Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.14
Number of Followers: 34  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2212-3202
Published by TU Delft Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Quality failures in Energy-saving renovation projects in Northern China

    • Authors: Yuting Qi
      Pages: 1 - 216
      Abstract: The energy-saving renovation of an existing building is a critical strategy in achieving a longterm energy goal in the Chinese context. However, in China, building energy renovation projects are subjected to quality failures resulting in energy wastage, a decrease in the energy efficiency of the project, an increase in project cost, and thus negatively affecting the overall performance of the renovation projects. In order to avoid them happening in the future, it is essential to find and analyse the causes of quality failures in energy-saving renovation projects. Therefore, using a four-step process, this research aims to deepen the understanding of the causes of quality failures in energy-saving renovation projects of the existing residential buildings. The first and second steps are to identify and analyse the quality failures and their causes. The deeper insights from a quality management perspective are explored in the third step. The fourth step is to investigate how the actors and their interactions affect and cause quality failures during the renovation policy implementation process. This research mainly concludes the causes of quality failures in the building energy renovation projects. It is important to state that most of the quality failures can be avoided at the management level. Some external causes originated at a policy level and outside the project. The findings of this research would be valuable for policy-makers and project coordinators both for predicting and avoiding quality failures and for developing proper action and policy interventions to ensure successful building energy renovations in the future.
      PubDate: 2021-05-03
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2021.08.5751
  • The balancing act

    • Authors: Lizet Kuitert
      Pages: 1 - 234
      Abstract: Public bodies acting in the construction industry have to deal with major transitional issues, such as globalization and urbanization, population ageing, climate change and digitalization. Moreover, the public domain, private parties and society are becoming increasingly interdependent. As a result, safeguarding public values in the built environment has become ever more complex. Public bodies face the challenge to adhere to collective public values while confronted with private and societal values of external partners. This means that they have to deal with value pluralism and value-conflicts. In research, scarce attention has been paid to providing guidance to practitioners for dealing with multi-value trade-offs in operational processes. Hence, this research provides a construction-sector specific operationalization and a network perspective to the field of public value research. This research highlights the important role to be played by public commissioning in terms of safeguarding public values. It consists of three qualitative studies that utilize a range of different methods, including interviews, observations and document analysis. By this the research provides a contemporary perspective through which to study and execute the safeguarding of public values by public clients in the transition towards network governance in the construction industry. The dynamics of the sector-specific value interests of public construction clients, the occurrence of value conflicts in commissioning, and the safeguarding processes within both internal and external commissioning are studied. The practical implications derived from the research were translated into a value dialogue tool that can be used by public construction clients to professionalize safeguarding in their daily practice.
      PubDate: 2021-05-03
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2021.07.5750

    • Authors: Luuk Graamans
      Pages: 1 - 266
      Abstract: Expanding cities across the world rely increasingly on the global food network, but should they' Population growth, urbanisation and climate change place pressure on this network, bringing its resilience into question. For decades urban agriculture has been discussed in popular media and academia as a potential solution to improve food security, quality and sustainability. The new idol in this discussion is the plant factory: A fully closed system for crop production. Arrays of LEDs provide light and hydroponics provide water and nutrients to vertically stacked layers of crops, hence the term vertical farming. The plant factory features more extensive climate control than high-tech greenhouses. The question remains whether this level of climate control is necessary, effective and/or efficient. The scope of this research is therefore to investigate the potential and limitations of plant factories for urban food production. The STACKED method was developed to address the performance of plant factories across multiple scales, from leaf to facility to city. The role of plant processes in the total energy balance was outlined first. Performance was assessed by analysing the resource requirements, including energy, electricity, water, CO2 and land area use, for the production of fresh vegetables. The impact of façade and cooling system design was analysed in detail. Lastly, the effects of local food production on the urban energy balance were assessed for various scenarios. The results of this dissertation can serve as a foundation for future studies on the application of plant factories in both theoretical and real world applications.
      PubDate: 2021-03-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2021.06.5666
  • Spatial Planning for Urban Resilience in the Face of the Flood Risk

    • Authors: Meng Meng
      Pages: 1 - 296
      Abstract: The research was inspired by the increasing impact of extreme weather events and changing climate patterns on flood-prone regions and cities, and the consequent human and economic costs. Despite global efforts for flood resilience and climate adaptation involving climate analysts, economists, social scientists, politicians, hydrological engineers, spatial planners, and policymakers, it is only partially clear how best to construct resilience measures and implement concrete initiatives. The complexity of institutions is a key factor that is often neglected, and which needs further investigation. The thesis examines the institutional arrangements that determine the role of spatial planning in managing flood risk, through an in-depth case study of Guangzhou, one of the most vulnerable cities in China and globally. The thesis employs theories of historical institutionalism, planning procedure and planning tools, policy framing and collaborative governance, to explore the mechanisms and factors that influence the creative planning and design process. Content analysis, GIS-based mapping, stakeholder analysis and TOWS analysis are used to investigate data from official policy documents, grey literature, geo-information data and interview scripts. The findings indicate that institutional arrangements, such as long-established planning traditions, formal planning procedures and tools, policy framing patterns and contextual organisational factors, determine spatial planning’s role in managing flood risk. They do this through (1) the extent of the changeability of an established planning system towards expanded flood resilience measures; (2) the performance of cross-level communication and boundary-spanning work between planning and water management; (3) the legal framework that planners and hydrological engineers follow; and (4) the capacities of planning and water management institutions to work on flood issues. This research shows how to apply knowledge from policy science, political science, institutional science and administration, to analyse the nature of the planning process in tackling the urgent challenge of flood risk and climate change.
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2021.05.5635
  • Spatial Planning and Design for Resilience

    • Authors: Wei Dai
      Pages: 1 - 368
      Abstract: Faced with the highly overlapping factors of the external disturbances -- natural disasters caused by extreme climate change, and internal interactions -- the contradiction between natural conditions and rapid urbanization, traditional spatial planning and design used to pursue economic development could not be flexible enough to respond to the dynamic and uncertain future of the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Therefore, spatial planning and design should pay great attention to the fragile natural base layer and unexpected external disturbances that will negatively impact the PRD caused by increasing natural disasters, such as flooding and land subsidence situation. Based on the idea of spatial resilience, this doctoral dissertation aims to give an answer to the research question: What are the theories and methods of spatial planning and design for resilience' How is it possible to apply the theory and method of spatial planning and design for resilience to the PRD' Five major research contents are conducted. First of all, literatures on exploring the physical context, the crucial stages of spatial transformation, as well as spatial planning and design practices of the PRD are reviewed. Secondly, the theory of spatial planning and design for resilience is systematically researched. Thirdly, implementation method for spatial planning and design for resilience is provided. Fourthly, the empirical research of the theory and method of spatial planning and design for resilient PRD is conducted and possible new schemes are produced. Fifthly, the corresponding principles and strategies of resilient flood control and drainage on Hengli Island are proposed. The research outcomes obtained from this doctoral dissertation can be possibly applied to the further spatial planning and design practice for establishing a resilient PRD.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2021.04.5633
  • Housing Refurbishment for Energy Efficiency and Comfort

    • Authors: Phan Anh Nguyen
      Pages: 1 - 291
      Abstract: The housing stock in Vietnam has boomed in the last few decades, especially in urbanised areas. However, the increasing number of housing units did not go along with housing quality, a healthy living environment or a sustainable building stock. Recent legislation only applies to public buildings but not the private housing sector, which accounts for the majority of the building stock. Therefore, this research aimed to contribute to a more sustainable building stock in Vietnam by improving the energy efficiency in new and renovated urban houses. This research started with examining the energy upgrade potential of the existing houses in Vietnam. Both passive and active refurbishment design measures were investigated for the Vietnamese context. Among the measures, a green facade has a large potential in energy saving. Effect of a green facade on thermal and energy performance was tested by conducting a physical experiment on a real tube house in Hanoi. Next, a stepped design strategy was introduced in a student design workshop in Vietnam. The participants were trained to apply sustainable and energy efficient design measures for Vietnamese tube houses. In addition, the vision for designing future tube houses was discussed on several sustainability aspects: urban densification, energy efficiency, circular economy and social interaction. This research is also expected to contribute to the establishing of a future national technical regulation for private housing in Vietnam.
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2021.03.5577
  • Public Rental Housing Governance in Urban China

    • Authors: Juan Yan
      Pages: 1 - 182
      Abstract: Recently, Chinese Public Rental Housing (PRH) provision has witnessed a shift from ‘government’ to ‘governance’: policy making shifted from government steering to mixed forms involving government, market and civic actors to pursue effective and fair policies. In the meantime, this new-era PRH governance is credited with mixed results. However, the existing studies fail to describe the mechanisms underlying this new-era governance of PRH with the rising involvement of market actors and those in civil society and whether the new-era governance is considered to be effective, achieving the objective of stability. Therefore, this PhD research aims to fill the two research gaps through building a better understanding of the PRH governance in the current Chinese context and evaluating PRH governance. To fulfil this aim, this dissertation is underpinned by a theoretical foundation from the governance perspective and adopts a mixedmethod approach with quantitative and qualitative data in the study of Chinese PRH provision. The dissertation reveals the essence of the current Chinese PRH governance by bringing forth a governance model and shows the structures and mechanisms for non-governmental actors to play a role in the governance of PRH. The dissertation also shows the perceived governance outcomes from tenants’ perspective and demonstrates two main governance challenges of Inclusionary Housing, a newly introduced instrument adopted in the Chinese PRH governance. Based on the results, this PhD research theoretically and empirically contributes to the housing governance literature.
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2021.02.5576
  • Business Innovation Towards a Circular Economy

    • Authors: Jan Konietzko
      Pages: 1 - 204
      Abstract: We currently live in a carbon intensive linear economy. On the basis of burning fossil fuels, we take, make and waste an increasing amount of materials. This has pushed us against serious planetary boundaries. Radical reductions in environmental impact are needed over the coming decades. Entire economies and societies will have to reorganize. A promising candidate to support this reorganizing is a circular economy. It cuts waste, emissions and pollution, and it keeps the value of products, components and materials high over time.  Companies can innovate towards a circular economy by following five key resource strategies: narrow, slow, close, regenerate, and inform. This thesis explores these strategies – through case research and a design science approach. It shows that an ecosystem perspective is necessary to implement these strategies – and provides tools and methods that can help to put an ecosystem perspective into action. This can help companies to develop circular ecosystem value propositions: that propose a positive collective outcome, fulfill user needs in exciting ways, and minimize environmental impact.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
  • Pearl River Delta: Scales, Times, Domains

    • Authors: Liang Xiong
      Pages: 1 - 218
      Abstract: An implemented design of an urban area not only imposes long-term conditions on societal processes, but also on natural processes. The urbanization of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is a highly dynamic process that has interfered with many natural and artificial processes in the complex system. The involved human and natural processes, each with their own scale and speed of change, compose the complex urban delta landscape. The dominance of the efficiency-oriented fast urbanization process and its accompanying infrastructure development have put the deltaic social, cultural, and ecological environments at greater risk. Human activities have caused conflicts of a lack of cooperation with nature and coordination with other human activities during the rapid urbanization. The effectiveness of the related plans and designs depends on their capability to acknowledge and adapt to the nature of urban deltas. The research aims to provide an understanding of an urbanizing delta in which different scales, times, and domains are related to each other; and to examine how this understanding can be used in a planning and design process in a rapidly urbanizing delta. A mapping method is developed according to the key notions in the understanding of urban deltas, namely its systems, scales, and temporality. The systematic mapping approach was used to organize and analyze both short-term and long-term spatial data during the rapid delta urbanization processes by transforming spatial data via scales, times, and domains. The mapping approach works with insufficient data, which is often the case in a rapidly changing environment, to identify spatial challenges from a longterm perspective. Applied in the PRD, the knowledge of the development of the urban landscape had been inventoried, synthesized, and presented in its own spatial-temporal model using maps. Three types of processes (landscape formation, infrastructure extension, and urbanization) were identified according to their speeds. Spatial interactions were illustratively explained on both the delta scale and local scale from 4000 BC to the present with a time extent ranging from 2000 years to 50 years. The visualization revealed a transition of the regional pattern from a water-based mode to a land-based mode, during which an unawareness of the landscape and a detached urban pattern were developed. The present flooding issue was revealed by identifying the critical threshold signals, namely sudden changes in the spatial pattern of the dike system. Such trends increased the flood risk in the new urban areas on both the delta and regional scales. The mapping approach provided a probable vision of 2080, and a possible alternative vision. The two visions offered both the options of repair and transformation for the discussion of future planning and design. Both empirical and hypothetical mapping were deployed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the delta. Mapping served as a tool with which to not only represent existing knowledge, but also to seek missing knowledge. The intervention of this mapping framework was applied and evaluated in terms of design, decision-making, and education, and the insights gained were used to discover new possibilities and strategies for the delta. The systematic spatialization approach provided a spatial analysisbased design and planning alternative. In this approach, evidence-based arguments facilitated the cooperation and collaboration of professionals, stakeholders, and the interested public during the planning and design of the delta. During knowledge gathering and the re-mapping process, current stakeholders from different domains were able to collaborate, new stakeholders (the citizens) became involved, and enough awareness of natural processes was created to spur cooperation during the decision-making process. The systematic mapping across scales, time, and domains provided the stakeholders with a new mindset during design and planning, in which they were able to collaborate with each other and develop interventions that could cooperate with the natural process in the rapidly urbanizing delta. The mapping approach also directed possibilities of sustainable planning and design process by generating a circulation among the individual design, collective design, and mass awareness of the PRD. The mapping approach thus served as a vehicle that brought awareness to the spatial relationships, exchange of knowledge, and means of collaboration in both the short term and long term, on both small and large scales, and among different domains and stakeholders. This study contributes to the knowledge of urban delta planning and design from the following five aspects. (1) It extends the understanding of the differences and mutual influences of the urban and natural dynamics to the highest level by investigating the region with the fastest urbanization process in the past four decades. (2) It provides an approach for the analysis, understanding, and evaluation of the rapid change of urban dynamics on a large scale and with an extreme transition stage. (3) It enables the possibility of achieving a more effective, adaptive, and resilient strategy by providing an understanding of spatial knowledge. For the first time, the complexity and uncertainty of urban deltas and essential relationships (such as natural-human, land-water, and spatialmanagement relationships) on a substantial scale and with a rapid change of speed are explored. Furthermore, (4) this study devises, employs, and tests innovative visualization via multiple spatial and temporal scales. This is required to establish suitable interventions and measures via interactive communication and decision-making during the processes of design, planning, and management with stakeholders. Finally, (5) this study provides an effective data acquisition and analysis method to bypass the issues of data censorship, insufficiency, and inaccuracy in Chinese urban research. In other wor...
      PubDate: 2020-11-17
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.21.5212
  • Mapping Landscape Spaces

    • Authors: Mei Liu
      Pages: 1 - 248
      Abstract: Landscape design focuses on the construction and articulation of outdoor space and results in landscape architectonic compositions. In order to communicate about three-dimensional forms and functions, vocabulary, representations, and tools (in terms of spatial-visual characteristics) are of fundamental importance for landscape architects to describe, interpret, and manipulate landscape spaces. While combining design vocabulary and landscape indicators, qualitative and quantitative mapping approaches, visual representation and interpretation methods, this research aims to provide a framework for describing, understanding, and communicating about spatial-visual characteristics in landscape design. A pilot study is used to explore the potential of specific mapping approaches, such as compartment analysis, 3D landscapes, grid-cell analysis, landscape metrics, visibility analysis, and eye-tracking analysis, which are employed to address spatial-visual phenomena like sequence, orientation, continuity, and complexity. Hypothetical design experiments are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of spatial-visual mapping in the design process. Interviews with designers are carried out to reflect on techniques for mapping spatial-visual characteristics in the daily practice of landscape architecture. This research opens a way in which to apply visual landscape research in the process of landscape design and supports the development of multidisciplinary approaches. By expanding the spatial-visual mapping toolbox, designers can engage in issues of landscape development, transformation, and preservation while providing realistic and instrumental clues for interventions in urban landscapes.
      PubDate: 2020-11-10
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.20.5403
  • Towards an Architecture of Self-reliance

    • Authors: Michiel Smits
      Pages: 1 - 368
      Abstract: This research project focuses on how decisions made by practitioners, articulating rural housing in Sub-Sahara Africa, contribute to the decreasing level of self-reliance inhabitants have regarding their housing. Multiple case studies on Mt. Elgon proved that inhabitants have a significantly higher self-reliance level, comparing traditional to modern housing. To study this phenomenon in practice and to articulate suitable design support the Design Research Methodology was chosen. The research clarification pinpointed inhabitant capacities as the key-contributor to self-reliant housing. Household survey outcomes proved that large numbers of rural inhabitant’s desire housing which they have insufficient capacities for. Indicating that the inhabitants experience a disparity between existing and desired housing capacities, moreover an inability to bridge this disparity independently, and consequently require external help. Architect seemed most appropriate to offer this help as it consist of sociocultural, engineering and design tasks. Architects are not trained in inhabitant capacity evaluation and as no suitable design tools existed, this research project developed the required design support, its application requirements and the impact measurements. These were then tested in a pilot project on Mt. Elgon. The findings were used to evaluate the support’s impact and suitability. The support tool users found it suitable to assess and integrate inhabitant capacities into housing solutions. The impact shows that the support group families have sustained their family’s level of self-reliance unlike the control group. The developed technological design, with modifications, could be used not only in rural Kenyan communities, but also help others around the continent.
      PubDate: 2020-10-14
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.19.5346
  • Urban Renewal Decision - Making in China

    • Authors: Taozhi Zhuang
      Pages: 1 - 202
      Abstract: To meet the growing rigid demand of urban housing, urban renewal has played a significant role, which significantly promotes the urban prosperity in China. However, at the same time, many problems occurred through large-scale urban renewal projects. To avoid unintended consequences that occurred in urban renewal, how these decisions were made can be one key focus. To better achieve the goal of sustainability, this research aims to deepen the understanding of urban renewal decision-making in China and contribute to recommend strategies to improve the system. Based on the participatory decision-making theory and the characteristics of urban renewal, a conceptual framework is built to achieve the aim of this research. According to the research framework, this research firstly conducted an empirical study of stakeholders’ expectations in urban renewal projects. Eighteen factors are identified and compared among the main stakeholder groups. Secondly, this research explores the stakeholders and their participation in the decision-making of urban renewal in China. Stakeholder Analysis and Social Network Analysis are complemented as the research methodology. In the third step, transaction costs theory is adopted to improve the understanding of urban renewal decision-making process in China. Based on the results of the above three steps, the last step of this research systematically determines a set of strategies for improving urban renewal decision-making in China by adopting the Analytic Network Process. The findings of this research add new knowledge on the exploration of the decision-making of public projects and can be directly adopted by the authority in practice.
      PubDate: 2020-09-04
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.16.5247
  • African New Towns

    • Authors: Rachel Keeton
      Pages: 1 - 368
      Abstract: The New Towns (mixed use urban developments planned and built from scratch) initiated across the African continent since 1990 are overwhelmingly designed and built according to urban planning models from the previous century (Watson 2013; Marcinkowski 2018; Keeton and Provoost 2019). This has produced a generation of New Towns with rigid physical infrastructure and strict building regulations, that do not support the spatial manifestations of the ‘informal’ sector. As a result, these New Towns may become insular enclaves and informal settlements may develop adjacently to them. Residents of these adjacent areas may not have access to the services and amenities offered within the New Towns (Keeton and Provoost 2019). Coupled with the implicit vulnerabilities of emerging and threshold economies, the contextual mismatch of the imported urban models exacerbates spatial segregation at an urban scale. Additionally, contemporary New Town models often do not take current climate variability or future climate change threats into account. As implemented in the African context, they rarely respond effectively to surrounding natural landscapes or environmental sensitivities (Keeton and Nijhuis 2019). Building on the arguments that (1) equal access to resources is a key component of sustainable development and that (2) urban planning benefits from new linkages between critical social theory and environmental science, this research proposes that applying adaptive urban planning principles to New Towns in the African context can increase ecological sustainability and social inclusivity (WCED 1987; Fainstein and Campbell 2012). The objective of this research is therefore to address the spatial challenges of African New Towns by developing an alternative planning and design approach that acknowledges both social and environmental dimensions, as well as the constant state of change that all cities exhibit. This is done by addressing four main research questions: (1) What are the spatial problems of African New Towns caused by the application of common planning approaches' (2) What are the principles of a more adaptive and sustainable planning and design approach and how can they address these problems' (3) How and to what extent can the adaptive planning and design principles be improved and applied' And finally, (4) As a result of the findings, how can adaptive planning approaches and the related principles be implemented' The research first identifies the spatial challenges specific to contemporary African New Towns through a combination of empirical data collection and literature review. The research moves forward to bring these shared spatial challenges together with a set of guidelines for New Towns originally written by Michelle Provoost as an addition to UN-Habitat’s New Urban Agenda (Provoost 2016). The analysis of shared spatial challenges is used to revise, expand and refine these guidelines into a set of adaptive planning and design principles specific to African New Towns. The resulting principles are then tested by applying them through case study analysis of three existing New Towns to establish their universality as well as their ability to acknowledge local specificities. In the final phase of the research, two short-term workshops validate the results by testing implementation of the principles in two African New Towns (Tatu City, Kenya and Mahonda, Zanzibar). The research concludes that the adaptive planning and design principles can be an effective starting point for stakeholders involved in the development of New Towns across Africa. It furthermore concludes that these principles must be adapted locally to meet the individual urgencies of different sites. This research contributes to the existing body of literature on contemporary African New Towns (Watson 2014; Murray 2017; Van Noorloos and Kloosterboer 2018; Keeton and Provoost 2019). Notably, most authors working on this topic primarily employ internet sources or a single case study to build their arguments, which can be problematic in the African context where remotely-sourced data is often unreliable and New Towns as a group exhibit vast divergences that may limit the transferability of results from individual case studies. This research therefore fills a knowledge gap by bringing together empirical evidence acquired during fieldwork in Angola, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, and Tanzania, combined with literature review and the results of interdisciplinary workshops to support its claims. It also contributes to the current debate on normative assumptions regarding planning in the Global South (Watson 2002; Watson 2016; Cirolia and Berrisford 2017), and directly addresses the disconnect between academia and practice regarding contemporary African New Towns (Grubbaur 2019; Keeton and Provoost 2019). Finally, this study aims to provide an alternative approach for planners, developers and decision-makers initiating tomorrow’s New Towns in Africa.
      PubDate: 2020-08-28
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.18.5198
  • Samenspel in stedelijke vernieuwing

    • Authors: Nicole Plasschaert
      Pages: 1 - 306
      Abstract: Investeringen door woningcorporaties zijn van groot belang voor de continuïteit van de stedelijke vernieuwing in Nederland. Corporaties keren echter terug naar hun kerntaak en zijn terughoudend om te werken aan herdifferentiatie van vernieuwingswijken. Dit proefschrift maakt inzichtelijk op welke wijze investeringsbeslissingen van woningcorporaties in stedelijke vernieuwing tot stand komen in samenwerking met andere actoren. Op basis van een casestudy zijn eerst factoren verkend die van invloed zijn op het investeringsgedrag. Vervolgens is aan de hand van gamesimulaties onderzocht of corporaties en respectievelijk beleggers, bouwers en gemeenten elkaar kunnen stimuleren om te investeren door een andere samenwerkingswijze. De onderzoeksresultaten wijzen uit dat er met name kansen liggen in de samenwerking van corporaties met beleggers en gemeenten. In het samenspel met beleggers is onder meer transparantie van belang en is cultuurverschil een belemmerende factor. In het samenspel met bouwers leiden langdurige samenwerkingsafspraken tot meer snelheid in investeringsbeslissingen, maar niet tot de gewenste kostenreductie. In het samenspel met gemeenten zijn een gedeelde visie en een wederkerige vertrouwensrelatie van groot belang.
      PubDate: 2020-08-28
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2019.11.5197
  • Control Shift

    • Authors: Theodora Chatzi Rodopoulou
      Pages: 1 - 630
      Abstract: The legacy of industrialisation counts only a few decades of being accepted as cultural heritage. The change of perceptions over its connotation and significance, from a menace to historic landscapes to an outstanding historical resource, took place in an era of massive sociocultural and economic upheavals. Those far-reaching developments reshaped both the theory and the practice of heritage conservation. Since the 1970s, new conservation approaches started emerging and being employed, next to the long established strategies of preservation and restoration. Adaptive reuse was included in the repertoire of conservation and quickly gained ground, as a strategy which allowed both the preservation of heritage values and sustainable development. The incorporation of adaptive reuse as an alternative conservation approach marked a noteworthy shift in heritage care. Contemporary conservation seized aiming at the prevention of change. Instead, it embraced it, following the new axiom: ‘Managing change’. This dissertation, positioned in the crossroads of the heritage conservation, architectural and spatial planning fields, focuses on Industrial Heritage Reuse practice in Europe. Despite widely employed in the last half century, Industrial Heritage Reuse still remains particularly challenging and highly confusing, hiding internal and external risks. Those resonate from the conditions of present times, the ambiguities of the contemporary framework of conservation, the embedded dilemmas of the Reuse practice as well as from the particularities of this special heritage group. This vastly complex yet fascinating topic has not yet been studied holistically under the circumstances dictated by the contemporary era. A deeper and broader understanding of the practice has assumed greater urgency in the 21st century, as it is the stepping stone for the enhancement of the practice -a demand that is increasingly stressed by academic and professional circles. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the potential of enhancement of the Industrial Heritage Reuse through the identification and analysis of its influencing Aspects, under the light of the contemporary theoretical conservation concepts, the current demands of the field of practice and the rising challenges of the 21st century context. This research addresses a topical issue, drawing from the concepts of the contemporary theory of conservation, challenging outdated theoretical notions and conventional practical and methodological applications. Furthermore, it sheds light to a hazy and confusing subject, addressing the tensions and the unresolved issues, highlighted by the existing literature on multiple disciplines. It revisits and reinterprets the standing axiom ‘Managing Change’, providing the scientific community with missing answers on the way, the Actors and the criteria based on which this can be achieved. Drawing upon both theory and practice on an international level, this inquiry gives a holistic and multileveled view on the subject under investigation, stimulating further thought and debate. Apart from extending the academic body of knowledge, the intention of this doctoral research is also to become a useful springboard for the practitioners that engage with Industrial Heritage Reuse. In order to achieve that, this dissertation presents an international and retrospective review of Industrial Heritage care, allowing experience drawn from one country to inform approaches on safeguarding via Reuse on other countries. Furthermore, it offers inspiration and raises awareness through the ‘ReIH’ online knowledge platform ( and the analysis of twenty cases studies of best practice. Lastly, taking into account the pressing issues of sustainability, equality and multilateralism, it offers guidance, providing a much needed alternative framework for the conservation of Industrial Heritage. This framework is capable of practical implementation and can contribute to an enhanced, more responsive, more sustainable, more inclusive, more value-driven and more holistic practice.
      PubDate: 2020-08-21
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.13.5195
  • Multiscale spatial contexts and neighbourhood effects

    • Authors: Ana Petrović
      Pages: 1 - 192
      Abstract: This thesis has developed alternative methods of operationalising neighbourhoods at multiple spatial scales and used them to advance our understanding of spatial inequalities and neighbourhood effects. The underlying problem that motivated this thesis is that many empirical studies use predefined administrative units, and this does not often align with the underlying theory or geography. Despite the extensive literature on neighbourhood effects and, more generally, on sociospatial inequalities, spatial scale remains an under-analysed concept. As a response to this research gap, this thesis takes a multiscale approach to both theory and empirical analysis of neighbourhood effects, highlighting the multitude of spatial processes that may affect individual outcomes of people. To operationalise this, we created bespoke areas (centred around each location) at a range of one hundred scales representing people’s residential contexts, primarily in the Netherlands but also in multiple European capitals. Using microgeographic data and a large number of scales combined with small distance increments revealed subtle changes in sociodemographic characteristics across space. In doing so, we provided new insights into ethnic segregation, potential exposures to poverty, and neighbourhood effects on income, all in light of the fundamental issue of spatial scale: The analyses of sociospatial inequalities are substantially affected by the scale used to operationalise spatial context, and this varies within and between cities and urban regions. The aim of this thesis was therefore not to find a single, ‘true’ scale of neighbourhood, but to acknowledge, operationalise, and better understand the multiplicity of spatial scales.
      PubDate: 2020-08-21
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.5194
  • The Privatisation of a National Project

    • Authors: Gabriel Schwake
      Pages: 1 - 416
      Abstract: In Israel, the development of new settlements is a leading national project. This began in the turn of the 20th century as national Zionist organisations established new frontier settlements in Palestine, in the efforts to secure the territory needed for a future state and to encourage a spiritual national renaissance. With its establishment in 1948, the young state of Israel took over the process, continuing the pre-state settlement endeavours of securing spatial control while endorsing a new unified national identity. Accordingly, the state promoted, directed, and executed the construction of a series of rural and industrial settlements that corresponded with the national geopolitical agenda and the hegemonic socialisation policy. Consequently, the architectural and urban features of these settlements were parallel to the ruling political, economic and social values and were thus characterised by reproduced homogeneous and economical residential environments. During the 1970s, the monolithic state-led development began to transform with the growing privatisation of the Israeli economy. These transformations reached a point of no return with the election of the first liberal and anti-socialist government in 1977; eventually turning into a national consensus. At the same time, the state did not abandon its geopolitical agenda and the attempts of securing spatial control through settlement. Nevertheless, it began dismantling its monopoly over the establishment of new localities, granting selected group spatial privileges and thus turning them into spatial agents that develop the frontier on its behalf. Initially, the privatisation of the national settlement project began with ex-urban and suburban communities, serving favoured societal groups. Eventually, with the growing involvement of private capital, it turned into a large-scale corporate-led development venture, dictated by financial interests while fulfilling geopolitical objectives. Privatisation, neoliberalism and market-economy are usually used as an antithesis to state involvement, regulation and nationalism. Conversely, this dissertation illustrates that the privatisation of the national territorial project was a statedirected effort intended to align the geopolitical agenda with the prevailing neoliberal order; using the market-economy as a means to enhance the state’s control over space. This dissertation focuses on the border area with the occupied Palestinian West-Bank, the Green-Line. Scarcely populated in the first three decades after the establishment of Israel, this area witnessed an ever-growing state-directed development effort following the occupation of the Palestinian territories in 1967. Developed by an increasing private involvement, this area constitutes a unique case study on the relationship between geopolitics and market economy; marked by the construction of the first privately developed national infrastructure project in the early 2000s – the Trans-Israel Highway. To understand the privatisation of this national project since 1977, this dissertation proposes focusing on the settlement mechanism. This comprises the reciprocal interests of the state and various private groups to develop and domesticate the frontier area of the Green-Line. Centring on the spatial privileges the state granted diverse spatial agents, this dissertation examines how different favoured groups were given the power to colonise, plan, develop and market space in return for enhancing the state’s power over it. Investigating how this settlement mechanism transformed over the years, including a variety of spatial agents and diverse spatial privileges, this research explores the increasing privatisation of the local economy and culture, as well as the manner in which it was manifested in the built environment. Examining the modifications in the architectural and urban products this mechanism produced, this research analyses the materialisation of the privatised national settlement project and how it transformed together with the changing political and economic interests. Focusing on the area along the Green-Line, this dissertation starts with examining the Community Settlements of the late 1970s and then moves to the Suburban Settlements of the 1980s. Examining both phenomena, the dissertation explains how their ex-urban and suburban qualities corresponded with the granted spatial privileges, forming a geopolitical tool intended to domesticate the Green-Line. Subsequently, the dissertation concentrates on the mass suburbanisation of the 1990s and the financialisation of the 2000s. Examining both stages, this dissertation illustrates how the state asked to domesticate the frontier by turning it into a real estate market; directing investment while securing the developers’ profitability and rentability concerns. Observing these four stages, this dissertation examines the gradual privatisation of the settlement mechanism. Analysing the different settlement phenomena, this research explains how the transforming individual and corporate interests were manifested in the built environment. Eventually, enabling the continuation of the national geopolitical agenda by tying it to the rationale of the market; replacing the former monolithic state-led development by uniform and reproduced corporate-led projects.
      PubDate: 2020-08-21
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.14.5193
  • Energetische upgrading van Nederlandse Wederopbouw flats

    • Authors: Frits Schultheiss
      Pages: 1 - 518
      Abstract: Problem definition According to the European Union, the future (2050) will be completely energy neutral and circular. Renovation concepts are needed for making existing homes more sustainable, taking into account the housing qualities of the existing stock, changed requirements and housing requirements, accessibility of the concepts on a large scale and simultaneous technical, social, energetic and circular renovation. For terraced houses, many energy concepts and strategies are available for the energy transition in the direction of energy neutral, while for high-rise houses, little knowledge is available. In the area of renovation to circular, as far as feasible, little knowledge is available. The research, therefore, focuses on high-rise system houses from the Reconstruction period 1950-1975, with a focus on the energetic spatial part of the renovation concept. Aim The research aims to develop possible strategies for energetically upgrading existing Dutch high-rise system houses from the Reconstruction period to energy-neutral for large-scale application with a view to circularity. This objective has practical relevance: society benefits from large-scale upgrades to achieve European climate objectives. Corporations, which primarily own the Reconstruction high-rise flats for social rental, owners’ associations and residents, benefit from new insights that can contribute to the circular energy upgrade of this stock. The theoretical relevance is to increase scientific knowledge in the field of energetic and circular upgrading. Research methods The existing high-rise housing stock from the Reconstruction Period (Flat 1.0) is mapped based on literature research and case studies to provide an answer to possible strategies for energy upgrading. The theoretical framework studies general system theory and various layers approaches to support the research. The essential concepts are defined using literature research. Flat 2.0 categories energetic adjustments focused on ‘comfort upgrading’. The focus of a new generation of adaptations of Reconstruction of high-rise flats (Flat 3.0) is on spatial energy upgrading to energy-neutral apartments and on which design principles and technical and energetic principles they are based. Conclusions The system theory provides tools for determining the choice of modular or integral upgrading. The scale-up of upgrades requires a modular approach because of a few relationships beyond a specific system boundary of upgrade elements. Accessibility and a layered approach are essential conditions. The simultaneity of the necessary technical, social, energetic and circular renovation, with the approximately 650,000 porch houses and 250,000 gallery houses that have to be renovated in a short time, provides an entirely different approach to the Flat 3.0 upgrade concept. This forces a radical approach in which an incremental approach is no longer sufficient. Scaling requires industrially oriented, innovative ideas. Flat 3.0 describes five possible strategies in the form of positions relative to the thermal shell, and combinations between them, to limit heat loss. Eliminating structural and building physical defects of the existing stock (Flat 1.0) is an opportunity for functional upgrading in the field of accessibility and social safety. Comfort upgrading (Flat 2.0) is the starting point. The technical upgrading of the shell of the building can take place in several ways: adapt the existing shell or place a new shell for the current shell. Both whether or not in combination with an extension or with gallery/balcony replacement due to thermal bridges or poor technical condition. Sixteen strategies are described for this. A simple building model shows the relationship between energy ambition and the amount of self-generated energy on or on the building. The building model shows that with a closedness of at least 40 % of the sun-oriented facade, 40 % of the access facade and 100 % of both end facades and roof, the generation of standardized building-related and user-related energy can be met on an annual basis. The possible closedness of the facade consists of 5 principal variants. The design of the upgrade depends on the construction method within which a construction system has been applied. A unique way is an entirely new circular ‘overcladding’ around the existing building envelope. The new industrial overcladding repairs defects in the old building envelope. Functionally, this means better wheelchair accessibility, better separation between public and private and more spacious balconies for increased living comfort. The roof zone and the front wall zone can serve as a place for additional housing for small families in the form of stacked and connected tiny active flat house modules. These modules designed for circularity simultaneously provide thermal upgrading of the relevant existing facade surfaces. To become energy-neutral or even energy-supplying, and thus also to meet the userrelated energy demand, the façade and roof area sustainable can generate energy. Enlargement of these energy-generating surfaces is an essential condition for a lower closedness of the residential facade. Recommendations The indicated directions for the upgrade of high-rise flats can be converted into specific elaborations for specific high-rise flats in particular contexts with particular clients. The detailing and materialization in support of the modular circular upgrade principle are central to this. Besides, financial feasibility based on circular business models and multiple value creation needs additional research.
      PubDate: 2020-08-21
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.12.5192
  • Architectural Record 1942-1967

    • Authors: Phoebus Ilias Panigyrakis
      Pages: 1 - 348
      Abstract: This PhD thesis examines the editorial policies and publishing history of the American periodical Architectural Record in the quarter century from 1942 to 1967. Operating since 1891, the Architectural Record is the longest-living and most circulated professional magazine of architecture, with a strong and lasting impact on the development of the discipline and the profession in the US and abroad. As an archive of architectural knowledge, its history during the mid-20th century is revealing the paradigm shift that occurred in-between the emergence of Modernism in pre-war Europe and its transition to Post-Modernism in the second half of the 20th c., as a largely American issue. The success and influence of the magazine was due to the resources of its parent corporations, F.W. Dodge and McGraw-Hill, its support and acknowledgement by professional and academic organizations and the connections, commitment and inventiveness of its editors. The editorial campaigns of the magazine trace the struggle for the adaptation of the modern movement in the American context and through that to its subsequent global eminence as “contemporary architecture,” a term popularised by the Record. In the midst of the media revolution, the architectural magazines saw the transformation of the profession to an information-based business, beyond an art and an engineering science. At a time when “architectural composition” was redefined into “architectural design.” Amongst the greater media revolution emerging aggressively in the US, the Architectural Record undertook the task of catering for the needs of the practising architect in the post-industrial, managerial and information age. And while initially the magazines were following the architectural developments, reporting on literal images of architecture, by 1967 its editors were educating, managing, consulting and navigating the profession trough its new markets. This trajectory pinackled in the Record's editorial campaign for “the image of the architect” that exemplified the phenomenon of how magazines were lobbying for the profession. A phenomenon that is still largely inexplored and that defines 21st architectural practice and design. But more than any theoretical sub-narrative, this thesis is dedicated to the history of the people and events that took place behind the pages of this era-defining magazine through the archives and living records of their time.
      PubDate: 2020-08-21
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.11.5191
  • Countercurrent Heat Exchange Building Envelope Using Ceramic Components

    • Authors: Jason Oliver Vollen
      Pages: 1 - 296
      Abstract: Research and development in building envelope design have promoted the convergence of two system types, Thermo-Active Building Systems and Adaptive Building Envelopes, that re- conceptualize the envelope as a distributed energy transfer function that captures, transforms, stores, and even re-distributes energy resources. The widespread deployment of Thermo-Active Building Systems as a building envelope will depend on several factors. These factors include the value of the design attributes that impact energy transfer in relation to the performance of the building envelope assembly and the return on investment that these attributes individually or in the aggregate can provide as a reduction in Energy Use Intensity. The research focus is on the design development, testing, and energy reduction potential of a Thermo-Active Building System as an adaptive countercurrent energy exchange envelope system using ceramic components: the Thermal Adaptive Ceramic Envelope.
      PubDate: 2020-08-21
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.05.5190
  • Individually controlled noise reducing devices to improve IEQ in
           classrooms of primary schools

    • Authors: Dadi Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 258
      Abstract: In recent decades, many indoor environmental quality (IEQ) related problems (such as noise, odour, overheating, glare…) in classrooms have been identified. The impact of IEQ in classrooms on school children has been thoroughly researched. Consequently, many studies have been carried out to attempt to improve the IEQ in classrooms. However, most of the IEQ-improvements were developed based on general requirements and ignored individual differences. No matter how advanced these improvements are, always some children keep being unsatisfied with the IEQ in their classrooms. Given the fact that different children have different IEQ perceptions, preferences, and needs, it makes more sense to control the IEQ in classrooms on the level of the individual rather than of the room. Only by doing this can the comfort, health, and ultimately performance of school children be improved. For this reason, this research explored the possibility of customizing IEQ in classrooms of primary schools in the Netherlands. This thesis addressed the following topics: –Current ways of controlling IEQ in classrooms and their effect on school children’s IEQ perception; – Individual preferences and needs of primary school children related to IEQ in classrooms; – Impact of the main IEQ problem on school children’s perception and performance; – Use of individually controlled devices to cope with the main IEQ problem in classrooms; – Children’s feedback on an individually controlled noise-reducing device. Several approaches were used to address these topics, including a field study, lab studies, computer simulations and a prototype study. In the spring of 2017, the indoor environment group conducted the field study in 54 classrooms of 21 primary schools in the Netherlands. 54 teachers’ questionnaire and 1145 children’s questionnaire were collected and analysed. The results of the field study provided insight into the current ways to control IEQ in classrooms, as well as the preferences and needs of children with respect to IEQ in their classrooms. Through a series of correlation analyses, the current ways to control IEQ, namely teachers’ IEQ-improving actions, were shown to be inefficient in improving children’s IEQ perceptions in classrooms, even though these actions were conducted based on children’s requests. Two possible explanations can be put forward. First, a teacher could only take one action to respond to one child at a time, therefore, another child’s request might have been ignored. Second, the options that teachers had to change the IEQ in classrooms were quite limited (for example, in most classrooms, opening windows was the only thing the teacher could do if children felt too hot in summer). It was, therefore, concluded that a more effective method to control the IEQ in classrooms is needed. To create a good learning environment for school children, it is important to know their perceptions, preferences, and needs concerning IEQ in their classrooms. The analyses of the 1145 children’s responses showed that different children within the same classroom could have different IEQ perceptions, preferences, and needs. Based on their IEQ perceptions, preferences, and needs and with the use of a twostep cluster analysis method, the children were grouped into six clusters (‘Sound concerned’, ‘Smell and Sound concerned’, ‘Thermal and Draught concerned’, ‘Light concerned’, ‘All concerned’ and ‘Nothing concerned’), with each a different profile was established. The analysis of the children’s responses also showed that 87% of the children were bothered by noise (mainly caused by themselves) in their classrooms. Therefore, noise was identified as the main problem in the classrooms studied. To get more insight in this main problem, a lab study was conducted in the spring of 2018 in which children were invited to participate in a listening task with different background sounds. The experiment was conducted in two chambers (acoustically treated chamber and untreated chamber) with different reverberation times (RTs) at the same time. Results of the two-way ANOVA analysis showed a significant interaction between the impact of sound type and sound pressure level (SPL) on children’s performance in the untreated chamber (RT = 0.3 s). Additionally, the t-test results showed that children performed significantly better in the untreated chamber than in the treated chamber (RT = 0.07 s). This indicated that a shorter RT is not always better, and it was recommended to also introduce a lower limit for the RT in classrooms to prevent over-damping. After the establishment of the main IEQ problem, namely noise, the next step of this research was searching for an effective way to address this problem. Because the use of individually controlled devices in offices has shown to be able to improve both the IEQ and the workers’ satisfaction rates, it was assumed that these devices can have a similar effect on children in classrooms. To get a preliminary understanding of this assumption, a series of computer simulations was therefore conducted to test the effect of an individually controlled device on noise reduction. By comparing the simulation results of these individually controlled devices with the conventional ways to reduce noise (namely acoustic ceiling tiles), it was seen that the individually controlled devices have the ability to provide better acoustics in terms of providing shorter RTs and higher speech transmission indices. Subsequently, a real individually controlled noise-reducing device (ICND) was prototyped and tested in a lab study during the summer and autumn vacation of 2019. This prototype was similar to the stimulated device. It looks like a large umbrella that hung above every child’s head. In this research, two identical prototyp...
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.10.5113
  • Securing Healthy Circular Material Flows In The Built Environment

    • Authors: Bob Geldermans
      Pages: 1 - 284
      Abstract: Departing from two problem statements, one concerning circularity in the built environment and one concerning flexibility in the built environment, this dissertation sets out to answer two main research questions: – In an Open Building division of support and infill, to what extent can the infill contribute to sustainable circular material & product flows' – Which qualitative and quantitative criteria and preconditions are central to integrating the notions of user health & well-being, circularity, and flexibility in infill configurations' In view on these research questions, this dissertation revolves around multiple topics and disciplines, addressing material properties, material flows, product design, and user benefits, relating to a specific building component: non-bearing partitioning. The research follows a mixed-method approach, primarily qualitatively driven and supported by quantitative data and tools. Literature studies, workshops and expert consultations are applied throughout the trajectory to derive, test and adjust criteria, guidelines and design concepts. The dissertation is structured around four research chapters (each set-up as a separate academic article), preceded by a general introduction and background sketch, and followed by an overarching evaluation of the findings. The results from the first research chapter (Chapter 3) concern the distinction of various intrinsic and relational properties, as well as an inventory matrix based on building layers and material reutilisation routes. In the next chapter (Chapter 4), a first set of criteria is derived (Circ-Flex I) in order to integrate flexibility, circularity and user benefits. In Chapter 5, criteria are further elaborated, including assessment guidelines that pinpoint health, well-being, and operational performance (Circ- Flex II). The following chapter (Chapter 6) is aimed at design aspects: a design conceptualisation trajectory is laid out, applying design preconditions rooted in the criteria that were shaped in the preceding chapters. Furthermore, a novel flow analysis and modelling method is utilised with respect to secondary raw materials: the Activity-based Spatial Material Flow Analysis (AS-MFA). This stage revolves around materialisation and operational propositions for an innovative partitioning configuration of side-panel and insulation. The innovations are based on renewable material and reversible adhesive technologies. The following conclusions are derived from the research: Circularity in the built environment can only occur if flexibility is fully integrated in the whole building (component) value network, and conversely, flexibility in the built environment increasingly depends on the handling and management of materials designated for healthy, circular applications. – Infill parts, implemented in an Open Building context, enable multiple short to medium length cycles within the longer service lives of multi-family building structures, following changes in user requirements. As such, this model accommodates more sustainable product and material flows. However, decisive success factors are the attitude of and interplay between actors in the value network, not least the end-user. – Technical circularity potential of building products and materials resides at the intersection of intrinsic and relational characteristics. – The differentiation of building layers and parts, in combination with differentiated reutilisation routes, provides leverage for more advanced approaches to circular building strategies, anticipating multiple handling and treatment processes. – To bring circular building to scale in a socially engaged way, value models need to take account of actors’ shared incentives around flexibility and health, as well as split incentives around circularity. – Monitoring the operational performance is key for capitalising on the intrinsic health and circularity potential of building components during their service life. – Research and design exercises into circular building concepts and products benefit reciprocally from data and experience in adjacent disciplines, such as urban planning and waste management, whilst integrating multiple sub-systems associated with value creation in circular models. – Modifications associated with the innovative partition concepts occur above all in raw material sourcing, manufacturing, reutilisation logistics, and data-sharing, of which the latter should extend to the end-user. Next to partitioning, the findings can be relevant for other infill components as well, such as: kitchen cabinets, stairs, furniture, and the interior side-sheeting and insulation of walls and ceilings in energy-renovations. Follow-up research and practical efforts should be aimed at the development and testing of products, as well as value propositions regarding ownership: from regular transactions in which ownership shifts to the customer, to more innovative models in which ownership stays with the supplier or shifts to an intermediary actor (e.g. pay-per-use, buy-back or deposit model). Securing healthy circular material flows in the built environment cannot be the objective of one industry, let alone one organisation, but reshuffles whole value networks. This cannot be done without binding agreements and multi‑criteria learning loops. The first emphasises legal frameworks. This is therefore another prime area for future action. The aspect of multi-criteria learning loops, finally, relates to the need for more sophisticated data-exchange, also engaging endusers, which is nowadays rare in housing.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.06.5038
  • Architecture and the Time of Space

    • Authors: Deborah Hauptman
      Pages: 1 - 154
      Abstract: During my early introduction to architecture I found that I was motivated not only by matters pertaining to what architecture is, but also, to what it can do. Thus, the questions motivating this work derive from my education in architecture which, at their most rudimentary level, entail a deep fascination with the nature of space, and thus the problem of time. And, subsequently, a practical desire to understand the conditions that constituted experience, and thus perception, sensation and mind. My interest also developed from a general disposition towards others and world founded in principles of human equality and rights with respect to both freedom and responsibility. During my years practicing architecture, these questions as they were brought through the perspective of design continued to inspire me. At the same time, my interest in investigating these questions through theoretical and philosophical research persisted until my aspiration to engage in critical thought outpaced my desire to practice. Hence, a turn in career to work as an academic in the discipline of architecture and the area of architecture theory. This research may be perceived by some as situated outside the realm of architecture. However, this is not the case. My approach to architecture theory is not one that begins with a study of the object, or, for some, one might say the subject of architecture. That is, if the object is understood as the manifestation in thought, process or form of the building or built environment (real or conceived) itself; and if the subject is understood as the thought or idea emanating from the mind of the architect (as author). While there is much architecture theory advanced from this perspective lining my own bookshelves and utilized in my work as an educator. The concerns that have always called me towards thinking about architecture as the imagined and constructed world in which we live are those that query the very nature of concepts, notions, ideologies and intellectual constructions and beliefs upon which culture and society – architecture as both a cultural product and a social actor – are formed. This goes, as well, to the considerations that motivate my concern for people, not users or inhabitants as such, but as ontologically situated beings in the world. Accordingly, my work primarily deals with the content, history and effects of architecture as it relates to theories of space, time, the body, and cognition. Employing and developing theories and methods from disciplines including philosophy, cultural studies, literary theory, political, social and economic theory, cognitive psychology, and the neurosciences in the broadest sense. Admittedly, the nature of theoretical discourse has shown itself to be problematic over the past fifty-plus years; it has also proven to be transformative. Critical thinkers in the late 1960s developed a sustained critique of their philosophical predecessors – primarily in regard to Marx on one hand and Heidegger on the other – with a critique of social history and a displacement of metaphysics resulting in a repositioning of social and cultural discourse. Of course, the debate unfolded against the philosophical and aesthetic background of not only Marx and Heidegger, but also Nietzsche, Hegel and Freud on one hand, and Manet, Cézanne, Baudelaire and Mallarmé, Wagner and Debussy on the other. In architecture, the debate extended to Ruskin and Wölfflin, and to Wright and Corbusier, amongst others. This period, in itself, refers to an unprecedented artistic, scientific, economic, and technological mutation. Prevalent underpinnings remain identifiable, for instance an attack on the absolute nature of knowledge, which has brought about a fundamental rethinking of both the nature of consciousness, as well as a critique of science. As Foucault suggested, one of the great problems that arose in the 1950s was that of the political status of science and the ideological functions that it could serve. Another rebuke can be seen as the challenge to the primacy of truth as an adequation of subject to thing. This culminated in a radical critique of subjectivity resulting, some years later, in the so-called post-humanist-subject. In order to be rid of the subject itself, Foucault, in ‘Truth and Power’ (1977) argued that it was necessary to dispense with the essentialist subject both at the extremes and in-between the enlightenment’s humanist subject and its ideals of knowledge as self-constituting; as well as phenomenology’s fabrication of the subject as evolving through and embodying the course of history. Reflecting on this history, that post-war moment of theory, one cannot help but be struck by the complexity and the ambiguity of the adventure; qualities most evident in the fact that new spaces and new means of writing and drawing, of thinking and making emerged. Ideas that modified our understanding of both communication and the image, of both space and time. Discourses, when combined with a reflexivity within certain architectures and certain texts, rendered them somehow indefinitely open. In the 1960s, literary theory transformed thought on both sides of the Atlantic. For instance, Roland Barthes’s de-sanctioning of the biography-centric author, or the removal of authority from the author turned scriptor in ‘The Death of the Author’ (1967), or Julia Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality with ‘Word, Dialogue and Novel’ (1969). These works impacted our thinking on linguistic phenomena and the origin (or non-originality) of textual content and further, on the invention of new forms of writing and affective relations. Such theories informed and redirected thinking in architecture, for instance, Diana Agrest and Mario Gandelsonas’s work ‘Semiotics and Architecture: Ideological Consumption or Theoretical Work’ was published in the first issue of O...
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.09.5036
  • Thinking- Skins

    • Authors: Jens Böke
      Pages: 1 - 286
      Abstract: Under the guiding concept of a thinking skin, the research project examines the transferability of cyber-physical systems to the application field of façades. It thereby opens up potential increases in the performance of automated and adaptive façade systems and provides a conceptual framework for further research and development of intelligent building envelopes in the current age of digital transformation. The project is characterized by the influence of digital architectural design methods and the associated computational processing of information in the design process. The possible establishment of relationships and dependencies in an architecture understood as a system, in particular, are the starting point for the conducted investigation. With the available automation technologies, the possibility of movable building constructions, and existing computer-based control systems, the technical preconditions for the realisation of complex and active buildings exist today. Against this background, dynamic and responsive constructions that allow adaptations in the operation of the building are a current topic in architecture. In the application field of the building envelope, the need for such designs is evident, particularly with regards to the concrete field of adaptive façades. In its mediating role, the façade is confronted with the dynamic influences of the external microclimate of a building and the changing comfort demands of the indoor climate. The objective in the application of adaptive façades is to increase building efficiency by balancing dynamic influencing factors and requirements. Façade features are diverse and with the increasing integration of building services, both the scope of fulfilled façade functions and the complexity of today’s façades increase. One challenge is the coordination of adaptive functions to ensure effective reactions of the façade as a complete system. The ThinkingSkins research project identifies cyber-physical systems as a possible solution to this challenge. This involves the close integration of physical systems with their digital control. Important features are the decentralized organization of individual system constituents and their cooperation via an exchange of information. Developments in recent decades, such as the miniaturisation of computer technology and the availability of the Internet, have established the technical basis required for these developments. Cyber-physical systems are already employed in many fields of application. Examples are decentralized energy supply, or transportation systems with autonomous vehicles. The influence is particularly evident in the transformation of the industrial sector to Industry 4.0, where formerly mechatronic production plants are networked into intelligent technical systems with the aim of achieving higher and more flexible productivity. In the ThinkingSkins research project it is assumed that the implementation of cyber-physical systems based on the role model of cooperating production plants in IIndustry 4.0 can contribute to an increase in the performance of façades. Accordingly, the research work investigates a possible transfer of cyber-physical systems to the application field of building envelopes along the research question: How can cyber-physical systems be applied to façades, in order to enable coordinated adaptations of networked individual façade functions' To answer this question, four partial studies are carried out, which build upon each other. The first study is based on a literature review, in which the understanding and the state-of-the-art development of intelligent façade systems is examined in comparison to the exemplary field of application of cyber-physical systems in the manufacturing industry. In the following partial study, a second literature search identifies façade functions that can be considered as components of a cyber-physical façade due to their adaptive feasibility and their effect on the façade performance. For the evaluation of the adaptive capabilities, characteristics of their automated and adaptive implementation are assigned to the identified façade functions. The resulting superposition matrix serves as an organizational tool for the third investigation of the actual conditions in construction practice. In a multiple case study, realized façade projects in Germany are examined with regard to their degree of automation and adaptivity. The investigation includes interviews with experts involved in the projects as well as field studies on site. Finally, an experimental examination of the technical feasibility of cyber-physical façade systems is carried out through the development of a prototype. In the sense of an internet of façade functions, the automated adaptive façade functions ventilation, sun protection as well as heating and cooling are implemented in decentrally organized modules. They are connected to a digital twin and can exchange data with each other via a communication protocol. The research project shows that the application field of façades has not yet been exploited for the implementation of cyber-physical systems. With the automation technologies used in building practice, however, many technical preconditions for the development of cyber-physical façade systems already exist. Many features of such a system are successfully implemented within the study by the development of a prototype. The research project therefore comes to the conclusion that the application of cyber-physical systems to the façade is possible and offers a promising potential for the effective use of automation technologies. Due to the lack of artificial intelligence and machine learning strategies, the project does not achieve the goal of developing a façade in the sense of a true ThinkingSkin as the title indicates. A mileston...
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.08.5035
  • In-Situ Determination of Buildings’ Thermo- Physical Characteristics

    • Authors: Arash Rasooli
      Pages: 1 - 228
      Abstract: Ever since the introduction of energy conversion systems in the built environment, buildings have become responsible for a considerable share of global energy consumption. Many countries have therefore aimed to invest on buildings’ energy efficiency plans to reduce the depletion rate of the fossil resources and the CO2 emissions associated with them. In this context, accurate determination of building’s thermo-physical characteristics is a necessity in the processes which lead to execution of energy conservation strategies in existing buildings. These characteristics are the essential inputs for buildings’ thermal modelling, quality control, energy audits, and energy labelling, the results of which are determinant for energy renovation decisions and policies. In practice, the values of these parameters are not always available because the current determination methods are time-and-effort-expensive, and consequently rarely used. In accordance with the large deviations observed between the in-lab and in-situ thermal behaviour of building components, a special attention is laid on in-situ methods. This thesis aims at developing and testing different in-situ determination methods and approaches at different levels. Theories, simulations, and experiments, are combined for determination of a number of buildings’ most important thermo-physical characteristics. Transmission losses through the façades are known to be responsible for a significant portion of heat loss in buildings and consequently are investigated in all standard energy calculation methods. Thus, the major part of the thesis is dedicated to the thermal behaviour of exterior walls. The exact construction of existing walls is generally unknown. Consequently, the estimation of their thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity can be erroneous. Later, the attention is upscaled to the building level where rather than local characteristics, global characteristics are determined. At the first stage, the walls’ in-situ determination of thermal resistance has been examined. Despite the advantages of the existing standard method, “ISO 9869 Average Method” for measuring this parameter, two problems have been pointed out: long duration and imprecision. Accordingly, this phase describes and demonstrates how the simplest modifications to this standard method can improve it in terms of solving these problems. Heat transfer simulations and experiments in a variety of wall typologies have been applied to show the effect of using an additional heat flux sensor, facing the first one, installed on the opposite side of the wall. Three estimations of thermal resistance based on either indoor or outdoor heat fluxes, and the average of the two values are then defined. It is shown that one of these values satisfies the convergence criteria earlier than the other two, leading to a quicker insitu determination of thermal resistance with a higher precision. To further shorten the measurement period, in the second phase, a new transient in-situ method, Excitation Pulse Method, EPM, is developed and examined experimentally on three walls. The method is inspired by the theory of thermal response factors. In EPM, a triangular surface temperature excitation is applied at one side of the wall and the heat flux responses at both sides are measured and converted into the wall’s corresponding response factors which then leads to the wall’s thermal resistance. To validate, the results are compared to the ones obtained following the ISO 9869. The good agreement of the results confirms the possibility of measuring the Rc-value within a couple of hours. Applying this method, the overestimation of around 400% between the actual and estimated values (in practice, often based on the construction year) of thermal transmittance was resolved. Thus, EPM is believed to significantly improve the required time and accuracy in determination of the thermal behavior of walls with unknown constructions. Experimental and practical details regarding the design and construction of the method’s prototype as well as its application range are demonstrated subsequently. EPM has been patented in the Dutch patent office (Patent No. 2014467) and can be applied on in-lab and in-situ circumstances. Following the success in the proof of principle, in the third phase, detailed conditions for correct application of EPM in heavy and multi-layered walls are further studied. Heat transfer theories, simulations, and experiments are combined to evaluate the method’s performance for different types of walls. A specific attention is devoted to the relationship between the walls’ thermal response time and the response factors’ time interval, affecting the accuracy of Rc-value determination. Additionally, other hidden information in the response factors of the walls such as the possible construction are revealed. It is moreover demonstrated that in addition to the thermal resistance, the two main thermo-physical properties of a wall, the thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capacity, as well as the wall’s thickness can be determined using inverse modelling of the Response Factors. The accuracy and precision of the method is tested in many different ways, fortifying the confidence for future application of this method. In the last phase, the advancement of smart metering and monitoring systems in buildings are considered. Such smart technologies have led to utilization of the data from, for instance, home automation systems. This data acquisition is referred to as “on-board-monitoring” category of measurements, which removes the hassle, cost, and intrusion associated with locally-conducted experiments. The problem is then observed from a perspective wider than the component level. This time, the thermo-physical characteristics are studied for a whole building rather...
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.07.4989
  • Energy in Dwellings

    • Authors: Paula van den Brom
      Pages: 1 - 258
      Abstract: Energy simulation models for buildings are widely used by policymakers, researchers and consultants as a tool to advice on the reduction of residential energy consumption. Previous studies have shown that there is a gap between theoretical building energy simulation results and actual energy use. The discrepancy between theory and practice is problematic, as for instance expected energy savings are often not achieved. This thesis shows that analysing specific household types and building characteristics can contribute to a better understanding of amongst others the influence of the occupant on actual energy consumption. The effectiveness of thermal renovations is dependent on both occupants and building characteristics, which means tailored advice on renovation measures is necessary. We also found that occupants and building characteristics are equally responsible for variances in actual residential energy consumption. To reduce the gap between theory and practice on a single building level, simulation models are improved using calibration methods. In the final part of this thesis, a method is developed to calibrate simulations on a building stock level, making building energy simulation tools more reliable for policymakers.
      PubDate: 2020-02-27
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.17.4664
  • Visibility, democratic public space and socially inclusive cities

    • Authors: Ceren Sezer
      Pages: 1 - 202
      Abstract: This research introduces the concept of visibility as a useful tool to assess the democratic features of public spaces. We understand democratic public spaces as open spaces, which are accessible to all and allow different cultural expressions for individuals and groups. The concept of visibility refers to the visual perception of the observable features of distinctive urban groups in public space, which give evidence of their lived experiences, and how they engage with, shape, and construct public space in everyday life. The main assumption of the study is that the visibility of distinctive urban groups on the street manifests the rights of these groups to participate in the public life of the city, which is a key feature of a democratic public space. Consequently, the presence and changes in the visibility of urban groups in public space is a highly political issue, which raises concerns in relation to just or unjust urban conditions. Open and democratic public spaces are an asset to achieve socially inclusive cities, recognized as such in academic and policy circles. However, the present political and economic context has turned public spaces into a tool for the branding and marketing of cities. Public space is increasingly designed and geared to attract tourists and higher-income groups, leading to trends toward the commodification of urban development. Such trends discourage the presence in, and uses of, public space by some groups, contributing to the erosion of key features of democratic public spaces. The urban literature gives useful indications about the observable qualities of democratic public spaces, but their tangible and physical aspects have not been sufficiently studied in the urban design and planning literature. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the precise effects that urban transformations may have on the democratic features of public spaces, or on their implications for the design and planning of socially inclusive cities. Consequently, the main objective of this research is to advance knowledge about the democratic features of public space that promote socially inclusive neighbourhoods and cities. The approach considers the visibility of commercial and communal amenities as a proxy for the presence and appropriation of public space by immigrant groups through their distinctive signs, languages, and uses. The analysed and documented the recent changes in the visibility of Turkish amenities in the streets of Amsterdam in the context of urban transformations in the period between 2007 and 2016. The methodology of the research included deskwork and fieldwork. The former included theory review and identification of the policy context. The latter included primary data collection about the immigrant amenities’ spatial and social characteristics, mapping of the presence and changes of the amenities in two selected streets, and finally, analyses, synthesis and interpretation of the findings. Two streets located in the inner-city (Javastraat) and the outskirts (Burgemeester de Vlugtlaan) of Amsterdam were selected as case-study, in base of their location; demographic trends; and type of users. Their empirical examination was useful to appraise and document the presence and changes of Turkish amenities in these streets during the studied period. There are five major findings in this research. First, visibility can be operationalized by studying the spatial and social characteristics of immigrant amenities in public space. Measuring and documenting the spatial (at city and neighbourhood level) and social (social life of parochial and public realm) characteristics of immigrant amenities, the visibility of culturally distinctive groups in public space can be compared in a synchronic and diachronic way. This constitutes an innovative approach to the empirical assessment of public space, which complements statistical and quantitative approaches to public space. A longitudinal analysis of these changes then offers a better understanding of the relationship of these changes with the corresponding urban policies and trends. Second, immigrant neighbourhoods and their commercial amenities have been significantly affected by the commercial and residential gentrification of innercity immigrant neighbourhoods in Amsterdam. These trends have been the result of a gradual shift from a social democratic towards a liberal welfare regime in the Netherlands since the 1980s, which has strongly influenced successive national and city level urban policies and strategies. Since then, Amsterdam urban renewal and housing policies have evolved significantly from the ‘building for the neighbourhood’ approach towards a market-oriented approach. Third, the social characteristics of immigrant amenities – related to their capacity to promote social contacts within the immigrant and larger community – are different for commercial and communal amenities. The former are more open, and therefore more visible in public space. The location-related spatial characteristics vary for inner-city/outskirts and main street/back streets locations. Inner city and main street locations are more visible for a broader public. Other spatial characteristics that contribute to a greater visibility of immigrant amenities are high levels of legibility; personalisation; and robustness. Fourth, the visibility of distinctive urban groups in public space – linked to their participation in public life – is a strong indication of the socio-cultural inclusion of these groups into the society. Taking that into account, the decreasing visibility of Turkish amenities found in Javastraat during the 2007-2016 period has produced a negative impact on the socio-cultural inclusion of Turkish immigrants in Amsterdam. Fifth, the decreasing visibility of immigrant groups has detrimental consequences for shaping democratic public spaces and for promoting urban justice principles, specific...
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.16.4604
  • Energy-Efficient Office Renovation

    • Authors: Minyoung KWON
      Pages: 1 - 244
      Abstract: This research aims to develop user-focused design principles for energy-efficient office renovations. The goal of this is to improve the quality and comfort of workspaces without compromising on energy-saving goals. Due to increasing sustainability requirements, new ways of working and changing office user preferences, there is a growing need for office renovations that not only deal with the energy performance and the replacement of building facilities, but also the occupants’ health and well-being. The renovation of office buildings can substantially reduce energy demand and improve building performance. For this reason, most studies regarding office renovations have focused on achieving better energy performance and indoor environmental quality. Also, several studies have investigated employee satisfaction in the work environment. However, the users are only considered after the buildings have been built and taken into use (e.g., postoccupancy evaluation), but not in the early stage of the design phase. Although there are building regulations and norms regarding indoor comfort, no clear design principles or guidelines considering users have been developed for office renovations. Therefore, it is necessary to explore how office users can be included in the early design stage of office renovations to improve their comfort and satisfaction. This led to the following main research question to be answered in this thesis: How can design principles for energy efficient office renovation be developed, based on the evaluation of user satisfaction' To answer to this question, field studies were conducted in 5 office buildings in the Netherlands. The cases consist of four renovated offices and one non-renovated office, originally built in 1960s to 70s. Before conducting empirical studies, a literature was conducted that is implemented in the theoretical framework. Ten parameters for satisfaction, such as thermal comfort, air quality, light, noise, personal control, privacy, concentration, communication, social contact, and territoriality, were defined and were classified based on the findings from 124 items of studies focussing on physical and psychological satisfaction in the work environment. Each chapter and several sub-research questions address these parameters. Based on the findings, a classification of user satisfaction parameters is proposed, including a discussion about an hierarchy of ten parameters. This hierarchy is structured based on theoretical definitions of parameters and its physical, functional, and psychological influences.  For the empirical studies, a multidisciplinary methodology was applied to prioritise the important aspects of office renovations. The various methods for data collection and analyses included examining energy use and the quality of indoor climate after renovation, and investigating the impact of design factors on user satisfaction with thermal, visual, and psychological comfort. The design factors in this research are influential design factors on user satisfaction. These are office layout, orientation, window-to-wall ratio, and desk location. The empirical studies are structured in four parts. Energy consumption As a preliminary study, architects and facility managers were interviewed to identify the building characteristics of renovated offices and energy consumption. Henceforth, the five case studies were conducted. A cross-case-analysis was used to compare the building characteristics of the five case studies. The energy consumption of renovated and non-renovated offices were compared by different energy matrix. In addition, the limitations that hinder the achievement of better energy performance, were described. Indoor climate and users’ thermal comfort Indoor temperature and humidity were measured by using data loggers to identify the condition of the indoor climate for users’ thermal comfort after renovation. A questionnaire, including thermal sensation, preference, and satisfaction, was distributed among the building users. The monitored climate data of the thermal conditions were evaluated based on the Dutch building norms and users’ responses. Personal control This part aims to identify the relationship between the degree of personal control over indoor environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, ventilation, light) and user satisfaction with thermal and visual comfort. This study investigated the impact of personal control on user satisfaction through user surveys and statistical analyses. The results present that higher controllability leads to more satisfaction in terms of thermal and visual comfort. It also reveals the psychological impact of personal control on user satisfaction by showing differences in perceived satisfaction according to ‘no control’ and ‘do not have’. These findings provide support to workplace management and the design of personal environmental control systems. User satisfaction with thermal, visual, and psychological comfort Together with the indoor climate conditions of workspaces, 579 office users from the five cases were studied. The responses of the users were collected and analysed through statistical analyses. This study phase demonstrates the results of the impact of influential office design factors on user satisfaction with thermal, visual, and psychological comfort. It also contributes to predicting which design variables may bring better user satisfaction. After the empirical studies, the conceptual study was conducted through energy simulation to evaluate the impact of the combination of design factors on the energy demand. Twenty-four office model variants were created based on the combination of design factors, which are consisted of 3 or 4 variables. The energy demand is predicted according to the office model variants. As a next step, the design principles were developed by incorporating the ...
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4445
  • Introduction

    • Authors: Minyoung Kwon
      Pages: 30 - 43
      Abstract: Energy-efficient office renovation is obviously required for the reasons mentioned in the previous section, and there is a great growth of energy renovation projects in practice. However, does a high energy performance office provide a comfortable working environment to its users' One of the reasons of office existence is to provide comfortable and healthy indoor environments (Ornetzeder et al., 2016). According to Klepeis et al. (2001), people spend over 80% of their time in enclosed spaces. Moreover, good indoor environments can lead to an increase of occupants’ productivity (Al-Horr et al., 2016). For these reasons, planning healthy and comfortable work environment can be as important as reducing energy use. The question is, how can we design healthy and comfortable work environments, with which the users are satisfied' The starting point to answer this question is to include building users’ requirements and satisfaction in workspaces in energy renovation schemes. A concern is that conventional renovation principles are mainly physical- and technical-oriented, whereas it does not focus on enhancing user satisfaction in the work environment. Moreover, as long as the renovated building does not offer sufficient quality or satisfaction, there will be less demand for renovated office buildings. When energy efficiency is considered as the only advantage of office renovation, it is difficult to convince developers, building owners, and investors that renovation is useful. From a managerial perspective, achieving better employee’s satisfaction should be a focal point to strengthen the market values of renovated offices, thereby achieving a higher demand from the market, preventing environmental degradation or vacancy of existing buildings. Therefore, office renovation also has to provide a high-level of comfortable work environment for the users’ well-being and satisfaction beside maximising energy reduction goals. Therefore, there is a significant need to investigate how to define the users’ satisfaction to contribute to better office renovations. The relationship between indoor climate and users’ physical health has been explored in extensive research (Al Horr et al., 2016; Bluyssen et al., 2016; Leder et al., 2016; Mandin et al., 2017). Followed by these studies, the framework of international green building rating systems such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) include a category of social sustainability as a means of providing a healthy and comfortable environment to users for both new and renovated buildings (Sarkis et al., 2012; Zuo & Zhao, 2014). Although international green building rating systems address the significance of including user perspectives, there is a lack of guidelines and information that focus on user satisfaction in building renovation. Especially, the relationship between design factors and user satisfaction has rarely been investigated due to several reasons; user satisfaction is a subjective topic; design factors are closely related to energy efficiency and aesthetic aspects rather than user satisfaction. Therefore, the main problem is that in spite of the development of various renovation techniques, there is still a lack of renovation design principles considering user preferences and user satisfaction due to the indirect relationship with energy use. In any renovation project, the initiative is the most significant phase to ensure proper decisions and to optimise overall renovation values and results, that should be considered in the early renovation design stage. Jensen and Maslesa (2015) stated that the main barriers include lack of standard principles and a lacking overview of potential values in the initiative phase. To summarise all these aspects, it is required to develop an overview of potential values and standard design principles that not only focus on energy efficiency but also on the building users for office renovations.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4446
  • Theoretical framework for user-focused evaluation in office design

    • Authors: Minyoung Kwon
      Pages: 44 - 71
      Abstract: As was stated in the introduction, a user-focused renovation approach can enhance user satisfaction in offices and the functional quality of the offices while meeting energy performance goals. The first step for this renovation approach is to identify users’ needs and the physical and psychological factors affecting user satisfaction, as input to office renovation projects. The main aim is to identify the factors that are affecting the physical and psychological satisfaction of users, based on what previous research has found in that field. Therefore, this chapter highlights the main parameters currently applied to the evaluation of user satisfaction, including the definitions based on the literature review. The research approach for the literature review is discussed in section 2.2. Searching was limited to the main key terms of office, work environment, and user satisfaction and comfort. Section 2.3 explores the relationship between office renovation and user satisfaction. The terms user satisfaction and the user’s expectations in workplaces are defined in section 2.4. In section 2.5, the important factors were searched through empirical-based international literature mainly. Based hereupon, section 2.6 discusses the challenge of evaluating user satisfaction. In section 2.7, the findings present ten main parameters to increase user satisfaction in office renovation. The parameters were categorised into three levels based on needs theories to organise the hierarchy of priorities.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4447
  • Building characteristics and energy use of energy-efficient renovated

    • Authors: Minyoung Kwon
      Pages: 72 - 89
      Abstract: Chapter 2 presented the physical and psychological satisfaction parameters for user-focused evaluation. In most renovation projects, the façade is a major consideration next to the HVAC system to optimise the performance of the building. Many studies reveal that façade renovation has a large impact on the energy efficiency. The aim of this chapter is to identify the characteristics of renovated offices, such as façade types, HVAC system, and sun shading, and compare the energy performance based on user typologies in renovated and non-renovated office buildings. Section 3.2 describes an overview of façade renovation strategies based on literature. The renovation strategies are classified into four strategies: passive add-in, replacement, climate skin, and active add-in. Section 3.3 presents the criteria to select case studies. Section 3.4 describes the characteristics of four renovated case studies and one non-renovated case located in the Netherlands. The building information was collected through interviews with architects, a review of project documents, and a field survey. Cross-analysis was used to compare the renovation plan, physical conditions. Energy consumption of each office building was compared by different energy metrics in section 3.5. Section 3.6 discusses the limitation of the renovation projects and suggestions for the future study. The finding from cross-evaluation of case studies are described in section 3.7.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4449
  • Evaluation of user’s thermal perception and satisfaction towards
           indoor environmental quality

    • Authors: Minyoung Kwon
      Pages: 90 - 111
      Abstract: Chapter 3 compared the building characteristics of renovated offices such as façade types and the HVAC system and energy consumption with different units. These physical building characteristics do not only contribute to energy performance but also to the indoor environment. For user satisfaction studies, a comfortable indoor environment is one of the primary conditions of the working environment. Therefore, it is important to identify the impact of indoor climate on user satisfaction in different office buildings (technical attributes of renovated office buildings). The purpose of this chapter is to identify the impact of indoor climate on user satisfaction, comparing how much they are satisfied with the indoor climate to temperature and relative humidity and how much the users can adapt the certain temperature. Section 4.2 presents the data collection for 2 weeks in three seasons: summer, winter, and the intermediate season. Monitored indoor climate such as temperature, and relative humidity is compared in section 4.3. Section 4.4 compares the occupants’ thermal sensation, preference and satisfaction with physical measurements are compared in section 4.3. Lastly, the predicted optimal thermal conditions, and limitations are discussed in section 4.5.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4450
  • Impact of personal control on user satisfaction

    • Authors: Minyoung Kwon
      Pages: 112 - 133
      Abstract: Chapter 4 provided the impact of indoor climate on user satisfaction. Many studies reported that personal control over indoor environmental conditions is one of the influential factors for user satisfaction and environmental comfort due to its physical and psychological impacts. However, it is not clear to what extent users should be allowed to have control over the indoor environment. This chapter aims to identify the relationship between the extent to which users can personally control the conditions of their indoor environment and how satisfied they are with their thermal and visual comfort. Section 5.2 presents the data collection and assessment methods of occupants’ perceived satisfaction. The relationship between personal control and satisfaction is explained in section 5.3. Section 5.4 presents the dependency of user satisfaction with thermal comfort based on the degree of personal control over indoor environmental conditions, and section 5.5 explains the impact of the degree of person control on the user satisfaction with visual comfort. Section 5.6 discusses limitations of research of personal control, psychological impact of personal control, and how to design the personal control to optimise user satisfaction.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4456
  • Impact of design factors on user satisfaction

    • Authors: Minyoung Kwon
      Pages: 134 - 177
      Abstract: Personal control was one of the influential parameters for user satisfaction presented in chapter 5. Personal control is not related to architectural office design, and in this thesis it is not associated with privacy and communication with colleagues. Thermal and visual comfort is analysed exhaustively in this chapter. Psychological comfort is an extra parameter for user satisfaction studies since the design factors such as office layout could be correlated to privacy, communication and so on. As a next step, chapter 6 investigates influential office design factors on user satisfaction related to thermal, visual, and psychological comfort and predicting which design factors may bring better satisfaction to users. Section 6.2 presents design factors affecting user satisfaction based on literature review. Five office cases in the Netherlands with 579 office occupants were studied using questionnaires, and interviews with facility managers and architects (section 6.3). Different statistical analysis tests were conducted to summarise satisfaction factors (section 6.4). The relative importance of design factors is described in section 6.5, and a regression analysis was used to predict profound outcomes in section 6.6.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4451
  • Anchoring the design process

    • Authors: Elise van Dooren
      Pages: 176 - 176
      Abstract: This thesis proposes a framework to address the design process in design education. Building upon the assumption that teachers, being professional designers, do not discuss the design process in the architectural design studio and do not have a vocabulary to do so, five generic elements or anchor points are defined which represent the basic design skills. The validity of the framework and the assumption is tested respectively in interviews with a variety of designers and in observations of dialogues between teachers and students. In the final test the design process is addressed in the design studio: the first experiences show that students’ understanding and self-efficacy may increase. The five elements enable teachers and students to address the designerly attitude. The way designers reason consist of: (1) experimentation; an experimentation-based way of thinking; how to explore and reflect, (2) the frame of reference; a knowledge-based way of thinking; how to work with common and proven ‘professional’ knowledge, and (3) the guiding theme; a value-based way of thinking; how to take a position in the design process. Next to that, (4) the laboratory is the (visual) language or set of means designers use to think designerly, and (5) the domains are the playing field of the designer, the product aspects s/he should address.
      PubDate: 2020-10-17
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.17.5351
  • The Impact of Design Parameters on Energy Demand for Office Renovation

    • Authors: Minyoung Kwon
      Pages: 178 - 201
      Abstract: Chapter 6 showed that the office layout and desk location were the most influential design factors for the thermal and visual comfort of users, and layout and orientation were most influential for psychological comfort in office buildings. Office design parameters were analysed to optimise user satisfaction in relation to indoor environmental and organisational quality in office buildings by showing predictable models. However, the predicted satisfaction models had not been tested in terms of energy performance. Therefore, this chapter evaluates the energy performance of the predicted models by computational assessment.a Section 7.2 explains the energy simulation scheme, model typologies, and simulation parameters. Section 7.3 presents the comparison of energy simulation results based on three design factors such as office layout, orientation and WWR. The results present the differences of the energy demand according to the alternative office typologies and contribution of design factors. The annual energy demand of 24 models are compared on the basis of different model typologies, and present the most energy-efficient typologies in section 7.4.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4453
  • User-focused design principles

    • Authors: Minyoung Kwon
      Pages: 202 - 215
      Abstract: Chapter 7 tested the energy demand of possible office typologies. However, the main aim of the thesis is to develop user-focused design principles for energy efficient office renovation. Therefore, it is important to compare the degree of user satisfaction of highly energy-efficient office typologies. Based on the results from chapter 7, chapter 8 introduces design principles that architects, and facility and real estate managers can use to select the combination of parameters with better user satisfaction during a conceptual design stage of office renovation. It contains a database of the different degrees of user satisfaction with thermal, visual, and psychological comfort, according to the combination of design parameters. Section 8.2 explains the design principles considering user satisfaction and energy efficiency. Section 8.3 provides the overview of predicted satisfaction of 144 office combinations. Recommended office combinations based on energy efficiency are explained in section 8.4. Section 8.5 describes the process of application of the design principles: how can designers interpret and use the principles and predicted models for energy-efficient office renovation'
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4454
  • Conclusions

    • Authors: Minyoung Kwon
      Pages: 216 - 227
      Abstract: This research has explored the relationship between user satisfaction and design factors for office renovations considering energy efficiency. The findings of this research strongly support user-focused renovations of office buildings. My motivation for this research started from the consideration of comfort and satisfaction of building users and the focus on providing better and comfortable work environments for office users. The focus on user comfort and satisfaction is important, because literature shows that the increase of user satisfaction leads to the improvement of productivity and less absenteeism in workspaces. This research has been conducted by applying diverse research methods and analyses, such as monitoring the indoor climate of office buildings, interviewing architects and facility managers, conducting user surveys, and conducting statistical analyses. This chapter presents the conclusions by answering the main research question and corresponding sub-questions of each chapter. This chapter also includes the general conclusions highlighting the scientific contributions to the body of knowledge of the built environment and limitations of the research.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.7480/abe.2020.15.4455
  • Effectiveness of Integrating 3d Unity games’ engine on enhancing public
           perception within urban participation

    • Authors: Rawan Abu Alatta, Hind Momani
      Abstract: Public perception in urban participation is a critical issue of any urban design project.  A consideration of perception, experience and use of urban public spaces by residents is important for successful, easy to implement and user-friendly spatial design. Designers, stockholders as well as authorities take a responsibility to optimize public perception as a base step before taking part in decision-making. Public real understanding to a certain spatial urban design can be achieved by taking advantage of technological innovations options. The current research studies how integrating 3d Unity games' engine in urban design affects public spatial perception. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of using such interactive games software on enhancing public cognition to read Lynchian elements within their developed area. And how it will enhance their experience while visualizing the urban design in an interactive and playful way. So, a series of experiments was conducted on one of Amman city regions to evaluate what had been supposed. The outcomes showed that the used 3d game software provides an efficient medium that can incorporate public people to recognize, understand and experience urban solutions in an untraditional way. It can engage them in the urban process effectively and interactively.
  • Conclusions and recommendations

    • Authors: Paula van den Brom
      Abstract: This thesis investigated if and to what extent occupant and building characteristics explain the gap between theory and practice of building energy consumption. Further, it introduced a method to reduce this gap on a building stock level by using actual energy consumption data. The study made use of large databases with actual and theoretical annual energy consumption data, occupant characteristics data and building characteristics data on an individual dwelling level. The main reason for this study is that reducing residential energy consumption is high on the political agendas of many countries. Up to now, energy-saving policies, subsidies, and action plans, as well as energy monitoring, are often based on theoretical energy consumption and savings, whereas energy-saving targets are expected to meet actual energy savings [1-4]. Because there is a significant gap between theoretical and actual energy consumption the saving targets are often not met. It is therefore important to get a better insight into this gap and, if possible, reduce it. One of the strengths of this study compared to existing ones is that large databases with actual and theoretical annual energy consumption on an individual dwelling level are used, not only containing building characteristics data but also occupant characteristics data. Theoretical energy consumption can be calculated by several methods. This study mainly uses the calculation method from the Dutch government that was used until 2014 to determine the energy label (energy performance certificate) of a house. This method is based on a steady state method. The theoretical energy consumption results of the energy label calculation method are widely used in the Netherlands, e.g. to determine subsidies and rent limits and to conduct energy-saving action plans. Some people suggest that the cause of the energy performance gap is the oversimplified steady state method used by the Dutch government, however, chapter 5 of this thesis showed that the energy performance gap is also present in dynamic simulation models.
  • Calibration of Energy Simulation Models on a Building Stock Level using
           Actual Energy Consumption Data

    • Authors: Paula van den Brom
      Abstract: The previous chapters demonstrated that both, technical characteristics and residents play a role in the Energy Performance Gap. They also showed that residential energy consumption differs widely among households. This implies that predicting energy consumption for an individual building, without knowing the exact behaviour of the occupant, will almost never be accurate for individual cases. However, the conclusion of Chapter 4 suggests that, although predicting energy consumption on an individual level is impossible without specific occupant and building information, the average energy consumption of a building should be able to be predicted fairly precisely. Therefore, this chapter investigates whether the average Energy Performance Gap can be reduced by changing the assumptions that are used in building simulation models. To see if the assumptions can be improved to reduce the Energy Performance Gap, 313 dwellings are simulated, and the results are compared to actual energy consumption. After this, a calibration on building stock level is carried out using actual data with the aim that the theoretical model can learn from real energy consumption data.
  • Variances in Residential Heating Consumption

    • Authors: Paula van den Brom
      Abstract: The previous two chapters showed discrepancies between actual and theoretical energy consumption and savings. Both acknowledged that the occupant has an influence on actual energy consumption; however, the extent of the influence is still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to determine to what extent the occupant is responsible for the variance in energy consumption among buildings. We do this by examining two large datasets containing household and building characteristics as well as actual energy consumption data , originating from two different countries: the Netherlands and Denmark. The analyses show not only the influence of the occupant on the variance but also whether this influence differs if the buildings have different characteristics.
  • Actual energy saving effects of thermal renovations in dwellings

    • Authors: Paula van den Brom, Arjen Meijer, Henk Visscher
      Abstract: In the previous chapter, we showed that using combinations of occupant characteristics instead of individual occupant characteristics can provide new insights into the influence of the occupant on residential energy consumption. Furthermore, we demonstrated that studying the highest and lowest energyconsuming groups can contribute to a better understanding of residential energy use. However, one of the main consequences of the energy performance gap was not studied: namely, that thermal renovations often result in lower-than-expected energy savings. Therefore, this chapter explains which parameters influence energy savings after a thermal renovation. We do this by studying almost 90,000 renovated houses from which we have actual and theoretical energy consumption before and after renovation. In the analyses, we take into account that the influence of parameters probably differs per thermal renovation measure. Furthermore, we determine to what extent the rebound and prebound effects can explain lower-thanexpected energy savings, and we determine the probability of this occurrence.
  • Performance Gaps in Energy Consumption

    • Authors: Paula van den Brom, Arjen Meijer, Henk Visscher
      Abstract: This dissertation deals with the Energy Performance Gap (EPG) and the influence of residential and technical characteristics on it. The EPG is the consequence of the discrepancy between actual and theoretical energy consumption. It is currently unclear to what extent technical characteristics and occupants contribute to this gap. This chapter presents the first exploratory research results of the dissertation, explaining the EPG and its relationship with building characteristics and household groups. This is done by studying a large database (1.4 million houses) containing cross-sectional building, occupant and energy consumption data on a household level. First, the average actual and theoretical energy consumptions (gas and electricity) of different household groups (varying by income level, type of income, and number and age of occupants) are compared for each energy label. After this, we analyse the groups in the top and bottom 10% for energy use to determine which building and occupant characteristics contribute the most to higher or lower-than-expected energy consumption.
  • Introduction

    • Authors: Paula van den Brom
      Pages: 35 - 56
      Abstract: The reduction of energy consumption is currently high on the political agenda of many countries. Worldwide, a total of 13,760 Mtoe of energy is consumed annually, and without any changes this is expected to increase 30% by 2050. Moreover, approximately 30% of the total energy consumption is for buildings. In 2015, the international climate agreement (the Paris Agreement) was signed by 185 countries, including the EU member states who collectively account for 15% (2,064 Mtoe) of the total world energy consumption. For execution of the climate agreement, the EU agreed to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% compared to 1990, 40% by 2030, and 80%–95% by 2050 [2]. Dwellings are responsible for a significant amount of the final energy consumption in Europe (25%); hence, it is not surprising that they are of great interest to policymakers, practitioners, and researchers. In the Netherlands, which is the main study area of this thesis, a significant amount of the final energy consumption is used by households (22%). Currently, an average Dutch household uses 1,432 m3 (13989 kWh) of natural gas and 2,966 kWh of electricity annually (2015)[4]. The majority of Dutch residential energy consumption is used for space heating. Most houses in the Netherlands (85%) use gas boilers as their heating system, with the consequence that natural gas is the main energy source for Dutch households. The majority of the gas boilers are condensing boilers 75%; however, there are still houses with less efficient gas boilers and some even use local gas stoves. Recently, the number of houses connected to district heating and houses with heat pumps have increased, with 11 % of houses connected to a district heating system and almost 3% using a heat pump as a heating system.
  • Output of Part I:

    • Authors: Xiaoyu Du
      Pages: 201 - 204
      Abstract: In part 1, a literature review was done to summarise and introduce the theoretical background knowledge of thermal comfort and passive cooling technology. The adaptive thermal comfort was explained because it is applicable to a free-running building which is the studied object of this research. The basic theory and design standards of adaptive thermal comfort were reviewed. A brief overview of passive cooling techniques was given. The techniques were then reviewed based on their relationships with urban morphology, building shape, layout, opening and “elements”. The study started with a Chinese vernacular building (chapter 4) because these always use the passive way to achieve a comfortable living environment under the limitations of technology at that time. Firstly, the spatial design strategies for passive cooling of a Chinese vernacular house were investigated in a field survey. The design of modern rural houses under free-running conditions compared with the Chinese vernacular house. It was found that the modern rural house did not achieve a satisfactory thermal summer environment under free-running conditions, while the vernacular house did. Furthermore, the vernacular house was deeply analysed by field measurements and dynamic thermal simulations. It was found that the particular spatial design of the vernacular house has its own building microclimate, which is important for the occupants’ thermal summer comfort. The concept of building microclimate was identified. In this study, the scale of “building microclimate” refers to a type of microclimate, involving the indoor space and the spaces around the indoor spaces of a particular building. It is the extension of the indoor climate. The spatial scale is smaller than the urban fabric. It rarely covers an area more than several hundred meters wide, but is bigger than an indoor space alone. It is limited to one particular building, whether a small house or a big stadium. The building microclimate is mainly defined by the spatial and the thermo-physical properties. Similar to the influence of urban morphology on urban microclimate, the spatial configuration influences the building microclimate significantly. To have a particular microclimate at the building scale, some key factors of spatial configuration such as spatial diversity, spatial arrangement and boundary conditions between spaces should be identified. The spatial design of modern house is different from the vernacular house due to the evolution of people’s lifestyle over a long period. Can a modern house have a good building microclimate' To answer this question, the spatial design and thermal environment of a modern house were analysed through field survey and simulation. It was found that a modern house can also have its own microclimate and that the microclimate of this particular building can provide considerable thermal comfort for the occupants in summer under local climate conditions. Adaptive actions, for example movement, can explain why occupants can achieve thermal comfort in a building microclimate with diverse spaces. To find the relationship between the occupants’ spatial perception and thermal perception, a questionnaire was put forward. It was found that the spatial openness of a particular space significantly affects the occupants’ visual perception, wind speed perception and thermal perception. It was revealed that the occupants’ spatial perception and thermal perception are associated. The strongest correlation is between spatial openness and visual perception and wind speed perception. That means spatial boundary conditions can strongly influence occupants’ comfort perception, and subsequently influence the occupants’ spatial choice and movement in a particular thermal environment, given the opportunity, as Humphreys (1997) pointed out: when people are free to choose their location, it helps if there is plenty of thermal variety, giving them the opportunity to choose the places they like. The fundamental assumption of the adaptive approach is expressed by the adaptive principle: “if a change occurs such as to produce discomfort, people react in ways which tend to restore their comfort”. Nicol et al. (2012) proposed that there are at least five basic types of adaptive actions. One important adaptive action is selecting a different thermal environment. Occupant movement in a particular building microclimate is significant for thermal comfort. Occupants can change their location for different activities. Movement is possible between buildings, between rooms, around rooms, out of the sun and into the breeze, and so on (Nicol et al., 2012).
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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