of giving sole importance to the operational impacts of buildings. With buildings becoming more energy-efficient during their operational stage, there is an urgent need for an increased focus on the embodied impacts of buildings, especially as renewable energy resources are becoming widely adopted.
  • Can an earth plaster be efficient when applied on different masonries'
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Tânia Santos, Paulina Faria, Vítor Silva Earth mortars are known for being ecological but also reversible, contributing to comfort and aesthetic. Nevertheless, compatibility with different masonries is scarcely assessed. A commercial unstabilised ready-mixed earth mortar was produced with an ilitic earth with addition of sand and oat straw fibres. It was used to plaster different experimental masonry walls, at protected outdoors environmental conditions. The plasters applied on the masonries were visually monitored and characterized in situ by non-destructive techniques and in laboratory by bulk density and microstructure. The same mortar used for the plasters was characterized in laboratory in fresh state and, after drying, on prismatic specimens and specimens composed by a mortar layer applied on hollow bricks. Some variation of results occurs when the same unstabilised ready-mixed earth mortar is used to plaster different masonries, what may be related to the water absorption of the masonry materials. However, after six months the earth plaster presented durability on the different masonries when protected from rain. It proves that this ecological mortar is technically efficient to plaster different types of masonry, historical or contemporary.Graphical abstractfx1
  • Optimum mix design of geopolymer pastes and concretes cured in ambient
           condition based on compressive strength, setting time and workability
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Muhammad N.S. Hadi, Haiqiu Zhang, Shelley Parkinson In this study, the effects of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) content, alkaline solution to binder (Al/Bi) mass ratio, sodium silicate solution to sodium hydroxide solution (SS/SH) mass ratio, and additional water to binder (Aw/Bi) mass ratio on the compressive strength, setting time and workability of geopolymer pastes were studied. A series of mini-size specimen compression tests, setting time tests and mini-slump tests were conducted at ambient condition (23 ± 2 °C). The GGBFS and Class F fly ash (FA) were used as aluminosilicate source. The alkaline activator was a blend of sodium silicate solution and sodium hydroxide solution. Additional water was added to improve the workability and prolong the setting time. Based on the test results of compressive strength, setting time and workability, the optimum mix design was found to have GGBFS content of 40%, Al/Bi ratio of 0.5, SS/SH ratio of 2.0, and Aw/Bi ratio of 0.15. It was found that the properties of the geopolymer paste under optimum mix design were better than those of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. After that, the geopolymer concrete tests based on optimum mix design of geopolymer paste were conducted, in comparison with OPC concrete tests. It was found that the properties of geopolymer concrete were also better than the properties of OPC concrete. It is worth noting that this relatively simple and fast test methodology to obtain the optimum mix design of geopolymer concrete can help engineers save time and labour. Lastly, new mathematical models were proposed to predict the properties of geopolymer pastes, which showed high accuracy.
  • A combined analytical model for increasing the accuracy of heat emission
           predictions in rooms heated by radiators
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Karl-Villem Võsa, Andrea Ferrantelli, Jarek Kurnitski The efficiency of heat emitters plays an important role in the improvement of building energy performance, especially in the context of system and product comparison. In particular, it can be directly related to thermal comfort via the operative temperature that is effectively sensed by the users.For the first time in the literature, in this paper we develop a combined analytical model for room and radiator that computes directly the heat output required to maintain a specific operative temperature. The total heat balance of the enclosure is used to accurately quantify and compare the heat emission losses of different radiator types via an analytical calculation of the operative temperature. This determines the efficiency of a selection of panel radiators with different surface temperature, radiation fraction and number of panels, which were tested in a chamber conforming to the EN 442-2 standard.Additionally, we assess the related annual energy consumption in different climates by carrying out annual simulations in old (without heat recovery) and new (with heat recovery) building types located in Tallinn, Estonia and Strasbourg, France. In the new building we find a similar performance for all the radiators. In the old building however, one radiator outperforms the other two with up to 1.38% lower annual energy consumption, due to smaller rear losses and higher thermal comfort provided by the larger front panel surface.
  • Flat bed desiccant dehumidification: A predictive model for desiccant
           transient characterisation using a species transport model within CFD
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): M. Bonello, D. Micallef, S.P. Borg As opposed to steady state characteristics which have been, in the past, estensively investigated, the transient dehumidification characteristics of silica gel under different flat bed configurations, has not been studied in detail with respect to varying mass and air flow rates. Such data is essential in the design of systems employing this method of dehumidification. Moreover, numerical models of the performance of flat bed desiccant configurations generally take the form of fundamental studies with explicit modelling of the desiccant particle geometries. The primary objective of this work aims is to generate dehumidification characteristics in high humidity environments. Secondly, a more simplified and practical approach is proposed here on the basis of experimental calibration. The methodology consists of two main approaches: (i) the development of a test rig for the experimental determination of the transient dehumidification characteristics and, (ii) the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model using experimental data as input to provide easy extrapolation of experimental data. This paper presents detailed dehumidification results for varying air volume flow rate and desiccant mass. The numerical model, on the other hand, successfully predicts the dehumidification performance of varying silica gel masses by using only a single experimental test case. This proves the validity of using such a model to extrapolate on experimental data.
  • Experimental Investigation Of Basalt Textile Reinforced Engineered
           Cementitious Composite Under Apparent Hoop Tensile Loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Ali N. Al-Gemeel, Yan Zhuge, Osama Youssf Over the past decade, conventional mortar reinforced by textile has shown a promising performance as a composite material for repairing of both concrete and masonry structures compared with that of reinforced by discrete fibres. However, the relatively brittleness of the conventional mortar adversely affects the efficiency of the textile reinforced mortar (TRM) composite system due to the premature textile fracture. Engineered cementitious composite (ECC) is a well-known high-performance cementitious composite for its superior tensile strain-hardening properties and high impact resistance compared with both conventional mortar and discrete fibres reinforced mortar. In this paper, the behaviour of ECC reinforced by basalt textile was investigated and compared with that of TRM technique. The behaviour of ring-shaped specimens subjected to apparent hoop tensile loading was studied. The response characteristics including: tensile strength, failure modes, energy absorption, toughness index, strain behaviour, and the correlations between tensile strength and energy absorption were investigated. The results revealed that ECC is a promising material that can effectively enhance the performance of textile reinforced mortar. Replacing conventional mortar by ECC resulted in a notable increase in the peak tensile load by 241% indicating a dramatic effect of the ECC-based matrix.
  • Classification and energy analysis of bank building stock: A case study in
           Curitiba, Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Ing Liang Wong, Eduardo Krüger, Ana Claudia Menoncin Loper, Fabiano Kiyoshi Mori An engineering bottom-up technique has been selected for classification and energy analysis of 72 bank branches in the Brazilian city of Curitiba. A multi-stage approach has been adopted in this study to collect and analyse the dataset of these bank branches, virtually survey and map geometrical and design parameters of the branches and classify them according to shapes, sizes, geographical layout, and construction age. Four types (Type A to D) of bank branches have been identified. Type A branches have the greatest mean conditioned floor area (over 100 m2) with largest deviation of energy use intensity (over 47 kWh/m2year). Type B branches are most commonly found in densely populated downtown area. However, over 61% of the branches belong to Type C and D, which are mostly located in less congested sub-urban areas. The study also shows that post-2010s branches are among the largest energy consumers. An in-depth parametric assessment on specific design details from architectural drawings of selected branches was further conducted to identify the effects of building parameters on energy consumption of the bank branches. Despite the minute correlation obtained between energy consumption and design variables (R2 of 0.253), a Linear Discriminant Analysis suggests that percentage of openings and occupant density are among the defining parameters of a low and medium-high consumer as regards bank branches in Brazil. This study provides insights into a better understanding of the design characteristics of bank branches in Curitiba and parameters potentially affecting their energy consumption. The archetype bottom-up technique presented in this study that involved studies at different stages can also be used to define typologies for other types of buildings. This study shows how complex building stock, such as, bank buildings could be classified and their energy performance collectively analysed using multi-stage approach. The approach combined a range of methods, which had been conducted in sequence, such as, virtual survey, building classification, further in-depth parametric and energy assessments of selected bank branches based on architectural drawings using Multiple Regression Analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis. Such approach enables critical design parameters to be determined in the absence of complete set of building data, which could be adopted for other similar types of complex building stock. Keywords: building typology, classification, energy benchmarking, bottom-up approach, archetype technique, energy use intensity.
  • Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of adobes stabilized with
           fonio (Digitaria exilis) straw
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Moussa Ouedraogo, Kalifala Dao, Younoussa Millogo, Jean-Emmanuel Aubert, Adamah Messan, Mohamed Seynou, Lamine Zerbo, Moussa Gomina This study deals with the influence of fonio straw on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of adobes. The raw materials (soil and fonio straw from Burkina Faso) were characterized from the chemical (ICP-AES), mineralogical (XRD, DSC-TGA, IR), geotechnical (particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, methylene blue value) and microstructural (SEM-EDS) points of view. The physical (thermal conductivity, capillarity water absorption, porosity, erodibility) and mechanical (compressive and flexural strength) properties of the adobes were studied with specific attention paid to their damage and fracture behavior. Because of the biochemical composition of fonio straw (presence of quasi-crystalline cellulose and hemicelluloses, which are hydrophilic compounds), its association with the clay matrix increased water absorption and was accompanied by a significant porosity due to the air trapped during mixing. The insulating character of the cellulose and the low density resulting from the high porosity contributed to an appreciable reduction of the thermal conductivity of these adobes. The use of small amounts of fonio straw improved the mechanical properties of the adobes and made them less brittle. This improvement was linked to the good adhesion between fonio straw and the clay matrix, greatly reduced propagation of fissures in the composites and the high tensile strength of fonio straw because of its cellulose content. Thus, fonio-straw-reinforced adobes have interesting properties for use as cheap construction materials in the Sahelian zones and could contribute significantly to the thermal comfort of the inhabitants in this hot climate.
  • Laboratory characterization of brick walls rendered with a pervious
           lime-cement mortar
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): I. Palomar, G. Barluenga, R.J. Ball, M. Lawrence A laboratory study investigating important thermal retrofitting solutions for simple and double (cavity) brick walls is presented. Test walls were modified using materials of current interest including an external pervious lime-cement mortar render and insulation board prior to evaluation. Laboratory simulations of steady-state winter and summer scenarios were performed using apparatus comprising two opposing climate chambers. Temperature, relative humidity and heat flux rate were monitored with surface sensors every 10 min until stabilization on each wall type, retrofitting solution and climate scenario. The temperature and relative humidity profiles, heat flux, surface temperature difference, thermal conductance, condensation risk and stabilization times were assessed. Comparisons between simple and double (cavity) brick walls showed significant differences and a high condensation risk in the non-ventilated air cavity of the double wall. The pervious lime-cement mortar render enhanced substantially the thermal performance of the single wall although increased the condensation risk of the double (cavity) wall. As expected, the insulation layer reduced the thermal conductance of the wall, although the improvement in a summer scenario was considerably lower than in winter. The different performance observed between winter and summer steady-state conditions emphasized the importance of the heat and mass transfer coupling effect. Therefore, this work proves that effective retrofitting depends on materials, wall layouts and climate conditions. These experimental results provide essential knowledge about assessing the effects of common retrofitting solutions especially under hot-dry summer scenarios.
  • Design optimisation using convex programming: Towards waste-efficient
           building designs
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Muhammad Bilal, Lukumon O. Oyedele, Olugbenga O. Akinade, Juan Manuel Davila Delgado, Lukman A. Akanbi, Anuoluwapo O. Ajayi, Muhammad S. Younis A non-modular building layout is amongst the leading sources of offcut waste, resulting from a substantial amount of onsite cutting and fitting of bricks, blocks, plasterboard, and tiles. The field of design for dimensional coordination is concerned with finding an optimal configuration for non-overlapping spaces in the layout to reduce materials waste. In this article, we propose a convex optimisation-based algorithm for finding alternative floor layouts to enforce the design for dimensional coordination. At the crux of the proposed algorithm lies two mathematical models. The first is the convex relaxation model that establishes the topology of spaces within the layout through relative positioning constraints. We employed acyclic graphs to generate a minimal set of relative positioning constraints to model the problem. The second model optimises the geometry of spaces based on the modular size. The algorithm exploits aspect ratio constraints to restrict the generation of alternate layouts with huge variations. The algorithm is implemented in the BIMWaste tool for automating the design exploration process. BIMWaste is capable of investigating the degree to which designers consider dimensional coordination. We tested the algorithm over 10 completed building projects to report its suitability and accuracy. The algorithm generates competitive floor layouts for the same client intent that are likely to be tidier and more modular. More importantly, those floor layouts have improved waste performance (i.e., 8.75% less waste) due to a reduced tendency for material cutting and fitting. This study, for the first time, used convex programming for the design optimisation with a focus to reduce construction waste.
  • Behavior of eccentrically loaded shallow foundations resting on composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Abbasali TaghaviGhalesari, Mohammadreza Khaleghnejad Tabari, Asskar Janalizadeh Choobbasti, Nima EsmaeilpourShirvani Composite soils are a mixture of fine- and coarse-grained soil with a proportion that improves the density, permeability and strength properties of the mix. When the underlying soil does not provide adequate settlement and load carrying properties, composite soil as a cushion layer beneath the shallow foundation can be used. Thus, this paper investigates the influence of using gravel-clay and sand-clay mixture under the shallow foundation subjected to eccentric vertical load. Field investigations and experimental testing were first conducted to evaluate the in-situ soil properties and available fine- and coarse-grained material in Babol, Iran. Then, three-dimensional finite element method was employed to predict the behavior of the eccentrically loaded shallow foundation resting on the composite soil in terms of bearing capacity improvement BCI and normalized average settlement, Ravg of the foundation, based on the data collected in previous stage. According to the results, foundation over sand-clay mixture (SCM) showed a comparatively better performance in comparison with gravel-clay mixture (GCM). Ultimately, nonlinear regression technique was utilized to incorporate the effect of cushion layer in the relationship to calculate the bearing capacity reduction factor.
  • Review of bolted inter-module connections in modular steel buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Andrew William Lacey, Wensu Chen, Hong Hao, Kaiming Bi In current practice, the force-displacement and moment-rotation behaviours of inter-module connections for modular steel buildings are established by a combination of theoretical, experimental, and numerical analyses. The simplified connection behaviour is then incorporated into a numerical model of the overall structure for analysis and design. For engineering design analysis, it is desirable to estimate the inter-module connection stiffness by means of simplified calculations. Methods for estimation of the stiffness of traditional steel connections are available in the literature, however, their application to inter-module connections (also known as inter-connections) remains to be investigated. This paper summarises existing inter-connection details, including their purpose and associated design methods and models. The inter-connections selected from the literature provide details of the typical force-displacement and moment-rotation behaviours. For the selected inter-connections, the numerical and experimental results are compared with the calculated theoretical results predicted by existing theoretical models. The existing theoretical models are compared, and their limitations are outlined.
  • Non-destructive data assimilation as a tool to diagnose corrosion rate in
           reinforced concrete structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Olivier Anterrieu, Bernard Giroux, Erwan Gloaguen, Christophe Carde Reinforcement corrosion is a major problem in the long-term management of reinforced concrete structures. With sustainability in perspective, knowledge of the corrosion rate (Vcor) makes it possible to estimate the kinetics of the corrosion phenomenon and helps in refining the maintenance strategy of such structures. Although in situ Vcor measurements are possible, data acquisition is time-consuming because of the protocol intrinsic to its measurement (reinforcement polarization made point by point). Therefore, in the context of site diagnostics, these methods cannot reasonably be used systematically on site and must be combined with high performance non-destructive testing (NDT) surface methods (GPR, capacimetry, half-cell corrosion). In addition, depending on the case, Vcor (point measurements) and NDT (surface) data are statistically related. However, there is a lack of efficient data assimilation tools permitting accurate translation of NDT data into pseudo Vcor data. In this paper, we present a numerical tool allowing prediction of Vcor values from NDT measurements. The tool permits application of different data assimilation techniques, i.e., cokriging, Bayesian sequential simulation, and a decision tree-driven learning depending on statistical behavior and available data. The efficiency of our numerical tool has been tested on a dataset acquired on a structure located in the French Alps. Results show that, for the case study, our data assimilation tool allows prediction of Vcor with accuracy compared to in situ measurements and also permits one to infer the uncertainty of the prediction. This opens the door for quantitative use of multiple NDT in the management of reinforced concrete structures.
  • Experimental investigation on utilization of dried marble slurry as fine
           aggregate in lean masonry mortars
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): K.I. Syed Ahmed Kabeer, Ashok Kumar Vyas Dried marble slurry has been experimentally evaluated as a potential replacement of river sand in the production of masonry mortars. In the present study, river sand was replaced in the range of 0–40% to prepare a cement mortar mix of volumetric proportion 1:6. Workability, fresh bulk density, compressive strength, tensile bond strength, drying shrinkage, hardened bulk and apparent densities, ultrasonic pulse velocity, water absorption and porosity were assessed. It was found that replacing 20% of river sand by dried marble slurry resulted in enhancement in mechanical properties with no change in water absorption and porosity of mortar mixes. Drying shrinkage is a concern which increased by 23% on usage of marble slurry as fine aggregate. That is why the utilization of such mortars should be limited for masonry activities only. An attempt was made to link the behaviour of such mortars with the quantity of particles finer than 0.075 mm present in the mixes. An easy to apply methodology of on-site examination to determine the suitability of mortar mixes for masonry purposes by estimating particles finer than 0.075 mm and fresh mortar bulk density was also validated.
  • Structural behavior of concrete beams and columns reinforced with Waste
           Plastic incorporated GFRP (WPGFRP) rebars
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Fayaz Jawad, C.Y. Adarsha, T. Raghavendra, B.C. Udayashankar, K. Natarajan Experimental investigations were carried out on novel Waste Plastic incorporated GFRP (WPGFRP) rebars and concrete specimens reinforced with the novel WPGFRP rebars. The WPGFRP rebars were manufactured through pultrusion, using waste plastic (PET powder) as a strength additive filler and various engineering properties are assessed. Tests results indicate that use of PET powder in GFRP rebars which leads to the WPGFRP rebars, increases tensile and compressive strengths of rebars by 17.2% and 19.3% respectively, hence proving to be a strength additive material. Three types of beams and columns were tested for flexure capacity (two-point loading) and axial compression, respectively. First type (Conventional) consists of beams and columns reinforced with Fe500 Steel rebars and stirrups/ties. While both second (Total-FRP) and third (Hybrid) types of beams and columns were reinforced with novel WPGFRP rebars, however differ in the material of their stirrups/ties. WPGFRP stirrups/ties were used in second type of members while Fe500 Steel stirrups/ties were provided in third type. Results indicate that the performance of Hybrid members is superior to that of Conventional and Total-FRP members, in terms of first crack load and failure load. However, large flexural deformations and compressive strains were also observed in case of Hybrid beams and columns, respectively.
  • Sustainability of nanomaterials based self-healing concrete: An
           all-inclusive insight
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Ghasan Fahim Huseien, Kwok Wei Shah, Abdul Rahman Mohd Sam Presently, the construction industries worldwide are looking for materials with low carbon footprint and environment friendliness. Yet, ordinary Portland cements (OPC) based materials are widely used in building sectors and remain majorly responsible for carbon pollution. The deterioration that happens in such concretes from the very beginning of the service not only life reduces their lifespan but also demands more OPC. Furthermore, the continuation and repairing are mostly laboured intensive and too expensive. Thus, self-recovery of the damaged concretes is significant concerning environmental mitigation and energy saving. Lately, nanomaterials based concretes have been exploited diversely in the construction engineering owing to their enhanced mechanical and durable attributes. The design as well as production of self-healing and sustainable concrete is an intensely research topic in nanotechnology. In this view, this article provides a comprehensive assessment on nanomaterials based self-healing concretes. The past development, recent trends, environmental impact, sustainability, merits and demerits of several methods of self-healing concrete production are discussed.
  • Study of vertical seismic isolation technique with nonlinear viscous
           dampers for lateral response reduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Reza Milanchian, Mahmood Hosseini In a vertical seismic isolation (VSI) system, an individual structure is partitioned in a vertical isolation plane into two dynamically different substructures interconnected by a mechanism. In this way, response reduction is expected in each substructure when compared to the original non-partitioned structure. In this study, the features of an SDOF with nonlinear viscous dampers (NVDs) subjected to harmonic loading have first been investigated, and a criterion has been proposed for evaluating their seismic behavior by comparing to that of linear viscous damper (LVD) based on damper force capacity. Then, by using a set of earthquakes with a wide range of dominant periods, and conducting a series of nonlinear time history analyses, the application of NVDs in the VSI has been thoroughly studied in regard to substructure displacement and acceleration response reduction. In these analyses, the interaction effect of isolation ratios and link parameters on response control of the VSI system was explored. The investigation of NVDs was carried out equating the viscous damper force in different velocity exponents with the corresponding LVD. Results did not indicate a preferable performance of NVDs over an LVD. Yet, employing appropriate link parameters proportional to mass and stiffness ratios could lead to satisfactory levels of seismic response reduction in cases of both types of dampers.
  • Experimental investigation of shading façade-integrated solar absorber
           system under hot tropical climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Khai Mun Ng, Nor Mariah Adam, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab Kadir In this paper, a shading façade-integrated solar absorber system has been assessed outdoors under the hot tropical climate. The system was developed, and its performance was tested for 79 days under a standard system operating condition. The outdoor field test has demonstrated that the system was principally dependent on the available global irradiance, and its performance was impaired by the high occurrence of afternoon rain. On average, the system was capable to achieve a daily efficiency of 50.5%, maximum daily water temperature attained at 48.9 °C, and solar water heating rate of 2.9 °C/h. Findings showed that the system could perform most frequently at a daily efficiency ranging from 45% to 60%, and the maximum daily water temperature attained from 45 °C to 57 °C during the test period. Empirical results indicate that there exist several linear regressions between the variables that show acceptable correlations. An additional experiment was carried out to assess the heat distribution mapping of the experimental model.
  • Review of using Building Information Modeling for building energy modeling
           during the design process
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Aida Farzaneh, Danielle Monfet, Daniel Forgues The use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) for building energy modeling (BEM) is a recent evolution in design practice. The success of BIM-BEM execution relies on considering two important aspects: process and technology. In this paper, a review of the literature using a systematic approach is proposed to highlight that these two aspects are rarely addressed concurrently. This review includes an overview of the BIM-BEM process and recent technological developments, while elaborating on the main research gap. In order to address the identified research gap, the creation of a framework is proposed that would embed the technological approaches within the whole design process by using a proper Level Of Development (LOD) and information requirements via Model View Definition (MVD).
  • CO 2 +concentrations+in+a+multifamily+building+in+Porto,+Portugal:+Occupants'+exposure+and+differential+performance+of+mechanical+ventilation+control+strategies&rft.title=Journal+of+Building+Engineering&rft.issn=2352-7102&">CO 2 concentrations in a multifamily building in Porto, Portugal:
           Occupants' exposure and differential performance of mechanical ventilation
           control strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): J.F. Belmonte, R. Barbosa, Manuela G. Almeida Adequate supply of fresh outdoor air is important to create healthy and comfortable indoor building environments. Currently, most of the residential buildings in mild climate European countries, such as Portugal or Spain, remain naturally ventilated. Distinct concerns have emerged in the building community regarding the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings since several studies have shown that they are often poorly ventilated. The main cause has been identified as occupants' different window opening behavior, which can vary notably from one apartment to the next. This work presents a comparative method for evaluating occupants' exposure to CO2 concentration levels in existing buildings based on the comparison of cumulative frequency distribution curves. Indoor CO2 concentration levels recorded over 17 months in the bedrooms and living rooms of eight apartments of a naturally ventilated residential building located in Porto (Portugal) were used as experimental input data for developing the method and to calibrate the IAQ performance of an EnergyPlus building model. The calibrated building model exhibited a good agreement with the recorded data on the apartments, reporting maximum Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) for the majority of the apartments below 5% and 10% for the living rooms and bedrooms, respectively.
  • Finding the worst imperfection pattern in shallow lattice domes using
           genetic algorithms
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Hossein Karimi, Iradj Mahmoudzadeh Kani Like other structures, shallow domes have imperfections from the construction process. Specifications prescribe some construction tolerance values for imperfections. Despite consideration of these values, the critical load of a dome varies for each imperfection pattern. Analytical and Monte Carlo approaches are among the main methods for finding the worst imperfection pattern that is playing significant role in safety of dome. Analytical methods are reliable but cannot be implemented for large structures. On the other hand, uncertainties and high computational costs are the most important weaknesses of Monte Carlo approaches. In the present research employing genetic algorithms, the worst imperfection pattern is analyzed, calculated, and plotted.
  • Comparative study of thermal comfort and adaptive actions for modern and
           traditional multi-storey naturally ventilated hostel buildings during
           monsoon season in India
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Sanjay Kumar, Manoj Kumar Singh, Rajeev Kukreja, Shailendra Kumar Chaurasiya, Varun Kumar Gupta The prime objective of the hostel buildings is to provide an adequate thermal environment to the students for their good health and learning performance. However, a few studies have been reported so far in such buildings around the world. This paper reports the findings of a questionnaire based thermal comfort study in six naturally ventilated hostel buildings located in Jalandhar city, lies in composite climate of India, during the monsoon season (August-September 2018). The study was carried out in two newly constructed (aged less than 5 years) and four traditional (aged more than 25 years) multi-storey naturally ventilated (NV) hostel buildings. During the study, a total of 945 completely filled questionnaires from 470 occupants were collected. About 80% and 75% of subjects voted within central three categories of ASHRAE thermal sensation scale in traditional and modern NV hostel buildings, respectively. Results from the probit analysis revealed that 80% of subjects voted within ± 1 TSV when indoor operative temperature ranged between 27.2 and 31 °C. The mean indoor comfort temperature as calculated by Griffiths method is 29.9 °C (sd(±σ) = 2.16). To restore comfort primary adaptive action of occupants was found to be switching on the fans followed by the opening of external doors and windows.
  • Preliminary approach to the analysis of climate perception and human
           thermal comfort for riverside dwellings the Brazilian Amazon
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Maria Cristina Celuppi, Célia Regina Moretti Meirelles, Raquel Cymrot, Beatriz De Alencar Borst, João Paulo Assis Gobo The riverside dwellings in the Brazilian Amazon are compatible with the annual variation of the watercourse and, in this context, the present study approaches the climate perception and thermal comfort of riverside residents in their habitat. To understand this complex scenario, we used questionnaires to analyze the perception, preference and acceptability of residents of this region, and also collected internal and external meteorological data. The answers to the questionnaire were statistically analyzed, investigating also the influence of gender, age and BMI on human climate perception. We also used the adaptive thermal comfort model for Southeast Asia, with the purpose of understanding the thermal environment and verifying its use for the hot and humid region of the Brazilian Amazon. The results indicated that although the riverside residents perceive a thermally uncomfortable environment and prefer a cooler environment, they accept the climate situation, which raised points that are discussed along the article. Likewise, it was observed that the adaptive comfort model used is a positive instrument for the development of architecture when associated with the use of bioclimatic strategies. The results also indicated that the Brazilian comfort standards may underestimate the adaptability of users acclimated to the hot and humid Brazilian regions.
  • Effects from natural weathering on long-term structural performance of
           wood-polymer composite cladding in the building envelope
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Daniel Friedrich The structural use of wood-polymer composites (WPC) in façades has not been fully investigated, which can be attributed to a lack of practical experience. In this study, three different extruded compounds were tested in Central Europe after one year of natural weathering. Their strength loss was quantified using the flexural strength and pull-though resistance of screws positioned differently in the test sheets. It was found that pull-through is affected by fiber orientation in the same way as is bending strength. Screws at the panel edges parallel to the main fiber orientation showed 26% higher values, whereas the difference between 10 mm and 15 mm edge distance was not significant. Also, round pre-drilled holes instead of slotted ones did not translate into higher resistance values. As far as aging is concerned, the flexural strength became far more degraded by global radiation than did fastener pull-through strength. It can therefore be argued that flexural characteristics alone are not a realistic indicator of the structural durability of a WPC façade.
  • Assessment and retrofitting of an existing steel structure subjected to
           wind-induced failure analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): C. Maraveas, K.D. Tsavdaridis Wind loads are a major threat for old corroded steel structures constructed near the sea where wind speeds can be very high. This paper presents a case study of a wind-induced failure analysis of an existing steel structure and the proposed retrofitting methods. The examined steel structure was constructed in the 1970s in Syros, Greece and is currently operating as an athletic centre. The first part of this study presents the wind-induced failure analysis, from which a domino effect is documented. A corroded bracing that was buckled due to wind load governs the reduction of vertical load carrying of the steel structure and creates an asymmetry under horizontal loading before a number of other steel members failed due to buckling. To understand the structure's performance, failure analysis, as well as time history and incremental dynamic analysis, were performed. The second part of this paper presents the proposed retrofitting methods for improving the vertical load carrying capacity under wind loads. The goal was to improve the load-carrying capacity of the structure so as to comply with current design European codes. In addition, enhancement of the dynamic properties of the strengthened structure was demonstrated using modal analyses. The structural behaviour was determined in a more precise manner via non-linear wind time-history and incremental static analyses. The analytical results explain the development of failures in the existing structure.
  • Development of a surrogate model by extracting top characteristic feature
           vectors for building energy prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Sai Abhilash Reddy Sangireddy, Aviruch Bhatia, Vishal Garg In early stage of building design, design team has to consider and simulate energy consumption for several combinations of various input parameters to analyze the building energy consumption. In a scenario considering five parameters, each with ten variations, one has to simulate hundred thousand combinations. It requires a lot of computation to simulate energy consumption for all the input combinations. This paper aims at reducing the computation required to compute the energy consumption of all the combinations. This is done by identifying appropriate training samples, computing their energy consumption using EnergyPlus and estimating energy consumption of the rest of the data using machine learning techniques. This paper presents two sampling methods along with various regression techniques to predict energy consumption of a building in the early phase. It involves usage of efficient sampling methods for identifying the training data. The key contribution of this method of surrogate modeling is saving a lot of computation by reducing the computation by ~100-fold. This method is tested for Jaipur and Hyderabad cities of India. Approximately hundred thousand simulations are performed for each location using parallel computation. By simulating approximately one percent of the input combinations, annual energy consumption for the large set of combinations are predicted using SVR and k-means clustering for Jaipur with accuracy greater than 93% for 99.8% of the input combinations. When the same model is trained for Hyderabad, it produced accuracy greater than 93% for 98% of the input combinations.
  • Factors contributing in the design of environmentally sustainable mosques
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Nabeeha Amatullah Azmi, Mohd. Zin Kandar Built environment is one of the most energy intensive sectors in today's world and has a huge environmental impact. In order to reduce its ecological footprint, buildings need to be environmentally sustainable. Similar to other buildings, most modern mosques are made out of regional context and thus are environmentally unsustainable. Unfortunately, there is a huge lack of research or case studies on how sustainable mosques should be designed. Some studies highlight that mosques, in general, waste a huge amount of energy due to energy inefficient design and hence the energy saving potential would be immense. Keeping that fact into consideration, this paper identifies the factors that influence mosque sustainability with the aim to provide a guideline in order to build more environmentally sustainable mosques. Through comparing established passive designing techniques with characteristics of mosques and available research, this paper shortlists four major design factors – i) spatial layout and volume, ii) fixed orientation of prayer hall, iii) occupancy pattern and iv) user activity level and clothing type. By keeping these four criteria in consideration during the design phases, mosques can be made environmentally sustainable through optimized energy performance and reduced energy wastage during the occupancy stage. Furthermore, some recommendations are provided for each design stage that may prove to be helpful for the sustainable design of mosques. These four design factors may serve as a basis for further studies in order to establish a proper and thoroughly researched climate and region-specific guideline for energy efficient and sustainable mosque designing.
  • Modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced concrete in
           Colombia from ultrasonic pulse velocities
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 23Author(s): Julian Carrillo, Julieth Ramirez, Juan Lizarazo-Marriaga Modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio are the main mechanical properties of concrete for assessing the flexural and shear stiffness of concrete elements. Although steel fibers are beginning to be accepted in modern building codes, equations for estimating the elasticity modulus and Poisson's ratio of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) are not provided in such building codes. Even though the direct measurement of the modulus of elasticity and the Poisson's ratio is adequately established, the use of non-destructive methods such the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) test offers an economical and easy alternative that must be explored. The aim of this paper is to propose empirical relationships for estimating the dynamic modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of concrete reinforced with steel, synthetic and hybrid fibers, using results measured during the UPV tests. The research is also intended to assess results of models reported in a literature review, to evaluate the effect of test setup (direct, semi-direct and direct), and to establish a relationship between the dynamic modulus of elasticity of FRC and the characteristics of steel, polypropylene/polyethylene and hybrid fibers. The experimental program included dynamic non-destructive tests and static destructive tests of 29 concrete specimens. The variables included in the experimental program were the fiber type (steel, synthetic and hybrid), the fiber content and the ultrasonic pulse velocity setup (direct and semi-direct). The length, diameter and aspect ratio of fibers were 50 mm, 1.05 mm and 48 for the steel fibers, and 50 mm, 0.68 mm and 74 for the polypropylene/polyethylene synthetic fibers. Fiber volume fractions in the concrete varied between 0.17% and 0.93%. The study also compared the results obtained in the static tests with the dynamic results, in order to identify the differences between static and dynamic behavior.
  • Modelling of a solar desiccant cooling system using a TRNSYS-MATLAB
           co-simulator: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): K. Sudhakar, Matthew S. Jenkins, Shivy Mangal, S. Shanmuga Priya Heating and cooling systems around the globe are the largest energy consumer and with the ever-increasing population and development the need for heating and cooling systems is increasing. Control systems in solar assisted desiccant cooling are especially important as they allow the solar fraction to be increased when paired with thermal storage. Low cost efficient thermal storage methods are also important in increasing the efficiency of solar assisted desiccant cooling. Transient System Simulation tool (TRNSYS) simulation is presently used for estimation of energy use in building. It is targeted to include solar desiccant based evaporative cooling using MATLAB so that it can be readily used for control. Building Energy Performance Scenarios - BEPS Tools (Energy Plus, TRNSYS, ESP – r, Mathcad) do not provide sub-models for proper control mechanism. So MATLAB co-simulator could be targeted in order to control a TRNSYS simulation. The use of TRNSYS-MATLAB co-simulator as a relevant tool is discussed along with its applications for the system. A comparison of TRNSYS and MATLAB to other building energy performance simulators is then provided to evaluate the performance of solar desiccant cooling for hot and humid region.
  • Design optimisation of internal shading device in multiple scenarios: Case
           study in Bandung, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Rizki A. Mangkuto, Deasty Kusuma Dewi, Annisa Azalia Herwandani, Mochamad Donny Koerniawan, Faridah In daylighting design for buildings, provision of solar shading device is required to ensure satisfaction of the visual comfort criteria in response to the sky condition. However, since real sky is constantly changing, the optimum state of the shading device would ideally be adaptive and dynamic, thus no single optimum solution can be expected. In this case, computational daylight simulation is a powerful tool for exploring the potential and solving the optimisation problem. This research therefore aims to demonstrate the use of computational daylight simulation to optimise internal shading device, regarding various daylight metrics in a real open-plan office with a west façade orientation in Bandung, Indonesia, using Rhinoceros and Grasshopper. To simulate multiple sky condition scenarios, optimisation was performed for four ranges of diffuse solar irradiance, i.e. 1–80 W/m2, 80–159 W/m2, 159–289 W/m2, and 289–541 W/m2, considering input variables of type of blinds (horizontal or vertical), slat angle, and blinds material specularity. The optimum solutions were obtained using Pareto frontiers that have been filtered with the constraints, which were determined separately for each scenario. Results show that the spatial daylight autonomy (sDA300/50%), annual sunlight exposure (ASE1000,250), and percentage of daylight glare probability (%DGP>0.21) can all satisfy the design criteria.
  • Tensile behaviors of natural fiber and cement reinforced soil subjected to
           direct tensile test
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Khiem Quang Tran, Tomoaki Satomi, Hiroshi Takahashi The present work was conducted to investigate the direct tensile behaviors including tensile strength, stress-strain curve, energy absorption, and crack patterns of soil reinforced by cement and natural fiber. In order to archive this, the direct tension test was designed to use for both reinforced and unreinforced specimens. The compacted 8-shaped samples with a wide range of cement content (0%, 4%, 8%, and 12%), fiber content (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%), and curing days (7, 14, and 28 days) were prepared at optimum moisture content and maximum dry unit weight for the direct tension test. From experimental data, an empirical formula following three parameters (cement content, fiber content, and curing time) was proposed by using regression analysis. In addition, the effective degree of cement content, fiber content, and curing time on direct tensile strength was also examined based on the sensitive analysis. The experimental results showed that tensile properties (tensile strength, energy absorption capacity, and stress-strain curve) of cemented soil at low cement content and curing time were significantly improved with fiber inclusion. Direct tensile strength equaled to 0.483 and 0.071 times of splitting tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength, respectively. An acceptable regression model for predicting direct tensile strength was established. According to sensitive analysis, the ascending orders of effective parameters on direct tensile strength were fiber content, curing time, and cement content.
  • Structural performance evaluation of deficient steel members strengthened
           using CFRP under combined tensile, torsional and lateral loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Amir Hamzeh Keykha In recent years, strengthening of members of steel structures with square hollow sections (SHSs) using carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) has attracted the attention of many researchers. Most previous research in this area has been done on the behavior of CFRP strengthened steel sections without deficiency. During the lifetime of structures, some members may be placed under combined loads. To the author's knowledge, no research on the behavior of CFRP strengthened deficient SHS steel sections subjected to combined tensile, torsional, and lateral load has been presented. The deficiency in steel sections may be created due to errors caused by construction, fatigue cracking, drilling after construction, corrosion, earthquake damage, and so on. This study explores the effect of the use of adhesively bonded CFRP flexible sheets on the structural behaviors of deficient SHS steel sections under combined tensile, torsional, and lateral load, using numerical investigation. To study the effects of the CFRP strengthening method on recovering the strength lost in deficient SHS steel sections, 17 specimens, 12 of which were strengthened using CFRP sheets, were analyzed. To analyze the SHS steel sections, three dimensional (3D) modeling and nonlinear static analysis methods using ANSYS software were applied. The results showed the deficiency led to reductions in ultimate capacity of the SHS steel sections under combined tensile, torsional, and lateral load. Also, the impact of transverse deficiency was higher than the longitudinal one in these sections. Using CFRP for strengthening the deficient SHS steel sections showed that CFRP has an impact on raising the ultimate capacity and can significantly recover the strength lost due to deficiency.
  • Assessing sustainability on Chinese university campuses: Development of a
           campus sustainability evaluation system and its application with a case
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Chen Shuqin, Lu Minyan, Tan Hongwei, Luo Xiaoyu, Ge Jian With the vigorous promotion of national policies and funds, green campus construction is booming in Chinese universities. It's in great need to develop an evaluation system, as a long-term mechanism, to assess and compare the sustainability performance in different Chinese universities, and to guide the green campus revolution in Chinese universities. Aiming at the characteristics of green campus evolution in China, a campus sustainability evaluation system is developed, that contains five categories of Organization & Management (C1), Energy & Resource Saving (C2), Friendly Environment (C3), Campus Culture (C4), and Social Outreach (C5). The indicators include mandatory indicators, all of which must be met in order to pass the evaluation, and optional indicators, which take the form of scoring. The scores of all optional indicators should be accumulated to get the final score. The achievements and shortcomings of sustainable campus development in a pilot Chinese university were revealed by this system as a case study, and the results indicate more attention should be paid on C1, C2, C4, and hence detailed suggestions were put forward. Discussions are made in terms of the potential contribution and the limitation of this evaluation system, and the capacity building needed to generalize the evaluation in China.
  • Net-zero energy and energy sharing potential of retail - Greenhouse
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Ali Muslim Syed, Caroline Hachem The global projection of urban growth and increasing population densification creates new opportunities for an expanded role of greenhouse technology. Coupling a greenhouse with supermarket, as a method for energy sharing, has been identified as a promising method to increasing efficiency of the building operations while reducing dependency on transportation. This paper presents the results of a simulation study of an urban centric greenhouse-retail complex and explores optimal building design parameters, integrating renewable energy technologies and exploring energy sharing strategies within both buildings of the complex. The results show that with an integrated building design approach, cutting edge technologies and high energy efficiency measures a net reduction of 27% energy in the greenhouse-retail complex is achieved compared to design complying with the minimum requirement of the applicable energy codes. Additionally, by sharing waste heat recovered from retail refrigeration compressor racks, 21% of space and ventilation heating demand of the greenhouse and energy demand for irrigation water and service hot water for the complex can be met. Employing on-site renewable energy generation, net-zero energy performance of the greenhouse-retail complex can be achieved. It has been found that by feasible combination of buildings optimized to harness on-site energy and sharing energy between the individual buildings, dependence on utility grids can be reduced, in addition to having a local source of food growth for climate change resilient urban infrastructure.
  • Evaluation of the optimal thermal insulation thickness for an office
           building in different climates by means of the basic and modified
           “cost-optimal” methodology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Diana D’Agostino, Filippo de’ Rossi, Marcello Marigliano, Concetta Marino, Francesco Minichiello Energy consumption for heating and cooling of Italian office buildings is growing. In particular, there is an increase in the demand for electricity for cooling in the summer. Thermal insulation on the external side of the buildings is a very usual strategy to reduce energy demand for air-conditioning systems. However, a too high thickness of insulating material, even if complying with current legislative requirements, can be disadvantageous in buildings characterized by great internal thermal loads and/or located in climatic contexts with mild winters and hot summers.In this paper, the energetic and economic influence of external thermal insulation is evaluated by using energy simulations under dynamic conditions (DesignBuilder software) for a case study. The analysis is performed for various cities (Palermo, Milan and Cairo) and for different values (10, 20, 30 W/m2) of internal thermal loads. According to the recent and innovative “cost-optimal” methodology, optimal insulation thicknesses are derived, and the results demonstrate the need to avoid excessive insulation of buildings to obtain the highest energy saving. Finally, an integration of the “cost-optimal” methodology is proposed considering also the topic of thermal comfort; this modification allows to obtain other optimal solutions compared to the basic calculation procedure.
  • Impact-reduction effect and comfortability of impact-reduction tatami
           floor mat made of nonwoven fabric. Part 1: Impact-reduction effect of a
           buffering structure for head injuries in fall accidents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Takafumi Shimizu, Kimie Yoshitani Recently, with the rapid increase in aging population, there is a growing interest in the development of a high-quality living environment, especially in terms of safety. In particular, injuries due to fall accidents have serious after-effects and can sometimes even be fatal. In order to reduce the impact of fall accidents, floor coverings with a buffering effect are used. However, floor coverings have some limitations in terms of thickness from the perspective of ease of construction. Therefore, the buffering effect is limited. For example, when renovating houses, the flooring should be shock absorbing, which is allowed to have a replacement capable thinness, in order to ensure excellent safety in a fall accident. This study proposes a high-buffering technique for reducing fall-related head impacts using a high-performance nonwoven fabric combined with a rigid plate. Additionally, it verifies the shock absorption performance of this structure. The analysis confirmed that it is possible to achieve high shock absorption in fall accidents by using a tatami mat of thickness 55 mm, even with flooring as thin as 16 mm. Tatami mats using nonwoven fabrics as buffering materials exhibit high buffering performance against head impacts by combining nonwoven fabrics of appropriate density and thickness with core boards of adequate rigidity. The floor materials with high buffering performance demonstrated in this study can prevent injury in houses and facilities for the elderly and in children's educational facilities such as kindergartens.
  • Effect of cooling water temperature and space between cooling pipes of
           post-cooling system on temperature and thermal stress in mass concrete
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Adek Tasri, Anita Susilawati Hydration heat trapped in concrete can cause cracks due to thermal stress caused by temperature gradient inside the concrete. The trapped heat can be removed by using a post-cooling system, where the concrete is cooled by running water through pipes embedded in it. However, post cooling may cause thermal stresses owing to the temperature gradient in the region adjacent to the cooling pipe. In this study, the thermal stress and temperature gradient caused by the space between the cooling pipes and cooling water temperatures of the post-cooling system are investigated numerically. Based on the concrete type, thermal properties and dimension of post cooling components used in this study, it was found that, compared to cooling water temperature, the space between the cooling pipes had a stronger effect on the distribution of temperature and thermal stress in the concrete. The rise in cooling water temperature tend to increase concrete temperature and decrease thermal stress especially in region next to cooling pipe, while the rise in distance between cooling pipe tend to increase concrete temperature and thermals thermal stress near the cooling pipes. To reduce the risk of concrete cracking due to post cooling, it is not enough just to adjust the temperature of the cooling water and space between cooling pipes. The cooling water temperature, space between cooling pipe and convection coefficient from surface of cooling pipes to cooling water need to be set to obtain a temperature distribution which result a thermal stress which lower than tensile ultimate strength of the concrete.
  • Behavior of perlite-based mortars on physicochemical characteristics,
           mechanical and carbonation: case of perlite of Hammam Boughrara
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Farida Guenanou, Hamid Khelafi, Amel Aattache This manuscript is based on the study of pozzolanic activity of the perlite powder (PP) of Hammam Boughrara by the consumption of lime and the hydration of paste made with 75% of PP and 25% of lime. The fresh properties of the cement pastes were defined by normal consistencies, initial and final setting time and autoclave expansions. The manufactures of mortars for flexural and compressive strength, absorption, porosity and carbonation tests were evaluated. Four combinations with a rate of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% substitution of cement with PP are used in order to compare them with cement without addition. The results showed that the reaction between the lime, silica and alumina of PP gives rise to several hydrates such as calcium silicate hydrate, hydrated calcium aluminates and hydrated gelhenite. This confirms the pozzolanicity of this PP. A substitution rate of PP between 10% and 20%, will increase the mechanical performance over time, densify the transfer matrices of mortars and ensure good resistance to carbonation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Study of heat and moisture transfer in internal and external wall
           insulation configurations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Chengcheng Xu, Shuhong Li, Kaikai Zou Installing thermal insulation on the external walls of existing buildings is a common optimization method of reducing building energy consumption. Selecting the appropriate insulation configuration requires an understanding and comparison of the heat transfer characteristics of the internal and external configurations. In previous studies, the thermal characteristics of internal thermal insulation (ITI) and external thermal insulation (ETI) walls have mainly been compared from the perspective of dynamic heat transfer only, ignoring the effect of relative humidity. To analyze the relative humidity distribution and compare the heat transfer of ETI and ITI walls more accurately, a coupled heat and moisture transfer model, with temperature and relative humidity as the driving forces, was established to simulate a building envelope in a hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone. The ITI and ETI configurations were compared, revealing that indoor relative humidity significantly affects the heat transfer process. Under the indoor condition of 70% relative humidity, the ITI configuration lost more heat per unit area on an annual basis than the ETI wall configuration. In an HSCW zone, to reduce energy loads and save cost, the ETI configuration was more suitable. However, if air-conditioning systems are limited to the summer months and heat is not needed in the winter, the ITI configuration performs better. It is therefore recommended that the most suitable configuration of thermal insulation should be adopted according to the function and daily operation environment of the specific building.
  • Factors affecting the time-dependent behaviour of GFRP prestressed
           concrete beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Mohamed Zawam, Khaled Soudki, Jeffrey S. West The time-dependent behaviour of concrete beams prestressed with Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars is not fully investigated in the literature due to the fact that the use of such bars was limited in the prestressing applications due to their high relaxation and susceptibility creep. Recent material developments have led to GFRP bars that are more suitable for prestressing applications. This paper presents the results of 12 beams that were tested as part of larger test program aiming to investigate the effect of different factors on the long-term behaviour of GFRP prestressed concrete beams. The parameters investigated were the prestressing level (25% and 40%), concrete strength (40 MPa, and 80 MPa), the sustained load level (35%, 60%, and 80%), and the GFRP bar diameter (12 M and 16 M). The experimental results showed that the GFRP bars used in this study had no measurable relaxation over time up to 277 hours compared to those reported in the recent literature by Fornůsek et al. (2009) where the relaxation of the GFRP bars was 3.3% after 24 hours, and 7.3% after 28 days. The results also showed that the concrete strength had no significant effect on the long-term performance of GFRP prestressed concrete beams at the 35% and the 60% sustained load levels, while the effect was more pronounced at the 80% sustained load level.
  • Sustainability-Led Design: Feasibility of incorporating whole-life cycle
           energy assessment into BIM for refurbishment projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Rodger Edwards, Eric C.W. Lou, Anas Bataw, Syahrul Nizam Kamaruzzaman, Christopher Johnson
  • Characterization of a precast hemp concrete block. Part II: Hygric
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Billy Seng, Camille Magniont, Sylvie Lorente The hygroscopic, insulating and agronomic properties of hemp concrete make it a promising building material for addressing the sustainable building challenge. Part I of this series of two papers described a characterization of the thermal properties of a prefabricated hemp concrete block, confronting the impact of different methods of measurement. Part II focuses on the hygric properties, which describe moisture transfer and storage. The sorption isotherm was measured at 23 °C and 45 °C, considering distinct experimental procedures (saturation salt solution (SSS) methods with single relative humidity step or stepwise equilibrium, and Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS)). Differences were observed in the results and hypotheses are formulated considering the distinct drying procedures between SSS and DVS methods or the specific water vapour sorption process on cellulose-based materials. With the measurements at two temperatures, the isosteric heat of sorption is evaluated which allows an evaluation of the sorption at any temperature. The water vapour permeability was measured with dry and wet cups. Different parameters were tested: thickness (5 and 8 cm), air velocity (0.5 and 2 m s−1) and calculation method (standard calculations, consideration of the water vapour interface resistances). Each parameter, with the chosen values, had an impact of around 10% on the final water vapour permeability calculated. The capillary absorption coefficient was evaluated through capillary uptake measurements, leading to an estimation of the liquid transfer coefficient, albeit 12 times lower than the one evaluated thanks to the dry and wet water vapour permeabilities. All these observations underline the significant impact of experimental parameters and methods on the determination of hemp concrete hygric properties and support the necessity to develop more specific measurement methods for such permeable and hygroscopic bio-based building materials.
  • Characterization of a precast hemp concrete. Part I: Physical and thermal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Billy Seng, Camille Magniont, Sylvie Lorente Hemp concrete is seen as a possible solution for addressing the energy, health and comfort issues of sustainable buildings, thanks to its hygrothermal properties and environmental qualities. This paper aims to determine the physical and thermal properties of an industrial prefabricated hemp concrete block based on hemp shiv and a lime-metakaolin binder. When available, distinct measurement methods were applied and confronted on this precast material in order to evaluate the impact of the experimental procedure on the results. Concerning air permeability, the present study shows that a measurement method initially intended for regular concrete can be adapted to the specific behaviour of highly permeable material such as hemp concrete. The thermal conductivity was measured with a guarded hot plate and a hot wire. Hot wire measurements on different moist states of the material allowed the self-consistent scheme to be applied for the evaluation of the thermal conductivity as a function of the humidity. Two direct measurement methods, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the components and use of a Calvet calorimeter on the hemp concrete, and one indirect method, through effusivity measurement, were adopted for evaluating the specific heat capacity of the material. The original method proposed using DSC was shown to be as accurate as direct calorimetric measurement. The direct measurement methods gave similar results while the indirect one led to a much lower value. A comprehensive analysis of the measurement values available in the literature on hemp concretes confirmed this trend.This first paper highlights the significant influence of the testing method on the determination of the thermal properties of a precast hemp concrete, especially on the heat capacity measurement. This result emphasizes the need for a large inter-laboratory experimental campaign, applied to bio-aggregate based concrete, in order to form the basis of recommendations for adequate physical and thermal characterization methods for these bio-based building materials. A second part of this study will investigate the hydric properties of the same material.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-