Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 139 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cityscape     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access  
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access  
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access  
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Construction Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Urban Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access  
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nordic Concrete Research     Open Access  
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access  
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.601
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1976-0485 - ISSN (Online) 2234-1315
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Study on Mechanical Properties of Polycaprolactone Modified Cement-Based

    • Abstract: Abstract With the continuous development of economy, engineering construction is developing towards deep high-stress area, and the problems of large-deformation engineering are becoming more and more serious. Anchoring grouting is a very effective support reinforcement method. The anchoring grouting materials used in the project are mainly cement paste and cement mortar. The characteristics of the grouting material have a decisive influence on the grouting effect. However, it is difficult for the existing grouting materials to satisfy the requirements of strength and deformation at the same time, and improvement is urgently needed. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is an organic polymer material of good engineering properties, including high ductility, good stability and strong impact resistance. In this paper, PCL was added as an auxiliary additive to cement-based materials innovatively, and the mechanical test and micro-test of PCL-cement-based materials were carried out. The results show that adding PCL can significantly increase the compressive strength of cement paste. By adjusting the content of PCL, the strength and ductility of cement mortar can be effectively improved. When the content of PCL is 15%, ideal high performance cement mortar material can be obtained. Anchor grouting is a very effective reinforcement and support method.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
  • Empirical Equation for Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Concrete
           Developed Using Bottom Ash Aggregates

    • Abstract: Abstract The mechanical properties of lightweight aggregate concrete developed with the use of bottom ash aggregate (LWAC-BA) as a partial or full replacement of lightweight aggregate differ from those of general lightweight concrete made using natural fine and/or coarse aggregates. The mechanical properties of LWAC-BA are difficult to predict using the existing equations proposed by codes or researchers. Therefore, in this study, empirical equations using nonlinear regression analysis are proposed to predict the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete mixed with bottom ash aggregate, based on the collected measured values from other studies (Yang "Development of replacement technology for ready mixed concrete with bottom ash aggregates", 2020; Kim et al. Appl Sci, 10: e8016, 2020; Constr Build Mater 273: e121998, 2021). The collected data include density, compressive strength, elastic modulus, modulus of rupture, splitting tensile strength, and stress–strain relation of LWAC-BA featuring varying amounts of bottom ash fine aggregate and/or coarse aggregate. The proposed empirical equations for each mechanical characteristic are developed considering the replacement volume of bottom ash fine/coarse aggregates. The mean values of the ratios of the measured to predicted values obtained using the proposed equation range from 1.00 to 1.05, with a standard deviation ranging from 0.002 to 0.013, indicating a reasonably positive agreement.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
  • Probabilistic Repair Cost Simulation for RC Structures Repaired With
           Bacteria Coating Material Under Sulfate Attack

    • Abstract: Abstract Concrete sewage structures are difficult to maintain since they are constructed under the ground and their surfaces inside are exposed to various deteriorations such as acid and sulfate ingress. In this study, their repair costs were evaluated both deterministically and probabilistically considering the extended service life through repairing of conventional repair mortar and a newly developed bacteria repair material. Unlike the conventional deterministic method, the probabilistic manner evaluates repair cost continuously, taking into account variations in the initial service life and extended service life through repair. For the work, variations in the sulfate ion diffusion coefficient and protection parameters (cover depth and repair layer thickness) were obtained experimentally. Based on the target service life (60 years), the repair cost increased to 123% as the maintenance-free period (MFP) decreased by half, and decreased to 77% as the MFP increased to 1.5 times. As the extended service life through repair decreased by half, the repair cost increased to 180% due to the increasing repair frequency. When the repair-extended service life increased to 1.5 times, the repair cost decreased to 73%. Considering exterior sulfate concentrations (120 and 200 ppm) and entire sewage pipelines (3268 m), the bacteria repair material showed the lowest repair cost (1376 K$ and 1498 K$ with the deterministic and probabilistic method, respectively) since the repair-service life increased from 10.4 to 25.3 years and the number of repairs decreased from 9 to 4 due to the low diffusion coefficient of the bacteria repair material.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
  • Characteristics of Sustainable Concrete with Partial Substitutions of
           Glass Waste as a Binder Material

    • Abstract: Abstract Manufacturing waste has been quickly increasing over time as a result of the fast-rising population as well as the consumption of foods that are thrown away dishonestly, resulting in environmental contamination. As a result, it has been suggested that industrial waste disposal may be considerably reduced if it could be integrated into cement concrete manufacturing. The aim of this study is to analyze the properties of concrete employing waste glass (WG) as a binding material in proportions of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% by weight of cement. The fresh property was assessed using a slump cone test, while mechanical performance was assessed using flexural, compressive, splitting tensile, and pull-out strength after 7, 28, and 56 days. Furthermore, microstructure analysis was studied by scan electronic microscopic (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) test. The results reveal that the addition of discarded glass reduces the workability of concrete. Furthermore, mechanical performance was increased up to a 20% substitution of waste glass and then gradually declined. Waste glass can be employed as a micro filler or pozzolanic material without affecting the mechanical performance of concrete, according to microstructure research.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
  • Effect of Silica Fume on the Volume Expansion of Metakaolin-Based
           Geopolymer Considering the Silicon-to-Aluminum Molar Ratio

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates the effect of silica fume on the mechanical properties of metakaolin-based geopolymers with different silicon-to-aluminum molar (S/A) ratios. Geopolymer has been extensively studied as an alternative to traditional cementitious material because of its low CO2 emissions. Previous studies revealed that the application of silica fume can improve the compressive strength of geopolymer, however, the optimum dosages are different. To examine the reason for the different optimum dosages of silica fume, this study prepares geopolymer specimens of which variables are the S/A ratio and silica fume dosage, and conducts compressive strength and initial setting time tests. To examine whether the strength degradation is caused by the expansion due to the added silica fume in geopolymer, the volume and dynamic modulus are also measured. The results show that a part of silica fume dissolves and changes the S/A ratio of geopolymer, and that a part of silica fume remains in the geopolymer matrix. These combined effects of silica fume result in an irregular compressive strength trend, and, thus, an optimum dosage of silica fume can vary depending on the S/A ratio. Furthermore, the volume expansion of geopolymer with silica fume is observed, however, no sign of damage on the compressive strength is found.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
  • Long-Term Flexural Behaviour of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Beams with
           Recycled Aggregate

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the results of an investigation into the long-term flexural behaviour of cracked reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams. Washed construction and demolition wastes (CDW) with a maximum size of 20 mm were used as the coarse recycled aggregate. The main variable in the research was the replacement ratio of recycled aggregate. Specimens with 0%, 50% and 100% recycled aggregate were cast and tested. The experimental results showed that samples with an increased amount of recycled aggregate had significantly reduced strength and a noticeable increase in both short-term and long-term deflection of RAC beams over equivalent normal concrete (NC) beams. Increased levels of RA resulted in greater creep and shrinkage of RAC and greater long-term loss of tension stiffening in RAC reinforced tension specimens. Prediction of long-term deflections using Eurocode 2, even after incorporating the experimental concrete properties within the Code method, underestimated the experimental deflections of the RAC beams. However, by modifying the tension stiffening factor, β used in Eurocode 2, deflections were predicted to within approximately 1%. From this investigation, it is recommended that the factor β be reduced from 0.5 (for NC) to 0.4 (for RAC @50% replacement) and 0.3 (for RAC @100% replacement).
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
  • Experimental Investigation on Flexural Capacity of Reinforced Concrete
           Beams Strengthened with 3D-Fiberglass, CFRP and GFRP

    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study is to investigate the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beam specimens strengthened with 3D-fiberglass as compared with fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) sheets. For this purpose, six RC beams were fabricated, strengthened, and tested under a four-point bending machine. One of the beams served as the control beam (REF), while the others were strengthened with carbon FRP (RCFRP), glass FRP (RGFRP), 3D-fiberglass and epoxy resin (R3DTR), 3D-fiberglass and epoxy resin extended to the sides (R3DTRB), and 3D-fiberglass and concrete repair (R3DTG). Failure mode, crack development, flexural capacity, ductility, the effectiveness of wrapping configurations, and the performance of epoxy resin in comparison with concrete repairer were studied between various beams. The results attest to the better performance and effectiveness of 3D-fiberglass over FRP in terms of flexural capacity, crack pattern, and ductility. The R3DTR and RGFRP specimens, compared to the control specimen, had the highest and lowest flexural capacity growth, with 19% and 8.4%, respectively. In addition, the failure modes observed in this study were in good agreement with the failure modes present in ACI.440.2R-17. Moreover, finite element (FE) models were proposed to predict the residual capacity of the specimens strengthened with FRP, using Abaqus software.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
  • The Effect of Rebar Embedment and CFRP Confinement on the Compressive
           Strength of Low-Strength Concrete

    • Abstract: Abstract Low-strength concrete (LSC) elements are prone to several seismic and static loads and are one of the priorities to be considered for FRP strengthening. However, certain provisions should be taken into account according to provisions, as elements with considerably low compressive strength are not eligible for FRP confinement. This experimental study investigates (1) the effect of rebar planting on increasing the initial compressive strength of LSC to achieve allowable compressive strength for FRP strengthening, and (2) the effect of CFRP confinement on increasing the strength of rebar-embedded specimens and determining the most effective factor for strength improvement. For this purpose, 38 standard concrete cylinders were tested under compressive load. The variables of this study were rebar length and diameter, the compressive strength of concrete, and the number of CFRP sheets. Two initial compressive strengths below the designated compressive strength of 17 MPa (12.5 and 14.5 MPa) were selected. After determining rebar-reinforced specimens with compressive strength of more than 17 MPa, CFRP confinement and compressive tests of these cylinders were utilized. A statistical single-factor ANOVA analysis is performed to determine the most effective variable for ultimate strength and strain, individually. In the end, available models in the literature were utilized to predict experimental data. The results indicated the effectiveness of rebar planting for strength enhancement up to 53%, also showing that specimens with initial compressive strength of 14.77 MPa were suitable for CFRP confinement after rebar planting. The experimental and statistical ANOVA results demonstrated the CFRP confinement and its interaction with rebar embedment as the most effective factors with respect to increasing the load-bearing capacity of LSC concrete.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
  • Impact of Mixing Methods and Cement Dosage on Unconfined Compressive
           Strength of Cement-Stabilized Macadam

    • Abstract: Abstract The technology of vibratory mixing has been applied to improve the compressive strength of cement-stabilized macadam (CSM). The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of vibration acceleration and cement dosage on the unconfined compressive strength and density of CSM. The mixtures with four cement dosages (2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%) were prepared by conventional mixing (0 g) and vibratory mixing (1 g, 2 g, and 3.5 g). The unconfined compressive strength was tested under different mixing methods. And the microstructure of CSM was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that samples using vibratory mixing have higher strengths, lower coefficient of variation, and denser microstructures, compared with the conventional compulsory mixing. Compared with 15% in conventional mixing, the strength variable coefficient of CSM is less than 10% in the vibratory mixing method. As the cement dosage and the vibration acceleration increase, the unconfined compressive strength increases. However, cement dosage has a more significant influence on improving the unconfined compressive strength than the mixing method. With the increase of every 1% in cement dosage, the 7-day strength of conventional mixing and in vibratory mixing average increased by 59% and 38%, respectively. However, the maximum improvement rate of the UCS value is 20–56.7% when vibration acceleration increased from 0 to 1 g. Especially when cement dosage is high, the effect of vibratory mixing on improving strength is limited. Besides, vibratory mixing reduces the original cement dosage by over 1.6% with the qualified unconfined compressive strength at vibration acceleration of 2 g, which is recommended in construction practice.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
  • Research on Angle Connector in Composite Beam

    • Abstract: Abstract As a critical component for steel beam and concrete slab to work together, the strength of the shear connector affects the flexural load capacity and stiffness of the composite beam. Connectors were generally studied for longitudinal shear resistance. However, transverse shear needs to be considered when the main beam is far away and the transverse connection is weak. In this paper, an angle connector pre-embedded in the precast slab was proposed, and its pre-embedded position makes it exhibit better transverse shear resistance. To assess the strength, stiffness, and slip capacity of the angle connector, two groups of composite beam with precast slabs negative moment flexural were tested, then several finite element groups were simulated in push-out test. The test variable was the existence of angle connectors, and the variables simulated were the yield strength of the angle connector and its flange thickness. The results showed that the composite beam with angle connectors has greater stiffness than ordinary ones, with little difference in flexural strength capacity and less slippage. The results show that angle connectors can replace extending rebars in precast slabs, which will reduce construction costs. In addition, a new design equation was proposed, including the yield strength of the connector and the thickness of its flange which are not unified in the current equations. The simulations determined the strength of the angle connectors in relation to the yield strength of the angle connector and its web thickness.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
  • Study on Roof Deterioration Characteristics of Immersed Tunnel Exposed to
           Fire by Multi-Phase Meso-Model

    • Abstract: Abstract Deterioration characteristics analysis of lining structure has received intense research interests for immersed tube tunnel fire, while a considerable part of the spotlight is on numerical simulation. However, most of existing works consider concrete lining as a macroscopic homogeneous material for simulation analysis, ignoring the difference of its internal components. This paper aims at studying the mesoscopic deterioration characteristics of immersed tube tunnel roof structure towards efficient safety design of immersed tube tunnel roof. In particular, we establish a mesoscopic model of immersed tube tunnel under thermo-mechanical coupling using ANSYS. Compared with the traditional homogeneous approaches, the proposed mesoscopic model can directly simulate the fire degradation process of immersed tube tunnel roof structure, which blazes marvelous trail for related engineering applications. Our extensive simulation results reveal the progressive failure process of micro-cracks initiation, development, expansion and coalescence in the roof of immersed tube tunnel.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
  • Research on Construction Risks and Countermeasures of Concrete Dam

    • Abstract: Abstract The harsh environment will reduce the interlayer bonding quality of mass concrete and cause plastic cracking. These defects will seriously affect the safety and durability of the structure. This study tested the layer state (water content and penetration resistance), interlayer mechanical properties, and early-age crack resistance of concrete to evaluate the impact of extreme weather on concrete interlayer properties and crack resistance. Furthermore, the interlayer splitting tensile strength of concrete under different treatment measures (covering insulation quilts and artificial grooves) was analyzed to find a method to reduce the construction risk of mass concrete. At the same time, the early-age crack resistance of concrete under different treatment measures (covering insulation quilts and adding PVA fibers) was evaluated. The results showed that the interlayer splitting tensile strength of concrete decreased by 50%, 40%, 29%, and 70%, respectively, compared with bulk concrete under extreme weather conditions (high temperature, strong winds, steep descent in temperature, and short-time heavy rainfall). Covering insulation quilts can reduce the construction risk of concrete under extreme weather conditions such as high temperature, strong winds and steep descent in temperature. This is mainly due to the fact that insulation quilt reduces the impact of the external environment on the concrete and effectively prevents the evaporation of moisture inside the concrete. In addition, covering insulation quilts can reduce the total cracking area of concrete under extreme weather conditions (strong winds and dry-heat, strong winds and cold waves, and short-time heavy rainfall) by 85–100%. At the same time, adding PVA fibers can inhibit the generation and expansion of micro-cracks on the concrete surface. This is due to the bridging and cracking resistance of PVA fibers.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
  • Laboratory Investigation into the Flexural Behavior of Embedded Concrete
           Sleepers in Two-Stage Concrete with Preplaced Ballast Aggregate

    • Abstract: Abstract The conversion of ballasted railway tracks into slab tracks using the preplaced aggregate concrete (PAC) technology over the bridges and in the tunnels has been introduced by many researchers but the flexural behavior of this composite system has not yet been studied. Therefore, in the first stage, a series of mortar and concrete mixture designs were proposed and evaluated. Subsequently, a concrete beam mold with dimensions of 3 * 0.6 * 0.5 m, which represented the track conditions, was developed and the bending behavior of the constructed beams in both conditions of the presence and absence of the concert B70 sleeper were investigated. The maximum bending force in the middle of the concrete beam without a sleeper (SE) equaled 177.5 kN. In addition, the average values of bending tolerance by the sleeper including a PAC beam for three specimens in the four modes of the positive moment of midspan (SPM), negative moment of midspan (SNM), positive moment of rail seat (SPR), and negative moment of rail seat (SNR) were 55.25 kN m, 32.5 kN m, 91.84 kN m, and 38.21 kN m, respectively, which met the requirements of the AREMA regulations.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
  • Numerical and Empirical Models for Service Life Assessment of RC
           Structures in Marine Environment

    • Abstract: Abstract The service life prediction of reinforced concrete (RC) structures in marine environment is essential in structural repair and health monitoring. In this paper, a numerical model for predicting the service life of reinforced concrete is first developed which considering the time-varying boundary of chloride concentration, critical chloride concentration and density of corrosion current. Based on the model, the effects of water–cement ratio, reinforcement diameter, concrete cover thickness and critical chloride ion concentration on the service life and deterioration duration of RC structures are investigated. The key factors affecting the service life of reinforced concrete structures are determined. More importantly, based on regression analysis, a new simplified empirical model for predicting the service life of RC structures is also developed. It provides a fast assessment tool for practical engineers. Both the numerical model and empirical model validated are suitable for practical engineering applications. The results show that with the increase of water–cement ratio, the service life of reinforced concrete structure decreases exponentially. And with the increase of the thickness of the concrete cover, the service life, deterioration duration, and safety reserve increase linearly. However, the influence of the diameter of the reinforcing bar on the service life can be ignored.
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
  • Carbonation Model and Prediction of Polyvinyl Alcohol Fiber Concrete with
           Fiber Length and Content Effects

    • Abstract: Abstract Durability is an important aspect of reliability of concrete structures. In order to establish the carbonation model of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber concrete including the influences of PVA fiber length and volume content, a series of accelerated carbonation experiments were carried out on the normal concrete specimens and PVA fiber concrete specimens with fiber lengths of 3 mm, 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm and fiber volume contents of 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively. The experimental conditions remained at temperature of 20 ℃, humidity of 70%, and carbon dioxide concentration of 20%. It was found that the addition of PVA fibers could improve the carbonation resistance of concrete considerably. Within the investigated range of fiber length and content, the carbonation resistance of concrete is first strengthened and then weakened with increasing PVA fiber length or content. The quadratic carbonation depth prediction model could characterize the influences of PVA fiber length and content better than the linear model. The carbon dioxide diffusion equation was established by introducing a PVA fiber influence factor and its parameters were determined from the carbonation depth prediction model. The carbonation process of PVA fiber concrete under the accelerated carbonation experiment condition was simulated. Both the model and the numerical method were validated by comparison between the experimental and numerical results. Finally, the influences of added PVA fibers on the carbonation life and durability of reinforced concrete components were further studied numerically. The results showed that compared with the normal concrete component, the durability of PVA fiber concrete components is significantly improved.
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
  • Calcined Attapulgite Clay as Supplementary Cementing Material: Thermal
           Treatment, Hydration Activity and Mechanical Properties

    • Abstract: Abstract The present paper studied the effects of calcination temperatures (200–800 °C) on the appearance, mineral composition, and active SiO2 content in attapulgite and investigated the effects of attapulgite before and after calcination on the chemically bonded water content, the degree of reaction of cement paste, and the mechanical properties such as the flexural strength, compressive strength, and splitting-tensile strength of cement mortar. The results indicate that the calcination temperature changes the mineral composition of attapulgite, thereby affecting the hydration activity of cement-based materials. The attapulgite calcined at 500 °C (AT500) has the best enhancement on the hydration activity of cement-based materials. The calcination at 500 °C is most beneficial to the dissolution of SiO2, and the content of SiO2 reaches 20.96%. The contents of chemically bonded water in the samples incorporated with calcined attapulgite reduced and that of the samples incorporated with AT500 at 28 d is the same as that of the control group. The reaction degree of AT500 is 78.61% at 28 days. Calcined attapulgite clay can reduce the energy consumption of the cement industry and promote the sustainable development of attapulgite clay.
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
  • Tensile and Fracture Properties of Silicon Carbide Whisker-Modified
           Cement-Based Materials

    • Abstract: Abstract Silicon carbide whiskers (SiCw) have many excellent properties such as high strength, high elastic modulus, and high temperature resistance. In this paper, by using water reducer as dispersant, a stable SiCw dispersion was obtained, and SiCw-modified cement-based composites were prepared. Tensile strength tests for 8-shaped specimens were carried out on the materials. The fracture properties of the materials were measured using a three-point bending test with pre-cracks based on the digital image correlation method. The microstructure of the SiCw-modified mortar was observed by SEM. The results showed that the SiCw improved the tensile strength of the cement-based materials, and the addition of SiCw effectively improved the fracture toughness of mortar. The SiCw caused crack deflection during crack propagation, accompanied by whisker pull-out and bridging phenomena. The SiCw bridging effect and pull-out mechanism effectively controlled the crack propagation and played a toughening role, thus enhancing the crack resistance of mortar.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
  • Microstructure and Chloride Diffusion Properties of Hardened Fly Ash
           Cement Paste with Three-dimensional Graphene

    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the influence of three-dimensional graphene (3DG) on the microstructure and chloride diffusion properties of fly ash cement paste was investigated. 3DG accounting for 0.0–0.2% of cement mass was evenly dispersed in hardened cement paste containing fly ash by using ultrasonic and polycarboxylate superplasticizer. The microstructure of the cement paste was characterized by mercury intrusion test (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that an appropriate amount of 3DG accelerates the secondary hydration of fly ash and provides a platform for the growth of cement hydration crystals. Moreover, the hydrated crystal fills the pores, reduces the harmful porosity, and refines the pore structure. The enhanced microstructure significantly improved mechanical properties and chloride diffusion resistance of hardened fly ash cement. With the addition of 0.1% 3DG, the compressive strength increased by 31.33%, and the chloride diffusion coefficient was reduced by 49.44%. The findings are beneficial to promote the generalized application of 3DG in cement in the marine environment.
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
  • Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Afterburning on Damage to the Concrete
           Structure Under Interior Explosion

    • Abstract: Abstract A numerical simulation was performed to analyze how afterburning affects damage to a concrete structure when an explosive detonates inside a room. TNT was used as the explosive for the interior explosion. A reduced scale structure of a Korean apartment room was constructed with reinforced concrete and used as the target room for this research. Interior explosion experiments were performed using TNT 2 kg and TNT 3 kg explosives, to obtain data to verify and calibrate the numerical model. The numerical model was constructed to precisely simulate these interior explosions, especially considering the effect of afterburning, which is a significant phenomenon in enclosed spaces. Numerical simulations were performed with and without the effect of afterburning, and compared with the experiment results. The results showed that the numerical model could well simulate the effects of afterburning in an interior explosion, and that afterburning effects must be considered to more accurately analyze the damage to concrete structures.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
  • Correction to: Enhancing the Performance of Knee Beam–Column Joint Using
           Hybrid Fibers Reinforced Concrete

    • PubDate: 2022-01-24
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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