Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2075-5309
Published by MDPI Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 178: Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fly
           Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete Compared to Conventional Concrete

    • Authors: Nikolaos Nikoloutsopoulos, Anastasia Sotiropoulou, Glikeria Kakali, Sotirios Tsivilis
      First page: 178
      Abstract: The potential of applying geopolymerization to a wide range of solid industrial waste and by-products is of great interest. In this research, the physical and mechanical properties of fly ash (FA)-based geopolymer concrete (GC), compared to those of cement concrete (CC), were studied. Three GCs with different content of FA and three appropriate CCs were designed, prepared, tested and evaluated. The results were compared with the requirements of Standards EN 206-1 and EN 1992-1-1. It was shown that in some cases minor adjustments of the regulations are needed, while in other cases complete revision is required. GC indicated competitive compressive strength compared to CC, tensile strength within the limits specified by Eurocode 2 for CC and modulus of elasticity about 50% less than that of CC. The ratio of binder (FA) to aggregates seems to have a significant effect on the properties of GC. The concrete with 750 kg/m3 FA seems to be the best choice taking into consideration both engineering and environmental criteria.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050178
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 179: A Review on Cementitious Materials
           Including Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash (MSWI-BA) as

    • Authors: Jad Bawab, Jamal Khatib, Said Kenai, Mohammed Sonebi
      First page: 179
      Abstract: Waste management is a vital environmental issue in the world today. Municipal solid wastes (MSWs) are discarded in huge quantities on a daily basis and need to be well controlled. Incineration is a common method for reducing the volume of these wastes, yet it produces ashes that require further assessment. Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA) is the bulk byproduct of the incineration process and has the potential to be used in the construction sector. This paper offers a review of the use of MSWI-BA as aggregates in cementitious materials. With the growing demand of aggregates in cementitious materials, MSWI-BA is considered for use as a partial or full alternative. Although the physical and chemical properties of MSWI-BA are different than those of natural aggregates (NA) in terms of water absorption, density, and fineness, they can be treated by various methods to ensure suitable quality for construction purposes. These treatment methods are classified into thermal treatment, solidification and stabilization, and separation processes, where this review focuses on the techniques that reduce deficiencies limiting the use of MSWI-BA as aggregates in different ways. When replacing NA in cementitious materials, MSWI-BA causes a decrease in workability, density, and strength. Moreover, they cause an increase in water absorption, air porosity, and drying shrinkage. In general, the practicality of using MSWI-BA in cementitious materials is mainly influenced by its treatment method and the replacement level, and it is concluded that further research, especially on durability, is required before MSWI-BA can be efficiently used in the production of sustainable cementitious materials.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050179
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 180: Experimental Investigation of ECC Jackets
           for Repair of Pre-Damaged R.C. Members under Monotonic Loading

    • Authors: Anthos I. Ioannou, Stavroula J. Pantazopoulou, Michael F. Petrou, Dimos C. Charmpis
      First page: 180
      Abstract: With the advent of strain-hardening cementitious composites (SHCC), an opportunity for alternative jacketing solutions is presented, where the internal confinement exerted by the fibers in the material may effectively encase the structural component, thereby enhancing the strength and deformation capacity in the critical regions. This concept is explored in the present paper through testing of four pre-damaged prismatic flexural reinforced concrete members with various reinforcing deficiencies. Thin SHCC jackets constituted of a fiber-reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) are used to replace the damaged cover without any additional confining reinforcement. An advantage of cover replacement is that strengthening is achieved without altering the dimensions of the members. The experimental results documented the SHCC jackets’ effectiveness as a rehabilitation strategy, enhancing both the strength and ductility of the retrofitted elements and mitigating the deficiency in transverse reinforcement detailing. The strength recovery showed that the cover-thin SHCC jacket sufficed to enhance flexural and shear resistance through confinement and mobilization of stress transfer at the interface with the encased core.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050180
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 181: Comparison between Predicted and Measured
           Moisture Content and Climate in 12 Monitored Timber Structures in

    • Authors: Marcus Schiere, Bettina Franke, Steffen Franke, Andreas Müller
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Wood is a hygroscopic material that primarily adapts its moisture content to the surrounding relative humidity. The climate in a structure or building depends on the building type and the region the structure is located in. In this study, the effect of region on the moisture content of wood was investigated. Measurements taken in 12 ventilated timber structures were compared to the theoretical equilibrium moisture content calculated from the relative humidity and temperature in 107 meteorological stations across Switzerland. The monitored load-bearing elements were made of softwood and protected from the direct impact of weather. The climatic conditions around the Alps, a mountain range that runs from France to Austria and crosses Switzerland, can be divided into the following three different regions: (1) south of the Alps, where the climate is affected mainly by the Mediterranean sea; (2) north of the Alps, where the climate is affected by the Atlantic Ocean; and (3) the inner Alps, where the climate is considered to be relatively dry. The climatic conditions of the three separate regions were reflected in the measurements made in the monitored timber structures. Differences between the regions were quantified. The moisture content and relative humidity, similarly to temperature, depended on altitude (above sea level).
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050181
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 182: Experimental Behavior of Steel-Concrete
           Composite Girders with UHPC-Grout Strip Shear Connection

    • Authors: Zhi-Qi He, Changxue Ou, Fei Tian, Zhao Liu
      First page: 182
      Abstract: This paper develops a new type of shear connection for steel-concrete composite bridges using Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) as the connection grout. The UHPC-grout strip shear connection is fabricated by preforming a roughened slot in the concrete deck slab, welding an embossed steel rib longitudinally to the upper flange of the steel girder, and casting the strip void between the slot and the steel rib with UHPC grout. The structural performance of the new connection was validated by two sets of experimental tests, including push-out testing of shear connectors and static and fatigue testing of composite beams. The results of push-out testing indicate that the UHPC-grout strip shear connection exhibits a significant improvement of ductility, ultimate capacity, and fatigue performance. The interface shear strength of the UHPC-grout strip connection is beyond 15 MPa, which is about three times that of the strip connection using traditional cementitious grouts. The ultimate capacity of the connection is dominated by the interface failure between the embossed steel and the UHPC grout. The results of composite-beam testing indicate that full composite action is developed between the precast decks and the steel beams, and the composite action remained intact after testing for two million load cycles. Finally, the trail design of a prototype bridge shows that this new connection has the potential to meet the requirements for horizontal shear.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050182
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 183: A Ten-Year Review of Primary School
           Flexible Learning Environments: Interior Design and IEQ Performance

    • Authors: Diksha Vijapur, Christhina Candido, Özgür Göçer, Shirley Wyver
      First page: 183
      Abstract: Flexible Learning Environments (FLEs) arose as enablers for implementation of student-centric pedagogical approaches. Interior design is the key to the success of FLEs, providing the physical infrastructure needed for students to engage on several learning activities, from individual to group work, which take place in a variety of zones ranging from low to high energy. Therefore, a harmonious synergy between the interior design and subsequent Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) performance of FLEs’ physical configuration and learning activities is needed. The objective of this paper is to systematically review (in accordance with the PRISMA method) existing literature related to FLEs within primary school settings, typically catering to children aged 5–12 years old, to understand the body of work investigating the design and performance of FLEs over the last decade (2010–2020). Key findings suggest that the proximity and acoustic and visual permeability of zones found in FLEs may give rise to inadequate IEQ conditions delivered to students. In addition, it could be inferred from the results of the literature review that interior design and IEQ have not been sufficiently investigated in an integrated manner.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050183
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 184: The Relationship between Building Agents in
           the Context of Integrated Project Management: A Prospective Analysis

    • Authors: Alberto Cerezo-Narváez, Andrés Pastor-Fernández, Manuel Otero-Mateo, Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez
      First page: 184
      Abstract: The increasing complexity of building projects, with high quality standards, integrated technologies and strong management restrictions, demands the intervention of numerous and diverse specialists. This requires an intense leadership, organization and coordination effort. However, building regulations, such as the Spanish Law on Building Management (LOE) 38/1999, only formally consider developers, project designers, project and work supervisors, quality control entities, construction companies, owners and final users as building agents. However, these categories are insufficient to represent the interests of all the stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to carry out an analysis of the agents that are currently part of the entire building process. If their relationship of influence and dependence, as well as their alignment with the overall objectives of the project are studied, potential convergences, divergences, agreements and disagreements can be established. To do this, the authors conducted a prospective analysis through the MACTOR (Matrix of Alliances and Conflicts: Tactics, Objectives and Recommendations) strategic planning simulation tool, for which the rules of the Delphi technique were applied and a consultation with technical experts, both professionals and academics, was held. The research provides insight to assess the power relationships between the building agents, as well as to measure the alignment of objectives with their interests. Results show that, in the context of integrated project management (IPM), the influence of technical agents is reduced by limiting their functions to those marked by their regulatory framework, allowing them to focus on their legal powers, and the room for manoeuvre of the professional agents, who are subject to systematized monitoring and control, is also reduced. The prospective analysis also highlights the importance of defining the scope from its early stages, as well as the need to reach multilateral agreements based on the other two main constraints: time and cost.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050184
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 185: Risk Reduction Framework for Blue-Green

    • Authors: Erlend Andenæs, Berit Time, Tone Muthanna, Silje Asphaug, Tore Kvande
      First page: 185
      Abstract: As climate change in the Nordic region brings an increase in extreme precipitation events, blue-green roofs have emerged as a solution for stormwater management, hereafter referred to as “blue-green roofs”. The addition of blue-green layers on a conventional compact roof represents several multi-disciplinary technical challenges and quality risks that must be managed. This paper aims to list and address the key building technical challenges associated with blue-green roofs and to present a framework for managing these risks. Literature and document studies as well as qualitative interviews and expert meetings have been conducted to collect research data on defects in blue-green roofs and causes thereof. A list of nine key challenges has been extracted along with recommendations on how to address them. The recommendations are structured around a framework developed for practical use in building projects. For ease of use, the nine key challenges are presented on a general level, with references to detailed recommendations. The framework is intended to be used to reduce the building technical risks of blue-green roofs, by addressing the most important quality risk elements.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050185
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 186: Dynamic Properties of Granulated Rubber
           Using Different Laboratory Tests

    • Authors: Ahmed Moussa, Hany El Naggar, Abouzar Sadrekarimi
      First page: 186
      Abstract: Due to the socio-environmental hazards arising from the stockpiling of disposed scrap tires, the necessity to utilize such material in civil construction and other applications is deemed mandatory. The lightweight of rubber and its high damping capacity are excellent properties of a geomaterial that could be used successfully in seismic isolation and vibration damping applications in civil construction. Scrap tires could be shredded into specific sizes, and their category and application depend on their particle size range. Thus, understanding the dynamic properties and behavior of shredded scrap tires under cyclic loading is of paramount importance. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of granulated rubbers (<12 mm) are investigated using cyclic triaxial and cyclic direct simple shear tests. The effect of using different testing techniques, i.e., cyclic triaxial test (CTT) and cyclic simple shear test (CSST), on the dynamic properties of granulated rubber material is further addressed. Undrained cyclic triaxial and constant-volume direct simple shear tests are conducted on granulated rubber samples under vertical consolidation stresses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 kPa at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. The shear strain amplitude is varied from 0.01% to 10%. Furthermore, the variations of shear modulus and damping ratio with shear strain amplitude are presented. In addition, the obtained dynamic properties from this study are compared with existing experimental data from the literature. It was found that the ranges of shear moduli of granulated rubber from the CTT and CSST are 278 to 2647 kPa and 85 to 2270 kPa, respectively. Moreover, the damping ratios obtained from CTT were higher than those from CSST at shear strains of less than 1%. The damping ratio of granulated rubber was also found to be independent of the vertical consolidation stress.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050186
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 187: Fire Protective Glass Fiber Reinforced
           Concrete Plates for Steel Structures under Different Types of Fire

    • Authors: Marina Gravit, Elena Golub, Boris Klementev, Ivan Dmitriev
      First page: 187
      Abstract: In a situation where a fire occurs either in a tunnel with a burning vehicle carrying petroleum products, at an offshore platform, or at an oil and gas asset to be protected, such a case is commonly described using a hydrocarbon fire curve. Therefore, it is extremely important to design construction, which can maintain stability and bearing capacity both under the standard and hydrocarbon fire modes. The purpose in this work is to hold a behavior simulation of a steel structure with fireproofing ensured through lightweight concrete slabs reinforced with fiber glass as well as a validation of the outcomes by assessing the experimental findings obtained from the relevant fire tests. A fire resistance study was carried out here for steel structures with a profile ratio of 156 mm−1 for the cases of a standard fire and of a hydrocarbon fire. A constant static load of 687 kN (70 tf) was taken for standard fire and 294 kN (30 tf) for hydrocarbon fire; the column was under vertical compression with one end resting on a hinged support and the other end rigidly fixed. The specimen design incorporated single-layer box-section cladding made of Pyro-Safe Aestuver T slabs, 40 mm thick and of a 650 kg/m3 density, pre-cut to fit the column size. The column strength loss (R) ultimately occurred after 240 min in the standard fire case and after 180 min in the hydrocarbon fire case. As the breach in the fireproofing structural integrity (E) or the installation accuracy cannot be considered, the limit state indicators may show certain discrepancies. According to the simulation performed using SOFiSTiK software, the design fire resistance rating of the structure in a hydrocarbon fire case was 58% higher than the figure obtained by holding fire tests due to the slabs cracking during the experiment session; the discrepancy between the outcomes of the session and the simulation in a standard fire case was as much as 15%.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050187
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 188: Application of Support Vector Regression to
           the Prediction of the Long-Term Impacts of Climate Change on the Moisture
           Performance of Wood Frame and Massive Timber Walls

    • Authors: Naman Bansal, Maurice Defo, Michael A. Lacasse
      First page: 188
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to explore the potential of a machine learning algorithm, the Support Vector Machine Regression (SVR), to forecast long-term hygrothermal responses and the moisture performance of light wood frame and massive timber walls. Hygrothermal simulations were performed using a 31-year long series of climate data in three cities across Canada. Then, the first 5 years of the series were used in each case to train the model, which was then used to forecast the hygrothermal responses (temperature and relative humidity) and moisture performance indicator (mold growth index) for the remaining years of the series. The location of interest was the exterior layer of the OSB and cross-laminated timber in the case of the wood frame wall and massive timber wall, respectively. A sliding window approach was used to incorporate the dependence of the hygrothermal response on the past climatic conditions, which allowed SVR to capture time, implicitly. The variable selection was performed using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator, which revealed wind-driven rain, relative humidity, temperature, and direct radiation as the most contributing climate variables. The results show that SVR can be effectively used to forecast hygrothermal responses and moisture performance on a long climate data series for most of the cases studied. In some cases, discrepancies were observed due to the lack of capturing the full range of variability of climate variables during the first 5 years.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050188
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 189: Co-Housing to Ease and Share Household
           Chores' Spatial Visibility and Collective Deliberation as Levers for
           Gender Equality

    • Authors: Gérald Ledent, Chloé Salembier
      First page: 189
      Abstract: Dwelling is very much related to time. A home shields the dweller from outsiders yet, provides an opportunity to engage with the outside world. However, the time required for household chores tends to hinder this engagement, especially for women. Interestingly, co-housing projects tend to rationalise housing and mutualise time-consuming tasks, freeing up time to and thus emancipating and empowering inhabitants. This argument was put to the test in a field study in Brussels. Through a gendered perspective, the research questions and tries to identify which levers ease domestic drudgery in co-housing projects. Spatial analyses coupled with qualitative observations and interviews were carried out in two co-housing projects. The issue of freeing up time through co-housing seems particularly relevant to various categories of people. First, it addresses gender inequalities regarding an egalitarian sharing of household chores. Second, individual (divorced, elderly, or single) households could also benefit from these time savings. Understanding co-housing within this emancipating perspective could be a lever to influence future policy making and incentives.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050189
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 190: The Use of Crushed Cable Waste as a
           Substitute of Natural Aggregate in Cement Screed

    • Authors: Pavel Reiterman, Martin Lidmila
      First page: 190
      Abstract: This research is focused on the utilization of cable waste originating during the recycling of wires as a partial substitution of natural aggregate in cement screed. The main goal of the work performed was to find an optimal level of substitution in terms of freezing–thawing resistance, which is a significant aspect for such type of concrete mixtures. The studied artificial aggregate was gradually dosed in cement screed by 5% in a volume of up to 30% of substitution. The influence of the substitution was also evaluated in terms of compressive strength, flexural strength, bulk density determination, and the ultrasonic pulse method. Gradual substitution led to the reduction of the bulk density and studied mechanical properties due to the considerable air-entraining effect. The utilization of cable waste reduced the value of modulus of elasticity and modified deformation behavior of studied mixtures, which exhibited significant softening during the flexural test. Studied screed mixtures incorporating waste material exhibited slightly lower values of the coefficient of freeze-thaw resistance in comparison with the control mixture, however, the attained values comply with technical requirements.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050190
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 191: Constitutive Model of Uniaxial Compressive
           Behavior for Roller-Compacted Concrete Using Coal Bottom Ash Entirely as
           Fine Aggregate

    • Authors: Yu Li, Li Li, Vivek Bindiganavile
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Coal bottom ash (CBA) is one of the by-products that can be employed as fine aggregate to replace natural sand in concrete. Owing to the very low water demand, roller-compacted concrete (RCC) has the potential to use CBA as fine aggregate at a high proportion. However, little research about RCC using CBA entirely as fine aggregate has been conducted. In this study, the uniaxial compressive strength, deformation, stress–strain curves, and splitting tensile strength of CBA-containing RCC (CBA RCC) were studied to bridge this gap. The compressive strength, elasticity modulus, and splitting tensile strength of all mixtures decreased with increasing CBA content. The relationship between compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of CBA RCC was proposed, which is very close to that recommended by the CEB-FIP code. The uniaxial compressive constitutive model based on the continuum damage theory can well illustrate the stress–strain relationship of CBA RCC. The growth process of damage variable demonstrates the hybrid effect of coarse aggregate, cement, and compacting load on delaying damage under uniaxial compression. The theoretical formula can also accurately illustrate the stress–strain curves of RCC presented in the literature studies.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050191
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 192: Design Optimization of a Passive Building
           with Green Roof through Machine Learning and Group Intelligent Algorithm

    • Authors: Yaolin Lin, Luqi Zhao, Xiaohong Liu, Wei Yang, Xiaoli Hao, Lin Tian
      First page: 192
      Abstract: This paper proposed an optimization method to minimize the building energy consumption and visual discomfort for a passive building in Shanghai, China. A total of 35 design parameters relating to building form, envelope properties, thermostat settings, and green roof configurations were considered. First, the Latin hypercube sampling method (LHSM) was used to generate a set of design samples, and the energy consumption and visual discomfort of the samples were obtained through computer simulation and calculation. Second, four machine learning prediction models, including stepwise linear regression (SLR), back-propagation neural networks (BPNN), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) models, were developed. It was found that the BPNN model performed the best, with average absolute relative errors of 3.27% and 1.25% for energy consumption and visual comfort, respectively. Third, six optimization algorithms were selected to couple with the BPNN models to find the optimal design solutions. The multi-objective ant lion optimization (MOALO) algorithm was found to be the best algorithm. Finally, optimization with different groups of design variables was conducted by using the MOALO algorithm with the associated outcomes being analyzed. Compared with the reference building, the optimal solutions helped reduce energy consumption up to 34.8% and improved visual discomfort up to 100%.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050192
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 193: An Evaluation of Annual Luminous Exposure
           from Daylight in a Museum Room with a Translucent Ceiling

    • Authors: Marcin Brzezicki
      First page: 193
      Abstract: The current study investigates the issue of computer-aided daylight evaluation in a museum room with a dropped translucent ceiling. In this type of room, daylight is admitted through classic windows located in the facade and then distributed in the plenum, which is located above the exhibition space and transmitted through the translucent ceiling into the museum room. This illumination method enables guiding daylight deep into the room, excluding the impact of direct solar radiation. The presented study is based on data obtained through computer-aided daylight simulation by DeLuminæ (DL-Light, ver. 11.0.9) software using the Radiance software for all calculations and real weather data for Wroclaw, Poland. A museum room of 12 × 12 m with three different heights of the plenums was simulated to establish an optimal relation of the width to height plenum ratio. Next, the annual exposure in K lx·h/year was calculated, as sensitive works of art may be subjected to damage caused by light exposure. To further reduce illumination, the simulation of an automatic shading system in the form of horizontal louvers was performed. The system was activated when certain illumination values were detected by the sensor on the building’s roof.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050193
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 194: Deep Learning Optimal Control for a Complex
           Hybrid Energy Storage System

    • Authors: Gabriel Zsembinszki, Cèsar Fernández, David Vérez, Luisa F. Cabeza
      First page: 194
      Abstract: Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) proved to be successful for solving complex control problems and has become a hot topic in the field of energy systems control, but for the particular case of thermal energy storage (TES) systems, only a few studies have been reported, all of them with a complexity degree of the TES system far below the one of this study. In this paper, we step forward through a DRL architecture able to deal with the complexity of an innovative hybrid energy storage system, devising appropriate high-level control operations (or policies) over its subsystems that result optimal from an energy or monetary point of view. The results show that a DRL policy in the system control can reduce the system operating costs by more than 50%, as compared to a rule-based control (RBC) policy, for cooling supply to a reference residential building in Mediterranean climate during a period of 18 days. Moreover, a robustness analysis was carried out, which showed that, even for large errors in the parameters of the system simulation models corresponding to an error multiplying factors up to 2, the average cost obtained with the original model deviates from the optimum value by less than 3%, demonstrating the robustness of the solution over a wide range of model errors.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050194
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 195: Inelastic Dynamic Eccentricities in
           Pushover Analysis Procedure of Multi-Story RC Buildings

    • Authors: Bakalis, Makarios, Athanatopoulou
      First page: 195
      Abstract: A documented pushover procedure on asymmetric, single-story, reinforced concrete (RC) buildings using inelastic dynamic eccentricities is extending in this paper on asymmetric multi-story RC buildings, aiming at the Near Collapse state. The floor lateral static forces of the pushover procedure are applied eccentric to the Mass Centers using appropriate inelastic dynamic or design eccentricities (dynamic plus accidental ones) to safely estimate the ductility demands of both the flexible and stiff sides of the building due to the coupled torsional/translational response. All eccentricities are applied with respect to the “Capable Near Collapse Principal System” of multi-story buildings, which is defined appropriately using the well-known methodology of the torsional optimum axis. Moreover, two patterns of lateral forces are used for performing the analysis, where in the second one an additional top-force is applied to consider the higher-mode effects. A six-story, asymmetric, torsionally-sensitive RC building is examined to verify the proposed pushover procedure relative to the results of non-linear dynamic analysis. The outcomes indicate that the proposed pushover procedure can safely predict the seismic ductility demands at the flexible and stiff sides, providing reliable estimates for the peak inter-story drift-ratios throughout the building as well as a good prediction of the plastic mechanism.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050195
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 196: Toward BIM and LPS Data Integration for
           Lean Site Project Management: A State-of-the-Art Review and

    • Authors: Maroua Sbiti, Karim Beddiar, Djaoued Beladjine, Romuald Perrault, Bélahcène Mazari
      First page: 196
      Abstract: Over recent years, the independent adoption of lean construction and building information modeling (BIM) has shown improvements in construction industry efficiency. Because these approaches have overlapping concepts, it is thought that their synergistic adoption can bring many more benefits. Today, implementing the lean–BIM theoretical framework is still challenging for many companies. This paper conducts a comprehensive review with the intent to identify prevailing interconnected lean and BIM areas. To this end, 77 papers published in AEC journals and conferences over the last decade were reviewed. The proposed weighting matrix showed the most promising interactions, namely those related to 4D BIM-based visualization of construction schedules produced and updated by last planners. The authors also show evidence of the lack of a sufficiently integrated BIM–Last Planner System® framework and technologies. Thus, we propose a new theoretical framework considering all BIM and LPS interactions. In our model, we suggest automating the generation of phase schedule using joint BIM data and a work breakdown structure database. Thereafter, the lookahead planning and weekly work plan is supported by a field application that must be able to exchange data with the enterprise resource planning system, document management systems, and report progress to the BIM model.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050196
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 197: Study on the Corroded Hollow Section RC
           Columns Strengthened by ICCP-SS System

    • Authors: Chen Ju, Wang Jun, Ji-Hua Zhu, Feng Yuan, Cheng-Bin Liu
      First page: 197
      Abstract: In this paper, the behavior of corroded hollow section RC (reinforced concrete) columns strengthened by an Impressed Current Cathodic Protection and Structural Strengthening (ICCP-SS) system was investigated. The Carbon Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (C-FRCM) composite serves dual functions in the intervention method. The axial compression behavior of strengthened columns was firstly investigated through axial compression tests. The influence of corrosion ratio and C-FRCM strengthening on the test results, such as failure mode, load–displacement curve, ultimate load, and ultimate strain, were analyzed. Test results showed that the ultimate load of the corroded specimens could be enhanced significantly by C-FRCM, and the ductility of the strengthened specimens was larger than the specimens without strengthening, especially for the specimens with higher corrosion ratios. Secondly, the effects of the ICCP-SS system on the migration and distribution laws of chloride ions (Cl−) in hollow section RC columns were analyzed by the potentiometric titration method. The main parameters include charging time, current density, and salt addition. Results showed that the rebar would have a certain blocking effect on the migration of Cl−, which resulted in that the content of Cl− in the inner side of the rebar was always larger than that of the outer side; and research results also showed that the increase of impressed current density and charge time would reduce the Cl− content on both sides of the rebar, while the impressed current would cause the Cl− near the rebars to constantly move toward the vicinity of CFRP.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050197
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 198: Implications of ‘Lock-in’ on Public
           Sector Project Management in a Small Island Development State

    • Authors: Aaron Anil Chadee, Xsitaaz Twinkle Chadee, Abrahams Mwasha, Hector Hugh Martin
      First page: 198
      Abstract: The concept of ‘Lock-In’, or the escalating cost of overcommitment on a project to a failing course of action, has unforeseeable implications in project management. This paper presents a case study on the occurrence and consequences of lock-in within the context of public sector housing projects in a small island developing state (SIDS). It demonstrates that cost overruns continue beyond the commissioning phase and throughout the project’s lifecycle, even though technical contingencies were implemented to deliver the intended project benefits. The findings unpack the implications of political expediency as a strategic tool mobilised to supersede proper technical decision-making prior to project execution. It concludes that project practitioners’ commitment to select and continue with a sub-optimal project can lead to the implementation of ineffective solutions to justify their actions, resulting in failed outcomes with negative social consequences. This research helps to advance project management knowledge in the us-er/operation phase, because previous scholarly work was limited to investigating lock-in from project conceptualisation to the commissioning phase.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050198
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 199: Determining Critical Success Factors for
           Public–Private Partnership Asset-Backed Securitization: A Structural
           Equation Modeling Approach

    • Authors: Li Liu, Yubo Guo, Chuan Chen, Igor Martek
      First page: 199
      Abstract: Public–private partnership (PPP) has been widely applied in China and many developing countries in the recent decade. As new PPP projects gradually enter the operational phase, the issue of refinancing becomes increasingly important. PPP–ABS plays an indispensable role in PPP project refinancing. The factors that promote the success of the emerging PPP–ABS in the China financial market need to be determined. To accomplish two objectives, namely, to identify critical success factors (CSFs) and to explore the relationship between these factors and the success of the PPP asset-backed securitization (PPP–ABS) of this research, methods such as a questionnaire survey and structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted successively. Four success factors, including underlying asset quality (UAQ), original equity holder credit (OEHC), rationality of security design (RoSD) and maturity of relative institutions (MoRI), were identified in this study. Consequently, nineteen theoretical hypotheses were developed and tested. It is shown in the SEM approach that UAQ and OEHC positively influence the success of PPP–ABS, alongside issuance characteristics (IC) that mediate the relationship between the success of PPP–ABS and UAQ, RoSD and MoRI, respectively. This finding increased knowledge of PPP–ABS and how investors and government can benefit from it.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050199
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 200: Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of
           Portuguese Adobe Buildings

    • Authors: Samar Momin, Holger Lovon, Vitor Silva, Tiago Miguel Ferreira, Romeu Vicente
      First page: 200
      Abstract: Adobe construction represents 5.3% of the total Portuguese building stock according to the latest National Housing Census. The distribution of these adobe buildings is scattered across the country, with higher density in the central region and in Algarve in the south, where the seismic hazard is highest. A large proportion of these buildings are still in use for residential and commercial purposes and are of historical significance, contributing to the cultural heritage of the country. Adobe buildings are known to exhibit low seismic resistance due to their brittle behavior, thus making them vulnerable to ground shaking and more prone to structural damage that can potentially cause human fatalities. Three buildings with one-story, two-stories, and two-stories plus an attic were numerically modeled using solid and contact elements. Calibration and validation of material properties were carried out following experimental results. A set of 30 ground motion records with bi-directional components were selected, and non-linear time-history analyses were performed until complete collapse occurred. Two novel engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were used, and damage thresholds were proposed. Finally, fragility and fatality vulnerability functions were derived. These functions can be used directly in seismic risk assessment studies.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050200
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 201: Towards Smart Campus Management: Defining
           Information Requirements for Decision Making through Dashboard Design

    • Authors: Bart Valks, Monique Arkesteijn, Alexander Koutamanis, Alexandra Den Heijer
      First page: 201
      Abstract: At universities worldwide, the notion of a ‘smart campus’ is becoming increasingly appealing as a response to the multitude of challenges that impact campus development and operation. Smart campus tools are widely used to support students and employees, optimise space use and save energy. Although smart campus tools are supposed to support campus managers in their decision-making processes, the use of the information delivered by smart campus tools and their application in organisational processes has received little attention. In this paper, we focus on the use of dashboards in the connection of IoT information to strategic decision-making processes in the management of university campuses. To this end, we developed a briefing approach for dashboards that expresses the needs of campus management and matches the structure of decision-making processes. In two cases, dashboards based on this approach were use-tested by stakeholders for defining information requirements for IoT applications. The results suggest that users are able to use dashboards for assessing portfolio performance and determining interventions. Through iteration the usability of the dashboard is improved and information requirements are refined, resulting in a brief for a campus management dashboard. The results suggest that the briefing approach can be used to determine IoT information requirements, though further research is required to study indications and contra-indications of the proposed method.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050201
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 202: A Framework for Developing Green Building
           Rating Tools Based on Pakistan’s Local Context

    • Authors: Muhammad Afrasiab Khan, Cynthia Changxin Wang, Chyi Lin Lee
      First page: 202
      Abstract: Most countries have developed green building rating tools that are based on social, environmental, and economic dimensions. Pakistan followed a similar approach and has developed a rating tool known as Sustainability in Energy and Environmental Development (SEED). However, SEED is built on developed western countries’ rating tool standards which do not address Pakistan’s unique local context, especially from the cultural and governmental perspectives. This research aims to fill this research gap by developing a holistic framework of building rating tools that incorporates cultural and governmental dimensions. Based on an extensive literature review, a hypothetical framework, incorporating Pakistan’s unique local contexts and adding cultural and governmental dimensions to the widely adopted social, environmental, and economic dimensions of sustainability, was proposed in this paper. This framework was further validated by in-depth interviews with multiple stakeholders in Pakistan. A qualitative analysis of the interview results was carried out, and the final framework was proposed with key indicators, reflecting all five dimensions of sustainability. The verified sustainability framework can be used to improve or develop green building rating tools for Pakistan, and it can also inform other developing countries’ rating tool development.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050202
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 203: Design of Robot-Inclusive Vertical Green

    • Authors: Matthew S. K. Yeo, S. M. Bhagya P. Samarakoon, Qi Boon Ng, M. A. Viraj J. Muthugala, Mohan Rajesh Elara
      First page: 203
      Abstract: Vertical gardens have emerged alongside the increase in urban density and land scarcity to reintegrate greenery in the built environment. Existing maintenance for vertical gardens is labour-intensive, time-consuming and is being increasingly complemented by robotic applications. While research has been focused on enhancing robot design to improve productivity, minimal effort has been done on ‘design for robots’ in creating suitable environments for optimal robot deployments. This paper proposed a multi-disciplinary approach that brings together architects, designers, and roboticians to adapt the design of the vertical garden infrastructure to counteract the limitations of the maintenance robot. A case study on an existing plant maintenance robot ‘Urodela’ was conducted to determine the limitations encountered by robotic aid during operation. A robot-inclusive modular design for vertical gardens is proposed based on robot-inclusive principles, namely manipulability and safety, along with architectural design considerations. Design explorations for different configurations of track layouts of the proposed robot-inclusive modular design for vertical gardens is further analysed to validate its applicability and scalability.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11050203
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 135: Intelligence-Based Design Illustrated with
           Examples of ACROS Fukuoka, KKL Luzern and MICA Changsha Buildings—A
           Multicriterial Case Study

    • Authors: Beata Majerska-Pałubicka, Elżbieta Latusek
      First page: 135
      Abstract: The article concerns the issue of intelligence-based design, which, during the design process undertaken by architects, signifies (according to the authors of the article) thinking about perceptual involvement in the built environment, designing together with people and for people and not forgetting about conveniences brought by technological progress. The way to smart cities, in respect of architectural solutions, leads (to a significant extent) through the smart design of multifunctional buildings based on the idea of sustainable development. The article-related research involved multiple case studies including three buildings, i.e., Asian Cross Road Over the Sea (ACROS) in Fukuoka, Kultur- und Kongresszentrum Luzern (KKL) in Luzern and Changsha Meixihu International Contemporary Art Museum (MICA) in Changsha. The above-named buildings, located in different countries, i.e., Japan, Switzerland and China, respectively, and erected within various time spans, i.e., the 1990s–2020, are characterized by primary common features—multifunctionality, large cubature and comparable program elements. The research presented in this article aimed to find and present the elements of intelligence-based design in the buildings and perform their comparative analysis taking into consideration the fact that the buildings were erected within the span of 30 years. The article presents a graphic comparative analysis of the intelligence-based design, a multicriterial case study (encompassing the concept, functional and spatial solutions and structure) of selected architectural objects. The article includes also a graphic comparative analysis of the very objects and concert halls: Fukuoka Symphony Hall (ACROS), Salle Blanche (KKL) and Hunan Grand Theatre (MICA).
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040135
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 136: A Photogrammetric Technique for Developing
           Boundary Equations for Flexible Sheath Waterless Trap Seals as Used in
           Building Drainage Systems

    • Authors: Nicole Jean, Michael Gormley
      First page: 136
      Abstract: The water trap seal is still the main method of protecting building inhabitants from the ingress of foul contaminated air and noxious gases from the sewer. This seal can become compromised when water is lost in the trap by processes including evaporation and siphonage from excessive system suction pressures. A recent innovation is the waterless trap seal, which uses flexible sheaths, typically made from silicone rubber to form the seal. The sheath opens in response to a sub-atmospheric air pressure and will shut tightly under a supra-atmospheric pressure in order to form a seal. Full system numerical modelling of building drainage systems has offered insight into system responses to pressure transients and has opened up the evaluation of building wastewater systems to predictive modelling which has assisted in producing improvements to public health. A requirement of any predictive model is a mathematical representation of the physical characteristics of the system. This research develops a technique for developing boundary equations so that predictive modelling is possible. We combine photographic and pressure data analysed by Fourier analysis to develop the model. The technique is applicable to any device were the fluid structure interaction plays a significant role in its operation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040136
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 137: The Building as a Home: Housing
           Cooperatives in Barcelona

    • Authors: Raül Avilla-Royo, Sam Jacoby, Ibon Bilbao
      First page: 137
      Abstract: The recent growth of cooperative housing in Spain questions existing design standards and regulations as well as cultural norms of ownership, management and current housing typologies. This paper analyzes the design opportunities and challenges emerging from this. It studies the transformative capacity of housing cooperatives and how the realization of new social, spatial and economic demands is restricted by regulatory and administrative frameworks that limit collective ownership and use. Based on a case study analysis of recent projects in Barcelona, the paper discusses how regulations condition housing design, but also why changing ideas of ownership, household and dwelling structures require a review of how regulations are formulated and implemented. It examines this in the context of designing with housing cooperatives and their ethos defined by engagement in and responsibility for all decision-making processes and self-management. In cooperative housing, architecture is a process, not a product, one that extends beyond the completion of a building. This gives credibility to the claim of cooperative housing not just as a grassroots response to housing failures, but also as a political project of democratization and social transformation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040137
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 138: Impact of Environmental Exposure Conditions
           on the Maintenance of Facades’ Claddings

    • Authors: Cláudia Ferreira, Joana Barrelas, Ana Silva, Jorge de Brito, Ilídio S. Dias, Inês Flores-Colen
      First page: 138
      Abstract: Façades, as the most external building envelope component, are subject to different ex-ternal environmental loads, such as: Temperature, precipitation, damp, and wind. Therefore, the contribution of environmental actions to the occurrence of defects in façades claddings is an important subject of study since these actions strongly affect the degradation process and natural ageing of these components during their service life. In this study, a methodology to support decision-makers in the process of selecting a façade cladding system and the maintenance strategy to implement is presented and discussed. This methodology covers the performance of four façade claddings (ceramic tiling systems (CTS), natural stone claddings (NSC), external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS), and architectural concrete façades (ACF)) over time, according to three environmental exposure variables (exposure to damp, distance from the sea, and orientation). The databases were established based on the diagnosis of the degradation condition of these claddings in-service conditions, in Portugal. The results reveal that the environmental exposure variables have a significant impact on maintenance requirements and costs. For all the categories of the environmental exposure condition variables, under all scenarios, ETICS is the least favorable constructive solution while CTS is the most advantageous solution. Furthermore, the results show that properly implemented maintenance activities enhance the performance level of building components, which positively affects their degradation behavior over time.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040138
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 139: Critical Success Factors for Safety
           Training in the Construction Industry

    • Authors: Algan Tezel, Esra Dobrucali, Sevilay Demirkesen, Isik Ates Kiral
      First page: 139
      Abstract: Construction is a hazardous industry. The project-based nature and fragmentation in the industry lead to change and uncertainty requiring special expertise. To handle those, construction firms must develop strategies and action plans along with the experience gained from lessons learned. Among the risks, safety risks are of critical importance leading to accidents. Hence, firms need to strengthen their safety programs, review their strategies for safety management, and develop effective safety training sessions to protect their workers. This study focuses on the success factors promoting safety performance. In this respect, a questionnaire was designed and administered to the Engineering News-Record (ENR) 2020 Top 400 Contractors. The questionnaire data was utilized in conducting a factor analysis to group and name the factors considering the total variance. The analysis of the factors resulted in six-factor groups; namely, project and firm-related factors, demographic factors, practical factors, motivational factors, organizational factors, and human-related factors. Project and firm-related factors were found to be the most essential factor group in terms of promoting the effectiveness of safety training. The results of this study are expected to guide industry practitioners in terms of reviewing and revising their safety training programs.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040139
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 140: Institutional Pressures and Megaproject
           Social Responsibility Behavior: A Conditional Process Model

    • Authors: Linlin Xie, Tianhao Ju, Bo Xia
      First page: 140
      Abstract: Megaproject social responsibility (MSR) is a critical factor regarding the sustainable delivery of megaprojects and MSR behavior to implement MSR. However, the questions of which factors effectively promote MSR behavior and how these factors work remain underexamined. Thus, this study aims to examine how the external institutional pressure and internal factors composed of relational behavior and pure altruistic values affect MSR behavior. On the basis of a conditional process analysis conducted on a set of survey data from various organizations involved in megaprojects in China, the results revealed that the higher the degree of mimetic pressure, the higher the degree of MSR behavior. Concurrently, relational behavior mediates the relationship between normative pressures and MSR behavior. Relational behavior also drives MSR behavior, and pure altruistic values moderate the relationships between institutional pressures and MSR behavior. These findings also provide practical suggestions for policymakers on the implementation and governance of MSR.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040140
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 141: Energy Performances Assessment of Extruded
           and 3D Printed Polymers Integrated into Building Envelopes for a South
           Italian Case Study

    • Authors: Giovanni Ciampi, Yorgos Spanodimitriou, Michelangelo Scorpio, Antonio Rosato, Sergio Sibilio
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Plastic materials are increasingly becoming used in the building envelope, despite a lack of investigation on their effects. In this work, an extruded Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene panel has been tested as a second-skin layer in a ventilated facade system using a full-scale facility. The experimental results show that it is possible to achieve performances very similar to conventional materials. A numerical model has then been developed and used to investigate the performances of plastic and composite polymer panels as second-skin layers. The experimental data has been used to verify the behavior of the numerical model, from a thermal point of view, showing good reliability, with a root mean square error lower than 0.40 °C. This model has then been applied in different refurbishment cases upon varying: the polymer and the manufacturing technology (extruded or 3D-printed panels). Eight refurbishment case studies have been carried out on a typical office building located in Napoli (Italy), by means of a dynamic simulation software. The simulation results show that the proposed actions allow the reduction of the thermal and cooling energy demand (up to 6.9% and 3.1%, respectively), as well as the non-renewable primary energy consumption (up to 2.6%), in comparison to the reference case study.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040141
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 142: A Simplified Approach for the Seismic Loss
           Assessment of RC Buildings at Urban Scale: The Case Study of Potenza

    • Authors: Amedeo Flora, Donatello Cardone, Marco Vona, Giuseppe Perrone
      First page: 142
      Abstract: Comprehensive methodologies based on a fully probabilistic approach (i.e., the performance-based earthquake engineering approach, PBEE), represent a refined and accurate tool for the seismic performance assessment of structures. However, those procedures are suitable for building-specific evaluations, appearing extremely time-consuming if applied at the urban scale. In the proposed contribution, simplified loss assessment procedure will be applied at the urban scale with reference to the residential building stock of the center of Potenza. After the identification of the main reinforced concrete (RC) structural typologies and the definition of specific archetype building numerical models, the direct estimation of expected annual loss (DEAL) methodology will be applied to derive the EAL (i.e., expected annual loss) of RC buildings, deriving information on the effectively seismic quality (or seismic resilience) of the aforementioned built heritage at urban scale. Similarly, the monetary losses associated with downtime are evaluated. Preliminary considerations on the socio-economic effects of seismic scenarios on the territorial scale are also proposed.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040142
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 143: Bidirectional Seismic Energy Input to an
           Isotropic Nonlinear One-Mass Two-Degree-of-Freedom System

    • Authors: Kenji Fujii
      First page: 143
      Abstract: The test results obtained for reinforced concrete columns by several studies have revealed that the peak displacement and cumulative hysteresis energy are important parameters for evaluating the damage of columns under horizontal bidirectional and unidirectional loading. Therefore, the seismic parameters related to the nonlinear peak displacement and cumulative hysteresis energy with regard to horizontal bidirectional seismic input should be investigated. In this study, the bidirectional seismic input to an isotropic nonlinear one-mass two-degree-of-freedom system was evaluated. First, a dimensionless parameter γ, which controls the low-cycle fatigue effect, was formulated as a function of two energy input parameters (the maximum momentary input energy and total input energy) and a nonlinear system (ductility and normalized hysteresis energy absorption during a half cycle). Then, the maximum momentary input energy and total input energy were evaluated according to the ground motion characteristics (Fourier coefficient of horizontal ground motion components) and system properties. Finally, the nonlinear peak displacement and parameter γ of the nonlinear system were evaluated on the basis of the maximum momentary input energy and total input energy. The results revealed that the nonlinear peak displacement and parameter γ can be properly evaluated using two energy parameters.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040143
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 144: Organisational Justice Analysis of Facility
           Managers’ Responses to User’s Post-Occupancy Feedback

    • Authors: Abiodun Olatunji Abisuga, Cynthia Changxin Wang, Riza Yosia Sunindijo
      First page: 144
      Abstract: There has been growing interest in how to foster collaborative relationships between facility managers and end-users to obtain user-centred post-occupancy data for improving design and user satisfaction. Despite this attempt, there is little understanding on how facility managers respond to user feedback and its impact on user post-feedback behaviours. Drawing from theoretical insights from organisational justice, organisational response, and service quality studies and using a case study of higher education facilities in Australia, how facility managers manage user feedback to drive collaboration between facility managers and users during occupancy is explored. Various methods were used in this case study research, including document analysis, interviews, and observations. The research findings indicate that facilitation, timeliness, redress, apology and explanation, and attentiveness and efforts are applicable to facilities management (FM) services and could influence user post-feedback behaviour. Current responses to user feedback are not satisfactory, resulting in a poor relationship between facility managers and users that negates service acceptance and the engagement in a positive word-of-mouth. To foster more facility manager–user collaborative relationships in post-occupancy evaluation, and position FM as a service organisation, there is a need for improvements in current FM responses to user feedback and the effective management of user post-feedback behaviours.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040144
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 145: Improving Post-Disaster Housing
           Reconstruction Outcomes in the Global South: A Framework for Achieving

    • Authors: Troy Capell, Iftekhar Ahmed
      First page: 145
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to examine the community consultation practices carried out by implementing agencies when managing post-disaster housing reconstruction (PDHR) projects, identify the obstacles they face, and evaluate the effect these obstacles have on the quality of information obtained in relation to achieving a high level of beneficiary satisfaction. The aim was to develop a framework for community consultation in PDHR, which ensures that the needs of beneficiaries are more accurately reflected in the housing produced. A qualitative research methodology was adopted with data first being obtained through a literature review of relevant publications and implementing agency reports as a means of establishing common themes among community consultation practices and identifying indicators that influence beneficiary satisfaction. This was followed by a case study analysis to further an understanding of how these indicators were affected by the community consultation practices undertaken in a real-world context. The results of the research indicate that community consultation often forms a central role in the planning and delivery of PDHR projects, however, despite the implementing agencies’ best intentions, there are often obstacles that prevent the process from achieving the desired result. The community consultation framework proposed here has been developed to address the identified obstacles with the aim of ensuring that beneficiary requirements are included in housing design as a means of improving the level of beneficiary satisfaction in the housing provided.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040145
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 146: What Is the Knowledge of Evacuation
           Procedures in Road Tunnels' Survey Results of Users in Poland

    • Authors: Natalia Schmidt-Polończyk, Jarosław Wąs, Jakub Porzycki
      First page: 146
      Abstract: This paper presents a preliminary assessment of road tunnel safety issues among respondents—specifically, real and potential users of road tunnels. We recruited a group of respondents to study their knowledge of evacuation procedures and awareness of safety issues in road tunnels. We conducted surveys with 504 participants, 12.7% of whom had previously participated in real-scale evacuation experiments in a road tunnel. Analysis of respondents’ answers reveals that their knowledge of safety procedures is unfortunately not sufficient. On average, the respondents selected the most recommended answer for approximately 5.35 out of 15 questions. Only 16% of respondents correctly answered more than 50% of the survey questions; moreover, no respondent provided the correct answers for 12 or more questions. Interestingly, most respondents were convinced that they had a better knowledge of road tunnel safety issues than was actually the case. The results of the survey demonstrate a significant educational role of evacuation exercises. Individuals who have participated in an evacuation have better knowledge, allowing them to apply the correct rules of road tunnel safety procedures. Various aspects addressed in this paper can be taken into consideration in an information campaign regarding safety in road tunnels during a fire.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040146
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 147: Overview on the Nonlinear Static Procedures
           and Performance-Based Approach on Modern Unreinforced Masonry Buildings
           with Structural Irregularity

    • Authors: Abide Aşıkoğlu, Graça Vasconcelos, Paulo B. Lourenço
      First page: 147
      Abstract: Performance-based design plays a significant role in the structural and earthquake engineering community to ensure both safety and economic feasibility. Its application to masonry building design/assessment is limited and requires straightforward rules considering the characteristics of masonry behavior. Nonlinear static procedures mainly cover regular frame system structures, and their application to both regular and irregular masonry buildings require further investigation. The present paper addresses two major issues: (i) the definition of irregularity in masonry buildings, and (ii) the applicability of classical nonlinear static procedures to irregular masonry buildings. It is observed that the irregularity definition is not comprehensive and has different descriptions among the seismic codes as well as among researchers, particularly in the case of masonry buildings. The lack of global language may result in the misuse of the procedures, while adjustments may be essential due to irregularity effects. Therefore, irregularity indices given by different codes and research studies are discussed. Furthermore, an overview of nonlinear static procedures implemented within the framework of the performance-based approach and improvements proposed for its application in masonry buildings is presented.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040147
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 148: Application of Virtual Environments for
           Biophilic Design: A Critical Review

    • Authors: Maryam Mollazadeh, Yimin Zhu
      First page: 148
      Abstract: Biophilic design as a new design approach promotes the integration of natural elements into the built environment, leading to a significant impact on human health, well-being, and productivity. On the other hand, scholars have explored Virtual Environment (VE) to create virtual nature and provide a complex experience of exposure to natural elements virtually. However, there is a lack of understanding about such studies in general, which use VE as a reliable tool to support biophilic design. Thus, the authors conducted a literature review on the applications, capabilities, and limitations of VE for biophilic design. The literature review shows that VE is capable of supporting critical features of biophilic design studies such as representing combinations of biophilic patterns, providing multimodal sensory inputs, simulating stress induction tasks, supporting required exposure time to observe biophilic patterns, and measuring human’s biological responses to natural environment. However, factors affecting user’s experience of a virtual biophilic environment exist, such as VE experience dimensions, user-related factors, cybersickness, navigational issues, and possible limitations of VE sensory input. Overall, biophilic design studies in VEs are still limited. Nevertheless, there are many opportunities for further research in this field.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040148
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 149: Stakeholder-Associated Factors Influencing
           Construction and Demolition Waste Management: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Xianbo Zhao
      First page: 149
      Abstract: Construction and demolition (C&D) activities generate a large amount of waste and have significant impacts on the environment. Thus, it is necessary to implement C&D waste management (WM), which requires the involvement of stakeholders and is influenced by a variety of factors. This study aims to undertake a systematic review of the stakeholder-associated factors influencing C&D WM. The Scopus search engine was used in a literature search, and two rounds of screening were performed. Only journal articles or reviews that were published in English after 2000 were used in this study. A total of 106 journal articles were reviewed. The review identified 35 stakeholder-associated factors influencing C&D WM and categorized them into six groups: regulatory environment, government and public supervision, advances in technologies, recycling market, knowledge, awareness, attitude, and behaviour of stakeholders, and project-specific factors. All the 35 factors are discussed in detail with considerations into relevant stakeholders. Although there have been studies focused on the factors influencing C&D WM, few have attempted to take stakeholders’ perspectives into consideration. This study expands the C&D WM literature by mapping the influential factors with relevant stakeholders and enables the practitioners to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and make better informed decisions in the C&D WM process.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040149
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 150: Change Detection in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
           Images for Progress Monitoring of Road Construction

    • Authors: Dongyeob Han, Suk Bae Lee, Mihwa Song, Jun Sang Cho
      First page: 150
      Abstract: Currently, unmanned aerial vehicles are increasingly being used in various construction projects such as housing developments, road construction, and bridge maintenance. If a drone is used at a road construction site, elevation information and orthoimages can be generated to acquire the construction status quantitatively. However, the detection of detailed changes in the site owing to construction depends on visual video interpretation. This study develops a method for automatic detection of the construction area using multitemporal images and a deep learning method. First, a deep learning model was trained using images of the changing area as reference. Second, we obtained an effective application method by applying various parameters to the deep learning process. The application of the time-series images of a construction site to the selected deep learning model enabled more effective identification of the changed areas than the existing pixel-based change detection. The proposed method is expected to be very helpful in construction management by aiding in the development of smart construction technology.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040150
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 151: Differentiating Digital Twin from Digital
           Shadow: Elucidating a Paradigm Shift to Expedite a Smart, Sustainable
           Built Environment

    • Authors: Samad M. E. Sepasgozar
      First page: 151
      Abstract: Construction projects and cities account for over 50% of carbon emissions and energy consumption. Industry 4.0 and digital transformation may increase productivity and reduce energy consumption. A digital twin (DT) is a key enabler in implementing Industry 4.0 in the areas of construction and smart cities. It is an emerging technology that connects different objects by utilising the advanced Internet of Things (IoT). As a technology, it is in high demand in various industries, and its literature is growing exponentially. Previous digital modeling practices, the use of data acquisition tools, human–computer–machine interfaces, programmable cities, and infrastructure, as well as Building Information Modeling (BIM), have provided digital data for construction, monitoring, or controlling physical objects. However, a DT is supposed to offer much more than digital representation. Characteristics such as bi-directional data exchange and real-time self-management (e.g., self-awareness or self-optimisation) distinguish a DT from other information modeling systems. The need to develop and implement DT is rising because it could be a core technology in many industrial sectors post-COVID-19. This paper aims to clarify the DT concept and differentiate it from other advanced 3D modeling technologies, digital shadows, and information systems. It also intends to review the state of play in DT development and offer research directions for future investigation. It recommends the development of DT applications that offer rapid and accurate data analysis platforms for real-time decisions, self-operation, and remote supervision requirements post-COVID-19. The discussion in this paper mainly focuses on the Smart City, Engineering and Construction (SCEC) sectors.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040151
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 152: Indoor Airflow Distribution in Repository
           Design: Experimental and Numerical Microclimate Analysis of an Archive

    • Authors: Karin Kompatscher, Rick P. Kramer, Bart Ankersmit, Henk L. Schellen
      First page: 152
      Abstract: The majority of cultural heritage is stored in archives, libraries and museum storage spaces. To reduce degradation risks, many archives adopt the use of archival boxes, among other means, to provide the necessary climate control and comply with strict legislation requirements regarding temperature and relative air humidity. A strict ambient indoor climate is assumed to provide adequate environmental conditions near objects. Guidelines and legislation provide requirements for ambient indoor climate parameters, but often do not consider other factors that influence the near-object environment, such as the use of archival boxes, airflow distribution and archival rack placement. This study aimed to provide more insight into the relation between the ambient indoor conditions in repositories and the hygrothermal conditions surrounding the collection. Comprehensive measurements were performed in a case study archive to collect ambient, local and near-object conditions. Both measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling were used to research temperature/relative humidity gradients and airflow distribution with a changing rack orientation, climate control strategy and supply as well as exhaust set-up in a repository. The following conclusions are presented: (i) supplying air from one air handling unit to multiple repositories on different floors leads to small temperature differences between them. Differences in ambient and local climates are noticed; (ii) archival boxes mute and delay variations in ambient conditions as expected—however, thermal radiation from the building envelope may have a large influence on the climate conditions in a box; (iii) adopting night reduction for energy conservation results in an increased influence of the external climate, with adequate insulation, this effect should be mitigated; and (iv) the specific locations of the supply air and extraction of air resulted in a vertical gradient of temperature and insufficient mixing of air, and adequate ventilation strategies should enhance sufficient air mixing in combination with the insulation of external walls, and gradient forming should be reduced.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040152
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 153: Urban Quality Assessment of Public Housing
           Estates in Murcia, Spain (Vistabella 1940–1950s, La Paz 1960s, La Fama
           1970s). Threats or Opportunities for the Medium-Sized Contemporary

    • Authors: Antonio Jesús Martínez-Espinosa, Patricia Reus, Manuel Alejandro Ródenas-López
      First page: 153
      Abstract: The public housing built under the Franco regime in Spain (1939–1975) brought about the largest urban growth in the country’s recent history. It shares similar characteristics with other public housing built in Europe during the 20th century, and today it houses a predominantly multicultural and socioeconomically precarious population. This study analyses and evaluates three estates that make up a new urban axis in the city of Murcia. The objective is to evaluate the benefits and shortcomings of these developments in order to establish rehabilitation plans, which will seek to improve the lives of their inhabitants and enhance their experience of the urban area from environmental, functional and interactive perspectives. The methodology used for this study is based on the application of three systems of indicators in order to obtain a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of each neighborhood. The quantitative analysis evaluates the urban area in terms of environmental sustainability, while the two qualitative systems explore the neighborhoods’ functionality and ability to instil a sense of attachment, and therefore responsibility, among their inhabitants. In its conclusions, the article provides concrete lines of action for updating and regenerating these residential areas that form a significant part of the city of Murcia.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040153
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 154: Calibrated Numerical Approach for the
           Dynamic Analysis of Glass Curtain Walls under Spheroconical Bag Impact

    • Authors: Alessia Bez, Chiara Bedon, Giampiero Manara, Claudio Amadio, Guido Lori
      First page: 154
      Abstract: The structural design of glass curtain walls and facades is a challenging issue, considering that building envelopes can be subjected extreme design loads. Among others, the soft body impact (SBI) test protocol represents a key design step to protect the occupants. While in Europe the standardized protocol based on the pneumatic twin-tire (TT) impactor can be nowadays supported by Finite Element (FE) numerical simulations, cost-time consuming experimental procedures with the spheroconical bag (SB) impactor are still required for facade producers and manufacturers by several technical committees, for the impact assessment of novel systems. At the same time, validated numerical calibrations for SB are still missing in support of designers and manufacturers. In this paper, an enhanced numerical approach is proposed for curtain walls under SB, based on a coupled methodology inclusive of a computationally efficient two Degree of Freedom (2-DOF) and a more geometrically accurate Finite Element (FE) model. As shown, the SB impactor is characterized by stiffness and dissipation properties that hardly match with ideal rigid elastic assumptions, nor with the TT features. Based on a reliable set of experimental investigations and records, the proposed methodology acts on the time history of the imposed load, which is implicitly calibrated to account for the SB impactor features, once the facade features (flexibility and damping parameters) are known. The resulting calibration of the 2-DOF modelling parameters for the derivation of time histories of impact force is achieved with the support of experimental measurements and FE model of the examined facade. The potential and accuracy of the method is emphasized by the collected experimental and numerical comparisons. Successively, the same numerical approach is used to derive a series of iso-damage curves that could support practical design calculations.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040154
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 155: Towards a New Analytical Creep Model for
           Cement-Based Concrete Using Design Standards Approach

    • Authors: Pablo Peña Torres, Elhem Ghorbel, George Wardeh
      First page: 155
      Abstract: Creep properties are determined in design standards by measuring the creep coefficient, noted φ, as a function of time, t, and the age of the concrete at loading, t0. The work aims to study the validity of the analytical models proposed in the most used international standards and to check the possibility of their extension to estimate the creep of recycled aggregates concrete (RAC). A database was built from experimental results available in bibliographic references including 121 creep curves divided into 73 curves for natural aggregates concrete (NAC) and 48 curves for RAC. The comparison between the experimental and predicted values showed a significant dispersion for NAC and RAC. For the remediation of this dispersion, a new analytical model was developed for NAC. The parameters being the conventional creep coefficient, φ0, the power of the ageing function, named α, and βh, which accounts for the relative humidity and the compressive strength in the ageing function, were identified by inverse analysis. It was found that the power of the ageing function is 0.44 and not 0.3, as fixed by Eurocode 2 (EC2). Moreover, new expressions were proposed for φ0 and βh. The presence of recycled aggregates was considered through the equivalent replacement ratio.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040155
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 156: Condition Assessment Framework for Facility
           Management Based on Fuzzy Sets Theory

    • Authors: Deniz Besiktepe, Mehmet E. Ozbek, Rebecca A. Atadero
      First page: 156
      Abstract: Condition information is essential to develop effective facility management (FM) strategies. Visual inspections and walk-through surveys are common practices of condition assessment (CA), generally resulting in qualitative and subjective outcomes such as “poor”, “good”, etc. Furthermore, limited resources of the FM process demand that CA practices be efficient. Given these, the purpose of this study is to develop a resource efficient quantitative CA framework that can be less subjective in establishing a condition rating. The condition variables of the study—mean time between failures, age-based obsolescence, facility condition index, occupant feedback, and preventive maintenance cycle—are identified through different sources, such as a computerized maintenance management system, expert opinions, occupants, and industry standards. These variables provide proxy measures for determining the condition of equipment with the implementation example for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment. Fuzzy sets theory is utilized to obtain a quantitative condition rating while minimizing subjectivity, as fuzzy sets theory deals with imprecise, uncertain, and ambiguous judgments with membership relations. The proposed CA framework does not require additional resources, and the obtained condition rating value supports decision-making for building maintenance management and strategic planning in FM, with a comprehensive and less subjective understanding of condition.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040156
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 157: Review of Design of Collective Housing in
           the 21st Century

    • Authors: David Hernández Falagán
      First page: 157
      Abstract: This essay proposes a review of current trends in the design of collective housing projects. The method for the review is based on the observation of certain conditions of contemporary society that show an immediate influence on new habitat patterns. The concepts of uncertainty, scarcity and contingency are the catalysts for the observation, and conditions that provoke new diffuse scenarios for residential buildings. The concept of diffuse dwelling is identified here as the conjunction of three factors: non-permanent coexistence models, residential adaptation of the built environment, and non-hierarchical typological patterns. The review proposes a qualitative analysis questionnaire for the recognition of significant projects of this new residential paradigm. By tracing the EU Mies Award Archive, various examples have been identified that allow us to recognize common characteristics. The result of the analysis reveals how these parameters define a new paradigm in the design of collective housing based on collectivity, constructive resilience, and a new value of domesticity.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040157
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 158: Effects of Coarse Aggregate Maximum Size on
           Synthetic/Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Performance with Different Fiber

    • Authors: Haider M. Al-Baghdadi, Faiz H. Al-Merib, Ayoob A. Ibrahim, Rafea F. Hassan, Husam H. Hussein
      First page: 158
      Abstract: Recently, fiber has been incorporated into concrete mixtures, where its distribution in the concrete matrix helps to improve and enhance the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC). The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of steel and synthetic fiber parameters, along with different coarse aggregate maximum sizes (CAMZs) on FRC performance. Additionally, in past research, the empirical relationships among the compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths of plain concrete and FRC were assessed, and correlations between these mechanical properties of FRC were examined. For each CAMZ, four fiber dosages for each fiber type were considered. The results demonstrate the mechanical properties of FRC enhanced as the fiber length increased from 13 mm to 60 mm, the CAMZ increased from 9.5 mm to 37.5 mm, and the ratio of the fiber length to the CAMZ was in the range of 0.35–5.68. All mixtures have been intended to exhibit similar compressive strengths; however, the synthetic/steel fiber advanced the brittleness ratio of specimens with G10, G19, and G38 to approximately 36.8%, 40.7%, and 47.4% greater than the contral specimens, respectively. In addition, from the regression analysis investigation, there are strong correlations from the regression analysis of the mechanical property results of FRC.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040158
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 159: Improvement Proposal of Bottom-Up Approach
           for the Energy Characterization of Buildings in the Tropical Climate

    • Authors: Jorge Cárdenas-Rangel, German Osma-Pinto, Julián Jaramillo-Ibarra
      First page: 159
      Abstract: The energy characterization of buildings can be done by bottom-up methods such as energy simulation models (samples or archetypes). A sample consists of the selection of real buildings and an archetype is a theoretical building that represents them. Nevertheless, both approaches have shortcomings for the creation of energy models. This work proposes to improve the sampling approach from the validation of input data, and calibration of models by individual adjustment processes. The studied category corresponds to multi-family buildings of median incomes from the Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga (Colombia). This study presents the energy model of five existing buildings and an archetype, calibration results, energy characterization, and comparative analysis between both approaches. The sampling approach indicates that housing units and general services demand an average of 76.9% and 23.1% of consumed energy, respectively. The average energy consumption by housing units is 22.38 kWh/m2·year caused by appliances (85.3%), lighting (11.2%), and air conditioning (3.5%). The archetype presents similar results for the energy consumption of housing units (kWh/m2·year), but notable differences concerning a specific behavior of inner spaces, being the sampling approach more accurate to characterize to a building category.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040159
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 160: Agent Based Modelling of a Local Energy
           Market: A Study of the Economic Interactions between Autonomous PV Owners
           within a Micro-Grid

    • Authors: Marco Lovati, Pei Huang, Carl Olsmats, Da Yan, Xingxing Zhang
      First page: 160
      Abstract: Urban Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide large fractions of the residential electric demand at socket parity (i.e., a cost below the household consumer price). This is obtained without necessarily installing electric storage or exploiting tax funded incentives. The benefits of aggregating the electric demand and renewable output of multiple households are known and established; in fact, regulations and pilot energy communities are being implemented worldwide. Financing and managing a shared urban PV system remains an unsolved issue, even when the profitability of the system as a whole is demonstrable. For this reason, an agent-based modelling environment has been developed and is presented in this study. It is assumed that an optimal system (optimized for self-sufficiency) is shared between 48 households in a local grid of a positive energy district. Different scenarios are explored and discussed, each varying in number of owners (agents who own a PV system) and their pricing behaviour. It has been found that a smaller number of investors (i.e., someone refuse to join) provokes an increase of the earnings for the remaining investors (from 8 to 74% of the baseline). Furthermore, the pricing strategy of an agent shows improvement potential without knowledge of the demand of others, and thus it has no privacy violations.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040160
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 161: Capacity Assessment of Existing RC Columns

    • Authors: Francesca Vecchi, Beatrice Belletti
      First page: 161
      Abstract: Existing reinforced concrete (RC) members, designed in accordance with obsolete codes, are often characterized by high stirrup spacing. The collapse mechanisms generated by high stirrup spacing are typically related to the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement and can be accentuated when corrosion takes place. In this paper, new refined material constitutive laws for steel, including inelastic buckling and corrosion of reinforcement, are implemented in a fixed crack model suitable for RC elements subjected to cyclic loadings called the PARC_CL 2.1 crack model. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated through comparison with available experimental data and analytical predictions. Finally, the proposed model is used to calibrate correction coefficients to be applied to current codes formulation for the ultimate rotational capacity prediction of non-conforming elements subjected to buckling phenomena and characterized by corrosion of reinforcing bars.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040161
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 162: Crisis and Transition: Forms of Collective
           Housing in Brussels

    • Authors: Alessandro Porotto, Gérald Ledent
      First page: 162
      Abstract: Focusing on the Brussels urban environment, this paper investigates spatial mutations produced by key critical transitions to accommodate new social and living conditions for collective purposes. Using CAD re-drawings, a systematic comparison of residential schemes identifies the evolutionary mechanism that connects manifold changes in the city and domestic spaces. This analysis defines a genealogical framework to observe how specific residential archetypes have shaped Brussels’ sociocultural identity and distinguishes contemporary housing initiatives dealing with current and future challenges. While during the 19th century, interwar, and postwar periods, spatial features evolved from individual, single-family houses to residential schemes bearing collective, egalitarian dwellings, contemporary initiatives are relevant for their experimental solutions, translating into housing design new collective ways of living. This trajectory demonstrates that collective housing provides new insights for designing future types of urban housing. Brussels contemporary housing can shed light on the fact that current crises generated by urban issues, such as demographic growth, migratory and gentrification dynamics, affordability and the COVID-19 pandemic, are accelerating the transition towards the 21st-century city. Eventually, the Belgian capital now has the opportunity to combine two crucial questions, such as typological innovation and sustainability, to successfully approach the coming transition period from social and environmental perspectives.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040162
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 163: Fractal Dimension Calculation and Visual
           Attention Simulation: Assessing the Visual Character of an Architectural

    • Authors: Ju Hyun Lee, Michael J. Ostwald
      First page: 163
      Abstract: The design of a building façade has a significant impact on the way people respond to it physiologically and behaviourally. Few methods are available to assist an architect to understand such impacts during the design process. Thus, this paper examines the viability of using two computational methods to examine potential visual stimulus-sensation relationships in facade design. The first method, fractal analysis, is used to holistically measure the visual stimuli of a design. This paper describes both the box counting (density) and differential box counting (intensity) approaches to determining fractal dimension (D) in architecture. The second method, visual attention simulation, is used to explore pre-attentive processing and sensation in vision. Four measures—D-density (Dd), D-intensity (Di), heat map and gaze sequence—are used to provide quantitative and qualitative indicators of the ways people read different design options. Using two façade designs as examples, the results of this application reveal that the D values of a façade image have a relationship with the pre-attentive processing shown in heat map and gaze sequence simulations. The findings are framed as a methodological contribution to the field, but also to the disciplinary knowledge gap about the stimulus-sensation relationship and visual reasoning in design.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040163
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 164: Integrated Solution-Base Isolation and
           Repositioning-for the Seismic Rehabilitation of a Preserved Strategic

    • Authors: Marco Vailati, Giorgio Monti, Vincenzo Bianco
      First page: 164
      Abstract: This paper deals with the design of the seismic rehabilitation of a case-study building located in Florence, Italy. The particular reinforced concrete building hosts an important operational center of the main company that manages the Italian highway network. It is composed of the juxtaposition of three reinforced concrete edifices standing out from a common basement. The design of the interventions for the seismic rehabilitation of this case study posed different challenges, some even in contrast with each other. The main design challenge was to reach the seismic retrofitting, due to the strategic role of the activities hosted herein, safeguarding as much as possible the peculiarity of the architectural elements. Moreover, the design was made harder by the presence of existing thermal joints between adjacent edifices which were inadequate to prevent the latter from pounding upon each other during an earthquake. This outcome yielded the need to intervene by enlarging the gap between the adjacent buildings. This latter intervention was in stark contrast with the explicit request of the client to bring the least possible disturbance to the strategic activities carried out within it; in fact, the joints are crossed by optical fibers and other technological systems which can be damaged easily. The need to fulfill all these design constraints brought the development of an original design strategy based on the employment of base-isolation in a rather unusual configuration. The details of the design procedure, along with the innovative aspects and the designed devices, are presented. With the objective to refine the adopted strategy in view of its possible repeatability by colleague engineers, the paper also presents a fair discussion of every aspect with regards to both the design and the realization phases. Possible ideas for new research and developments are also highlighted.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040164
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 165: Modeling Deep Neural Networks to Learn
           Maintenance and Repair Costs of Educational Facilities

    • Authors: Jimyong Kim, Sangguk Yum, Seunghyun Son, Kiyoung Son, Junseo Bae
      First page: 165
      Abstract: Educational facilities hold a higher degree of uncertainty in predicting maintenance and repair costs than other types of facilities. Moreover, achieving accurate and reliable maintenance and repair costs is essential, yet very little is known about a holistic approach to learning them by incorporating multi-contextual factors that affect maintenance and repair costs. This study fills this knowledge gap by modeling and validating deep neural networks to efficiently and accurately learn maintenance and repair costs, drawing on 1213 high-confidence data points. The developed model learns and generalizes claim payout records on the maintenance and repair costs from sets of facility asset information, geographic profiles, natural hazard records, and other causes of financial losses. The robustness of the developed model was tested and validated by measuring the root mean square error and mean absolute error values. This study attempted to propose an analytical modeling framework that can accurately learn various factors, significantly affecting the maintenance and repair costs of educational facilities. The proposed approach can contribute to the existing body of knowledge, serving as a reference for the facilities management of other functional types of facilities.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040165
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 166: Extending the Architecture of Collective
           Housing: Towards Common Worlds of Care

    • Authors: María-Elia Gutiérrez-Mozo, José Parra-Martínez, Ana Gilsanz-Díaz
      First page: 166
      Abstract: This article addresses the question of collective housing from the standpoint of two key notions in the contemporary architectural debate: care and the commons. With this objective in mind, a series of analytical parameters are put forward. The aim is to contribute to broadening and qualifying our understanding of the production and management of the collective habitat. As an illustration of each of the ideas expounded in this this paper, insightful examples of recent Spanish architecture are specifically selected and commented, as well as two case studies chosen to elaborate upon their particularities. They all share the fact of being projects, partly or wholly, designed by women, a matter which has had particular relevance in the creation of more sensitive, diverse and integration of built environments. At a time of acute health, economic and social crisis, as well as isolation and insecurity, more than ever, there is an urgent need for inspirational new ways of living and thinking in common.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040166
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 167: A Conceptual Design Approach for
           Archaeological Structures, a Challenging Issue between Innovation and
           Conservation: A Studied Case in Ancient Pompeii

    • Authors: Vincenzo Calvanese, Alessandra Zambrano
      First page: 167
      Abstract: The preservation of the authenticity of a building artifact in an archaeological area is a responsible practice. On the other hand, the need to save the building artifact from natural and anthropic degradation and ensuring the structural reliability as well as an efficient maintenance program are big challenges. These tasks usually involve the cooperation of several professionals and the responsible use of innovative techniques and materials. This paper focused on a specific design approach for the rehabilitation works of ancient constructions at archaeological sites. The proposed approach implies different steps that allow for design optimization at an increasing knowledge level of the existing structures. In the archaeological area, some crucial design aspects cannot be defined before the execution work phase, since some elements can only be revealed and identified during work execution. As a consequence, the final design has often been optimized after all the information has been acquired. A studied case at the archaeological site of Pompeii is herein presented to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. This methodology reduces the uncertainty related due to the ancient material performance, to the level of damage and to the effectiveness of the rehabilitation work, unknown at the design stage.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040167
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 168: New Housing Developments in the City Center
           of Guadalajara (Mexico): An Analysis from the Perspective of Collective
           and Sustainable Dwelling

    • Authors: Alessandra Cireddu
      First page: 168
      Abstract: New vertical housing developments in Guadalajara (Mexico) are reaching the city center as a response for redensification after many years of expansion of the urban area characterized by a suburban, low density and fragmented pattern. This horizontal growth, dominated by use of the automobile as prevailing mode of transport, has proven to be unsustainable not only from an environmental point of view, but also from a social perspective where the “human scale” of the city has been affected, same as the daily life of its inhabitants. On the other hand, vertical housing proposals are by their very nature associated with concepts of redensification, compact city and collective living; the aim of this article is to analyze some new housing developments in Guadalajara downtown in order to evaluate to what extent the new buildings embody a more sustainable, livable and collective dwelling, to discuss findings, successes and failures and thus be able to contribute some conclusions and open a broader reflection about contemporary housing, urban density and downtown redevelopment in Latin America cities through collective and sustainable dwelling.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040168
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 169: Post Occupancy Evaluation of School
           Refurbishment Projects: Multiple Case Study in the UK

    • Authors: Hamad Ahmed, David J. Edwards, Joseph H. K. Lai, Chris Roberts, Caleb Debrah, De-Graft Owusu-Manu, Wellington Didibhuku Thwala
      First page: 169
      Abstract: Buildings inevitably deteriorate with time. Schools buildings are no exception and require refurbishment at times. Despite the UK Government announcing the £1 billion funding for rebuilding 50 schools over 10 years starting 2010–2021, it is common practice for builders and designers to, upon completion of a building project, move on to the next development without considering how the completed building performs. This research undertakes a post occupancy evaluation (POE) of three schools in the West Midlands, UK with specific focus on building services, viz., heating, lighting, and air conditioning and ventilation. The research adopted a mixed philosophical approach of interpretivism and post-positivism to conduct inductive reasoning. A questionnaire that collected both quantitative and qualitative primary data was distributed to the end-users of the schools. Data was analysed using the Cronbach’s alpha, one sample t-test and Kruskal–Wallis test to identify any differences between the questionnaire responses. Findings revealed that building users demanded greater control of the internal environment thus contradicting the current trend for automated ‘intelligent systems’ approaches. This research represents the first work to consider the contractor’s perspective towards developing a better understanding of client satisfaction with the school buildings. Moreover, the POE result represents a notable pragmatic advancement to knowledge that will influence the contractor’s knowledge and understanding of client satisfaction, and where to improve upon these.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040169
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 170: Main Features of the Timber Structure
           Building Industry Business Models

    • Authors: Annie Gosselin, Yan Cimon, Nadia Lehoux, Pierre Blanchet
      First page: 170
      Abstract: The use of timber as structural building material is growing and a greater number of firms are looking to enter this raising market. Erecting a complex timber building usually involves combining the work of architects, structural engineers, builders, suppliers and/or supplier–builders, all of them having their own business models. The purpose of this research was to uncover the specific nature of business models in the timber structure building industry. First, a thorough mapping of these business models was undertaken. Second, underlying patterns were uncovered within these models. A triangulation method of secondary data, semi-structured interviews and participant observation was used to allow for an in-depth study of 23 stakeholder business models. The analysis shows that knowledge sharing appears as crucial and may be achieved through sustained collaboration. As a result, collaborative contract procurement modes seem to be the most appropriate for timber construction. Tight relationships with suppliers and supplier–builders also appear as prerequisites. Furthermore, stakeholder partnerships with universities appear common in the field, while prefabrication is increasing in popularity. These findings can be useful to grasp the prevailing business models in this industry given the sustained growth of the timber structure building market.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040170
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 171: Innovation in Sustainable Solar-Powered
           Net-Zero Energy Solar Decathlon Houses: A Review and Showcase

    • Authors: Yeganeh Baghi, Zhenjun Ma, Duane Robinson, Tillmann Boehme
      First page: 171
      Abstract: Solar Decathlon is a showcase of cutting-edge residential buildings containing innovative solutions and technologies. This study reviewed, identified, and categorized technological innovations from past Solar Decathlon competitions. The review was based on publicly available data of the top five houses from each U.S. and international Solar Decathlon competition. The most prolific innovations identified were from building services systems and architectural design and construction. It was observed that most innovations within building services systems were in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, and home automation, while architectural design and construction innovations focused on building adaptability, façade, structure, and building materials. It was found that although there is no fixed relationship between the numbers of innovations in the houses and their overall competition points, there is a high probability for an innovative house to be placed within the top five houses. This study also provides information about technological innovations within Solar Decathlon houses and offers an innovation classification scheme to guide Solar Decathletes to understand what innovations could be implemented in their future entries.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040171
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 172: Risk Identification, Assessments, and
           Prediction for Mega Construction Projects: A Risk Prediction Paradigm
           Based on Cross Analytical-Machine Learning Model

    • Authors: Debalina Banerjee Chattapadhyay, Jagadeesh Putta, Rama Mohan Rao P
      First page: 172
      Abstract: Risk identification and management are the two most important parts of construction project management. Better risk management can help in determining the future consequences, but identifying possible risk factors has a direct and indirect impact on the risk management process. In this paper, a risk prediction system based on a cross analytical-machine learning model was developed for construction megaprojects. A total of 63 risk factors pertaining to the cost, time, quality, and scope of the megaproject and primary data were collected from industry experts on a five-point Likert scale. The obtained sample was further processed statistically to generate a significantly large set of features to perform K-means clustering based on high-risk factor and allied sub-risk component identification. Descriptive analysis, followed by the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed to retain the most significant features pertaining to cost, time, quality, and scope. Eventually, unlike classical K-means clustering, a genetic-algorithm-based K-means clustering algorithm (GA–K-means) was applied with dual-objective functions to segment high-risk factors and allied sub-risk components. The proposed model identified different high-risk factors and sub-risk factors, which cumulatively can impact overall performance. Thus, identifying these high-risk factors and corresponding sub-risk components can help stakeholders in achieving project success.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040172
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 173: Assessment of the Density Loss in Anobiid
           Infested Pine Using X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography

    • Authors: João Parracha, Manuel Pereira, António Maurício, Paulina Faria, Daniel F. Lima, Marina Tenório, Lina Nunes
      First page: 173
      Abstract: The present study aims at evaluating the impact of anobiid damage on pine timber elements. Anobiid attack produces a diffuse damage of the elements with a set of tunnels in random directions and sizes, thus confusing quantification. Therefore, a method was developed based on X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-XCT) to obtain, for naturally infested timber samples, an empirical correlation between lost material percentage (consumed by beetles) and timber apparent density (original, before degradation—OTD and residual, after degradation—RTD). The quantified density loss can then be used in further assessment of the structure. The results of the tests performed showed high correlation between original apparent density and lost material percentage (r2 = 0.60) and between residual apparent density and lost material percentage (r2 = 0.83), which confirms μ-XCT as a valuable tool to the required quantification. The loss of density results can be further applied on the definition of an assessment method for the evaluation of the residual strength of anobiids infested timber, thus contributing to reducing unnecessary replacement. The optimized procedure of the μ-XCT study for infested Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is presented and discussed in this article.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040173
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 174: Quantification of Air Change Rate by
           Selected Methods in a Typical Apartment Building

    • Authors: Iveta Bullová, Peter Kapalo, Dušan Katunský
      First page: 174
      Abstract: An important parameter that affects indoor climate of buildings and also ventilation heat losses and gains is the speed of air change between the outdoor environment and the interior of buildings. Indoor air quality is therefore significantly associated with ventilation. Quantification of air change rate is complicated, because it is impacted by many parameters, the most variable of which is air flow. This study focuses on the determination and comparison of air change rate values in two methods by quantification of the aerodynamic coefficient Cp = Cpe − Cpi, so-called “aerodynamic quantification of the building” and the methodology based on “experimental measurements of carbon dioxide”. The study describes and takes into account the effect of wind, building parameters and air permeability for the building using “aerodynamic quantification of the building”. The paper compares these calculated results with the values obtained from experimental measurements method of carbon dioxide in a selected reference room in apartment building and evaluates the accuracy of the prediction of the air exchange rate obtained by these methods. At higher wind speeds the values of air change rate with considering the effect of openings are closer to the values obtained based on experimental measurements of carbon dioxide and the difference between the values without considering the effect of openings increases significantly.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040174
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 175: Development of Side Mold Control Equipment
           for Producing Free-Form Concrete Panels

    • Authors: Jiyeong Yun, Kyeongtae Jeong, Jongyoung Youn, Donghoon Lee
      First page: 175
      Abstract: Free-form concrete panel production requires an increasing amount of manpower because the molds cannot be reused. There are many limitations when it comes to reproducing accurate forms due to the many manual processes. Therefore, the current study developed side mold control equipment that can automatically fabricate molds for free-form concrete panels. The equipment is capable of molding various shapes and sustainable operation. However, there may be errors as it automatically produces various shapes. Therefore, it is necessary to check the errors between manufactured shapes and designed shapes. The shape created using the side mold control equipment showed less than 0.1° error in side angle and ±3 mm error in side length. Therefore, the equipment manufactured a precise shape. Based on the findings of the study, the side mold control equipment will be used to produce accurate shape of free-form concrete panels automatically.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040175
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 176: Historical Study and Conservation
           Strategies of “Tianzihao” Colony (Nanjing, China)—Architectural
           Heritage of the French Catholic Missions in the Late 19th Century

    • Authors: Yinghan Li, Xuanfan Li, Qiaochu Jiang, Qi Zhou
      First page: 176
      Abstract: The “Tianzihao” colony was built by the French Jesuits in the 1890s. As one of the earliest examples of the French Catholic Church’s mission in China, as well as the only case in Nanjing, it shows the historical scenes of Western missionaries in Nanjing 120 years ago. It is a demonstration of cultural exchanges between China and the West after China opened to the Western world in the late 19th century. In architectural style, the “Tianzihao” colony is Western-style townhouses, but a large number of traditional Chinese architectural technologies were used for it, and therefore it is characterized by Western space and Chinese technology. The “Tianzihao” colony was badly damaged during these decades, with a lot of decayed building materials and structures on the verge of collapse. Based on the historical research and technical analysis of the “Tianzihao” colony, this article explores the conservation strategies and methods of reusing the architectural heritage. In addition, this article is to study the characteristics of the times before introduction of Western architectural technology in Nanjing based on an analysis on the building technology used for the “Tianzihao” colony. The authors participated in the conservation and restoration project of the “Tianzihao” colony, and the objective of this study was achieved through some qualitative methods, including collection and analysis of archival data, analysis of old maps and photos, architectural mapping and a large amount of historical information found in the conservation process.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040176
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 177: Shear Strength of HVFA-SCC Beams without

    • Authors: Agus Setiya Budi, Endah Safitri, Senot Sangadji, Stefanus Adi Kristiawan
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Various concretes have been developed to meet the principles of sustainability. High volume fly ash-self compacting concrete (HVFA-SCC) is one example. The utilization of HVFA-SCC for structural applications, however, raises a concern among designers: that HVFA-SCC may not be as strong as conventional concrete when carrying shear forces. This concern is related to slow strength development and relatively smoother crack surface formation in HVFA-SCC, which, consequently, reduces the aggregate interlock mechanism contribution to the shear strength. In this respect, the design code for estimating the shear strength of HVFA-SCC may not be valid for the reason that the code was developed on the basis of the conventional concrete database. Previous research on the shear strength of HVFA-SCC was limited and no database can be extracted to justify the validity of the shear design code. This research was conducted to clarify the suitability of shear design code for HVFA-SCC. The research began with a limited laboratory investigation, followed by a numerical investigation to expand the range of results. Two types of HVFA-SCC beams with dimensions of 100 mm × 150 mm × 1700 mm were prepared, utilizing 50% and 60% fly ash. The shear behavior obtained from the laboratory investigations was then numerically modeled with the help of 3D ATENA Engineering software. The numerical model was used to explore the influence of reinforcement ratio, shear span to beam effective depth ratio, and beam size on the shear strength of the HVFA-SCC beam. The results were compared with the shear strength database of conventional and unconventional concrete beams to judge if the provisions in the design code can be applied to the shear design of an HVFA-SCC beam. The results confirm that the ACI shear design code is applicable for HVFA-SCC.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11040177
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 104: Diagnosis and Assessment of Deep Pile Cap
           Foundation of a Tall Building Affected by Internal Expansion Reactions

    • Authors: Fernando A. N. Silva, João M. P. Q. Delgado, António C. Azevedo, Tahlaiti Mahfoud, Abdelhafid Khelidj, Nicole Nascimento, António G. B. Lima
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Early deterioration of reinforced concrete foundations has been often reported in recent years. This process is usually characterized by an extensive mapping cracking process on concrete surfaces that results from several types of Internal Swelling Reaction (ISR). In this paper, a real case study of a tall reinforced concrete building with a severe deterioration process installed in its deep foundations is discussed. Laboratory tests were performed in concrete drilled cores extracted from a deep pile cap block 19 years after the beginning of construction. Tests to assess the compressive strength, the static and the dynamic modulus of elasticity, the gas permeability, and electron microscopy scanning to find out the primary mechanism responsible for the deterioration observed during in situ inspections. Chemical alterations of materials were observed in concrete cores, mainly due to Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF), which significantly affected the integrity and durability of the structure. Dynamic modulus of elasticity showed to be a better indicator of damage induced by ISR in concrete than compressive strength. Procedures to strengthen the deteriorated elements using prestressing proved to be an efficient strategy to recover the structural integrity of pile caps deteriorated due to expansions due to ISR.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030104
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 105: Construction Logistics Centres Proposing
           Kitting Service: Organization Analysis and Cost Mapping

    • Authors: Soufiane El Moussaoui, Zoubeir Lafhaj, Fernanda Leite, Julien Fléchard, Bruno Linéatte
      First page: 105
      Abstract: The construction industry represents an important part of the global economy but is known for many issues such as harmful emissions, low productivity, waste generation, poor ergonomics, and construction incidents and accidents. A logistical view has proved to be a solid basis for improving construction performance while construction logistics centres (CLC) are gaining interest and proposing more services such as Kitting. Since the CLC-kitting-based approach is a new phenomenon, it is still a relatively unexplored topic. Hence, this paper addresses how this configuration could be applied to construction projects and what are its related costs information. The research design is based on a single case study showing the CLC-kitting use by a French general contractor in a student housing project. Data has been collected through site visits, observations, project documents, and discussions conducted with construction managers and logistics planners. Data analysis identified realized effects from deploying CLC-kitting in construction projects. Therefore, recommendations are provided, at both strategic and operational levels, which can be leveraged in similar projects. Finally, an identification of constructions logistics costs shows their distribution along the supply chain and was evaluated at 14.7% over material purchasing price.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030105
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 106: Actuation Characteristics of Basic Body
           Plans for Soft Modular Pneubotics in Architecture

    • Authors: Davor Andrić, Josip Galić, Karin Šerman
      First page: 106
      Abstract: The article examines the actuation characteristics of different basic structural schemes—basic body plans—for soft modular pneubotics in architecture are investigated. Eight basic body plans are translated from abstract expressions into their corresponding modular structures and (re)constructed in their physical form using up to 12 soft unit elements in the shape of a cube. Reconstructed basic body plans are then examined through a qualitative analysis of their ability to actuate and change the shape of the structure. Through adaptive manual inflation of an individual element, a group of elements, or all elements at once, motions and transformations are produced and evaluated. The results show that five out of eight basic body plans have higher actuation capacity while three show a less pronounced capacity to change shape. Based on the most pronounced characteristics of the examined basic body plans, design opportunities for potential architectural applications are proposed. These include structures that can self-erect, lift, tilt, bend, change thickness, curvature, etc. What is also shown is that basic body plans could be combined into one complex structural body.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030106
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 107: Seismic and Coastal Vulnerability
           Assessment Model for Buildings in Chile

    • Authors: Catalina Quiñones-Bustos, Maria Teresa Bull, Claudio Oyarzo-Vera
      First page: 107
      Abstract: This article proposes a vulnerability assessment model for evaluating buildings’ expected seismic performance, as well as their vulnerability to tsunamis. The objective of this assessment is to provide appropriate information for decision makers regarding the need of repairs and reinforcement of buildings or other mitigation measures that need to be applied in a territory. A procedure for assessing seismic vulnerability and another methodology for evaluating tsunami vulnerability faced by coastal structures is presented. Finally, a method that integrates both procedures is proposed, providing a combined index of vulnerability. The assessment model was applied to the central area of the city of Talcahuano, Chile, which was affected by the 2010 Maule earthquake and tsunami.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030107
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 108: Critical Review of Public Policies for the
           Rehabilitation of Housing Stock: The Case of Barcelona

    • Authors: Angel Uzqueda, Pilar Garcia-Almirall, Còssima Cornadó, Sara Vima-Grau
      First page: 108
      Abstract: This article reviews rehabilitation programs in Barcelona, focusing on aspects such as the intervention model, actual public investment, and results. Programs of this type are not exclusive to Barcelona; however, similar examples can be found in other European cities, especially where European Union (EU) funding is present. After analyzing these models, we reached a series of general conclusions that may be of interest. Thus, an eminently practical and reflective analysis is presented, aimed at technicians and those responsible for the design of intervention policies in urban regeneration. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly focused on vulnerable settings, and in this context, the participation and service function of public administrations are particularly relevant. The general model for rehabilitation subsidies rarely takes into account the specific characteristics of disadvantaged urban settings, as the article will show. After analyzing the different policies presented in this research, we identified two essential requirements: detailed knowledge of the affected neighborhood, and ongoing evaluation of the development of programs—beyond simple management indicators—so negative effects can be corrected in time such as gentrification, real estate speculation, and other by-products that the intervention itself can promote. This study confirms that not all public investments have the expected results.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030108
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 109: An Overarching Review on Delay Analyses in
           Construction Projects

    • Authors: Murat Çevikbaş, Zeynep Işık
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted by researchers on the delay analysis topic, which is one of the primary areas of scientific study due to the effects of delays on time and cost in construction projects. Following fruitful contributions made by the researchers, it is believed to be extremely important to summarize the existing studies in terms of being a road map for future studies and practitioners. In this context, not only does this study aim to detect the most significant authors, sources, organizations and countries contributing to the improvement of delay domain in the construction industry concerning delay analyses worldwide but also to provide the researchers with extensive insights concerning the prominent research themes, trends and gaps in the literature. Hence, 168 documents related to delay analyses from 1982 to 11 February 2021 were detected through the Scopus Database and the Web of Science Database, and scientometric analyses were conducted via VOSviewer software. By evaluating the related research, two main research areas were detected in this field, namely; improving the delay analysis methods and resolving the disputes before they occur. This study is believed to make theoretical and practical contributions in that it examines the delay analysis topic in all aspects such as prominent institutions, countries, authors and sources, synthesizes the data and highlights possible research domains, gaps and trends concerning the delay analysis topic in construction industry.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030109
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 110: Experimental Investigation and Numerical
           Simulation of a Levy Hinged-Beam Cable Dome

    • Authors: Mingmin Ding, Bin Luo, Shuyao Ding, Yuzhou Shen, Lifan Huang
      First page: 110
      Abstract: According to existing rigid roofing projects, a new structure called the Levy hinged-beam cable dome is proposed. By replacing the upper flexible cables with hinged beams, rigid plates can be installed overhead. To fulfill the requirements of integral tow-lifting construction, the setting criteria for the temporary hinged joints on ridge beams were presented. An 8-m diameter specimen was manufactured and monitored to investigate the structural configurations during the accumulative traction-hoisting construction process. Finally, the specimen was tested under full-span and half-span loading conditions, while a numerical model was built to verify the experimental values. The results show that in the early stages of traction-hoisting, the structure establishes the overall prestress and finds its internal force balance, while the entire structure is in a shape of “ω”. As the component’s internal force increases during the construction steps, and the local deformations of the hinged beams gradually decrease, with the entire structure changing from “ω” to “m”, and finally reach their designed states. Under full-span loads, large local deformations occurred at the HB-3 hinges, while the bending stresses of these hinged beams were relatively small. Under half-span loads, the loading part exhibits a downward appearance, while the unloading part exhibits upward deflection.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030110
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 111: Seismic Retrofitting Resilience-Based for
           Strategic RC Buildings

    • Authors: Marco Vona, Amedeo Flora, Emiliano Carlucci, Enrico Foscolo
      First page: 111
      Abstract: The resilience of communities is given by the ideal convolution of the resilience of all their single parts. Strategic buildings require high levels of performance during and after a seismic sequence. Consequently, the seismic retrofitting of old strategic buildings is a central issue in prevention and mitigation strategies. The core of the study is a resilience approach to the seismic retrofitting of existing strategic buildings. Different performance levels are considered and four different retrofitting techniques are compared according to their fragility, and their post-earthquake cost and time recovery analyses. Lastly, the retrofitting techniques are compared based on the considered resilience index, which in turn is related to the estimated reduction of the seismic losses owing to the different retrofitting techniques, but especially to the effectiveness of the intervention based on the relevant cost and recovery times. In other words, these aspects take into account the key role of a building’s characteristics, and its public and strategic role during and after an earthquake. The intervention is selected not only (as is currently done) to reduce its construction times and costs, but to limit the service interruption after earthquakes. The results of this study could be operatively used as support tools in the seismic retrofitting of strategic buildings, either individually or on a large territorial scale.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030111
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 112: Computational Simulation of Wind
           Microclimate in Complex Urban Models and Mitigation Using Trees

    • Authors: Azin Hosseinzadeh, Amir Keshmiri
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Due to a rapid increase in urbanisation, accurate wind microclimate assessment is of crucial importance. Evaluating wind flows around buildings is part of the planning application process in the design of new developments. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out for a case study, representing the East Village in the London Olympic Park. Following a validation test against experimental data for a simpler urban configuration, the key input parameters, including appropriate boundary conditions, mesh setting and type of turbulence model, are selected for the Olympic Park model. All the simulations are conducted using the commercial code STARCCM+ under steady-state conditions with the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) method. The turbulence is modelled using different common variants of eddy-viscosity models (EVMs) including standard k-ε, realizable k-ε and standard and shear stress transport (SST) k-ω. The results demonstrate that standard and realisable k-ε models correlate very well with the experimental data, while some discrepancies are found with standard and SST k-ω. Following the determination of areas of high velocity, appropriate tree planting is proposed to overcome the effect of corner and downwash acceleration. With the optimised arrangement of trees and using specific types of tree (e.g., birch), wind speeds at the pedestrian level are reduced by 3.5, 25 and 66% in three main regions of interest. Moreover, we investigate the effects of tree heights. The obtained results illustrate that the wind velocity reduces when the crowns of the trees are located closer to the buildings and the ground. Our high-resolution CFD simulation and results offer a quantitative tool for wind microclimate assessment and optimised design and arrangement of trees around buildings to improve pedestrian comfort.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030112
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 113: Perceptions of Hospitality and Safety Are
           Two Sides of the Same Coin

    • Authors: Brenda Groen, Hester van Sprang
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Entering a building is a ‘moment of truth’ and may invoke feelings of hospitableness. Physical environments and staff behaviour deliver ‘clues’ that may result in the experience of hospitality. The focus in a reception area may be on mitigation of risks, or on a hospitable atmosphere, with either a host or a security officer at the entrance. However, the division of tasks to either the pleasing host or the controlling security officer to a certain extent disavows the overlap between perceptions of hospitality and safety. This exploratory qualitative study combines a group interview with three managers responsible for hospitality and security in reception areas and Critical Incidents by staff and visitors (N = 51). Thematic coding was based on The Egg Aggregated Model and the Experience of Hospitality Scale. Results show that hospitality and safety are indeed two sides of the same coin. Usually people do accept security measures, provided that staff act in a hospitable way. A lack of security measures may seem ‘inviting’, but also decreases the perception of care for your visitor, and may cause uncertainty and therefore decrease comfort. A correct risk perception, flexible appliance of security measures, and a friendly approach connect aspects of ‘safe’ and ‘hospitable’ sentiments.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030113
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 114: Relationship between Energy and Atmosphere
           (EA) Credits and Project Size in the LEED-NC Version 3 (v3) and 4 (v4)

    • Authors: Svetlana Pushkar
      First page: 114
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the influence of project size on the Energy and Atmosphere (EA) credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction and Major Renovations (LEED-NC) version 3 (v3) in California and version 4 (v4) in the United States (US) in office-type projects. If the relationship between the ordinal data of EA credits and project size changed monotonically, then Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used. If the relationship between the EA credits ordinal data and project size did not change monotonically, then the EA credit data were divided into below and above the median project size groups, and, as a consequence, the Cliff′s δ effect size and exact Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests were used. If the EA credits were binary or dichotomous data, then the natural logarithm of the odds ratio and Fisher’s exact 2 × 2 test with Lancaster’s mid-p-value were used. The results showed that the performance of operational energy, enhanced the refrigerant management and that the renewable energy credits in LEED-NC v3/v4 Certified, Silver, and Gold projects depended on the project size. We concluded that the LEED project size is an important variable for developing LEED-NC strategies for office-type projects.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030114
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 115: Searching for Flexibility in Corporate Real
           Estate Portfolio: Six Co-Working Strategies for User Corporations

    • Authors: Natalia Echeverri, Tuuli Jylhä, Philip Koppels
      First page: 115
      Abstract: The increasing competitive pressures and dynamic user preferences have resulted in a fast-paced and uncertain business environment. In the face of these circumstances, organizations are looking into alternatives to incorporate flexibility to become more adaptive and responsive to change. In this line, co-working, typically associated with freelancers, entrepreneurs, and startups, has become a particularly interesting alternative in the market that has caught the attention of corporate occupiers. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify co-working strategies that can be implemented as part of the corporate real estate portfolio, in alignment with the flexibility demands of the organization. This nascent research topic is studied through 5 qualitative case studies including in-depth, semi-structured interviews with corporate real estate managers and related case documentation. The results evidence the different motivations that the organizations have when incorporating co-working in their property portfolio. As seen across the cases, organizations in different stages of maturity are implementing co-working as the main office location or as a temporary or complementary space solution, through six different strategies: (1) Swing Space, (2) Expansion Space, (3) Core and Flex, (4) Touchdown Space, (5) Testing Market, and (6) Temporary Projects and Staff. This research evidences that each strategy plays a specific role in the corporate real estate portfolio and implies different sources of flexibility that support the physical, functional, and financial flexibility demands of the organization.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030115
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 116: Mechanical Characterization of Iroko Wood
           Using Small Specimens

    • Authors: Carlos Cunha, Marina Tenório, Daniel F. Lima, Arthur Rebouças, Luís C. Neves, Jorge M. Branco
      First page: 116
      Abstract: Despite their favorable physical and mechanical properties for structural use, tropical woods, such as Iroko (Milicia excelsa), present knowledge gaps to be filled mainly about their mechanical characterization, which currently limit their use or result in under- or overdimensioned structural elements. Visual classification, one of the most used methods for characterizing wood, is inaccurate in the case of Iroko due to the wide variety of geographical locations in which this species can be found. In addition, mechanical characterization using test pieces with structural dimensions leads to high and impractical costs. In this context, this study aims to verify the mechanical properties of Iroko (imported from the Republic of the Congo) from small size specimens, a process that is currently standardized only for softwoods, and to verify the correlation of different properties through bending properties and ultrasound tests. Prior to the bending tests, the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves was measured using the direct method. The results obtained show a good correlation between density and bending properties and the velocity of propagation of ultrasonic waves.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030116
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 117: Assessing the Moisture Load in a Vinyl-Clad
           Wall Assembly through Watertightness Tests

    • Authors: Zhe Xiao, Michael A. Lacasse, Maurice Defo, Elena Dragomirescu
      First page: 117
      Abstract: The moisture load in wall assemblies is typically considered as 1% of the Wind Driving Rain (WDR) load that is deposited on the surface of wall assemblies as specified in the ASHRAE-160 standard whereas this ratio has been shown to be inaccurate as compared to results derived from several watertightness tests. Accurate assessment of moisture loads arising from WDR can be obtained through the watertightness test during which different levels of WDR intensities and Driving Rain Wind Pressures (DRWPs) are applied to a test specimen and water that penetrates wall assembly can thus be quantified. Although many previous studies have included watertightness tests, only a few of these have attempted to correlate the moisture loads to WDR conditions as may occur in specific locations within a country. To improve the assessment of moisture loads for a vinyl-clad wall assembly, a wall test specimen was tested following a test protocol based on local climate data using National Research Council of Canada’s Dynamic Wind and Wall Testing Facility (DWTF). The use of this test protocol permitted quantifying the moisture load in the vinyl wall assembly when subjected to several different simulated WDR conditions. The moisture load was formulated as a function of the WDR intensity and DRWP which thereafter allowed evaluating the moisture load based on a given climate’s hourly rainfall intensity and wind velocity. Such work is particularly relevant considering that the intensity, duration and frequency of WDR events across Canada will in some regions increase due to the effects of climate change.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030117
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 118: Displacement Demand for Nonlinear Static

    • Authors: Gabriele Guerrini, Stylianos Kallioras, Stefano Bracchi, Francesco Graziotti, Andrea Penna
      First page: 118
      Abstract: This paper discusses different formulations for calculating earthquake-induced displacement demands to be associated with nonlinear static analysis procedures for the assessment of masonry structures. Focus is placed on systems with fundamental periods between 0.1 and 0.5 s, for which the inelastic displacement amplification is usually more pronounced. The accuracy of the predictive equations is assessed based on the results from nonlinear time-history analyses, carried out on single-degree-of-freedom oscillators with hysteretic force–displacement relationships representative of masonry structures. First, the study demonstrates some limitations of two established approaches based on the equivalent linearization concept: the capacity spectrum method of the Dutch guidelines NPR 9998-18, and its version outlined in FEMA 440, both of which overpredict maximum displacements. Two codified formulations relying on inelastic displacement spectra are also evaluated, namely the N2 method of Eurocode 8 and the displacement coefficient method of ASCE 41-17: the former proves to be significantly unconservative, while the latter is affected by excessive dispersion. A non-iterative procedure, using an equivalent linear system with calibrated optimal stiffness and equivalent viscous damping, is then proposed to overcome some of the problems identified earlier. A recently developed modified N2 formulation is shown to improve accuracy while limiting the dispersion of the predictions.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030118
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 119: Properties of Cementitious Materials with
           Recycled Aggregate and Powder Both from Clay Brick Waste

    • Authors: Huixia Wu, Jianzhuang Xiao, Chaofeng Liang, Zhiming Ma
      First page: 119
      Abstract: The utilization of recycled brick aggregate (RBA) and recycled brick powder (RBP) in cementitious materials helps the reclamation of clay brick waste in construction and demolition waste. This work studied the properties of cementitious materials with RBA as aggregate and RBP as supplementary cementitious material. The RBA has lower apparent density and higher water absorption than natural aggregate, and RBP with an irregular micro-structure contains high content of silicon and aluminum oxides and possesses excellent pozzolanic activity. Incorporating RBP decreases the fluidity and increases the setting time, but the incorporated RBP improves the pore structure and decreases the average pore diameter of cementitious materials, thereby decreasing the permeability. Utilizing RBA increases the drying shrinkage, while the incorporated RBP decreases the drying shrinkage of cementitious materials; the mortar with 50% RBA and 30% RBP has the lower drying shrinkage than the common mortar without RBA and RBP. Incorporating RBA and high-volume RBP decreases the mechanical strength, while there is no obvious decrease in the mechanical strength for the mortar with 50% RBA and 30% RBP. Moreover, the flexural strength to compressive strength ratio increases with RBA and RBP incorporating. Utilizing RBA increases the water transport, while the water transport properties decrease with the RBP incorporation; incorporating appropriate content of RBA and RBP can obtain the cementitious materials with low permeability. Particularly, a significant decrease in chloride ingress occurs with the substitution of RBP.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030119
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 120: Operational Modal Analysis, Model Update
           and Fragility Curves Estimation, through Truncated Incremental Dynamic
           Analysis, of a Masonry Belfry

    • Authors: Ilaria Capanna, Riccardo Cirella, Angelo Aloisio, Rocco Alaggio, Franco Di Fabio, Massimo Fragiacomo
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Masonry towers, located in seismic zones, are vulnerable and prone to damages up to compromise their stability. The scatter of data on the mechanical properties of masonry, geometry and boundary conditions determine a lack of building knowledge on their expected behaviour. Therefore the assessment of the seismic capacity represents a critical task. This paper contributes to the issue of seismic analysis of masonry towers, focusing a meaningful case study: the St.Silvestro belfry in L’Aquila, Italy. The tower, severely damaged by the 2009 earthquake sequence, underwent extensive restoration works, endeavoured to mitigate its vulnerability. The observed seismic damage, the performed no-destructive testing campaign and the accomplished rehabilitation measures are described in the paper. The authors appraised the actual seismic performances of the St.Silvestro belfry, reinforced by the last restoration works. At first, the Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is carried out to enhance building knowledge. In a second step, a refined finite element model is calibrated on the results from OMA to seize the actual dynamic response. Ultimately, by using the updated finite element model, the authors estimate the fragility curves in terms of peak ground acceleration using truncated incremental dynamic analyses.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030120
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 121: Tower Crane Location Optimization for Heavy
           Unit Lifting in High-Rise Modular Construction

    • Authors: Hosang Hyun, Moonseo Park, Dowan Lee, Jeonghoon Lee
      First page: 121
      Abstract: Modular construction, which involves unit production in factories and on-site work, has benefits such as low cost, high quality, and short duration, resulting from the controlled factory environment utilized. An efficient tower crane lifting plan ensures successful high-rise modular project completion. For improved efficiency, the lifting plan should minimize the reaching distance of the tower crane, because this distance directly affects the tower crane capacity, which is directly related to crane operation cost. In situations where units are lifted from trailers, the trailer-to-tower crane distance can have a significant impact on the tower crane operation efficiency. However, optimization of this distance to improve efficiency has not been sufficiently considered. This research proposes a genetic algorithm optimization model that suggests optimized tower crane and trailer locations. The case study results show that through the proposed model, the project manager can reflect the optimal location selection and optimal tower crane selection options with minimal cost.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030121
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 122: Identification of Environmental and
           Contextual Driving Factors of Air Conditioning Usage Behaviour in the
           Sydney Residential Buildings

    • Authors: Bongchan Jeong, Jungsoo Kim, Zhenjun Ma, Paul Cooper, Richard de Dear
      First page: 122
      Abstract: Air conditioning (A/C) is generally responsible for a significant proportion of total building energy consumption. However, occupants’ air conditioning usage patterns are often unrealistically characterised in building energy performance simulation tools, which leads to a gap between simulated and actual energy use. The objective of this study was to develop a stochastic model for predicting occupant behaviour relating to A/C cooling and heating in residential buildings located in the Subtropical Sydney region of Australia. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of using A/C in living rooms and bedrooms, based on a range of physical environmental (outdoor and indoor) and contextual (season, day of week, and time of day) factors observed in 42 Sydney region houses across a two-year monitoring period. The resulting models can be implemented in building energy performance simulation (BEPS) tools to more accurately predict indoor environmental conditions and energy consumption attributable to A/C operation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030122
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 123: Experimental and Numerical Study on the
           Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Newly-Developed Solar Active Thermal
           Insulation System

    • Authors: Peter Steininger, Matthias Gaderer, Oliver Steffens, Belal Dawoud
      First page: 123
      Abstract: A newly-developed solar active thermal insulation system (SATIS) is introduced with the main objective to accomplish a highly-dependent total solar transmittance on the irradiation angle. SATIS is also designed to obtain the maximum transmittance at a prescribed design irradiation angle and to reduce it remarkably at higher irradiation angles. A purely mineral thermal insulation plaster with micro hollow glass spheres is applied to manufacture the investigated SATIS prototype. Light-conducting elements (LCEs) have been introduced into SATIS and suitable closing elements have been applied. The SATIS prototype has been investigated both experimentally and numerically. It turned out that the contributions of conduction, radiation and convection to the effective thermal conductivity of SATIS, without the closing elements (49 mWmK), amount to 86.2%, 13.2% and 0.6%, respectively. The angle-dependent short-wave radiation exchange within the LCE has been investigated via ray tracing. At the incidence angle of 19% (design angle), 27% of the radiation within the LCE is absorbed by the absorber plate, resulting in measured and computed total solar energy transmittances of 11.2%/11.7%, respectively. For a typical summer irradiation angle of 60%, 98% of the incident radiation is absorbed by the surfaces at the entrance of the LCE. The corresponding total solar energy transmittance amounts to 2.9%.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030123
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 124: Numerical Analysis on Global Serviceability

    • Authors: Xuan Zhao, Binsheng Zhang, Tony Kilpatrick, Iain Sanderson
      First page: 124
      Abstract: Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative engineered timber product and has been widely used for constructing tall timber buildings due to its excellent structural performance and good strength with its multi-layers of boards in both perpendicular directions. However, the global serviceability performance of tall timber buildings constructed from CLT products for the lift core, walls, and floors under wind load is not well known yet, even though it is crucial in a design. In this study, the finite element software SAP2000 is used to numerically simulate the global static and dynamic serviceability behaviours of a 30-storey tall CLT building assumed in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. The maximum horizontal storey displacement due to wind is only 16.6% of the design limit and the maximum global horizontal displacement is only 13.8% of the limit set to the Eurocodes. The first three lowest vibrational frequencies, modes and shapes were obtained, with the fundamental frequency being 19.9% larger than the code-recommended value. Accordingly, the peak acceleration of the building due to wind was determined as per the Eurocodes and ISO standard. The results show that the global serviceability behaviours of the building satisfy the requirements of the Eurocodes and other design standards. Parametric studies on the peak accelerations of the tall CLT building were also conducted by varying the timber material properties and building masses. By increasing the timber grade for CLT members, the generalised building mass and the generalised building stiffness can all be adopted to lower the peak accelerations at the top level of the building, so as to reduce human perceptions of the wind-induced vibrations with respect to the peak acceleration.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030124
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 125: Correlation between Ground Motion
           Parameters and Displacement Demands of Mid-Rise RC Buildings on Soft Soils
           Considering Soil-Structure-Interaction

    • Authors: Muhammet Kamal, Mehmet Inel
      First page: 125
      Abstract: This paper investigates the correlation between ground motion parameters and displacement demands of mid-rise RC frame buildings on soft soils considering the soil-structure interaction. The mid-rise RC buildings are represented by using 5, 8, 10, 13, and 15-storey frame building models with no structural irregularity. A total of 105 3D nonlinear time history analyses were carried out for 21 acceleration records and 5 different building models. The roof drift ratio (RDR) obtained as inelastic displacement demands at roof level normalized by the building height is used for demand measure, while 20 ground motion parameters were used as intensity measure. The outcomes show velocity related parameters such as Housner Intensity (HI), Root Mean Square of Velocity (Vrms), Velocity Spectrum Intensity (VSI) and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), which reflect inelastic displacement demands of mid-rise buildings as a damage indicator on soft soil deposit reasonably well. HI is the leading parameter with the strongest correlation. However, acceleration and displacement related parameters exhibit poor correlation. This study proposed new combined multiple ground motion parameter equations to reflect the damage potential better than a single ground motion parameter. The use of combined multiple parameters can be effective in determining seismic damages by improving the scatter by at least 24% compared to the use of a single parameter.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030125
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 126: Integration of BIM and Immersive
           Technologies for AEC: A Scientometric-SWOT Analysis and Critical Content

    • Authors: Ayaz Khan, Samad Sepasgozar, Tingting Liu, Rongrong Yu
      First page: 126
      Abstract: With the outset of Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0), every sector is escalating to get enrichment out of it, whether they are research- or industry-oriented. The Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry lags a bit in adopting it because of its multi-faceted dependencies and unique nature of work. Despite this, a trend has been seen recently to hone the IR 4.0 multitudes in the AEC industry. The upsurge has been seen in the usage of Immersive Technologies (ImTs) as one of the disruptive techniques. This paper studies the literature based on ImTs, which are Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR) integrating with Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the AEC sector. A total number of 444 articles were selected from Scopus following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol of reviewing the literature. Among the selected database, 64 papers are identified as the result of following the protocol, and the articles are divided into eight domains relevant to the AEC industry, namely client/stakeholder, design exploration, design analysis, construction planning, construction monitoring, construction health/safety, facility/management, and education/training. This study adopts both a scientometric analysis for bibliometrics visualization and a critical review using Strength Weakness Opportunity Threat (SWOT) analysis for finding gaps and state of play. The novelty of this paper lies in the analysis techniques used in the literature to provide an insight into the literature, and it provides directions for the future with an emphasis on developing sustainable development goals (SDGs). In addition, research directions for the future growth on the adoption of ImTs are identified and presented based on categorization in immersive devices, graphical/non-graphical data and, responsive/integrative processes. In addition, five subcategories for each direction are listed, citing the limitations and future/needs. This study presents the roadmap for the successful adoption of ImTs for industry practitioners and stakeholders in the AEC industry for various domains. The paper shows that there are studies on ImTs with or without BIM; however, future studies should focus on the usage of ImTs in various sectors such as modular integrated construction (MiC) or emerging needs such as SDGs.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030126
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 127: Factors That Affect the Level of Success of
           the Transaction between Home Buyers and Developers in Sell-Build
           Residential Projects

    • Authors: Selman Aslan, David Arditi, Gözde Tantekin-Çelik
      First page: 127
      Abstract: The “Sell-Build” model in residential project transactions involves a home buyer agreeing to pay the developer in monthly installments starting very early in the design or construction phases of a project. It is hypothesized that the success of this transaction depends on (1) the home buyer’s knowledge about the transaction process and (2) the mutual trust between home buyer and developer. A survey was administered to 250 home buyers and 70 developers in Turkey to collect demographic information about the participants and about the participants’ perceptions of not only the success of the transactions they were involved in, but also of the impacts of how informed home buyers are about the transaction process and how much the two parties trust each other. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis. The findings indicate that (1) the home buyer should make a special effort to study relevant materials and consult specialists before entering into an agreement with a developer, and (2) the trust between home buyer and developer depends largely on the buyer’s uninterrupted flow of monthly installment payments starting early in the project. The contribution of this study is that it provides a useful guideline to home buyers and developers.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030127
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 128: Health and Safety Consideration in the
           Procurement of Public Construction Projects in Ghana

    • Authors: Elijah Frimpong Boadu, Riza Yosia Sunindijo, Cynthia Changxin Wang
      First page: 128
      Abstract: This study explored the extent to which health and safety (H&S) are considered in the procurement of public sector projects in Ghana. This is based on the background that procurement decisions have implications for project H&S management. The enormous size of public procurement projects offers opportunities for public clients to influence the behaviour of the construction market including the promotion of H&S through procurement. To date, no study has fully assessed the extent of H&S considerations in procurement decisions for public sector construction projects in Ghana. To fill this gap, this research has provided an evidence-based assessment of H&S considerations in the various stages of the procurement process for public sector projects in Ghana. Through a questionnaire survey, data were collected from construction industry professionals in Ghana. The data were subjected to statistical analysis to evaluate the extent of H&S considerations. The findings suggest that H&S is given low priority in the procurement of public projects, because clear project objectives relating to H&S are not set, and adequate consideration is not given to H&S at the various procurement stages. Based on the findings, this research has made recommendations to promote H&S in public procurement in Ghana.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030128
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 129: Design Science and Co-Designing of Hybrid

    • Authors: Marko Lahti, Suvi Nenonen
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Background: Future places for learning and working are digitally and physically integrated hybrid environments. The archetypical context of learning is the classroom, and context of working is the office; especially in knowledge work. New information and communication technologies enable the spatial reconfiguration of work opening possibilities for work to take place across multiple locations. This paper aims to explore how the conceptual framework of design-science research in Information Systems can be applied when the design object is a hybrid working environment. Methods: The case study method as a qualitative approach was chosen; because it involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence. The empirical analysis of two hybrid working environments is based on Action Design Research (ADR)-entry points; where one analyzes two case studies stage by stage. By analyzing various stages in both case studies; one can identify co-designing challenges of hybrid working environments. Results: The results present four recommendations for co-designing of hybrid working environments. The use of hybrid working environment; the design of spatial solution; the identification of iterative processes; and the user experiences of presence and distance are significant. The Entry Point Analysis-tool can be used and further developed in analyzing and developing hybrid working environments. Conclusion: The results contribute to the tradition of usability studies. The usability briefing approach can be further developed by identifying the iterative processes inside the linear project management models. Additionally, design science research can find new insights from identification of the large stakeholder iterations more precisely.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030129
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 130: IEA EBC Annex83 Positive Energy Districts

    • Authors: Åsa Hedman, Hassam Ur Rehman, Andrea Gabaldón, Adriano Bisello, Vicky Albert-Seifried, Xingxing Zhang, Francesco Guarino, Steinar Grynning, Ursula Eicker, Hans-Martin Neumann, Pekka Tuominen, Francesco Reda
      First page: 130
      Abstract: At a global level, the need for energy efficiency and an increased share of renewable energy sources is evident, as is the crucial role of cities due to the rapid urbanization rate. As a consequence of this, the research work related to Positive Energy Districts (PED) has accelerated in recent years. A common shared definition, as well as technological approaches or methodological issues related to PEDs are still unclear in this development and a global scientific discussion is needed. The International Energy Agency’s Energy in Buildings and Communities Programme (IEA EBC) Annex 83 is the main platform for this international scientific debate and research. This paper describes the challenges of PEDs and the issues that are open for discussions and how the Annex 83 is planned and organized to facilitate this and to actively steer the development of PEDs major leaps forward. The main topics of discussion in the PED context are the role and importance of definitions of PEDs, virtual and geographical boundaries in PEDs, the role of different stakeholders, evaluation approaches, and the learnings of realized PED projects.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030130
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 131: Development and Validation of Building
           Control Algorithm Energy Management

    • Authors: Yerim Han, Woohyun Kim
      First page: 131
      Abstract: In this paper, a building control algorithm is proposed to reduce the electricity consumption of a building with a variable refrigerant flow (VRF) system. The algorithm uses sequence-to-sequence long short-term memory (seq2seq LSTM) to set target electricity consumption, and uses a VRF air conditioner system to reduce electricity consumption. After setting target electricity consumption, the algorithm is applied as a method of updating target electricity consumption. In addition, we propose two methods to increase the performance of the seq2seq LSTM model. First, among the feature selection methods, random forest is used to select, among the numerous features of the data, only those features that are most relevant to the predicted value. Second, we use Bayesian optimization, which selects the optimal hyperparameter that shows the best model performance. In order to control the air conditioners, the priority of air conditioners is designated, the method of prioritization being the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). In this study, comparison of the performance of seq2seq LSTM model with and without Bayesian optimization proved that the use of Bayesian optimization achieved good performance. Simulation and demonstration experiments using the algorithm were also conducted, and showed that building electricity consumption decreased in a similar manner to the reduction rate by means of the algorithm.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030131
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 132: Cultural Heritage: A Hybrid Framework for
           Ranking Adaptive Reuse Strategies

    • Authors: Lucia Della Spina
      First page: 132
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to illustrate, through a case study, a multilevel decision-making process able to support the decision maker in optimizing investment choices for the efficient allocation of public resources, with specific reference to recovery and adaptation to the reuse of unused historical public heritage. During the evaluation process, two methods in particular were combined according to a multiphase design: (i) a multi-criteria analysis to identify the Highest and Best Use among alternative reuse scenarios and (ii) a Discounted Cash Flow Analysis to support verification of the financial feasibility of the investment, in the hypothesis of an enhancement concession in a public–private partnership. Each method was applied in parallel to the evolution of the different design scenarios. The results of the study show that hybrid approaches are a promising line of research in the field of evaluation and urban design, applied to cultural heritage.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030132
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 133: Influence of the Widespread Use of Corten
           Plate on the Acoustics of the European Solidarity Centre Building in

    • Authors: Wojciech Targowski, Andrzej Kulowski
      First page: 133
      Abstract: This paper describes the relationship between a strong architectural vision that is difficult to balance, and user expectations in terms of acoustics. The focus is on the use of corten steel as the dominant finishing material on façades and interiors to achieve an expressive, symbolic message through program-based design. The architectural premises justifying the adopted solutions are presented, especially the universality and homogeneity of the material. Against this background, the influence of corten steel on the acoustics of the two largest rooms of the European Solidarity Center, which are the winter garden and the multi-purpose hall, was discussed. Remedial steps have been taken to reduce the greatest acoustic inconveniences resulting from the widespread use of metal sheet as a finishing material in rooms, i.e., excessive reverberation and a low degree of sound dispersion. A positive result for the acoustic conditions achieved in the winter garden was the presentation of a large body of classical music in the building.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030133
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 134: Factorial Study on the Impact of Climate
           Change on Freeze-Thaw Damage, Mould Growth and Wood Decay in Solid Masonry
           Walls in Brussels

    • Authors: Isabeau Vandemeulebroucke, Steven Caluwaerts, Nathan Van Den Bossche
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Previous studies show that climate change has an impact on the damage risks in solid masonry facades. To conserve these valuable buildings, it is important to determine the projected change in damages for the original and internally insulated cases. Since historical masonry covers a wide range of properties, it is unknown how sensitive the climate change impact is to variations in different parameters, such as wall thickness, brick type, etc. A factorial study is performed to determine the climate change impact on freeze-thaw risk, mould growth and wood decay in solid masonry in Brussels, Belgium. It is found that the critical orientation equals the critical wind-driven rain orientation and does not change over time. Further, the freeze-thaw risk is generally decreasing, whereas the change in mould growth and wood decay depends on the climate scenario. Knowing the brick type and rain exposure coefficient is most important when assessing the climate change impact. For freeze-thaw risk and wood decay, it is found that simulating one wall thickness for the uninsulated and one insulated case is sufficient to represent the climate change impact. Finally, the effects of climate change generally do not compensate for the increase in damage after the application of internal insulation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030134
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
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