Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.601
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1976-0485 - ISSN (Online) 2234-1315
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [262 journals]
  • Energy Absorption Characteristics of PVC Coarse Aggregate Concrete under
           Impact Load

    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coarse aggregate with different mixing contents is used to solve the problems of plastic pollution, low energy absorption capacity and poor damage integrity, which provides an important reference for PVC plastic concrete used in the initial support structures of highway tunnels and coal mine roadway. At the same time, the energy absorption characteristics and their relationship under different impact loads are studied, which provides an important reference for predicting the energy absorption characteristics of concrete under other PVC aggregate content or higher impact speed. This study replaced natural coarse aggregate in concrete with different contents and equal volume of well-graded flaky PVC particles obtained by crushing PVC soft board. Also, slump, compression, and splitting strength tests, a free falling low-speed impact test of steel balls and a high-speed impact compression test of split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) were carried out. Results demonstrate that the static and dynamic compressive strength decreases substantially, and the elastic modulus and slump decrease slowly with the increase of the mixing amount of PVC aggregate (0–30%). However, the energy absorption rate under low-speed impact and the specific energy absorption per MPa under high-speed impact increase obviously, indicating that the energy absorption capacity is significantly enhanced. Regardless of the mixing amount of PVC aggregate, greater strain rate can significantly enhance the dynamic compressive strength and the specific energy absorption per MPa. After the uniaxial compression test or the SHPB impact test, the relative integrity of the specimen is positively correlated with the mixing amount of PVC aggregate. In addition, the specimens are seriously damaged with the increase of the impact strain rate. When the PVC aggregate content is 20%, the compressive strength and splitting strength of concrete are 33.8 MPa and 3.26 MPa, respectively, the slump is 165 mm, the energy absorption rate under low-speed impact is 89.5%, the dynamic compressive strength under 0.65 Mpa impact air pressure is 58.77 mpa, and the specific energy absorption value per MPa is 13.33, which meets the requirements of shotcrete used in tunnel, roadway support and other impact loads. There is a linear relationship between the energy absorption characteristics under low-speed impact and high-speed impact. The greater the impact pressure, the larger the slope of the fitting straight line. The slope and intercept of the fitting line also show a good linear relationship with the increase of impact pressure. The conclusions can be used to predict the energy absorption characteristics under different PVC aggregate content or higher-speed impact pressure, which can provide important reference for safer, more economical, and environmental protection engineering structure design.
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
       
  • Percolation-Based Image Processing for the Plastic Viscosity of
           Cementitious Mortar with Super Absorbent Polymer

    • Abstract: Abstract Super absorbent polymers (SAP) are the recent promising chemical admixtures with the potential for reducing the shrinkage, cracking, freeze/thaw and increasing the durability of the concrete. These polymers are classified as hydrogels when cross-linked and can retain exceptionally high amount of liquid solutions of their own weight. In this paper, the flowability of the concrete is quantified by means of developing a percolation-based image processing method and the transient behavior of the viscosity of the SAP-contained mortar mixture is characterized via numerical solution of Navier–Stokes relationship. In addition, rheological measurements and the analytical development has been carried out for complementary verification of the viscosity trends. Controlling the flow within such relatively short period of time is essential for tuning the functionality of concrete during the construction as well as it’s respective resilience during the extended period of application.
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
       
  • Experimental Study on Spall Resistance of Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete
           Slab Subjected to Explosion

    • Abstract: Abstract Steel-fiber reinforced concrete slabs have good blast and spall resistance. In this study, compression and splitting tensile experiments were carried out to obtain the basic quasi-static mechanical properties of the steel-fiber concrete specimens and the influence of steel-fiber parameters was revealed. In-field explosion experiments were performed to study the dynamic responses and damage modes of the steel-fiber reinforced concrete slabs. Five typical spall damage modes were observed, the distribution law of the spalling fragments was obtained, and the influence of steel-fiber shape, length, length–diameter ratio and volume percentage on the spall performance were revealed. These results will provide a basis for the application of steel-fiber reinforced concrete slabs in protective structures.
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
       
  • Experimental Research on Bond Behaviour of Fabric Reinforced Cementitious
           Matrix Composites for Retrofitting Masonry Walls

    • Abstract: Abstract Fabric reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites, also known as textile reinforced mortars (TRM), an inorganic matrix constituting fibre fabrics and cement-based mortar, are becoming a widely used composite material in Europe for upgrading the seismic resistance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings. One way of providing seismic resistance upgrading is through the application of the proposed FRCM system on existing masonry infill walls to increase their stiffness and integrity. To examine the effectiveness of this application, the bond characteristics achieved between (a) the matrix and the masonry substrate and (b) the fabric and the matrix need to be determined. A series of experiments including 23 material performance tests, 15 direct tensile tests of dry fabric and composites, and 30 shear bond tests between the matrix and brick masonry, were carried out to investigate the fabric-to-matrix and matrix-to-substrate bond behaviour. In addition, different arrangements of extruded polystyrene (XPS) plates were applied to the FRCM to test the shear bond capacity of this insulation system when used on a large-scale wall.
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
       
  • Introducing a New Quantitative Evaluation Method for Segregation of Normal
           Concrete

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this research is to provide a quantitative method for evaluating concrete segregation. Because of various conditions of concrete materials, mix proportions, and delivery, concrete can be segregated. The acquisition inspection executed in construction field for supplied ready-mixed concrete is an important quality control process for concrete. Among the inspections conducted at the project site, segregation of concrete mixture should be evaluated before placing the concrete mixture, currently a qualitative inspection on concrete segregation was conducted. For a normal concrete mixture with slumping behavior, shear slump or collapse slump often occur as an indication of segregation. The suggested evaluation index of segregation for normal concrete (EISN) was induced from the shape of the concrete slumping: relation between the maximum distance of flow and the minimum distance of flow. To evaluate the feasibility of EISN, two different concrete mixture conditions were tested. The recommended EISN parameter of segregation is 1.09 using the three grades of concrete quality. This new quantitative method of evaluating segregation of the concrete mixture is expected to contribute to a more efficient quality control in concrete construction.
      PubDate: 2021-04-15
       
  • Enhancing the Performance of Knee Beam–Column Joint Using Hybrid
           Fibers Reinforced Concrete

    • Abstract: Abstract The knee beam–column joint is a critical location in a Reinforced Concrete (RC) structure particularly when subjected to earthquake vibrations. The current structural design codes dictate the use of high amounts of steel reinforcements in the frame joint to manage large strain demands in seismic-prone regions. However, these codes could result in the congestion of steel reinforcements in the limited joint area which can consequently produce numerous construction complications. This study aims to improve the structural performance of Knee Joint (KJ) by reducing the load induced to the embedded steel reinforcements during seismic vibrations. Hence, this study attempted to develop a Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC) by combining multiple synthetic fibers to be introduced onto KJ. Six KJ specimens were cast using five developed HyFRC materials and one Control specimen to be experimentally tested under lateral cyclic loading. The results indicated significant improvements for the HyFRC KJ specimens particularly in energy dissipation capacity, stiffness degradation rate, displacement ductility toughness, steel reinforcement strain and hysteretic behavior. A total of six Finite Element (FE) KJ models were developed using the HyFRC materials to verify the results from the experimental testing. The accuracy of the proposed FE models resulted in average percentage differences of 25.89% for peak load, 3.45% for peak load displacement and 0.18% for maximum displacements from the experimental data. In conclusion, this study developed HyFRC materials that are beneficial in providing cost-efficient alternatives to Reinforced Concrete (RC) KJ structures in areas with low to moderate level of seismic risks.
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
       
  • Characteristics of Wood Ash Cement Mortar Incorporating Green-Synthesized
           Nano-TiO 2

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the findings of an investigation into the influence of green-synthesized nano-TiO2 on the characteristics of wood ash (WA) cement mortar. Mortar specimens were prepared by partial replacement of cement with WA (10% by weight) and addition of 1, 2 and 3% nano-TiO2 by weight of binder; using constant water-to-binder ratio (w/b) for all mixtures. The properties evaluated are setting time of the binder and flexural and compressive strength with water absorption of the mortar. The results indicated that addition of 1 and 2% nano-TiO2 reduced setting times of WA cement paste. Also, the flexural and compressive strength of WA cement mortar were higher with the incorporation of up to 2% nano-TiO2. The water absorption of WA cement mortar was reduced when nano-TiO2 was added with 2% incorporation having the best result. The incorporation of NT in WA cement mortar improved its workability and strength characteristics.
      PubDate: 2021-03-17
       
  • Experimental Study on Basic Mechanical Properties of Core-Column
           Non-mortar Aerated Concrete Block Masonry

    • Abstract: Abstract Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) block masonry has been widely used for bearing walls of multi-story buildings or non-bearing walls of high-rise buildings because of its unique advantages, such as lightweight, low pollution output, and excellent thermal insulation performance. However, traditional AAC block masonry has the disadvantages of high water absorption, poor adhesion to mortar, and low construction efficiency. In order to improve the performance of traditional AAC masonry, this paper proposed a new kind of mortar-free AAC block masonry with concrete core-columns. Fundamental mechanical properties of compression and shear were studied. We divided a total of 16 compression specimens into four groups according to different hollow ratios and strength grades of the block, and eight shear specimens into two groups based on different hollow ratios. Each specimen consists of three-layer blocks with two core columns at the point of quadri-section. The diameters of columns were, respectively, 100 mm and 80 mm. The specimens were loaded at a constant speed to evaluate their bearing capacity, displacement response, crack development, and damage state. The formula of the average values and design values of the compressive and shear strength of masonry were obtained statistically. The stress–strain constitutive relation of masonry expressed by a three-stage curve was presented. Furthermore, the result of numerical analysis using the ABAQUS finite element program aligned well with the experimental results. The compressive strength and shear strength of the new type of masonry are no less than traditional AAC masonry, and new masonry has higher construction efficiency and more stable strength.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
       
  • Effects of Gamma-Ray Irradiation on Hardened Cement Mortar

    • Abstract: Abstract The effect of gamma-ray irradiation on cement mortar properties is investigated in this study in order to understand the mechanism behind the strength and stiffness reduction, which may be significant according to the available researches. 60Co irradiation facility with the generating dose rate of 0.1–10 Gy/s and the total activity of 4.4·1015 Bq (120 kCi) was used to perform the irradiation, so that the total observed dose of the irradiated samples reached the values ranging from 12.0 to 15.0 MGy. An identical set of control samples was placed in the same laboratory conditions away from gamma radiation. The results of nanoindentation, X-ray diffraction analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry of the irradiated and the control samples are shown and explained in detail in this study. The nanoindentation creep compliance and the nanoindentation elastic modulus of the irradiated and the control samples do not show any significant difference. The mineral composition obtained using the X-ray diffraction analysis of the irradiated and the control samples is also similar. The pore structure rearrangement and microcrack occurrence, which were evidenced by the mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy, led to the porosity increase and may be attributed to the significant decrease of compressive strength.
      PubDate: 2021-03-03
       
  • Effect of the Curing Condition and High-Temperature Exposure on
           Ground-Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Cement Concrete

    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the effect of curing temperature on the properties of slag cement concrete after high-temperature exposure was studied, and elevated curing temperature (45 ± 2 °C and 95% relative humidity (RH)) was selected to compare with the standard curing temperature (20 ± 2 °C and 95%RH). Four different concrete mixes with the same mix proportion, except for different slag replacement ratios, were used: 0% (reference), 30% (slag), 50% (slag), and 70% (slag). After high-temperature exposure at 200, 400, 600, and 800 °C, the effect of slag replacement, high temperature, and curing temperature on the compressive strength and mineralogical and microstructural properties of slag cement concrete were studied. Test results indicated that the compressive strength of concrete cured for 7 d at elevated temperatures increased by 28.2, 20.7, 28.8, and 14.7% compared with that cured at the standard curing condition at slag percentages of 0, 70, 50, and 30%, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results revealed that concrete cured at elevated temperatures exhibited a more condensed phase and contained a higher percentage of hydrates than that cured for 7 d in the standard curing condition. However, after 56 d of curing, concrete in the standard curing condition exhibited a more stable phase and a higher concentration of hydrates.
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
       
  • Post-peak Behaviour of Composite Column Using a Ductile Lightweight
           Aggregate Concrete

    • Abstract: Abstract Oil palm shell (OPS) concrete filled steel tube (CFT) columns are acknowledged to be a new type of sustainable composite column. In this type of column, the conventional coarse aggregate was partially replaced with OPS lightweight aggregate to provide a green composite column. This type of CFT column showed higher energy absorption and flexibility compared to CFT columns with normal weight concrete. This research studied the effect of the strength of OPS concrete on the axial compressive behaviour of CFT columns for two grades of OPS concretes. The behaviour was comparable to that of CFT columns with two grades of normal concrete. The results showed that the CFT columns with OPS concrete achieved a new post-peak behaviour. The experimental results of the axial compressive load were compared with the estimation of two international standards. EC4-1994 and ACI318-14 showed a reliable and conservative estimation of the axial load capacity of CFT columns, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
       
  • Influence of Shear Span-to-Effective Depth Ratio on Behavior of
           High-Strength Reinforced Concrete Beams

    • Abstract: Abstract The shear span-to-effective depth ratio (a/d) is one of the factors governing the shear behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams, with or without shear reinforcement. In high-strength concrete (HSC), cracks may propagate between the aggregate particles and result in a brittle failure which is against the philosophy of most design guidelines. The experimental results of six HSC beams, with and without shear reinforcement, tested under four-point bending with a/d ranged from 2.0 to 3.0 are presented and compared with different model equations in design codes. The a/d ratio has higher influence on the shear strength of reinforced HSC beams without shear reinforcement than beams with shear reinforcement. Most of the shear resistance prediction models underestimate the concrete shear strength of the beams but overpredict shear resistance of beams with shear reinforcement. However, the fib Model code 2010 accurately predicted the shear resistance for all the beams within an appropriate level of approximation (LoA).
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
       
  • Time-Dependent Analysis of Precast Segmental Bridges

    • Abstract: Abstract Prestressed segmentally constructed balanced cantilever bridges are often subjected to larger deflections than those predicted by calculations, especially for long-term effects. In this paper, the case of modular balanced cantilever bridges, which are prestressed segmental bridges obtained through a repetition of the same double cantilever, is investigated. The considered bridges are two typical cases of modular balanced cantilever both subjected to large deformations during their lifetime. In this case, due to the unusual employed static scheme, creep deflections indefinitely evolve over time particularly at the end of the cantilevers and in correspondence with the central joint. These remarkable deflections cause discomfort for vehicular traffic and in certain cases can lead to the bridge collapse. Important extraordinary maintenance interventions were necessary to restore the viability of the bridges and to replace the viaduct design configuration. To this aim, the static schemes of the structures were varied, introducing new constraints, new tendons, and carbon fiber reinforcements. In the present work, time analysis was performed to compare the time-dependent behavior of the bridge according to two different creep models, the CEB-FIP Model Code 2010 and the RILEM Model B3, with the real-time-dependent behavior of the bridge observed during its lifetime. The two different employed models exhibit different behaviors in terms of displacements and bending moments acting on the bridge. Interesting considerations are made on their reliability in simulating the long-term creep effects that evolve indefinitely over time. Moreover, retrofitting techniques have been proposed and modeled to predict their effectiveness in reducing time-dependent deflections.
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
       
  • Hydration Model and Evaluation of the Properties of Calcined Hwangtoh
           Binary Blends

    • Abstract: Abstract Calcined hwangtoh is a pozzolanic material that is increasingly being used as a mineral admixture in the concrete industry. This study shows a hydration model for cement–hwangtoh blends and evaluates the various properties of hwangtoh-blended concrete using reaction degrees of binders. First, a kinetic reaction model is proposed for analyzing the pozzolanic reaction of hwangtoh. The reaction of hwangtoh includes three processes: the initial dormant period, boundary reaction process, and diffusion process. The mutual interactions between the binary reactions of cement and hwangtoh are thought to be in line with the items in capillary water and calcium hydroxide. Second, the reaction degrees of cement and hwangtoh are determined based on a blended hydration model. Furthermore, the chemical (chemically combined water and calcium hydroxide contents), mechanical (compressive strength), thermal (hydration heat), and durability aspects (carbonation depth) of hwangtoh-blended concrete are systematically predicted. The results show good agreement with experimental results.
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
       
  • Estimating a Seismic Wave Velocity for Exciting the Greatest Anticipated
           Vertical Deck Displacement of a Cable-Stayed Bridge Subjected to
           Asynchronous Excitation

    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the seismic wave velocity on vertical displacement of a cable-stayed bridge’s deck under asynchronous excitation. The Quincy Bayview Bridge located in Illinois, USA, and four other generic bridges are selected for the study. Ten records obtained from earthquakes in US, Japan, and Taiwan are used as input for the seismic excitation in the time-history analysis. Two equations are proposed in this study to determine a critical seismic wave velocity that would produce the greatest vertical deck displacement. The critical wave velocity depends on the total length of the bridge, the fundamental period of the bridge, and the C-factor. The C-factor in this study is 0.72, which is based on analyzed results from the five selected bridges. The two equations and the C-factor are verified through application on two 3-span cable-stayed bridges studied previously by Nazmy and Abdel-Ghaffar. The proposed C-factor of 0.72 is recommended for use for typical 3-span cable-stayed bridges with a side-to-main span ratio of about 0.48. The methodology developed in the study, however, can be applied to any specific bridge to examine the excitation of the deck vertical displacement under the longitudinal seismic ground motion.
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
       
  • Blast Response Simulation of the Alfred Murrah Building Reinforced by Use
           of HPFRCC

    • Abstract: Abstract Structural behavior against the blast load is evaluated for a structure reinforced by high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCC). The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, which experienced a terrorist attack in 1995 is taken into consideration for the blast analysis using the finite element method. The continuous surface cap model (CSCM) is used to simulate the behavior of normal concrete and HPFRCC. By reinforcing normal concrete with HPFRCC, damage, and deformation of the structure are significantly reduced. This study presents an efficient reinforcement method by performing an explosion simulation on the structure using HPFRCC and evaluating the behavior according to various reinforcement methods. Specific reinforcements according to the types of members are required to enhance the efficiency of reinforcement. With the optimized reinforcement using high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCC), the resistance to blast load is significantly improved.
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
       
  • Investigation of Diagonal Strut Actions in Masonry-Infilled Reinforced
           Concrete Frames

    • Abstract: Abstract This study analytically investigated the behavior of reinforced concrete frames with masonry infills. For the analysis, VecTor2, a nonlinear finite element analysis program that implements the Modified Compression Field Theory and Disturbed Stress Field Model, was used. To account for the slip behavior at the mortar joints in the masonry element, the hyperbolic Mohr–Coulomb yield criterion, defined as a function of cohesion and friction angle, was used. The analysis results showed that the lateral resistance and failure mode of the infilled frames were significantly affected by the thickness of the masonry infill, cohesion on the mortar joint–brick interface, and poor mortar filling (or gap) on the masonry boundary under the beam. Diagonal strut actions developed along two or three load paths on the mortar infill, including the backstay actions near the tension column and push-down actions near the compression columns. Such backstay and push-down actions increased the axial and shear forces of columns, and ultimately affect the strength, ductility, and failure mode of the infilled frames.
      PubDate: 2021-01-29
       
  • Evaluation on the Bond Capacity of the Fire-Protected FRP Bonded to
           Concrete Under High Temperature

    • Abstract: Abstract To figure out the change in the reinforcing effect of FRP system used for the retrofit of RC beam when it is exposed to high temperature, it is required to evaluate not only the behavior of the entire beam, but also the bond performance at anchorage zone through a bond test according to the increase of external temperature. Moreover, the study to find various fire-protection methods is necessary to prevent the epoxy from reaching the critical temperature during an exposure to high temperature. In this manner, the fire-resistance performances of externally bonded (EB) FRP and near-surface-mounted (NSM) FRP to concrete block were evaluated by high-temperature exposure tests after performing a fire-protection on the surface in this paper. Board-type insulation with mortar was considered for the fire-protection of FRP system. After the fire-protection of the FRPs bonded to concrete blocks, an increasing exposure temperature was applied to the specimens with keeping a constant shear bond stress between concrete and the FRP. Based on the result, the temperature when the bond strength of the FRP disappears was evaluated. In addition, a finite element analysis was performed to find a proper method for predicting the temperature variation of the epoxy which is fire-protected with board-type insulation during the increase of external temperature. As a result of the test, despite the same fire-protection, NSM specimens were able to resist 1.54–2.08 times higher temperature than EB specimens. In the design of fire-protection of FRP system with the board-type insulation, it is necessary to consider the transfer from sides as well as the face with FRP. If there is no insulation of FP boards on the sides, the epoxy easily reaches its critical temperature by the heat penetrated to the sides, and increasing the thickness of the FP board alone for the face with FRP does not increase the fire-resistance capacity. As a result of the FE analysis, the temperature variation at epoxy can be predicted using the analytical approach with the proper thermal properties of FP mortar and board.
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
       
  • Preparation of Self-healing Additives for Concrete via Miniemulsion
           Polymerization: Formulation and Production Challenges

    • Abstract: Abstract Concrete structures undergo internal damage; this usually starts at the atomic level with defects that then grow and form cracks, which can propagate through the material. Here, a method of preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocapsules adhesive system via miniemulsion polymerization technique is reported, where MMA + DMA (resin + accelerator) and BPO (hardener) components are separately encapsulated by PMMA shells. The crack-healing potential of these nanocapsules was then investigated by embedding them into the mortar matrix. The prepared PMMA core–shell self-healing nanostructures survived the mixing and hardening processes, and the hardened mortar alkaline environment. The stress fields associated with propagating cracks (load‐induced cracking) broke the brittle/weak inert shell of these core–shell structures, resulted in releasing the healing agents to bridge the nascent and early-stage fractures (< 10 µm) in a short time. Long-term healing was achieved through the formation of polymorph calcite crystals in the presence of moisture and CO2, which improved the durability of mortar by filling the gaps. Formulation design (addition of chemical admixtures) and process parameters (blade design and mixing speed) were found to directly impact the uniform distribution of nanocapsules, the survival rate of nanocapsules, and the overall strength of the hardened concrete. The stepwise approach to formulate and fabricate a novel high-strength self-healing concrete system unlocks unique opportunities to design nanomaterials that safeguard the integrity of concrete structures.
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
       
  • Freeze–Thaw Resistance of Ternary Blended Concrete Using Ferronickel
           Slag

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study investigated the resistance of concrete blended with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and ferronickel slag (FNS) to cycles of freeze and thaw. The replacement ratio of the binders was 0%, 50 wt% of GGBS and 30 wt% of GGBS + 20 wt% of FNS for O100, OG50 and OG30F20, respectively. Specimens consisted of cement paste and concrete kept at 0.45 water/binder ratio. After 28 days of curing, specimens were subjected to freeze and thaw cycles (300) for measuring the variation of strength, weight loss and fundamental transverse frequency. Simultaneously mercury intrusion porosimetry was performed to examine the pore structure modifications at 28 days. The hydration products for cement paste cured at each determined age were characterized by X-ray diffraction and the content of CH and CSH was obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). As a result, the ternary blended concrete specimens showed lower deterioration degree when subjected to the freeze and thaw cycles. This may be due to a latent hydraulic and/or pozzolanic reaction producing more CSH in the matrix, which in turn increases the volume of small pores. The increased content of C–S–H gel for OG30F20 was confirmed by TGA, accounting for 69.9%. However, the binder system consisting of ordinary Portland cement and GGBS did not exhibit higher resistance to the given deleterious environment, presumably due to a delayed hydration process.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
       
 
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