Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access  
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  

           

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Revista de la Construcción
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.234
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0717-7925 - ISSN (Online) 0718-915X
Published by SciELO Homepage  [912 journals]
  • Effect of longitudinal stiffeners’ spacing in lateral-torsional
           buckling

    • Abstract: This study focused on the experimental assessment of the effect of the spacing between longitudinal stiffeners welded to I-shaped beams under the action of lateral-torsional buckling. In this procedure, 192 aluminum beams on a 1:9 scale were tested under simple-support conditions with a laterally unbraced length ranging from 0.55 m through 1.95 m. Moreover, the stiffeners’ spacing was also ranged from 3 to 9 times the depth of section. The structural behavior of the beams is discussed in terms of their flexural capacity, spacing between longitudinal stiffeners, lateral displacement of compression flange and failure angle twist. Results show that the spacing of longitudinal stiffeners influences the flexural capacity of I-shaped beams, so that, when the spacing of longitudinal stiffeners decreases, flexural capacity tends to increase, especially in the elastic buckling zone.
       
  • Uni axial compression behaviour of lightweight expanded clay aggregate
           concrete cylinders confined by perforated steel tube and GFRP wrapping

    • Abstract: This study presents the experimental investigation carried out on an Expanded Clay Aggregate concrete column confined by perforated steel tube strengthened by Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets under uniaxial compression. Two parameters were considered for the experimental investigation: The diameter of the perforated steel tube (5 mm and 10 mm) and number of layers of GFRP wrapping (1,2, 3 and 4 layers). The compression behavior of perforated steel confined column was compared with GFRP tube encased concrete column and plain steel tube encased concrete column. The effect of perforation diameter and GFRP layers, on the failure pattern, stress-strain response, and ductility of the column were discussed. From this study, it can be concluded that the GFRP wrapping and perforated steel tube exerts the full potential to enhance the compression behaviour of expanded clay aggregate concrete column. The failure mode of GFRP wrapped perforated steel tube column was ductile in nature. The failure started with the rupture of GFRP layers followed by yielding of perforated steel tube and finally crushing of core concrete. The GFRP wrapping provides additional tensile strength to the column and the perforated steel tube with its elasto-plastic behaviour enhances the pre-cracking and post peak behaviour of the column. Better ductility performance was observed in the column with a greater number of GFRP wrapping and column with 10 mm diameter perforation.
       
  • An experimental study on the performance of precast ferrocement panel for
           composite masonry slab systems

    • Abstract: This study investigates the necessary norms of precast slabs connections experimentally in order to adapt and suggest a new connection system for existing composite masonry floor. In order to check the system security, full size precast slab tests performed for both slab-beam-slab (SBS) connection and slab-slab (SS) connection. Slabs, designed with the norms of standards and information from literature, were tested under distributed loads. It has been experimentally proved that the offered SBS connection successfully improved the performance the proposed slab floors.
       
  • Simplified nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete coupling beams
           subjected to cyclic loading

    • Abstract: Reinforced concrete shear walls connected by coupling beams form an efficient structural system to resist earthquake and wind loads in tall buildings. However, the analysis of the effects caused by cyclic loading in this kind of system are not so straightforward. In the present paper, simplified nonlinear analysis using monotonic loading are used in order to obtain the behavior of tested coupling beams subjected to cyclic loading. Numerical results have shown that numerical monotonic loading is able to predict with good precision the yielding and the failure loads of the tested coupling beams subjected to cyclic loading. Both the cracking patterns and the predicted failure modes were captured reasonably well in comparison with the experimental behavior. Therefore, monotonic simulations may be applied to have a first estimate of the envelope curve for cyclic loading.
       
  • Foundation design on problematic soils with high underground water level

    • Abstract: In this study, the foundation systems of a structure on different soil profiles and different groundwater levels are modeled and analyzed. Several difficulties encounter during the basic design and application phases. In particular, the high groundwater level, the load on the soil under the load-bearing capacity, settlement, liquefaction causes many problems such as emergence. Within this study's scope, foundation systems based on six different soil profiles with a high groundwater level were modeled with the Plaxis 2D program for raft foundation and piled raft foundation. As a result of the analysis, it was seen that groundwater level, the soil characteristics, and the conditions are significant in the soil-foundation interaction in both static and earthquake situations.
       
  • Concrete structures monitoring using ultrasonic tests

    • Abstract: Due to the nature of their use, concrete structures are typically subjected to various aggressive actions derived from the loads and the environmental agents, which make the concrete condition change over time. Constant monitoring of structures is a necessary procedure since the preventive detection of problems allows the use of more straightforward and cost-effective methods for evaluation and repair. In order to carry out continuous monitoring of the state condition of concrete elements, there are many tools available. Nondestructive Testing (NDT) applications are a new strategy to monitor the state of concrete structures continually. Recent advancements in NDT technologies are increasingly turning them into attractive and viable strategies to support this type of monitoring and visual inspection. In particular, besides been viable and attractive, ultrasonic tests are a relatively cheap alternative and represent a range of different methods, each one with its benefits, to analyze concrete structures. The Research Group of LEME-UFRGS has developed research and application of NDT methods in general, and ultrasonic based methods in particular, for the last 15 years. The research done by the group demonstrates that these methods can contribute to monitoring deterioration and the quality of concrete structures. The present study demonstrates particular cases involving ultrasonic pulse testing and ultrasonic tomography. The aim was to check for these technique improvements for the analysis of concrete elements. The results highlight the potentialities and shortcomings of each technique.
       
  • Functional grading of viscoelastic defined hot mix asphalt layers

    • Abstract: In the design of layered flexible pavements with the mechanistic-empirical (M-E) method, the material characterization of layers is critical for the correct calculation of mechanical responses. The surface layers of flexible pavements produced as hot mix asphalt (HMA) behave as a viscoelastic material under real field conditions. In this study, in which the HMA surface layer was defined viscoelastic by creep-compliance method, functional grading was applied to the surface layer at the same time to increase the fatigue strength of the pavement. Functional grading application was performed in the form of 3, 5, 7, and 9 sub-layers with linear and exponential functions. The pavement life values due to the mechanical responses that occurred in the pavement were determined by the Asphalt Institute and Shell methods. The study results show that the fatigue strength of the viscoelastic surface layer increases significantly as a result of functional grading. Especially in sections with exponential grading, an improvement of more than 10% was achieved even when a small number of sub-layers used. These results show that functional grading can also be successfully applied in field studies, and even with three sub-layers, significant improvements can be provided.
       
  • A seismic-shielding structure based on phononic crystal

    • Abstract: In this paper, a seismic-shielding structure is presented based on the phononic crystal theory, which is now used to control acoustic waves. An earthquake-proof barrier of seismic waves can be built by filling up the structure under the ground around the building that we want to protect. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the structure, the seismic wave can be blocked. Herein, the frequency band gaps of the structure are determined theoretically, and the influence of geometric and material parameters on the frequency band gaps is analyzed.
       
  • Determination of indoor air quality in collective living spaces utilizing
           Fuzzy logic analysis

    • Abstract: Individuals collective living spaces might be indoor or outdoor areas. In indoor works, people spend approximately 90% of their time in a closed space. There are many parameters affecting indoor air quality. Among these, for indoor and outdoor, important parameters can be listed as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), particles, nitrogen oxides (NOx), various microorganisms, harmful allergens, and powders. These are important factors for occurring many acute and chronic diseases at an early age, as babies and children are more sensitive to environmental pollutants. Recently published studies, which report that appendicitis failures might be fatal and air pollution can increase the rate of these failures, are remarkable. There are many negative effects of polluted indoor air on human health such as attention deficit and excessive daytime sleepiness. Moreover, the negative effects of this kind of indoor air quality on human learning and perception can not be neglected. The researchers focusing on indoor air quality are conducting studies showing that air pollution has an effect on physical activity and neurological interaction in humans. Even though air pollutants in outdoor air content were evaluated with fuzzy logic method in many studies, there are quite few studies using the fuzzy approach for indoor air quality. In this study, through the standard formula developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), calculations were made using fuzzy logic in MATLAB utilizing air quality index. In this scope, indoor air quality measurement parameters were evaluated with the “Mamdani” method used in fuzzy logic. Then, the model suitable for the logic structure created with the fuzzy tool in MATLAB was analyzed with the help of Mamdani method, and the suitability of evaluating the indoor air quality with artificial intelligence was investigated. Finally, a set of suggestions has been made evaluating and criticizing the results.
       
  • Numerical analysis of an elastomeric bearing pad by hyperelastic models

    • Abstract: Elastomeric bearing pads are responsible for transfering loads at the junction between beams and columns of bridges and viaducts, providing restrict freedom of movement in the superstructure. The elastomeric material of bearing pads is a synthetic rubber reinforced with carbon black particles and subjected to a process of vulcanization, also represented by hyperelastic material models based on strain energy density functions. The objective of the present paper is to use the finite element analysis software Abaqus® to select the most appropriate hyperelastic model, as well as its constants, applying them to a bearing pad installed in an existing viaduct, evaluating its behavior and the displacements resulting from the application of usual loads. A data fitting procedure is performed through the finite elements analysis software to obtain the Neo-Hooke, Arruda-Boyce and Yeoh model constants. The proposed methodology presents results that are coherent when compared to technical specification limits for available bearing pads products.
       
  • Experimental analysis of fire resistance of mortar coatings on structural
           masonry walls

    • Abstract: The discussion on fire safety is necessary in Brazilian buildings. Current legislation requires construction with compartmentalized areas separated by walls with structural ceramic blocks capable of resisting fire for an amount of time pre-determined in norm NBR 14432 (ABNT, 2001). However, a lack of building standards requires experimental tests according to NBR 5628 (ABNT, 2001) to determine the necessary configuration to achieve fire resistance. For this purpose, this study analyzed the effect of fire on structural walls covered with a mortar coating. Experiments were conducted in real scale in a standardized vertical oven and the fire growth curve of ISO 834 (ISO, 1999). Three types of walls were tested, each with a different mortar coating: (a) lime; (b) 0.6 kg/m³ polypropylene fiber and 1.2 kg/m³ polypropylene fiber. The mortar coatings were 1.5 cm thick on the side facing the fire and 2.5 cm thick in the outside. The wall was composed of structural blocks measuring 14 cm x 19 cm x 29 cm. Fire experiments evaluated the structure stability, impermeability to hot gases and smoke and thermal insulation of each sample. Results showed that the structural system with 1.2 kg/m³ polypropylene fiber mortar coating obtained the best thermal insulation effect with the longest fire resistance time of 176 min.
       
  • Analysis of damping ratio on the optimization of geometrically nonlinear
           truss structures subjected to dynamic loading

    • Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present the formulation for optimizing truss structures with geometric nonlinearity under dynamic loads, provide pertinent case studies and investigate the influence of damping on the final result. The type of optimization studied herein aims to determine the cross-sectional areas that will minimize the weight of a given structural system, by imposing constraints on nodal displacements and axial stresses. The analyses are carried out using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP), available in MATLAB’s Optimization Toolbox™. The nonlinear finite space truss element is defined with an updated Lagrangian formulation, and the geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis performed herein combines the Newmark method with Newton-Raphson iterations. The dynamic analysis approach was validated by comparing the results obtained with solutions available in the literature as well as with numerical models developed with ANSYS® 18.2. A number of optimization examples of planar and space trusses under dynamic loading with geometric nonlinearity are presented. Results indicate that the consideration of damping effects may lead to a significant reduction in structural weight and that such weight reduction is proportional to increases in damping ratio.
       
  • Multi-objective optimization of time-cost-quality in construction projects
           using genetic algorithm

    • Abstract: In this study, it was aimed to develop a model that provides Time-Cost-Quality optimization in construction projects using the genetic algorithm method. To fulfill that, Matlab codes for a multi-purpose genetic algorithm that performs Time-Cost-Quality optimization were developed and applied to the problem, and the targeted success level was substantially achieved. This model is capable of performing and visualizing an advanced three-dimensional time, cost, quality tradeoff analysis instead of the traditional two-dimensional time-cost tradeoff analysis. It was possible to select the desired alternative under the project conditions obtaining Pareto images called a set of solutions rather than a single solution. In addition, one of the main objectives of this study is to develop an effective model to assist the main contractors of the construction in selecting the most suitable subcontractors.
       
  • Effects of plasticizer and antifreeze on concrete at elevated temperatures
           and different cooling regimes

    • Abstract: In this study, the plasticizer and the antifreeze were used. The concrete specimens (the reference concrete without an admixture, concrete with plasticizer, concrete with antifreeze and concrete with plasticizer+antifreeze) were exposed to elevated temperatures (200, 400, 550 and 700 ºC) and cooling via air and water. Water absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength tests were performed on the specimens. The concrete specimens were also analyzed using thermal gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The test results indicated that at the temperatures of 550 and 700 ºC and against both of the cooling regimes the plasticizer+antifreeze concrete showed a maximum strength loss. When the air cooled specimens were examined, the lowest strength loss was this obtained for reference concrete at 550 and 700 ºC. The lowest strength loss at these temperatures for the water cooled specimens was observed in the concrete with antifreeze. According to thermal gravimetric analysis, the weight loss rate slightly decreases after 700 °C. No portlandite peaks were observed in the concrete mixtures exposed to 700 ºC and the cooling regimes was when they were compared at with the control specimens exposed to 20 ºC in the X-ray diffraction analysis.
       
  • Adobe bricks with sugarcane molasses and gypsum to enhance compressive
           strength in the city Cogua, Colombia

    • Abstract: This paper presents a case study of the effect of adobe bricks stabilized with gypsum, sugarcane molasses and both combinations improving compressive strength. These bricks were produced by a hand-made process, which was empirical and had not been analysed before. All samples had the same unit weight and aspect ratio to obtain accurate data. An extensive series of test were conducted on adobe bricks stabilized with gypsum (5%, 10% and 15%), sugarcane molasses (5%, 10% and 15%), and gypsum in combination with sugarcane molasses (5%, 10% and 15%) which were cured for one month. The results of the tests have shown that the grain size distribution was not optimum, which meant that samples stabilized with gypsum or sugarcane molasses did not exceed the resistance of the control sample. The former increased the strength, but the later decreased. Despite this, the sample stabilized with 2.5% gypsum and 2.5% sugarcane molasses had the best strength (2.15 MPa). This case study can contribute to better understanding the compressive strength of stabilized adobe bricks, which depends on the percentage of the clay and sand fraction, the moisture content of the soil, and the percentage of stabilizer. In summary, natural stabilizers could be an environmental solution to improve mechanical behaviour.
       
  • Structural analysis of earth construction’s vaults: Case of
           underground tombs of Chogha Zanbil

    • Abstract: The 3300-year-old Chogha Zanbil is the largest and best-preserved five levelled pyramidal earth ziggurat outside Mesopotamia, which was inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Underground tombs of Chogha Zanbil are accepted as outstanding instances in Iran and consist of vaults, which are built with special methods by Elamite architects. In this context, the main purpose of this paper is to contribute to sustain the outstanding universal value of the Chogha Zanbil. For that purpose, this paper puts forward a structural analyse of the vaults of five Chogha Zanbil underground tombs, which were built inside the ground by brick, lime mortar, plaster and bitumen materials. Data for underground tombs and vaults were collected upon field observations and literature study. Finite-element methodology was used for structural analysis and SAP software was utilized to determine the way the forces are transmitted through the vaults, the conditions of bending moments, the shear forces. As a result, it has been observed that the bending in the vaults turns into pressure force that is perfectly resisted by bricks. In conclusion, it was ascertained that the vaults of the Chogha Zanbil underground tombs were built with the right techniques at that time, so that the vaults still have solid behaviour after thousands of years and remained completely healthy to this day.
       
  • Review design of wind load analysis structures guyed tension in the Bogor
           repeater radio frequency antenna towers

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the RRF antenna tower under wind load action, the wind load is viewed from an angle of 0( to the towing cable to the largest angle on the two types of antenna towers, triangle and Square. Both types will produce different wind loads so that we can find out which load is the biggest from a combination of wind directions. The research method is by empirical analysis, calculating the wind load alone while other loads are not counted. As a result of wind loads, the tension cable and load direction correspond to each section and then the resultant values ​​of force and direction will arise. And finally, the force is changed to lift and the anchor will hold the force. The results use of triangle antenna towers is more beneficial, because the wind load that occurs is smaller, thus the construction costs are also smaller. Due to the wind load that works horizontally and will be provided by the tower that stands vertically, the tower requires several retaining cables in a diagonal position, the force that propagates on the diagonal cable will cause a force in the vertical direction or lift, so the lift must be placed using anchors that are embedded in the soil, the large load from the soil that will hold the anchor is determined based on the value of the analysis, the criteria are too light so the anchor will be lifted and friendly, it will cause waste.
       
  • Concrete wave barriers to mitigate ground vibrations induced by railway
           traffic: a three-dimensional numerical study

    • Abstract: Continuous wave barriers are mitigation measures to reduce vibrations induced by railway traffic which have been well studied in technical literature. Nevertheless, there are not many studies about discontinuous concrete wave barriers. By this reason, in this paper continuous and discontinuous concrete wave barriers are studied and compared. With this objective, two theoretical cases with discontinuous barriers have been analysed and the results have been compared with those from both continuous barriers and without barriers cases. The study has been carried out with a dynamic numerical 3D FEM model formulated in the space/time domain, which has previously been validated by authors on the Lisbon-Oporto (Portugal) railway line. The numerical results show the discontinuous barriers with a small separation between axles (less than twice the thickness of the continuous barrier) are an efficient measure in the reduction of vibrations, reaching values of insertion loss of up to 13 dB. Therefore, these could be a very interesting alternative to continuous barriers, in order to conjugate a somewhat lower level of reduction of vibration at a considerable lower cost.
       
  • Effects of the incorporation of residue of masonry on the properties of
           cementitious mortars

    • Abstract: This research presents the results of an experimental study about the potentiality of using residues of masonry (RM), sampled from construction and demolition waste (CDW), as supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Portland cement was partially replaced by RM up to 50% in weight (0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5% and 50%). Various tests were carried out for: pozzolanic activity (fixed lime and strength activity index), the heat of hydration, setting time, the (autogenous and by drying) shrinkage, and compressive strength. Experimental results shown that the RM has a positive activity because the increase of RM replacement level in the mortars generates a lower heat of hydration and autogenous and drying shrinkage. The fixed lime test at 28 and 180 days, indicated that the RM exhibits pozzolanic activity to some degree, and the Strength Activity Index (SAI) according to ASTM C311, was 77.13% and 84.36% at 7 and 28 days, respectively. These results indicate that RM should be considered appropriate for using as supplementary cementitious material.
       
  • Strength and microstructural behaviour of concrete incorporating laterite
           sand in binary blended cement

    • Abstract: This paper explores the performance of concrete using laterite sand as a fine aggregate alternative by replacing manufactured sand (M-sand, produced from hard granite stones by crushing) at 25% intervals ranging from 0% to 100%. Preliminary tests were conducted to ascertain the properties of M-sand and laterite sand that meet the recommended standards for natural aggregates. M30 grade concrete mixtures were produced, and the specimens were cured for 7 and 28 days. The slump test was carried out to assess the workability as per Indian Standards. Furthermore, the concrete specimens were prepared in the form of cubes, cylinders, and beams to assess the mechanical performance. Also, control and optimum mixtures were chosen to understand its morphological characteristics by conducting Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Results showed that higher laterite content led to less workable concrete, and 25% replacement of laterite sand improved by about 12%, 11% and 13% respectively compressive, split-tensile, and flexure strengths. Based on the SEM analysis, the optimum mixture showed a more compact microstructure. The EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various hydration products, while the XRD analysis indicated that the L25 samples had additional peaks of tobermorite and xonotlite. The results of TGA are also in agreement with the assertion.
       
  • Consistency analysis of sand cone and nuclear method results in compacted
           soils

    • Abstract: In this study, the ratio of compaction was determined by sand cone and nuclear test methods performed in the same place. The normal distribution fitness of the compaction percentiles was tested by the Anderson-Darling test and normal distribution was normalized by subjecting the unsuitable Water Content values ​​to Jonson transformation. Findings the results obtained with the nuclear method reveal that both methods are consistent with each other in terms of mean data, with lower and more variables in the Sand Cone method. It is recommended to test the consistency of the results obtained by the nuclear method. Also, because of the rapid results, statistical model has been investigated for adapting the results of nuclear method to the sand cone method. For this purpose, regression analysis and artificial neural network models were investigated; artificial neural networks were seen to provide successful predictions inside of the found models.
       
  • Study of Radon concentrations in a single-family home and their
           relationship with the ventilation system

    • Abstract: In the past decade a number of studies have looked into the environmental conditions of buildings and the quality of air indoors, in light of scientific reports that link them to serious illnesses. Outstanding among these studies are the ones focusing on the concentration of Radon gas, qualified as a grade one carcinogen. Our article analyzes the concentrations of this gas detected in a single-family home and how the levels may be affected by the ventilation system used. Air samples were taken under different conditions -the first sample without ventilation of the space and the second with ventilation- in three units of the house: garage, living room and bedroom. The maximum concentrations obtained when the ventilation system was not in operation show values between 94.45 and 391.12 Bq/m3, obtaining an average of 278.86 Bq/m3, being above the recommended ideal threshold established by the World Health Organization. In contrast, the maximum concentrations were between 71.56 and 29.98 Bq/m3 when the ventilation system was used. Our results confirm that ventilation is decisive for reducing the concentration of gas in interiors, giving an average efficiency of 62%.
       
  • Evaluating the durability of recycled concrete made of coarse recycled
           aggregate concrete containing silica-fume and natural zeolite

    • Abstract: Although the mechanical properties of recycled aggregates concrete (RAC’s) are well known, the durability properties of these concretes are less agreed upon by researchers. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the durability of RAC’s made of recycled concrete coarse aggregate (RCCA) containing silica-fume (SF) and natural zeolite (NZ). Four series of mixtures were made using four levels of RCCA as 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% with natural coarse aggregates (NCA’s). SF with 5%, 10%, and 15% and NZ with 10%, 20%, and 30% were replaced with cement. To evaluate the durability properties of RAC’s, 28 mixed design were made and compressive strength (CS), water absorption by immersion (WAI), water absorption by capillary (WAC), electrical resistance (ER), electrical conductivity (EC), and rapid chloride ion penetration test (RCPT) were measured. The results showed that WAI and WAC of RAC increased with enhancing the RCCA level. By increasing the replacement level of RCCA, and usage of 10% SF replacement showed a greater impact on improving CS. Concretes containing NZ had higher WAI than that of SF. The increasing level of NZ by more than 10%, increases the space of cavities between silicate gels and therefore increases WAC in concretes. With increasing in the RCA level, so did the EC of RAC; however, EC in pozzolanic concretes showed a lower growth rate by increasing the RCCA level. Using 25% of RCCA, and 10% of SF, it was possible to make concrete with very low chloride ion penetration.
       
  • Evaluating the asphalt pavement's surface characteristics by field testing

    • Abstract: Pavement management systems are crucial because of monitoring the current pavement condition to supply safe, efficient, comfortable and durable riding surface for vehicles. Driving safety is the most important issue, which is closely related to pavement surface texture. The texture of the pavement surface and its ability to resist the polishing effect of heavy traffic is an important parameter in providing necessary skidding resistance during the service life. In this study, 4 different asphalt pavement sections located in Izmir/TURKEY which having different traffic characteristics were investigated every three months for two years aiming to evaluate the effect of traffic volume on the surface textural and frictional properties of the pavement. The textural properties were evaluated using sand patch test (SPT) and a 3D Laser Scanning System (LSS), while Dynamic Friction Tester (DFT) was employed to assess the frictional properties. As a result, lower Mean Texture Depth (MTD) and Mean Profile Depth (MPD) values were obtained for the increased traffic volumes. High correlation was derived between macro and micro textural properties of the asphalt pavement. Additionally, the textural and frictional properties were found highly related for the investigated asphalt pavement surfaces.
       
  • Study on the fractal model of water immersed collapse of Soft Rock

    • Abstract: Soft rock is a common rock mass in engineering, one of its characteristics is water swelling and disintegration. In this paper, the nonlinear fractal geometry is introduced and the correlation fractal dimension is used to study the characteristics of slate disintegration, based on the laboratory test of water immersion disintegration, the method of quality fractal dimension is used to solve the fractal dimension of the disintegration of slate, and the change of fractal dimension is used to reflect the characteristics of the softening and disintegration of slate when encountering water. The experimental results show that the fractal model can be used to fully understand the development and evolution of rock disintegration process, and to quantitatively link the relationship between rock expansion and disintegration. The conclusion has guiding significance for engineering practice.
       
 
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