Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 139 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cityscape     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access  
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access  
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access  
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Construction Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Urban Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access  
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nordic Concrete Research     Open Access  
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access  
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Buildings
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2075-5309
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 568: Understanding Ganghwa Dondae Forts as a
           Vernacular Model of Construction and Reuse

    • Authors: Wanghoon Rhee, Young-Jae Kim
      First page: 568
      Abstract: The Dondae forts of Ganghwa Island in the late Joseon dynasty are significant as a maritime defense heritage. Thus far, research on Dondae has focused on historical sources. This study concentrates on essential interpretation to comprehend the vernacular architectural characteristics of the forts as a fixed facility. Confirming the purpose of the construction provides a deeper understanding of the appearance of the late Joseon dynasty beyond the current modified Ganghwa Dondae. This study utilizes standard models of fort architecture established during King Sukjong’s regime and confirms the unique value of military forts, which evolved through a myriad of political changes. Furthermore, this study addresses the sustainable conservation of fort architecture through the continual reuse of the yeongjochek (a construction measurement unit), even though combat techniques had been ceaselessly advanced for the more efficient discharge of cannons. The construction activities of Dondae forts in the 18th century unveil a management system in pre-modern times that is comparable to the modern model in terms of repetitive repairs and incessant production, designed to support military purposes based on norms established during the planning stage. Sustainable architectural models have been standardized since pre-modern times and allow the continued production and conservation of monuments for future generations.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050568
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 571: Collaboration and Risk in Building
           Information Modelling (BIM): A Systematic Literature Review

    • Authors: Kherun Nita Ali, Hamed H. Alhajlah, Mukhtar A. Kassem
      First page: 571
      Abstract: Building information modelling (BIM) has become increasingly popular in construction projects in recent years. Simultaneously, project management has received more attention from academics and practitioners worldwide. Many studies have suggested that perceiving collaboration and risk are critical for successful construction project management. This study investigates the current status and future trends in building information modeling (BIM) literature from the Web of Science database. This review systematically uses bibliometric and systematic literature review (SLR) methods through co-occurrence and co-citation analysis. First, 650 academic documents were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Then, co-occurrence and co-citation analyses were performed along with network visualization to examine research interconnections’ patterns. As a result, relevant keywords, productive authors, and important journals have been highlighted. The prominent research topics within the literature on building information modelling focus on the following topics: collaborative in BIM, integration of BIM, GIS and Internet of Things (IoT), barriers to the integration of BIM, sustainability and BIM, and risk assessment and uncertainty. Finally, the potential research directions are developing towards digital twin technology, integration of BIM and AI, and Augmented Reality (AR) and BIM. The presented findings of only 88 articles discuss the collaboration and risk issue in BIM for the construction industry and thus confirms the need for more studies on this topic to enhance the chances of successfully building information modelling projects. The review focuses only on the academic documents retrieved from the Web of Science database, thus restricting the coverage of the reviewed literature relating to building information modelling collaboration and risk.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050571
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 572: Investigation of Thermal Bridges of a New
           High-Performance Window Installation Using 2-D and 3-D Methodology

    • Authors: Jolanta Šadauskienė, Juozas Ramanauskas, Dorota Anna Krawczyk, Eglė Klumbytė, Paris A. Fokaides
      First page: 572
      Abstract: The investigation of building elements regarding energy saving is a paramount issue, with EU Directives driving achievement goals, focusing on buildings’ energy performance and energy efficiency. This work focuses on investigating thermal bridges in a new high-performance window installation. This work aims to investigate the thermal properties of windows installed in the thermal insulation layer and to compare different installation methods and thermal bridge evaluation methodologies from the point of view of thermal physics. The results show that comparing the obtained values of the thermal bridge according to two- and three-dimensional domain (2-D and 3-D) calculation methods, the values show a difference of 68%. After examining the method of installing a new high-performance window in the thermal insulation layer, the effect of installing a window on the wall of a building is highlighted in this work. Given that windows are the most thermally conductive elements in a building, this paper provides guidance for both the scientific community and practitioners regarding trends in thermal bridges that change completely when using different assessment methods.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050572
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 573: Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of Timber,
           Steel and Reinforced Concrete Portal Frames: A Theoretical Study on a
           Norwegian Industrial Building

    • Authors: Osama Abdelfattah Hegeir, Tore Kvande, Haris Stamatopoulos, Rolf André Bohne
      First page: 573
      Abstract: The construction industry is a big contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, which has a negative environmental impact. Several studies have highlighted the possibility of using timber to reduce the environmental impact of construction. Most of these studies have focused on residential buildings, but little attention has been devoted to industrial buildings. In this paper, an attempt is made to compare the environmental impact of using timber, steel, and reinforced concrete in industrial buildings using life cycle assessment. The system boundary was set to cradle-to-gate with transportation to construction site due to the limitation of data, and only the quantities of the main structural system are considered. Portal frames with variable spans were designed using the three materials to meet similar load carrying capacity. Reinforced concrete was used in the foundation of all frames. The results of the comparative study show that timber has, by a good margin, better environmental impact than reinforced concrete and steel, due to the carbon stored in the wood. The results also show that reinforced concrete and steel alternatives have similar environmental impacts. The findings of this study agree with the findings of other studies on residential buildings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050573
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 574: DEMSA Protocol: Deterioration Effect
           Modelling for Structural Assessment of RC Buildings

    • Authors: Casprini, Passoni, Marini, Bartoli
      First page: 574
      Abstract: The effects of deterioration strongly impact the expected future service life and the structural performances of existing reinforced concrete structures. Currently, straightforward methodologies are required to include such effects in the assessment and renovation of the RC buildings’ heritage. A simplified protocol enabling the detection, evaluation, and modelling of corrosion effects is presented in this paper. The protocol provides the guidance for the design and management of the on-site diagnostic campaign, aimed at identifying a possible corrosion risk scenario. Then, equivalent damage parameters describing corrosion effects in the structural models can be calibrated. Structural performances over time can be assessed to predict the structural residual life, maintenance management criteria and timing, and major indications on the feasibility of the retrofit intervention, or the unavoidable need of demolition. The application of the proposed protocol to some case studies emphasises the effectiveness of the procedure for detecting possible activated corrosion processes and for supporting engineers in their decision-making process and choice of renovation strategy.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050574
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 575: Characteristics and Mechanism of Fire
           Spread between Full-Scale Wooden Houses from Internal Fires

    • Authors: Shasha Yuan, Kun Xiang, Feng Yan, Qing Liu, Xuan Sun, Yinqing Li, Peng Du
      First page: 575
      Abstract: In ancient villages, the spread of uninterrupted fires caused great damage to clustered wooden houses. Thus, the spread of fire among wooden houses should be systematically studied to explore its characteristics. Statistical analysis is a feasible way to study the characteristics and underlying mechanisms of fire in full-scale wooden houses. In this study, 4 full-scale wooden buildings were built in an ethnic village in Guizhou Province, and the fire spread test was conducted by igniting a 0.63-MW power wood crib. To investigate the fire spread, the visual characteristics were observed, and the temperatures and heat radiation at special locations were monitored with thermocouples and radiation flowmeters, respectively. The effect of relative slope, heat radiation, and wind direction on fire spread characteristics was established by mathematical statistics, and the measured temperatures were used to verify the statistics’ regularity. The results showed that in wooden houses, fire spread was mainly influenced by the slope, the distance between houses, and wind direction. When the inner wall of a wooden house is protected by a fireproof coating, the thermal radiation spread and fire spread are both slower. The slope and distance had the same influence weight (0.41) on fire spread; however, since they affect the process in different ways, they should be analyzed separately for fire risk evaluation. The findings of this study provide a theoretical foundation for understanding the fire spread process in wooden buildings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050575
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 576: Wind Pressure Characteristics Based on the
           Rise–Span Ratio of Spherical Domes with Openings on the Roof

    • Authors: Min Jae Park, Sung Won Yoon, Yong Chul Kim, Dong Jin Cheon
      First page: 576
      Abstract: Wind loads are a primary concern in dome roof structures with openings such as retractable dome roofs. This is because the openings can cause damage to the cladding owing to high internal pressure. In this study, the wind pressure characteristics of a dome with an opening that varied based on the opening, rise–span ratio, and height span were examined by comparing the results from wind tunnel tests with those from previous studies. The negative pressure dominated the internal pressure of the roof in all regions and was not significantly affected by changes in the rise–span and height–span ratios. The reattachment distance of the windward region increased as the rise–span ratio increased, increasing the negative net pressure and decreasing the positive net pressure owing to a relatively large vortex. The roof inclination angle of the leeward region decreased as the rise–span ratio decreased, resulting in a decrease in the negative net pressure and an increase in the positive net pressure owing to a relatively small vortex. Based on the experimental results, a peak net pressure coefficient for cladding design was proposed for an open dome roof with a rise–span ratio of 0.05.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050576
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 577: Probabilistic Moment Bearing Capacity Model
           and Fragility of Beam-Column Joints with Cast Steel Stiffeners

    • Authors: Li, Xu
      First page: 577
      Abstract: Beam-column joint with cast steel stiffeners (CSS) is a new type of joint with a large degree of design freedom. The joint stress distribution can be improved by designing a reasonable cross-sectional shape of the CSS with high rigidity, high integrity, and good seismic performance. Due to the construction specificity, the exact theoretical formula for the moment bearing capacity of the CSS joint is hard to deduce. Some researchers have proposed empirical or simplified theoretical formulas for the prediction of moment bearing capacity. However, the formulas are biased and cannot capture uncertainties in the data measurement and modeling process. In addition, current formulas cannot be updated efficiently over time, and no work has been conducted regarding the reliability of the CSS joints subject to different loading conditions. In this paper, a new approach to address the above issues is proposed. A probabilistic model for the joint capacity is established to capture the uncertainties and correct the bias. A Bayesian method is proposed for model training, which allows the model to be updated efficiently whenever new experiment or simulation data are available. A fragility analysis is conducted using the proposed capacity model to quantify the failure probability of joints under different loading conditions. The advantages of the proposed approach are validated by analyzing joints in a database obtained from experiments and numerical simulations. Results show that the proposed capacity model provides unbiased and more accurate estimates of the bending moment than the currently available ones. New factors such as column thickness and concrete filling are found to significantly impact the moment capacity. The bending fragility of CSS joints can be lowered at different degrees by increasing concrete strength, steel strength, column thickness, etc. Guidance on CSS joint design and retrofitting based on the capacity model and fragility analysis is also presented at the end of this paper.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050577
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 578: Evaluation of Machine Learning and
           Web-Based Process for Damage Score Estimation of Existing Buildings

    • Authors: Vandana Kumari, Ehsan Harirchian, Tom Lahmer, Shahla Rasulzade
      First page: 578
      Abstract: The seismic vulnerability assessment of existing reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is a significant source of disaster mitigation plans and rescue services. Different countries evolved various Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) techniques and methodologies to deal with the devastating consequences of earthquakes on the structural characteristics of buildings and human casualties. Artificial intelligence (AI) methods, such as machine learning (ML) algorithm-based methods, are increasingly used in various scientific and technical applications. The investigation toward using these techniques in civil engineering applications has shown encouraging results and reduced human intervention, including uncertainties and biased judgment. In this study, several known non-parametric algorithms are investigated toward RVS using a dataset employing different earthquakes. Moreover, the methodology encourages the possibility of examining the buildings’ vulnerability based on the factors related to the buildings’ importance and exposure. In addition, a web-based application built on Django is introduced. The interface is designed with the idea to ease the seismic vulnerability investigation in real-time. The concept was validated using two case studies, and the achieved results showed the proposed approach’s potential efficiency.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050578
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 579: Low-Cost Thermohygrometers to Assess
           Thermal Comfort in the Built Environment: A Laboratory Evaluation of Their
           Measurement Performance

    • Authors: Salamone, Chinazzo, Danza, Miller, Sibilio, Masullo
      First page: 579
      Abstract: A thermohygrometer is an instrument that is able to measure relative humidity and air temperature, which are two of the fundamental parameters to estimate human thermal comfort. To date, the market offers small and low-cost solutions for this instrument, providing the opportunity to bring electronics closer to the end-user and contributing to the proliferation of a variety of applications and open-source projects. One of the most critical aspects of using low-cost instruments is their measurement reliability. This study aims to determine the measurement performance of seven low-cost thermohygrometers throughout a 10-fold repeatability test in a climatic chamber with air temperatures ranging from about −10 to +40 °C and relative humidity from approximately 0 to 90%. Compared with reference sensors, their measurements show good linear behavior with some exceptions. A sub-dataset of the data collected is then used to calculate two of the most used indoor (PMV) and outdoor (UTCI) comfort indexes to define discrepancies between the indexes calculated with the data from the reference sensors and the low-cost sensors. The results suggest that although six of the seven low-cost sensors have accuracy that meets the requirements of ISO 7726, in some cases, they do not provide acceptable comfort indicators if the values are taken as they are. The linear regression analysis suggests that it is possible to correct the output to reduce the difference between reference and low-cost sensors, enabling the use of low-cost sensors to assess indoor thermal comfort in terms of PMV and outdoor thermal stress in UTCI and encouraging a more conscious use for environmental and human-centric research.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050579
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 580: Automated Selection and Localization of
           Mobile Cranes in Construction Planning

    • Authors: Hongling Guo, Ying Zhou, Zaiyi Pan, Zhitian Zhang, Yantao Yu, Yan Li
      First page: 580
      Abstract: Accurate selection and location of mobile cranes is a critical issue on construction sites, being able to contribute to the improvement of the safety and efficiency of lifting operations. Considering the complexities and dynamics of construction sites, this study aimed to develop a useful approach for automated selection and localization of mobile cranes based on the simulation of crane operations. First, the information required for crane selection and localization is analyzed and extracted from BIM (building information modeling). Then, mainly considering the crane capacity, the initial crane type is selected with candidate location points. Based on the simulation of lifting operation at the candidate points, feasible location points and crane types are determined through three constraint checks (i.e., environment constraint, operation constraint, and safety constraint). Besides, two kinds of efficiency optimization, namely lifting time minimization and crane movement minimization, are presented to figure out the best location points from the feasible points. Finally, the proposed approach is validated using a case study. This research contributes to not only crane operation planning but also automatic construction simulation, thus supporting the implementation of intelligent construction in the future.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050580
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 581: Model-Based Control Strategies to Enhance
           Energy Flexibility in Electrically Heated School Buildings

    • Authors: Navid Morovat, Andreas K. Athienitis, José Agustín Candanedo, Benoit Delcroix
      First page: 581
      Abstract: This paper presents a general methodology to model and activate the energy flexibility of electrically heated school buildings. The proposed methodology is based on the use of archetypes of resistance–capacitance thermal networks for representative thermal zones calibrated with measured data. Using these models, predictive control strategies are investigated with the aim of reducing peak demand in response to grid requirements and incentives. A key aim is to evaluate the potential of shifting electricity use in different archetype zones from on-peak hours to off-peak grid periods. Key performance indicators are applied to quantify the energy flexibility at the zone level and the school building level. The proposed methodology has been implemented in an electrically heated school building located in Québec, Canada. This school has several features (geothermal heat pumps, hydronic radiant floors, and energy storage) that make it ideal for the purpose of this study. The study shows that with proper control strategies through a rule-based approach with near-optimal setpoint profiles, the building’s average power demand can be reduced by 40% to 65% during on-peak hours compared to a typical profile.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050581
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 582: A Review on Building Design as a Biomedical
           System for Preventing COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Mugahed Amran, Natt Makul, Roman Fediuk, Aleksey Borovkov, Mujahid Ali, Abdullah M. Zeyad
      First page: 582
      Abstract: Sustainable design methods aim to obtain architectural solutions that assure the coexistence and welfare of human beings, inorganic structures, and living things that constitute ecosystems. The novel coronavirus emergence, inadequate vaccines against the present severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-(SARS-CoV-2), and increases in microbial resistance have made it essential to review the preventative approaches used during pre-antibiotic periods. Apart from low carbon emissions and energy, sustainable architecture for facilities, building designs, and digital modeling should incorporate design approaches to confront the impacts of communicable infections. This review aims to determine how architectural design can protect people and employees from harm; it models viewpoints to highlight the architects’ roles in combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and designing guidelines as a biomedical system for policymakers. The goals include exploring the hospital architecture evolution and the connection between architectural space and communicable infections and recommending design and digital modeling strategies to improve infection prevention and controls. Based on a wide-ranging literature review, it was found that design methods have often played important roles in the prevention and control of infectious diseases and could be a solution for combating the wide spread of the novel coronavirus or coronavirus variants or delta.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050582
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 583: Timber Semirigid Frame Connection with
           Improved Deformation Capacity and Ductility

    • Authors: Marek Johanides, Antonin Lokaj, David Mikolasek, Petr Mynarcik, Pavel Dobes, Oldrich Sucharda
      First page: 583
      Abstract: The present study deals with the innovation and the possibilities of improving the design solution of a frame connection for two selected types of fasteners. All specimens were made of glued laminated timber. Dowel-type mechanical fasteners, a combination of bolts and dowels, and full-threaded screws were used for the connection. The main goal of this research was to replace the typical solution (common dowel-type fasteners) with a more modern, faster, and easier solution in order to improve the load-carrying capacity, ductility, and deformation capacity of this type of frame connection. This article also aimed to provide a detailed evaluation of the mechanical properties of the used glued laminated timber and fasteners in order to comprehensively evaluate the research task. For the design solution, a frame connection created from a system of two struts and a partition was chosen as the basis of the experimental program. Dowel-type mechanical fasteners, as well as combinations of bolts and dowels, were used for the connection; however, in addition to these standardly used mechanical fasteners, full-threaded screws were used. The article describes the use of static destructive testing to determine the ductility of the connection, considering different variations in the strengthening of the individual segments of the mentioned connection means. In the first variation, the individual components of the frame were not reinforced in any way. In the second, the crossbar was reinforced with two full-threaded bolts. In the third, the webs and the crossbar were reinforced with two full-threaded bolts. In the article, these ductility values were compared with each other and the procedure was set by the currently valid standard.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050583
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 584: Failure Modes of Reinforced Concrete Beams
           Strengthened in Flexure with Externally Bonded Aramid Fiber-Reinforced
           Polymer Sheets under Impact Loading

    • Authors: Le Huy Sinh, Masato Komuro, Tomoki Kawarai, Norimitsu Kishi
      First page: 584
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the aramid fiber-reinforced polymer (AFRP) sheet bonding method to investigate the influences of the sheet volume and input impact energy on the failure modes of strengthened RC beams. The drop-weight impact loading tests were conducted on RC beams strengthened with AFRP sheets. The sheet volume was investigated, varying from 415 to 1660 g/m2. The impact force was generated by dropping a 300 kg steel weight onto the midspan of the beams from different heights (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 m), and the weight’s drop height was raised until the sheets were debonded or ruptured. As a reference beam, nonstrengthened beams were also evaluated. The following are the findings of this research. (1) In the event of impact loading, the impact resistance capacity of strengthened beams can be enhanced by up to 85% by applying the AFRP sheet bonding method; however, (2) in the case of relatively large impact energy, the impact resistance capacity may not always be remarkable. (3) Depending on the sheet volume, the failure mechanism of the AFRP-strengthened beams was classified into two types: sheet debonding and sheet rupturing. Furthermore, (4) increasing the sheet volume may not improve the debonding of the AFRP sheet of the strengthened beams.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050584
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 585: Promotion Strategy of Smart Construction
           Site Based on Stakeholder: An Evolutionary Game Analysis

    • Authors: Feng Guo, Xiaojing Peng, Jianglin Gu
      First page: 585
      Abstract: Smart Construction Sites (SCS) are important drivers for the construction of high-quality development. In order to determine the evolution of SCS advancement systems, an evolutionary game model consisting of government, enterprises and projects was constructed. The experimental simulations were performed by using a system dynamics approach. The findings were as follows: (1) There are three stable equilibrium strategies in the evolution of the game system: government, enterprises and projects all adopt positive strategies; government intervention, enterprises’ advancement, and projects’ non-participation; and government intervention, enterprises and projects adopting negative strategies. (2) Government penalties and balance of interests between enterprises and projects are the main factors affecting the evolution. (3) In the state (1,1,1), the influence of a government regulatory system is more significant in encouraging enterprises to promote SCS and projects to participate in building an SCS platform. (4) Government rewards and penalties, costs and benefits of corporate support for SCS, benefits when projects do not participate in SCS, are the main factors influencing the adoption of proactive strategies by companies and projects, and there are significant differences in the strategic directions and marginal impacts of each factor on stakeholders’ choices. These findings provide a reference for further refining stakeholder theory and for promoting the sustainable development of SCS.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050585
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 586: Carbonation and Corrosion Problems in
           Reinforced Concrete Structures

    • Authors: Abdulrahman Fahad Al Fuhaid, Akbar Niaz
      First page: 586
      Abstract: Reinforced concrete (RC) has been commonly used as a construction material for decades due to its high compressive strength and moderate tensile strength. However, these two properties of RC are frequently hampered by degradation. The main degradation processes in RC structures are carbonation and the corrosion of rebars. The scientific community is divided regarding the process by which carbonation causes structural damage. Some researchers suggest that carbonation weakens a structure and makes it prone to rebar corrosion, while others suggest that carbonation does not damage structures enough to cause rebar corrosion. This paper is a review of the research work carried out by different researchers on the carbonation and corrosion of RC structures. The process of carbonation and the factors that contribute to this process will be discussed, alongside recommendations for improving structures to decrease the carbonation process. The corrosion of rebars, damage to passive layers, volume expansion due to steel oxidation, and crack growth will also be discussed. Available protection methods for reducing carbonation, such as rebar structure coating, cathodic protection, and modifier implementation, will also be reviewed. The paper concludes by describing the most significant types of damage caused by carbonation, testing protocols, and mitigation against corrosion damage.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050586
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 587: Experimental Study on the Natural Dynamic
           Characteristics of Steel-Framed Modular Structures

    • Authors: Mostafa Farajian, Pejman Sharafi, Ali Bigdeli, Hadi Eslamnia, Payam Rahnamayiezekavat
      First page: 587
      Abstract: Corner-supported modular structures are made of repetitive prefurnished, prefinished modular units, which are fabricated in a factory and transported to the site of a building to form a permanent building block. The modular units are then tied together through the use of so-called inter-modular connections, or inter-connections, which form a different configuration at joints compared to conventional steel structures. The presence of inter-connections in these structures, in addition to beam-to-column connections or intra-connections, may change their dynamic characteristics, including natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios. This paper aims to investigate the dynamic characteristics of a modular building through the use of operational modal analysis (OMA). A half-scaled three-storey modular structure, designed and instrumented with highly sensitive accelerometers, was experimentally tested under pure and randomly generated vibrations. The time history of the response acceleration of the structure was recorded using a data acquisition system. Different output-only techniques of OMA, based on both frequency and time domains, were employed to analyse the recorded response acceleration of the structure and extract the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios. These techniques are peak picking (PP), enhanced frequency-domain decomposition (EFDD), and stochastic subspace identification (SSI). The outcomes in this paper can be used for further research on the development of an experimental formula for the design of multistorey modular buildings against lateral loads.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050587
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 588: Climate Mitigation in the Swedish
           Single-Family Homes Industry and Potentials for LCA as Decision Support

    • Authors: Johanna Brismark, Tove Malmqvist, Sara Borgström
      First page: 588
      Abstract: Decision support tools for incentivizing environmentally sound decisions in building design, such as LCA (life cycle assessment), have been highlighted as an essential feature for enhancing the realization of more sustainable buildings. Nevertheless, the use of LCA to support decisions in building design is still limited in practice. A better understanding of the social dynamics and detailed contexts of the decisions leading up to a final building design is therefore critical for better integration of LCA-based information in the decision-making processes. This paper reports a qualitative, semi-structured interview study of single-family home producers in Sweden and their decision-making in relation to climate mitigation, with a particular focus on embodied carbon mitigation. By studying a specific branch of the building and construction sector, a more in-depth record can be obtained of the particularities of implementation contexts and decision-making situations in which LCA may, or may not, have a role in driving climate mitigation. Four primary decision contexts in which LCA may have an influential role to drive embodied carbon reduction include: (1) the development of building systems, (2) development and offering of house models, (3) the selection of construction products for the building system as well as for the offer of add-on products to customers, and (4) the dialogues in the individual house-buyer projects. Decision-making that affects sustainable outcomes in this part of the sector is very much dependent on a supporting regulatory context. Over the years, using building LCA in early design stages, for optimization towards low-impact final buildings, has been a repeatedly promoted recommendation both in academia and practice. This study, however, reveals that such a conclusion is too simplistic. The different overarching decision contexts identified for this particular branch display the variety of needs for life cycle-based information.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050588
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 589: Experimental Application of
           Cement-Stabilized Pavement Base with Low-Grade Metamorphic Rock Aggregates
           

    • Authors: Qian Yang, Yi Liu, Haotian Zou, Xiaoxiong Wang, Guohuan Gong, Yinnan Cheng, Liang Zhang, Zhengwu Jiang
      First page: 589
      Abstract: Low-grade metamorphic rock (LMR) is a kind of stone that is widely distributed in China. The alkali activity strictly prevents its application in conventional concrete. This paper evaluates the possibility of using LMR aggregate in cement-stabilized pavement base (CSPB). The compressive strength of CSPB prepared with LMR and limestone aggregates at various curing conditions was measured. Expansion rates were determined via accelerated simulation tests to assess the alkali reactivity of LMR, followed by microscopic analysis. Finally, the possibility of using LMR in CSPB was evaluated from the economic viewpoint. Results indicate that CSPB specimens prepared with LMR have similar compressive strength at each content of cement, regardless of curing conditions. The expansion rates of all CSPB specimens with LMR were lower than 0.1%, indicating the absence of an AAR, which was further validated by the absence of the AAR product in microscopic observations. It is inferred from the economic analysis that 70.9% lower cost can be achieved by the replacement of limestone aggregate with LMR aggregate. This demonstrates that technical, economic and environmental benefits endow LMR with wide market potential as the aggregate of CSPB.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050589
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 590: Numerical Simulations on the Flexural
           Responses of Rubberised Concrete

    • Authors: Ali Al-Balhawi, Nura Jasim Muhammed, Haider Amer Mushatat, Hadi Naser Ghadhban Al-Maliki, Binsheng Zhang
      First page: 590
      Abstract: The increase in world population has led to a significant increase in the numbers of cars and used tyres. These tyres must be disposed of on an ongoing basis as a result of their consumption or deterioration. This can result in negative effects on the environment that must be preserved, especially from those materials, i.e., these waste materials are difficult to dispose of without special treatments. Hence, extensive experimental investigations and numerical simulations need to be conducted to use and recycle these wastes by exploring the possibility of using them as alternative ingredients in construction materials. For example, waste rubber pieces can be used as one of the main components of concrete. In this study, the main aim was to numerically simulate the flexural behaviours of rubberised concrete under the influence of an applied vertical loading with different contents of added rubbers by using the commercial finite element software ANSYS. The obtained numerical results were compared with the experimental results of a previous study and showed a good agreement with the deflections and moduli of rupture, with the variances from 2–7% in the deflections. However, the differences in the moduli of rupture varied between 5% and 9%. Finally, the statistical analyses indicated that these numerical mean values and standard deviations were acceptable and were very close to the experimental values.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050590
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 591: Examination of Mixing Proportion in
           Self-Compacting Gangue-Based Pavement Concrete

    • Authors: Lianjun Chen, Nan Guo, Guoming Liu, Xiaohan Guo, Jipeng Zhao, Zhaoxia Liu
      First page: 591
      Abstract: In recent years, with the rapid development of the coal-mining industry, the output of gangue has increased at a faster pace, while its utilization remains relatively low. The accumulation of a large amount of gangue has brought about a large environmental problem. In order to improve the utilization rate of waste gangue, and to solve the secondary environmental problems caused by gangue pollution, this paper conducted research on an economic and environmentally friendly gangue-based self-compacting concrete. This study designed aggregate industrial-analysis experiments to analyze the moisture content of the gangue and limestone, finding that the moisture content of gangue is 39% higher than that of limestone. By orthogonal experimental methods, the study investigated the fluidity, compressive strength, splitting strength and abrasion resistance of self-compacting gangue concrete. It was concluded that the optimal replacement rate of gangue for coarse aggregate is around 30%, the optimal replacement rate of fly ash for cement is around 30%, the optimal addition of polycarboxylate superplasticizer is 0.5% of the mass of cementitious materials, and the optimal rate of shear steel fibers is around 1% of the concrete capacity. In addition, this paper investigated the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) of the aggregate–cement slurry and found that the ITZ of gangue aggregate and cement mortar is more likely to generate AFT crystals, which will contribute more to the improvement of the strength of concrete in the early stage. In addition, a field-effect analysis was carried out in this study, and it found that gangue-based self-compacting concrete, as an environmentally friendly material, can basically meet the design requirements of C30 paving concrete.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050591
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 592: Accuracy Analysis of Three-Dimensional
           Modeling of a Multi-Level UAV without Control Points

    • Authors: Dejiang Wang, Huazhen Shu
      First page: 592
      Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) oblique photography technology has been applied more and more widely for the 3D reconstruction of real-scene models due to its high efficiency and low cost. However, there are many kinds of UAVs with different positioning methods, camera models, and resolutions. To evaluate the performance levels of different types of UAVs in terms of their application to 3D reconstruction, this study took a primary school as the research area and obtained image information through oblique photography of four UAVs of different levels at different flight altitudes. We then conducted a comparative analysis of the accuracy of their 3D reconstruction models. The results show that the 3D reconstruction model of M300RTK has the highest dimensional accuracy, with an error of about 1.1–1.4 m per kilometer, followed by M600Pro (1.5–3.6 m), Inspire2 (1.8–4.2 m), and Phantom4Pro (2.4–5.6 m), but the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction model was found to have no relationship with the flight altitude. At the same time, the resolution of the 3D reconstruction model improved as the flight altitude decreased and the image resolution of the PTZ camera increased. The 3D reconstruction model resolution of the M300RTK + P1 camera was the highest. For every 10 m decrease in flight altitude, the clarity of the 3D reconstruction model improved by 16.81%. The UAV flight time decreased as the UAV flying altitude increased, and the time required for 3D reconstruction of the model increased obviously as the number and resolution of photos increased.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050592
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 593: Influence of Equipment Operation Parameters
           on the Characteristics of a Track Produced with Construction 3D Printing

    • Authors: Mikhail Elistratkin, Nataliya Alfimova, Daniil Podgornyi, Andrey Olisov, Vladimir Promakhov, Natalia Kozhukhova
      First page: 593
      Abstract: Additive technologies are widely used in various industries. However, nowadays, the large-scale implementation of these technologies in the construction industry is difficult, due to a lot of open practical and scientific questions in terms of both building mixtures and 3D printing equipment. When performing studies focused on the development of cost-effective mixtures based on readily available raw materials for building extrusion 3D printing, it was found that the final result was determined by the rheology of the building mixture, the speed of the screw, and other factors. The article studied the combined effect on the extrusion of the building mixture and the parameters of the printed track of such factors as the thickness of the layer, the linear printhead traversed velocity of the forming device, and the speed of rotation of the screw. We aimed to establish relationships between the above factors, providing an increase in the stability of the printing process and the quality of the resulting structure. To carry out the research, an experimental program and original methods were developed, involving printing in different regimes using a laboratory construction 3D printer. Based on the regression analysis of the data obtained, it was found that the process of 3D printing by extrusion methods cannot be described by a linear function. It was found that a change in the linear speed of the nozzle movement can increase the yield of the mixture, and also lead to track stretching and the degradation of some parameters. The boundary value, in this case, is the layer thickness of 0.77–0.8 of the nozzle width. The response of the system to changes in the linear printhead traversed velocity and the frequency of rotation of the screw occurs in different ways. A change in the linear printhead traversed velocity at the optimal height of the layer has a slight effect on its width. Reducing the speed of rotation of the screw leads to a decrease in the overall dynamics of the mixture flow and an increase in its viscosity due to its thixotropic nature. When the previous speed of rotation of the mixture is restored, the dynamics of the flow are restored with a noticeable delay. In general, this is recommended to ensure the highest dynamics of the printing process. For the laboratory construction 3D printer and the building mixture used in the article, the regime with the following parameters was recommended: a linear printhead traversed velocity of 900 mm/min; an extruder frequency of 25 rpm; and a relative layer thickness of 0.8 (of the nozzle width). This regime provides the optimal ratio of performance/quality and the stability of track parameters.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050593
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 594: A Study on Daylighting Performance of Split
           Louver with Simplified Parametric Control

    • Authors: Muna Alsukkar, Mingke Hu, Mohamed Gadi, Yuehong Su
      First page: 594
      Abstract: A split louver consists of two sections with their slat angles to be adjusted separately for glare protection and redirection of sunlight, respectively. The upper section works in conjunction with the lower section to enhance daylight availability and uniformity throughout the year. The study aims to improve the daylighting performance of the split louver by applying a simplified parametric control, which predetermines the angle difference between adjacent slats in the upper section for a chosen solar altitude and then keeps this difference fixed during operation. The slats in the upper section can be changed parametrically using the Grasshopper to reflect daylight onto the ceiling and then illuminate the rear zone of a space. The lower section of the split louver can control the daylight in the front space area and may affect the amount of light in the back. The performance indicator in evaluating the proposed split louver design for the chosen typical days is the percentage coverage of the work plane area for the illuminance range of 150~750 lux, which was achieved up to 100% in some cases. The proposed split louver with the simplified parametric control has the potential to provide relatively consistent and distributed daylight coverage of the floor area and a glare-free environment.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050594
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 595: Numerical Study of Micro-Thermal
           Environment in Block Based on Porous Media Model

    • Authors: Lei, Wang, Chen
      First page: 595
      Abstract: The mitigation of the heat island effect has become one of the most challenging issues with the rapid urbanization and increased human activities. A standard model and a porous media model were developed to simulate the microthermal environment in the presence of anthropogenic heat in Nanjing Xinjiekou block. The accuracy of the simulation results was verified by field measurement data. Compared with the standard CFD method, the porous media method reduces the number of meshes by 27.8% and the total computation time by 66.7%. By comparing and analyzing the thermal environment of the block with various porosities and heat intensities at different heights, calculations proved that the velocity is positively correlated with the porosity change, and the temperature is negatively correlated with it in contrast. The temperature increases linearly with the increase in anthropogenic heat intensity under the block height range, and the gradient is about 0.025 K/W at the height of 2 m. The porous media approach allows for effective prediction of the micro-thermal environment in the initial stages of urban design while increasing the porosity of the block and controlling the intensity of anthropogenic heat emissions can be a prominent means of improving the thermal environment.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050595
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 596: Effect of the Progressive Failure of Shear
           

    • Authors: Fahad Alsharari, Alaa El-Din El-Sisi, Mohammed Mutnbak, Hani Salim, Ayman El-Zohairy
      First page: 596
      Abstract: Pre-stressed steel-concrete composite beams are widely used in bridges around the world. Loads during the service life of bridges may cause failure in the form of fracture in the studs near the ends of the bridge girders. The effect of stud failure on the residual static capacity and residual fatigue life of composite girders is not well investigated. Therefore, this study presents numerical investigations into the effects of the progressive failure of stud shear connectors on the residual static performance and remaining fatigue life of post-tensioned steel-concrete composite beams. The Finite Element (FE) model was validated using existing experimental work. Moreover, the effects of the progressive failure of stud shear connectors on the steel-concrete interface slippage, shear stress range, and compressive and tensile strains were investigated. The behavior of the composite girders in terms of the estimated fatigue life and residual capacity was inversely affected by the number of fractured studs. The AASHTO theoretical equation conservatively estimated the remaining fatigue life until 15% of the rows were removed and then the FE model predicted fewer remaining fatigue cycles than the theoretical equation. Until 15% of the rows were removed, the strengthened sample had a better response in terms of the stress range, tensile and compressive strains, and residual capacity. After that, both the strengthened and non-strengthened samples exhibited similar responses to the failure of studs. Subsequently, the positive effects of the post-tensioning vanish as the end studs fail. Therefore, designers should pay special attention to the ends of post-tensioned composite beams where the local failure of studs is expected.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050596
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 597: A Bibliometric-Statistical Review of
           Organic Residues as Cementitious Building Materials

    • Authors: Sergio Yanez, Constanza Márquez, Benjamín Valenzuela, Cristina Alejandra Villamar-Ayala
      First page: 597
      Abstract: Climate deterioration and environmental pollution has been widely studied by a wide scientific community. The effects of the ecosystem deterioration impacts directly to human activities. In this scenario, the building industry has increased the pressure on proposing new materials to replace the cementicious component and natural resources (water, sand, gravel, and limestone) on mortar and concrete to reverse this trend. To this end, organic residues can offer opportunities as an available alternative for construction applications. Therefore, this paper aims to broaden the scope of research in this field by investigating the potential use of organic residues as cementicious building material based on bibliometric-statistical analysis using scientific information. A preliminary bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer was carried out to define the keywords co-ocurrence from Scopus database. Type of organic material, constructive use, and its properties (physicochemical, mechanical, and thermal) were extracted from scientific publications. Then, a systematic analysis criteria was defined to limit the scope of the study. Finally, statistical variance analysis and multiple correlation for identifying constructive application were applied. From the co-ocurrence analysis of keywords, we determined that 54% of the selected scientific publications were closely related to the scope of this study. State-of-the-art study established that related researches grew exponentially at a rate of about 30%/year. Moreover, scientific publications reported the use of a wide variety of organic residues, such as wheat, paper, hemp, rice, wood, molluscs, olive, coconut, among others. Mainly, agricultural residues (82%) with building applications related to structural concrete, mortar, bricks, and blocks, had been evaluated. Physicochemical properties from organic residues (extractives content, lignin content, and density) were correlated to mechanical (compressive, flexural and tensile strength) and thermal properties (thermal conductivity). The identification of the physicochemical properties of the organic residues allow us to predict the mechanical and thermal behavior of the material with residues. In summary, agricultural residues are the most promising organic building material due to their abundance and lignin content, exhibiting better mechanic and thermal properties than any other organic residues.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050597
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 598: Safety Risk Assessment Using a BP Neural
           Network of High Cutting Slope Construction in High-Speed Railway

    • Authors: Huang, Zeng, Fu, Han, Chen
      First page: 598
      Abstract: High-speed railway construction is extending to mountainous areas, and the harsh environment and complex climate pose various risks to the slope construction. This seriously threatens human lives and causes huge economic losses. The existing research results on the construction safety risks of high cutting slope construction in HSRs are limited, and a complete set of safety risk assessment processes and methods has not yet been formed. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a safety risk assessment model, including factor identification and classification and assessment data processing, to help project managers evaluate safety risks in high cutting slope construction. In this study, comprehensive identification of high cutting slope construction safety risks was carried out from three dimensions, risk technical specification, literature analysis, and case statistical analysis, and a list of risk-influencing factors was formed. Based on the historical data, a high side slope risk evaluation model was established using a BP neural network algorithm. The model was applied to the risk evaluation of HF high cutting slopes. The results show that the risk evaluation level is II; the main risks are earthwork excavation method, scaffolding equipment, slope height, slope rate, groundwater, personnel safety awareness, and construction safety risk management system. Finally, a case study was used to verify the proposed model, and control measures for safety risks were proposed. Our findings will help conduct effective safety management, add to the knowledge of construction safety risk management in terms of implementation, and offer lessons and references for future construction safety management of HSR.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050598
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 599: Fracture Toughness of Reactive Powder
           Fibrous Concrete Composites under Pure and Mixed Modes (I/III)

    • Authors: Sreekumaran Sreenath, Kaliyaperumal Saravana Raja Mohan, Gunasekaran Murali
      First page: 599
      Abstract: Reactive Powder Concretes (RPC) are well known for their exceptional strength properties and durability properties. The use of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) is the best way to enhance the strength and durability characteristics of RPCs further. Among various SCMs, the potential of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) is proven by many researchers. However, the effect of GGBS on the fracture toughness of RPCs, especially under the tearing mode, is not explored. This study investigates the effect of partial replacement of OPC with GGBS in non-fibrous and fibrous RPCs, on its mode I (pure opening), mode III (pure tearing), and mixed-mode I/III fracture behaviour. A significant improvement in mode I, mode III, and mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness was observed due to incorporating GGBS and fibres in RPCs. The fibrous mix with 30% OPC, replaced with GGBS, exhibited the highest values of mode I and mode III fracture toughnesses, which were 2.35 MPa·m0.5 and 0.98 MPa·m0.5, respectively, and significantly high compared to the control non-fibrous and fibrous RPC mixes. The study reveals the ability of GGBS as an SCM to improve the fracture toughness of RPC mixes, thereby delaying the failure of the process of structural components.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050599
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 600: Positive Effects of Advanced Daylight
           Supply of Buildings on Schoolchildren—A Controlled, Single-Blinded,
           Longitudinal, Clinical Trial with Real Constructive Implementation

    • Authors: Neberich, Gerner, Romodow, Freidl, Huber, Weisböck-Erdheim, Pichler, Hartl
      First page: 600
      Abstract: Sunlight controls endogen hormone balances and numerous health effects. Therefore, it is important to provide building users, such as schoolchildren, with sufficient daylight. Too much of it, however, leads to overheating, which is why shading systems are used. Consequently, these systems improve energy balance, but might not have positive effects on present people’s health. Within this study, shading systems were installed in classrooms of a middle school: common shading in two rooms, while two others were equipped with shading blades “Schlotterer RETROLux 80D” in an innovative design, reflecting more daylight indoors. The participating classes were divided between rooms with ordinary daylighting (n = 43) and advanced daylighting (n = 42). They spent, on average, 5 days weekly and 5–8 h daily in these classrooms. Saliva samples were collected during three semesters to detect hormonal changes. Questionnaires were collected to obtain more information about the mental alterations and, furthermore, to support the physiological results. A significant reduction in cortisol levels between 6:30 AM and 11:30 AM (p < 0.001) was observed within the group that had advanced daylighting. Questionnaires show that both groups sleep less as study duration increases (p < 0.001 time effect), but only the control group has a concurrent increase in daytime sleepiness according to relative treatment effects. The results show that increased daylight supply indoors leads to a significant greater reduction in cortisol levels of children and that those positive outcomes can be achieved by using innovative technologies for buildings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050600
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 601: BIM-Assisted Workflow Enhancement for
           Architecture Preliminary Design

    • Authors: Wu, Tang
      First page: 601
      Abstract: China’s urban housing demand has directly influenced urbanization development. To stabilize the level of urbanization, it is urgent to optimize the whole life-cycle efficiency of construction and the preliminary design as the first step is even more significant. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is widely used as information technology in the construction industry to promote the implementation and management of projects. However, the traditional preliminary design approach still occupies the mainstream market without forming a systematic BIM workflow, which causes inefficiency. To address this issue, this research aims to construct a BIM-assisted workflow to enhance the preliminary design efficiency of architecture. This study creates traditional and BIM-assisted workflows for comparative analysis to capture duration data with a questionnaire and validate by practical simulation. The findings show that the BIM-assisted workflow consumes less time than the traditional workflow. This research indicates that the BIM-assisted workflow can significantly reduce operation time to enhance preliminary design efficiency and deserves to be strongly promoted in the Chinese Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050601
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 602: Shear Enhancement of RC Beams using
           Low-Cost Natural Fiber Rope Reinforced Polymer Composites

    • Authors: Qudeer Hussain, Anat Ruangrassamee, Panuwat Joyklad, Anil C. Wijeyewickrema
      First page: 602
      Abstract: The aim of this research work is to investigate the efficiency of newly developed Natural Fiber Rope Reinforced Polymer (NFRRP) composites to enhance the shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Two types of NFRRP composites were made using low-cost hemp and cotton fiber ropes. The effectiveness of this NFRRP confinement in increasing the shear, energy dissipation, and deformation capacities of concrete beams was studied. The effect of these natural fiber ropes with different configurations on beams was investigated. The responses of seven RC beams with different spacing arrangements of natural fiber ropes were evaluated in terms of shear enhancement, deflection, energy dissipation capacity, effect of strengthening configuration, rope types, and ultimate failure modes. The NFRRP composites exceptionally enhanced the load carrying abilities, energy dissipation, and deformation capabilities of RC beams as compared to the control beam. The ultimate load carrying capacities of natural hemp and cotton Fiber Rope Reinforced Polymer (FRRP) composite confined beams were found to be 63% and 56% higher than that of the control beam, respectively. Thus, the shear strengthening of RC beams using natural fiber ropes is found to be an effective technique. Finite Element Analysis was also carried out by using the Advanced Tool for Engineering Nonlinear Analysis (ATENA) software. The analysis results compare favorably with the tests’ results.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050602
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 603: Solar Radiation in Architectural Projects
           as a Key Design Factor for the Well-Being of Persons with
           Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Authors: Jose-Manuel Almodóvar-Melendo, Santiago Quesada-García, Pablo Valero-Flores, Joseph Cabeza-Lainez
      First page: 603
      Abstract: The beneficial effects of solar radiation on human health are well documented. One necessary mechanism triggers the production of vitamin D, whose insufficiency has been linked to a variety of disorders such as diabetes; hypertension; and, more recently, amyloidosis and Alzheimer’s disease. However, there are few architectural designs capable of ensuring the adequate provision of solar radiation inside buildings. Conventional fenestration is not sufficient to provide for significant doses of sunlight, even to prevent seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this paper, we discuss the effect of new design alternatives for skylights, especially in the refurbishment of obsolete facilities. Based on the authors’ previous studies, we defined a theoretical model that was subsequently adapted to a real building that was to be retrofitted in an area near Sevilla. After such complex refurbishment was executed, we analyzed the performance of buildings in warm and sunny climates, as is the case of southern Spain, where cloudiness is very scarce and available simulation models are not useful. The study of the factors that relate to sunlight; UV reception and energy; and, to a certain extent, other aspects such as ventilation and insulation has been considered a priority. Many architectural designs are presented as correct if the thermal requirements alone are met, even at the risk of later energy waste in lighting devices and visual or physical discomfort. On the other hand, large glazed areas allow for more daylight and UV radiation into a space if properly treated, but they may also produce excessive heat gains or losses, which increase the air-conditioning cooling or heating load, respectively. The uncontrolled increase in temperature can have negative effects on the well-being of a person with Alzheimer’s dementia. To avoid these problems, we have considered the combined effect of daylight and energy from the beginning of the skylight design-process. Daylighting software, based on configuration factors that we have applied in studies of the complex problem of there being direct sunlight over architectural structures, has been used. This question cannot be treated adequately with conventional programs for overcast skies. The skylights have already been constructed, with special UV increasing glazing and on-site measurements in the offices to complement the computer simulation data. The results show that it is possible to achieve energy saving and high radiation levels in winter without increasing heat loads during the summer. Ventilation is also improved through the aerodynamic design of the clerestories. All this is considered beneficial to improve the condition of users with cognitive diseases as Alzheimer’s disease, by virtue of adapted spaces.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050603
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 604: Effect of Foundation Geometry and
           Structural Properties of Buildings on Railway-Induced Vibration: An
           Experimental Modeling

    • Authors: Mehrad Mousavi-Rahimi, Jabbar Ali Zakeri, Morteza Esmaeili
      First page: 604
      Abstract: This paper considers the impact of foundation geometry on the vibrations transferred to a building in the vicinity of a railway line from the aspect of choosing an appropriate foundation type. For this purpose, a 1-g scale physical model is developed that includes the main parts containing dry sandy soil, a rigid soil container, and a five-story structure with three types of foundations, i.e., single, strip and mat. Next, the effects of the floor slab frequency associated with the local bending mode, the dominant soil frequency in vertical translation, and foundation geometry on the vibration level in the building are investigated. The experimental results obtained from the impulse loading exciting the frequency range of 0–156 Hz and scaled train axle load show that the vibration level transmitted to the floors in a structure with mat foundation is the smallest. Additionally, the strip and mat foundations reduced the root mean square ratio of vertical velocity on the first floor by, respectively, almost 8% and 53% in comparison with the single foundation, confirming the superior performance of the mat foundation. When the natural frequency of the slab bending mode approaches the dominant frequency of the ground’s vertical motion, resonance amplification becomes an inevitable phenomenon.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050604
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 605: Identifying and Ranking Landfill Sites for
           Municipal Solid Waste Management: An Integrated Remote Sensing and GIS
           Approach

    • Authors: Bilal Aslam, Ahsen Maqsoom, Muhammad Dawar Tahir, Fahim Ullah, Muhammad Sami Ur Rehman, Mohammed Albattah
      First page: 605
      Abstract: Disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the significant global issues that is more evident in developing nations. One of the key methods for disposing of the MSW is locating, assessing, and planning for landfill sites. Faisalabad is one of the largest industrial cities in Pakistan. It has many sustainability challenges and planning problems, including MSW management. This study uses Faisalabad as a case study area and humbly attempts to provide a framework for identifying and ranking landfill sites and addressing MSW concerns in Faisalabad. This method can be extended and applied to similar industrial cities. The landfill sites were identified using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). Multiple datasets, including normalized difference vegetation, water, and built-up areas indices (NDVI, NDWI, and NDBI) and physical factors including water bodies, roads, and the population that influence the landfill site selection were used to identify, rank, and select the most suitable site. The target area was distributed into 9 Thiessen polygons and ranked based on their favorability for the development and expansion of landfill sites. 70% of the area was favorable for developing and expanding landfill sites, whereas 30% was deemed unsuitable. Polygon 6, having more vegetation, a smaller population, and built-up areas was declared the best region for developing landfill sites and expansion as per rank mean indices and standard deviation (SD) of RS and vector data. The current study provides a reliable integrated mechanism based on GIS and RS that can be implemented in similar study areas and expanded to other developing countries. Accordingly, urban planning and city management can be improved, and MSW can be managed with dexterity.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050605
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 606: Self-Cleaning Cement-Based Building
           Materials

    • Authors: Azariy Lapidus, Evgenii Korolev, Dmitriy Topchiy, Tatyana Kuzmina, Svetlana Shekhovtsova, Nikolai Shestakov
      First page: 606
      Abstract: The modern rhythm of human life leads to well-known problems, which are air, water and soil pollution and climate warming. An increase in the power of industries and vehicles leads not only to atmospheric pollution by-products of incomplete fuel combustion but also to various microscopic particles that form aerosols, which carry an obvious danger to human health and also pollute the buildings’ facades. An environmentally friendly building material with a hybrid method “Nano-titania gradient” was developed. This method consists of forming a gradient of n-TiO2 particles concentration in the composite since the physical properties of the composite are always inextricably linked to the geometry. To increase the efficiency of the photocatalytic process, a method of surface sensitization of titanium dioxide with the use of graphene oxide was proposed, which contributed to an increase in the overall photosensitivity. Thus, the decomposition of nitrogen oxide by volume with the modified surface increased by 27% in comparison with the classic titanium dioxide, and the decomposition of volatile organic substances increased by 32%. It was found that for the facade plate made with surface-sensitized TiO2, the process of self-cleaning is completed after 3 h after the irradiation start. The modern rhythm of human life leads to well-known problems, which are air, water and soil pollution and climate warming. Using the theory of percolation, the concentration range of the photocatalyst content was calculated. To facilitate the material, waste cellulose was introduced. To increase the efficiency of the photocatalytic process, a method of surface sensitization of titanium dioxide (SS TiO2) with the use of graphene oxide was proposed. The analysis of the experimental-statistical models of the compressive strength shows that the optimum content of TiO2 was in the range from 0.8 to 1.1%, and cellulose from 0.4 to 0.8%, the optimum content of SS TiO2 was in the range from 0.7 to 1.1%, and cellulose from 0.4 to 0.8%. Analysis of the experimental and statistical model of the bending strength shows that the optimal content of TiO2 and SS TiO2 was in the range of 0.6 to 1.0%, and cellulose from 0.4 to 0.8%. When studying the structure of composites, it was found that titanium dioxide was sorbed on the surface of swollen cellulose fibers and remained there after the process of cement hydration. The effectiveness of the method of surface sensitization of titanium dioxide by combining it with graphene oxide was shown. Thus, the decomposition of nitrogen oxide by volume with the modified surface increased by 27% in comparison with the classic titanium dioxide, and the decomposition of volatile organic substances increased by 32%. It was found that for the facade plate made with surface-sensitized TiO2, the process of self-cleaning was completed after 3 h after the irradiation start.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050606
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 607: Vibration Test and Control of Factory a
           Building under Excitation of Multiple Vibrating Screens

    • Authors: Jianxin Yu, Zhenzhen Li, Zhenhua Zhang, Wusheng Zhao, Zhiwei Niu, Jingji Cheng
      First page: 607
      Abstract: In order to reduce the excessive vibration responses of a reinforced concrete frame structure induced by several vibrating screens working simultaneously, field vibration monitoring and some vibration reduction measures are carried out. The results of field vibration monitoring show that the maximum vertical vibration of the structure exceeds 106% of the limitation of building vibration. The results of the structural response analysis show that the excessive structural vibration is attributed to the resonance, as the frequency of the vibrating screens coincides with vertical natural frequency of the floors of the factory structure. Based on this fact, three vibration control measures, including damping, active vibration isolation of vibrating screens and structural vibration absorption, are proposed to mitigate the excessive vibration. In order to analyze the vibration control performance of the proposed schemes, the finite element dynamic model of the factory building structure is established, and the model is verified by the results of vibration and mode tests. Then, the damping system, vibration isolation system and vibration absorption system are set up in the models, and the vibration control performance of the three schemes are investigated. The results show that the measures, including vibration isolation and absorption, can reduce the vibration by more than 80%. Combined with the demand for a short construction period, the active vibration isolation of vibrating screens is finally selected. After the implementation of the scheme, the field monitoring data show that the structural vibration response is consistent with the finite element result and obviously weakened to meet the limitation. This study can provide a reference for the vibration control design for similar screening factory buildings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050607
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 608: Effect of Layer Arrangement on Bending
           Strength of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Manufactured from Poplar (Populus
           deltoides L.)

    • Authors: Akbar Rostampour Rostampour Haftkhani, Hojat Hematabadi
      First page: 608
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of layer arrangement on bending properties of CLT panels made from poplar (Populus deltoides L.). A total of 20 three-layer CLT panels with the same dimensions of 1300 × 360 × 48 mm3 (Length, Width, Thickness) were fabricated in five configurations: 0/30/0, 0/45/0, 0/90/0, 45/0/45, and 45/45/45. The apparent modulus of elasticity (MOEapp), modulus of rupture (MOR) and apparent bending stiffness (EIapp) values in major and minor axes of CLT panels were calculated using experimental bending testing. In the major axis, the highest values of MOR, MOEapp, and EIapp were obtained from the 0/30/0 arrangement, while the least values resulted from the arrangements of 90/60/90 and 90/45/90 in the minor axis. Besides, in all arrangements, the average of the experimental apparent bending stiffness values (EIapp,exp) of specimens was higher than that of the shear analogy apparent bending stiffness values (EIapp,shear). The bending and shear stress distribution values over the cross section of samples were also estimated using the finite element method. Moreover, the numerical apparent bending stiffness (EIapp,fem) values of samples were compared to experimental apparent bending stiffness (EIapp,exp) values. Based on experimental and finite element method results, in all groups of layer arrangements, the EIapp,fem values concurred well with the EIapp,exp values.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050608
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 609: Analysis of Factors Influencing the Job
           Satisfaction of New Generation of Construction Workers in China: A Study
           Based on DEMATEL and ISM

    • Authors: Ni, Li, Jin, Hu, Zhang
      First page: 609
      Abstract: China’s construction industry is facing serious problems of aging construction workers and labor shortages. Improving the job satisfaction of construction workers is a key point for retaining existing construction workers and for attracting younger generations into the construction field in China. At present, the new generation of construction workers (NGCW) born after 1980 has been the main force on construction sites in China. Therefore, it is very important to study and explore the influencing factors of the job satisfaction of the NGCW. This paper aims to determine the influencing factors of job satisfaction of the NGCW through literature research and to clarify the interaction mechanisms and hierarchical structures of influencing factors using the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) to design appropriate human resource practices to promote their job satisfaction. Research findings show that there are 12 main influencing factors of job satisfaction of the NGCW, which are at three levels: personal traits, job characteristics and social environment, and the influencing factors can be divided into a cause group and an effect group, including four layers: the root layer, controllable layer, key layer and direct layer in the multi-level hierarchical structure model. Furthermore, the critical influencing factors of the job satisfaction of the NGCW consist of education level, competency, career development, salaries and rewards, rights protection and work–family balance. This research enriches the job satisfaction literature of construction workers and provides an important reference for decision makers in construction enterprises and the construction industry to understand what influences the job satisfaction of the NGCW and how it is influenced to then improve it in China.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050609
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 610: Leakage Diagnosis of Air Conditioning Water
           System Networks Based on an Improved BP Neural Network Algorithm

    • Authors: Liu, Zhang, Li
      First page: 610
      Abstract: Compared with traditional pipe networks, the complexity of air conditioning water systems (ACWSs) and the alternation of cooling and heating are more likely to cause pipe network leakage. Pipe leakage failure seriously affects the reliability of the air conditioning system, and can cause energy waste or reduce human comfort. In this study, a two-stage leakage fault diagnosis (LFD) method based on an Adam optimization BP neural network algorithm, which locates leakage faults based on the change values of monitoring data from flow meters and pressure sensors in air conditioning water systems, is proposed. In the proposed LFD method, firstly, the ACWS network’s hydraulic model is built on the Dymola platform. At the same time, a cuckoo algorithm is used to identify the pipe network’s characteristics to modify the model, and the experimental results show that the relative error between the model-simulated value and the actual values is no more than 1.5%. Secondly, all possible leakage conditions in the network are simulated by the model, and the dataset is formed according to the change rate of the observed data, and is then used to train the LFD model. The proposed LFD method is verified in a practical project, where the average accuracy of the first-stage LFD model in locating the leaking pipe is 86.96%; The average R2 of the second-stage LFD model is 0.9028, and the average error between the predicted location and its exact location with the second-stage LFD model is 6.3% of the total length of the leaking pipe. The results show that the proposed method provides a feasible and convenient solution for timely and accurate detection of pipe network leakage faults in air conditioning water systems.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050610
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 611: Structural Performance of GFRP Bars based
           High-Strength RC Columns: An Application of Advanced Decision-Making
           Mechanism for Experimental Profile Data

    • Authors: Anwar, Shah, Azab, Shah, Chauhan, Iqbal
      First page: 611
      Abstract: Several past studies have shown the use of glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars to alleviate the reinforced steel rusting issue in different concrete structures. However, the practise of GFRP bars in concrete columns has not yet achieved a sufficient confidence level due to the lack of a theoretical model found in the literature. The objective of the current study is to introduce a novel prediction model for the axial capability of concrete columns made with bars of GFRP. For this purpose, two different approaches, such as data envelopment analysis (DEA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) modelling, are used on a collected dataset of 266 concrete column specimens made with GFRP bars from previous literature works. Eight parameters were used to predict the axial performance of GFRP-based RC columns. The proposed DEA and ANNs predictions demonstrated a good correlation with the testing dataset, having R2 values of 0.811 and 0.836, respectively. A comparative analysis of the DEA and ANNs models is undertaken, and it was found that the suggested models are capable of accurately forecasting the structural response of GFRP-made RC column structures. Then, a comprehensive parametric analysis of 266 GFRP-based columns was performed to study the effect of different materials and their geometrical shape.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050611
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 612: Self-Compacting Earth-Based Composites:
           Mixture Design and Multi-Performance Characterisation

    • Authors: Matos, Varum
      First page: 612
      Abstract: A new generation of self-compacting earth-based composites (SCEC) for vertical elements with fully exposed earth, in which the main feature is the elimination of compaction, is proposed in the current work. The first objective was to develop earth-based mixture compositions with locally available raw materials and achieve self-compactability. A Portuguese soil, typically employed in rammed earth construction, was stabilised using cementitious materials and a superplasticiser to ensure flowability. The mixture design studies allowed to achieve flowable fresh composites. Results on the hardened state showed that SCEC presents high compressive strengths (5–14 MPa). The electrical resistivity SCEC increased with time and achieved at least 5600 Ωm at 28 days, while mass loss stabilised after 14 days in a controlled environment room. Additional tests were performed on selected optimal SCEC mixtures: drying shrinkage and water capillary absorption, with promising results. Overall, this work provided initial boundaries for the mixture design and assessment of SCEC and opened the door for further studies on new and novel earth materials construction techniques.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050612
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 613: Prediction of Compaction and Strength
           Properties of Amended Soil Using Machine Learning

    • Authors: Woubishet Zewdu Taffese, Kassahun Admassu Abegaz
      First page: 613
      Abstract: In the current work, a systematic approach is exercised to monitor amended soil reliability for a housing development program to holistically understand the targeted material mixture and the building input derived, focusing on the three governing parameters: (i) optimum moisture content (OMC), (ii) maximum dry density (MDD), and (iii) unconfined compressive strength (UCS). It is in essence the selection of machine learning algorithms that could optimally show the true relation of these factors in the best possible way. Thus, among the machine learning approaches, the optimizable ensemble and artificial neural networks were focused on. The data sources were those compiled from wide-ranging literature sources distributed over the five continents and twelve countries of origin. After a rigorous manipulation, synthesis, and results analyses, it was found that the selected algorithms performed well to better approximate OMC and UCS, whereas that of the MDD result falls short of the established threshold of the set limits referring to the MSE statistical performance evaluation metrics.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050613
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 614: Critical Factors Influencing Early Contract
           Termination in Public Design–Build Projects in Developing and
           Emerging Economies

    • Authors: Claudia Riveros, Angie L. Ruiz, Harrison A. Mesa, Jose A. Guevara
      First page: 614
      Abstract: Public projects continually face multiple difficulties for their satisfactory completion. One of the most complex challenges is early contract termination (ECT), which delays social goods delivery and exhausts public resources. This study aimed to determine the root causes of the critical factors that lead to ECT in public building projects. We studied 20 kindergarten construction projects in Chile through a multi-case study. It addressed a pattern-matching analysis of symptoms associated with risks of design–build (DB) contracts and a five whys analysis to determine the root causes of the symptoms identified in the units of analysis. The results show that ECT projects’ most common symptoms are labor force shortage, materials shortage, and non-payment claims. In addition, the root-cause analysis exposed that the main causes of ECT’s symptoms were deficiencies in the bidding evaluation process, which led to an inadequate selection of the general contractor, lack of experience of the owner, and regulatory limitations of the legal framework for public projects. The construction projects faced ECT and cost and time overruns associated with poor risk management due to the owner’s and general contractor’s lack of experience in DB contracts.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050614
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 615: The Investigation on Static Stability
           Analysis for Reticulated Shell with Initial Defect Value Using Stochastic
           Defect Mode Method

    • Authors: Sheng He, Xinheng Huang, Peng Yu, Weijing Yun
      First page: 615
      Abstract: Regarding the effect of the initial geometric defect (IGD) on the static stability of single-layer reticulated shells, its distribution pattern and magnitude are the main concerns to researchers. However, the suitable selection of the initial geometric defect magnitude (IGDM) is still a controversial topic. Therefore, it is intended to study the determination of the proper IGDM based on the structure force state (SFS) and the defect coefficient. In order to find out a qualified IGDM, more than 5200 numerical cases are carried out for four types of commonly used single-layer reticulated shells with the span ranging from 40 to 70 m and the rise–span ratio from 1/4 to 1/7, within the random defect mode method, by taking both geometric and material nonlinearity into account. The results show that it is more feasible to set the L/500 as IGDM when evaluating the stability of the single-layer reticulated shell. In addition, an updated criterion to identify the SFS at the stability critical state (SCS) is developed.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050615
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 616: A Data-Driven Approach to Trace the
           Development of Lean Construction in Building Projects: Topic Shift and
           Main Paths

    • Authors: Hengqin Wu, Xue Lin, Xiao Li, Boyu Zhang, Clyde Zhengdao Li, Huabo Duan
      First page: 616
      Abstract: Due to the varied ideas of lean philosophy adopted in the construction industry, it is challenging to trace the development of lean philosophy in terms of how the field evolved by adopting the lean ideas and how the topic shifted. However, it is challenging to extract useful information from the massive body of literature and to trace the development of Lean Construction in Building Projects. Previous studies have conducted longitudinal analyses of scientific areas depending on the authors’ interpretation and explanation, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. To address this concern, this study proposes a data-driven approach integrating N-gram extraction, citation analysis, and a global key-route algorithm to trace the development. Based on the collected literature of Lean Construction in Building Projects, N-grams were extracted as topics from the raw texts of titles, abstracts, and keywords, and the shifts in topics were measured. Then, the references were extracted from the literature to create a citation network to represent the knowledge flows, and the global key-route algorithm was used to identify the most valuable flows reflecting the main paths of the development. The results illustrate how Lean Construction in Building Projects evolved and how the topics shifted, providing an exciting opportunity to reveal this development by using a data-driven approach rather than personal judgments. The findings can help us to understand that the field of Lean Construction in Building Projects was driven and motivated not only by the “lean theory”, but also by problems in the practice of building projects. Moreover, lean theory leads to flourishing research on informatization, and BIM will be an important tool to better achieve lean thinking in construction.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050616
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 617: A Study on the Spatial Association Network
           of CO2 Emissions from the Perspective of City Size: Evidence from the
           Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration

    • Authors: Weidan Liu, Yuanhe Sun, Weiguang Cai, Yanyan Ke, Hong Ren
      First page: 617
      Abstract: City size expansion in China creates substantial economic circulation, which impacts CO2 emissions. Since CO2 production primarily comes from human activities, CO2 emissions are mainly in cities. To achieve China’s carbon neutrality and provide specific implementation guidance for future carbon-reduction policies, it is worth assessing China’s pressure on carbon reduction in the urban aspect. Highly developed social productivity and a market economy lead to a dramatic increase in the interconnection between cities, and the spatial distribution of CO2 emissions emerges in a spatial association. Therefore, it is of great significance to investigate the interaction of CO2 emissions with spatial effects. Taking the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (YRDUA) as the research target area, this paper utilizes city-size indices to construct spatial-association networks of CO2 emissions for the first time. It employs social network analysis to explore the structures of whole networks, clusters, and city nodes. The main results show that: (1) the spatial associations of CO2 emissions in the YRDUA’s cities have become tighter over time. (2) The networks of CO2 emissions in the YRDUA’s cities have noticeable spatial-spillover effects, and the interaction of CO2 emissions between cities is dominant. (3) Nanjing is the paramount “bridge” node in the networks. (4) Nanjing, Hangzhou, Wuxi, Shanghai, Changzhou, Suzhou, Nantong, and Hefei will be the decisive cities for efficient CO2 emission control in the future. Overall, this paper reveals the role of carbon reduction in the YRDUA’s cities and proposes suggestions for establishing a transboundary energy-saving mechanism to improve the efficiency of energy conservation and emission reduction.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050617
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 618: Regional Sustainable Performance of
           Construction Industry in China from the Perspective of Input and Output:
           Considering Occupational Safety

    • Authors: Liyang Tong, Yun Chen, Lianghai Jin, Xiazhong Zheng
      First page: 618
      Abstract: Improving the poor sustainability of the construction industry requires long-term actions, especially in developing countries such as China. Regional sustainability assessment plays an indispensable role, contributing to a better understanding of the state of development in various regions. However, few studies have focused on the overall sustainability of regional construction industries, and occupational safety is generally ignored. To fill these gaps, an input-output system is established to evaluate regional sustainable performance of the construction industry (SPCI), which is made to include occupational safety by introducing the number of fatalities as an undesirable output. An evaluation model is constructed by combining window analysis with a super-slack-based measure data envelopment analysis (windows-super-SBM DEA). The SPCI in China’s 30 provinces from 2010 to 2017 is dynamically evaluated, and regional differences are further analyzed, with eight regions being defined. The results indicate that (1) the overall SPCI in China has fluctuated smoothly around a slight downward trend. By comparison, the integration of occupational safety refreshes the relative performance of most provinces; (2) dividing China into eight regions presents more detailed information because of those regions’ smaller coverage areas, and more attention should be given to the northeast, northwest, Middle Yellow River region and east coast because of the decrease in the SPCI; and (3) vigorously developing of the construction industry does not necessarily result in a large number of byproducts if the relevant policy is sufficiently strong. The findings of this study are conducive to rationally allocating resources and formulating targeted policies.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050618
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 619: Has Information Infrastructure Reduced
           Carbon Emissions'—Evidence from Panel Data Analysis of Chinese
           Cities

    • Authors: Yang Lyu, Zheng Ji, Han Liang, Tao Wang, Yanqiao Zheng
      First page: 619
      Abstract: Human activities have increased greenhouse gas emissions since the Industrial Revolution, and “emission peaking” and “carbon neutrality” have become serious concerns at this point. The role of information infrastructure in reducing carbon emissions is a critical issue that has received little attention and needs to be addressed. Using panel data from 289 cities in China between 2011 and 2017, this research empirically explores the impact of information infrastructure on urban carbon emission intensity and the mechanism behind this effect. We discover that the construction of information infrastructure significantly reduces urban carbon emissions, and this finding holds true after a series of robustness tests. The mechanism is optimization of industrial structure, agglomeration of producer service industries, and innovation of green technologies. According to the heterogeneity test, the carbon emission reduction is greater in mega cities with higher technological levels and larger urban scales, as well as large cities with better traditional infrastructure. The present work’s findings give empirical support for promoting green and low-carbon development and mitigating global warming.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050619
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 620: Mechanical Properties of High-Strength
           Pervious Concrete with Steel Fiber or Glass Fiber

    • Authors: Ming-Gin Lee, Wei-Chien Wang, Yung-Chih Wang, Yi-Cheng Hsieh, Yung-Chih Lin
      First page: 620
      Abstract: Pervious concrete (also called porous concrete) is one of the most promising sustainable and green building materials today. This study examined high-strength pervious concrete and ordinary-strength pervious concrete reinforced with steel fiber or glass fiber. A total of fifteen mixtures of normal- and high-strength pervious concretes with steel fiber or glass fiber were used. The goal of high-strength pervious concrete is that the 28-day compressive strength be above 42 MPa and the porosity be as close to 15% as possible to achieve technical specifications. Both normal- and high-strength pervious concretes reinforced with steel fiber (1%, 2%) or glass fiber (0.25%, 0.5%) were investigated in water permeability, porosity, compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, and toughness tests. The test results show that in both high-strength pervious concrete and ordinary pervious concrete with steel fibers added, the porosity and permeability coefficient are increased compared with the control group. The coefficient of permeability for high-strength, fiber-reinforced pervious concretes with two aggregate sizes meets the requirements of the ACI specification for structural concrete. In addition, the high-strength pervious concrete specimen H1-S2 (2% steel fiber) has the highest compressive strength of 52.8 MPa at the age of 28 days. The flexural strength of pervious concrete also increases with age. However, the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced pervious concrete did not follow this trend due to the large variation in the quality control of different fiber mixtures. However, both steel fiber and glass fiber have a certain degree of improvement in the flexural toughness, and the effect is better with steel fiber. After the flexural strength reaches the peak value, there is still about 30% of the bearing capacity, and it gradually decreases until it is completely destroyed.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050620
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 621: Green and Gold Buildings' Detecting
           Real Estate Market Premium for Green Buildings through Evolutionary
           Polynomial Regression

    • Authors: Domenico Enrico Massimo, Pierfrancesco De Paola, Mariangela Musolino, Alessandro Malerba, Francesco Paolo Del Giudice
      First page: 621
      Abstract: This study concerns the determination of empirical evidence of a real estate market premium for Green Buildings and of an aware role of the private real estate market as driver to foster-up urban and architectural sustainability and energy efficiency. In real estate markets, there is growing relevance of Green Buildings, especially in cities where the greater part of residential buildings is built before the first regulations on energy performance. Through policies oriented towards sustainable practices, a twofold goal can be achieved: energy consumption mitigation respecting the historical value for existing buildings, direct economic impacts on real estate values. In some metropolitan or urban contexts, the “green premium” for buildings can be understood as a real “gold premium”. This result has been highlighted and quantified with a real estate market analysis developed for a central area of an Italian mid-size city, pursued through the innovative tool of Evolutionary Polynomial Regression (EPR). The study highlighted a higher sale price for properties characterized by the best ecological characteristics and energy efficiency (+41.52%).
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050621
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 622: Uncertainty Analysis of Inverse Problem of
           Resistivity Model in Internal Defects Detection of Buildings

    • Authors: Shan Xu, Xinran Wang, Ruiguang Zhu, Ding Wang
      First page: 622
      Abstract: Fissure detection in ancient buildings is of vital importance in the evaluation of resistance or remediation in urban areas. Electrical resistivity imaging is an efficient tool to detect fissures or moisture erosion in buildings by highlighting the resistivity contrasts in the inversion models. The traditional results of ERT images give deterministic interpretations of the internal artifact. However, the existence of equivalent models may correspond to different physical realities in engineering cases, to which the traditional ERT model cannot respond. In this paper, through the application of a field test on an ancient wall, it is shown that the segmentation of the equivalent model family is applicable to solve the internal defects detection problem in a probabilistic approach. It is achieved by performing a probabilistic approach to apply the uncertainty analysis. The procedure begins with the reduction in dimensions of the model by spectral decomposition, and the uncertainty space is rebuilt via Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). By computing the uncertainty space, probabilistic maps are created to demonstrate the electrical anomaly in a simpler structure. The proposed method provides a more accurate approach for the internal defects detection of buildings by considering the possibilities hidden in the equivalent model family of ERT results.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050622
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 623: Green Building Efficiency and Influencing
           Factors of Transportation Infrastructure in China: Based on Three-Stage
           Super-Efficiency SBM–DEA and Tobit Models

    • Authors: Guijun Li, Xiaoteng Ma, Yanqiu Song
      First page: 623
      Abstract: As an important part of low-carbon ecological city construction, green building is also an objective requirement of sustainable development. Based on the green building panel data of 30 provincial administrative regions in China from 2010 to 2020, the super-efficiency SBM model combined with the three-stage DEA model was adopted to obtain the green building efficiency value that was closer to the real situation by excluding the influence of environmental factors and statistical noise. Green buildings in China have only been developing for just over ten years and are still in the initial stage of spatial aggregation in which transportation infrastructure plays an important role in scale effect. This manuscript focuses on analyzing the influence factors, intensity and direction of transportation infrastructure on green building efficiency. The results show that: (1) The agglomeration effect is obvious in the area of green buildings with high efficiency, but the radiation effect is not strong in low-efficiency area. (2) Municipal transportation infrastructure investment, road surface area, per capita number of stations and interregional traffic network density have a positive impact on green building efficiency, while freight volume has a negative impact.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050623
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 624: Three-Dimensional Printing Materials for
           Cultural Innovation Products of Historical Buildings

    • Authors: Hao Hu, Xiaoxiao Cao, Tao Zhang, Zhenfu Chen, Jinliang Xie
      First page: 624
      Abstract: Innovation products from historical cultural architectural have widely adopted 3D printing technology in recent years. To study the applicability of existing 3D printing materials, it is necessary to analyze the performance indicators of 3D printing materials and carry out material science experiments. Step 1: the material performance index composition of cultural innovation products was derived by integrating the literature of cultural heritage, product design, quality system, and material science. Step 2: The columns of Chengs’ Miyake in Huizhou were taken as the creative source. Its geometric shape model was obtained through 3D scanning, and the design of the cultural innovation products was completed. Step 3: Photosensitive resin, nylon, and stainless steel, three commonly used 3D printing materials, were used to make samples, with one sample of each material. Finally, we carried out material science tests according to the material performance index. The experimental data of three materials were obtained and compared. The properties of the three 3D printing materials, photosensitive resin, nylon, and stainless steel, have advantages and disadvantages. Still, they all struggle to meet the needs of cultural and creative products in historical buildings. It is necessary to integrate the three materials’ properties to develop new 3D printing materials.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050624
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 625: Research on the Characteristics of
           High-Temperature Heat Waves and Outdoor Thermal Comfort: A Typical Space
           in Chongqing Yuzhong District as an Example

    • Authors: Haijing Huang, Pengyu Jie
      First page: 625
      Abstract: For the high-density urban space heat wave problem, take the core urban area of the mountainous city of Chongqing as an example, four types of typical urban functional spaces, including commercial areas, residential areas, mountain parks, and riverfront parks, were measured during a heat wave cycle, and the characteristics of high-temperature heat waves in different urban spaces were compared through the analysis of air temperature, surface temperature, relative humidity, solar thermal radiation, and other thermal environment parameters. Combined with the questionnaire research related to the heat comfort of the urban population, the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was selected to describe the heat sensation of the human body, to summarize the elements and patterns of the influence of heat waves on heat comfort of the population in urban spaces, and to establish a prediction model of outdoor heat comfort in summer. It shows that: (1) temperatures recorded during the heat waves are influenced by urban space elements and are differentiated, with older residential areas recording the highest temperatures, followed by commercial areas, and green park areas comparing favorably with both; (2) crowd thermal comfort is correlated with the thermal environment formed by space elements, PET is significantly positively correlated with air temperature, thermal radiation and surface temperature, and significantly negatively correlated with relative humidity, air temperature and thermal radiation have more influence on thermal comfort has a greater impact, while relative humidity and surface temperature have a relatively small impact; (3) reasonable spatial form and shade planning, vegetation and water body settings, high thermal storage substrate and other design elements can alleviate high-temperature heat waves, reduce the thermal neutral temperature and improve thermal comfort. The research results provide some basis for the investigation of the formation mechanism of high-temperature heat waves in mountainous cities and the optimal design of urban spatial thermal environment.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050625
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 626: Analysis of Buckling Deformation for the
           Side Plate of Rectangular CSFT Column Based on Plate Theory with Bi-Axial
           Loads

    • Authors: Bing Xu, Lang Wang, Chunyan Xiang, Zhenyu Han
      First page: 626
      Abstract: In this paper, under the condition of bidirectional stress, the buckling deformation of the side plate in a rectangular concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) column has been studied in detail. We have conducted a theocratical analysis, an experimental validation and a finite element simulation to investigate the influences of the height-width ratios and Nominal Poisson’s ratios on the buckling form of the side plate, and we also try to explain the change of buckling form between unidirectional and bidirectional stress, both of them can provide a good reference and basis for design and application of the CFST column. The specific work can be summarized as follows: Firstly, a theoretical analysis has been conducted to study the buckling coefficient solution method of the thin plate under the conditions of axial compress and transverse tension. Then, under the conditions of the unidirectional and the bidirectional stress, a comparative study is carried out to investigate the changing relationship of the buckling coefficient (k) of the side plate; the results indicate that the buckling characteristic is changed due to the bidirectional stress, meanwhile, the buckling coefficient and the number of buckling half-wave will increase. Furthermore, the existing outcomes and the numerical simulations are adopted to study the relevance between the number of the elastic buckling half-wave in the side plate and the corresponding height-width ratio of the component; the results indicate that the former is larger than the latter. Finally, based on the obtained, the buckling relationship curve, the conclusion can be drawn as follows: when the bidirectional stress has been applied to the side plate, there is an equal interval between the different buckling half-waves; meanwhile, the interval shows a quadratic function reduce trend with the increase of nominal Poisson’s ratio.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050626
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 627: Review of Heliodon Developments and
           Computational Tools for Building Shadow Analysis

    • Authors: Lizbeth Salgado-Conrado, Areli Lopez-Montelongo, Carlos Alvarez-Macias, Jose Hernadez-Jaquez
      First page: 627
      Abstract: In the last decade, the analysis of shading or sunlight in architectural projects has become an important role in improving building thermal and lighting performances. Selecting an appropriate software tool for this type of analysis is a challenging task given the little information available. Therefore, the paper reviews the existing literature on heliodon designs and computational tools for building shadow analysis. The review includes a detailed description and classification of various types of heliodons, along with their operating principles and geometric features that affect their performance, including light sources, positioning mechanisms, and structures. This paper also includes descriptions and classification of the computational tools for testing building shadow patterns and applications in architecture. Moreover, this paper shows the capabilities of different software packages and their essential features, strengths, and limitations. In addition, we identified the current gaps in the literature on heliodons and computational tools. According to the results, for the case of heliodons, there is a lack of error analysis and a standardized calibration process, therefore, repeatability of the results is difficult to achieve. In the case of computational tools, they have reached a higher degree of success in the market than the heliodons, however, the cost of licensing and learning curve can be a limitation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050627
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 628: Influences on Apartment Design: A History
           of the Spatial Layout of Apartment Buildings in Sydney and Implications
           for the Future

    • Authors: Hyungmo Yang, Philip Oldfield, Hazel Easthope
      First page: 628
      Abstract: This paper traces the history of apartment design with an emphasis on spatial layout. It charts the events that have influenced apartment design in Sydney, Australia and provides a framework for understanding how changes in society, the economy, regulations, and architectural paradigms have influenced apartment layouts over time. Through a review of historical and contemporary apartment plan drawings in Sydney, we identify four chronologically distinct eras: layouts reflecting physically separate rooms and a healthier living condition (1900–1935); layouts following function (1935–1961); layouts enhancing interaction between family members (1961–2002); and layouts for independent life and to satisfy minimum regulatory requirements (2002–the present). We then consider these distinct eras in relation to political, economic, and social influences at the time. We propose that prior to 1961, changes in social paradigms and architectural thinking and the development of technologies were the main drivers of apartment layouts. After 1961, changes in the economy, the housing market, and regulations appear to have had more influence. This historical analysis provides insights into factors contributing to current apartment layouts and how different social, economic, and regulatory levers may influence them in future. These insights will be useful to both practitioners and academics in international jurisdictions considering how to encourage improved apartment spatial layouts in future.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050628
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 629: Coupling CFD Simulation and Field
           Experiments in Summer to Prove Feng Shui Optimizes Courtyard Wind
           Environments: A Case Study of Prince Kung’s Mansion in Beijing

    • Authors: Peiyan Guo, Chenyang Ding, Zipeng Guo, Tingfeng Liu, Taifeng Lyu
      First page: 629
      Abstract: Feng shui in ancient China was harmonized with the natural environment. The layout of houses following feng shui is conducive to a comfortable wind environment. To explore the positive influence of feng shui on ventilation, this study takes Prince Kung’s Mansion, which has the characteristics of a feng shui layout, as the research object. In parallel, the study assumes a dissimilation layout that has lost the feng shui layout characteristics. Comparing the ventilation of courtyards in the summer for both the feng shui layout and the dissimilation layout through CFD simulation, the results were as follows: (1) the wind speed values in the summer, taken from 60 points in Prince Kung’s Mansion by way of CFD simulation and field experiments, were well coupled, which proves that PHOENICS is suitable for the courtyard wind environments simulation in this study. (2) The CFD simulation results show that the average wind speed and the comfortable wind speed zone ratio in the courtyards of the feng shui layout were higher than those of the dissimilation layout during the summer, and the courtyard wind speeds of the two layouts were linearly related. Therefore, the feng shui layout is more conducive to the comfort of courtyards’ wind environment than the dissimilation layout. (3) The front and rear wind pressure differences of the main houses in the feng shui layout can optimize the indoor ventilation better than those of dissimilation layout in the summer. (4) According to the evaluation criteria for the wind environment, the wind speed and wind pressure of the feng shui layout are superior to those of dissimilation layout in the summer. In summary, this study verifies that the layout of feng shui optimizes the courtyard wind environment in the summer, which embodies the ecological concept of the Chinese ancients in the layout of houses.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050629
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 630: Thermal Characteristics of Fireproof
           Plaster Compositions in Exposure to Various Regimes of Fire

    • Authors: Marina Gravit, Daria Shabunina, Sergey Antonov, Andrey Danilov
      First page: 630
      Abstract: The problems of the fire safety of oil and gas facilities are particularly relevant due to the increasing complexity of technological processes and production. Experimental studies of steel structures with three different types of plasters are presented to determine the time taken to reach the critical temperature and loss of bearing capacity (R) of the sample, as a result of reaching a rate of deformation growth of more than 10 mm/min and the appearance of the ultimate vertical deformation. The simulation of the heating of steel structures showed a good correlation with the results of the experiment. The consumption of the plaster composition for the steel column was predicted, which allowed a 38% reduction in the consumption of fireproofing. It was found that to obtain the required fire resistance limit, it is necessary to consider the fire regime and apply plaster compositions with a thickness of 30–35 mm, depending on their thermal characteristics. The dependence of thermal conductivity and temperature on density is obtained, showing that the use of plaster compositions with a density of 200 to 600 kg/m3 is optimal to ensure a higher fire resistance limit. It is shown that the values of thermal conductivity of plaster compositions at 1000 °C are higher by 8–10% if the structure is exposed to a hydrocarbon fire regime. It is shown that the values of the heat capacity of plaster compositions at 1000 °C are higher by 10–15% if the structure is exposed to a standard fire regime.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050630
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 631: Interface Management Performance Assessment
           Framework for Sustainable Prefabricated Construction

    • Authors: Shengxi Zhang, Zhongfu Li, Long Li, Mengqi Yuan
      First page: 631
      Abstract: Prefabricated construction (PC) has been regarded as a sustainable construction method for its inherent advantages such as energy savings, emissions reductions, and cleaner and safer working environments. However, PC development has been hindered by its inherent weaknesses of fragmentation and discontinuity. Effective interface management (IM) is regarded as integral to PC project success for its appropriate management of numerous interfaces with high complexity and uncertainty among the organization, information, and logistics. Although some researchers mentioned the effectiveness of IM for PC projects, systematic assessment methods for IM performance are missing. This study aims to systematically develop a framework to assess the IM performance of PC projects to address this gap. Through a comprehensive literature review, nineteen indicators of IM performance were identified and grouped into four categories. By combining the objective weighting method of an ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator with the set pair analysis (SPA) method of uncertainty assessment, a nineteen-indicator assessment model was developed. Finally, a case study was constructed using the proposed framework, and the feasibility and applicability of the OWA-SPA model were proved. The assessment results provided by the assessment model could guide project managers for better IM and serve as a valuable reference for researchers in the construction industry.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050631
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 632: Stochastic Buffeting Analysis of Uncertain
           Long-Span Bridge Deck with an Optimized Method

    • Authors: Siyu Zhu, Yongle Li, Yuyun Yang, Nengpan Ju
      First page: 632
      Abstract: The buffeting analysis of an uncertain long-span bridge deck was carried out in this paper. Due to the effect of strong spatial correlation of wind excitation, it should be assumed as partially coherent multiple excitations. The following includes a theoretical formula for the buffeting analysis of a long-span bridge deck with uncertain parameters, which was achieved mainly by a combination of the stochastic pseudo excitation method (SPEM) and response surface method (RSM). The SPEM-RSM was firstly applied to deal with the complicated spectral density function matrix of wind excitation. The buffeting response of the bridge deck was then calculated and verified by the results from the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The efficiency and applicability of the hybrid method for strong spatial correlation was proved. After the comparison, the effect of uncertain structural parameters and wind speed on the buffeting performance of the bridge deck were computed. The results showed that the whole uncertainties essentially affected the buffeting response of the deck. The uncertain wind speed played the most significant role in the vertical and lateral motion of the deck. The joint influences between structural uncertainties and uncertain wind speed further affect the random characteristics of the responses. Finally, the effects of different wind speed and wind angle of attack on the aerodynamic performance of the bridge are examined. The variance of the responses increased with the development of wind speed. The effect of different attack angles on the buffeting responses was significant.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050632
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 633: Experimental Studies for Shear and
           Multi-Impact Resistance Performance of Sand–Geofoam Material

    • Authors: Qi Ge, Wenhao Zuo, Renkuan Liu, Baoying Zhu, Peng Zhao, Li Wan, Yifan Wang, Rong Zhao
      First page: 633
      Abstract: In the case of earthquake and rockfall disasters, it is proposed to replace part of sand with geofoam material to form sand–EPS and sand–EPE composite cushions to improve the ability of structures to resist disasters. The shear performance of the sand–EPS beads mixture material with different moisture contents, the impact resistance of sand–EPS beads and sand–flocculent-EPE layered composite materials with different cushion thicknesses and different mass ratios were studied by direct shear tests and multi-impact tests. The results showed that with the increase in the moisture content, the shear strength of the sand–EPS beads decreased, the internal friction angle of sand–EPS decreased first and then increased, and the cohesion of sand–EPS increased first and then decreased. The sand–geofoam layered cushion had better buffering performance. Sand–EPE has better durability than Sand–EPS.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050633
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 634: Partial Substitution of Binding Material by
           Bentonite Clay (BC) in Concrete: A Review

    • Authors: Jawad Ahmad, Karolos J. Kontoleon, Mohammed Zuhear Al-Mulali, Saboor Shaik, Mohamed Hechmi El Ouni, Mohammed A. El-Shorbagy
      First page: 634
      Abstract: Concrete consumes millions of tons of cement, which causes global warming as cement factories emit huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Thus, it is essential to explore alternative materials as a substitute of OPC, which are eco-friendly and at the same time cost-effective. Although there are different options available to use industrial waste instead of cement, such as waste glass, waste marble, silica fume fly ash, or agriculture waste such as rice husk ash, wheat straw ash, etc., but bentonite clay is also one of the best options to be used as a binding material. There are a lot of diverse opinions regarding the use of bentonite clay as a cement substitute, but this knowledge is scattered, and no one can easily judge the suitability of bentonite clay as a binding material. Accordingly, a compressive review is essential to explore the suitability of bentonite clay as a cementitious material. This review focuses on the appropriateness of bentonite clay as a binding material in concrete production. The attention of this review is to discuss the physical and chemical composition of BC and the impact of BC on the fresh and mechanical performance of concrete. Furthermore, durability performance such as water absorption, acid resistance and dry shrinkage are also discussed. The results indicate that bentonite clay increased the mechanical and durability performance of concrete up to some extent but decrease its flowability. The optimum proportion of bentonite clay varies from 15 to 20% depending on the source of bentonite clay. The overall study demonstrates that bentonite clay has the creditability to be utilized partially instead of cement in concrete.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050634
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 635: Experimental Investigation of h-Type
           Supporting System for Excavation beneath Existing Underground Space

    • Authors: Yang Xiao, Xiangge Wang, Feng Yu, Zijun Wang
      First page: 635
      Abstract: A double-row pile support system combined with existing and additional support piles offers an effective solution for further excavation beneath existing underground space. A large-scale test chamber was therefore built to simulate the whole construction process of underground space extension. Several parallel tests are conducted through observation, data monitoring, and analysis to study the influence of several parameters on an h-type support system containing double-row piles. The relevant parameters include pile row spacing, pile length ratio, pile-head constraint, and in-service foundation pile. The tests reveal that a significant load-transfer effect is generated between the pile rows, and increasing the spacing between pile rows within a certain range can lead to a more reasonable distribution of bending moments and pile force. The displacement of the pile top and its rate of increase are directly proportional to excavation depth, and additional excavation to the bottom of the back-row piles tends to be a critical point, after which the deformation will be significant. The stability of the system varies inversely with the reduction in pile length ratio, but is positively related to the existing pile-head constraint. Furthermore, in-service foundation piles can result in increased bending moments and reduced displacement of the pile top. Finally, the rationality of the model test results was verified according to the numerical simulation and the stability of the double-row piles support system was calculated.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050635
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 636: Precise Calibration of the Continuous
           Surface Cap Model for Concrete Simulation

    • Authors: Yury Vladislavovich Novozhilov, Andrey Nikolaevich Dmitriev, Dmitry Sergeevich Mikhaluk
      First page: 636
      Abstract: The Continuous Surface Cap Model (CSCM) is one of the most widely used concrete models in LS-DYNA. The model is capable of capturing many important nonlinear mechanical behaviors of concrete well. The model has a built-in auto calibration procedure based on CEB-FIP code data. However, the built-in calibration procedure estimates material properties with significant errors, especially for tensile strength. Our study highlights the imperfection of the built-in automated material calibration procedure by the example of one-element uniaxial tension and compression tests. A calibration procedure is proposed, which significantly improves the accuracy of the material properties calculation: tensile and compressive strength and fracture energy. It is shown that the model with the proposed calibration procedure can describe the structure defamations and the fracture zone patterns more accurately.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050636
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 637: Drivers towards Adopting Modular Integrated
           Construction for Affordable Sustainable Housing: A Total Interpretive
           Structural Modelling (TISM) Method

    • Authors: Ayaz Khan, Rongrong Yu, Tingting Liu, Hong Guan, Erwin Oh
      First page: 637
      Abstract: This study features the development of a framework to identify drivers towards increasing adoption of modular integrated construction (MiC) methods for affordable sustainable housing (ASH). The rise of offsite construction (OSC) techniques, especially MiC, has been evident in recent years. MiC’s adoption in ASH is still underdeveloped; however, due to various benefits of MiC over conventional construction methods, it is envisioned to be a significant emerging approach for tackling growing housing demand, and ASH in particular. Although a few prior studies identified some factors for utilization of MiC towards ASH, studies to date have not provided a holistic review of drivers or a comprehensive framework of the interrelationships between such drivers. To address this issue, this study utilizes a three-way process including a systematic literature review, semi-structured interviews and the Total Interpretive Structure Modelling (TISM) method to study the drivers for MiC adoption in ASH. Initially, 111 drivers were extracted from a review of 40 studies in the existing literature. Following that, the significant drivers of MiC adoption for ASH were grouped into cost, time, productivity, quality, environmental, social, policy and demand. Drawing on concepts of systems thinking and graph theory, the TISM model for eight drivers was developed from both the literature review and the interview results. Four levels of hierarchy were found among drivers containing linkage, driving, depending and autonomous. Succeeding the steps of TISM and Reachability Matrix (RM) and Matrice d’ Impacts Croises-Multipication Appliqué a Classement (MICMAC) analysis, social drivers were found to have the highest driving and lowest dependency power, followed by productivity and policy drivers. This signifies the importance of social factors for enhancing MiC adoption for ASH. In addition, a strategic framework of boosting MiC adoption in ASH is also presented, highlighting the key stakeholders and strategies for transformation along with conclusions. This study delivers a wider landscape of drivers for MiC-ASH synergy that may assist practitioners, policy makers and relevant stakeholders to better understand the relationships between the drivers.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050637
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 638: Conceptual Framework for Building Permit
           Process Modeling: Lessons Learned from a Comparison between Germany and
           the United States regarding the As-Is Building Permit Processes

    • Authors: Judith Fauth, Lucio Soibelman
      First page: 638
      Abstract: Without a building permit, a construction project cannot be legally implemented. For this, the building project must undergo a review process by the competent authority. As the number of building projects to be inspected increases, building authorities are faced with ever greater challenges, due to the lack of adequate personnel to manage the inefficient, labor extensive, and lengthy building permit process. In-depth scientific studies of the existing building permit processes are missing so far. This paper introduces a proposed framework that aims to investigate and compare the building permit processes in Germany and in the United States of America (USA). Among other things, the processes are studied for both by-right and non-by-right cases. In doing so, the data are based on a collected empirical study in the form of qualitative expert interviews. The findings of the comparison provide a detailed description and illustration of the current building permit processes, as well as the lessons learned from both countries.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050638
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 639: Safety Climate in the Indonesian
           Construction Industry: Strengths, Weaknesses and Influential Demographic
           Characteristics

    • Authors: Kadir, Lestari, Sunindijo, Erwandi, Kusminanti, Modjo, Widanarko, Ramadhan
      First page: 639
      Abstract: The Indonesian construction industry is a significant contributor to economic growth in Indonesia. However, poor safety performance limits its contributions due to the negative impacts of poor safety on project performance. This research aims to assess the level of the safety climate in the Indonesian construction industry, identify its strengths and weaknesses, and understand the influence of individual demographic characteristics on the safety climate. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey from 1757 respondents working in six large state-owned construction companies in Indonesia. Results indicate that the overall safety climate level is fairly good. However, the safety climate scores of individual safety climate items are observed to vary widely. The scores reveal that construction employees understand the importance of safety and management demonstrates a degree of safety commitment, particularly by having regular safety communications. In contrast, the implementation of safety is limited in reality because safety is not considered a priority at work. Lack of safety resources and limited enforcement of safety rules further hinder the implementation of safety at the project level. Large state-owned construction companies such as those where data were collected should take the lead in changing the work practices in the Indonesian construction industry to improve safety performance. Level of education, length of work experience, position, permanency of job status, work location (project or office-based), and type of project are individual demographic characteristics that influence the level of the safety climate. Understanding the influence of these characteristics on the safety climate allows specific intervention strategies to be used to improve safety.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050639
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 640: Study on the Effect of Vegetation Coverage
           on Urban Cooling and Energy Conservation: A Case Study of a Typical Hilly
           City, Chenzhou, China

    • Authors: Xi Luo, Jingwei Wang, Jiayu Li
      First page: 640
      Abstract: Urban vegetation coverage is a core index in urban planning, which has been confirmed to be an effective indicator for the urban thermal environment. Through the urban thermal environment, this study aims to further quantify the impact of vegetation coverage on urban energy consumption. Chenzhou, a typical hilly city, was selected as the study object for its diversified vegetation coverages. Remote sensing technology and correlation and regression models were employed in this study. Firstly, the data of land surface temperature and vegetation coverage were calculated with remote sensing technology, followed by data analysis with the correlation and regression models. Then, employing the “λ-T” model, a statistical model corresponding to urban temperature and energy, this study clarified the impact of temperature on urban energy consumption. Finally, through urban temperature, this study analyzed the impact of urban greening coverage on urban energy consumption. This study shows that when the temperature ranges from 22 °C to 28.9 °C, every 10% of additional vegetation coverage will reduce the air conditioning energy demands by 5.5%, and when the temperature is between 28.9 °C and 37 °C, every 10% of additional vegetation coverage will reduce the mean air conditioning energy demands by 2.4%.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050640
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 641: AlphaTruss: Monte Carlo Tree Search for
           Optimal Truss Layout Design

    • Authors: Ruifeng Luo, Yifan Wang, Weifang Xiao, Xianzhong Zhao
      First page: 641
      Abstract: Truss layout optimization under complex constraints has been a hot and challenging problem for decades that aims to find the optimal node locations, connection topology between nodes, and cross-sectional areas of connecting bars. Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a reinforcement learning search technique that is competent to solve decision-making problems. Inspired by the success of AlphaGo using MCTS, the truss layout problem is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model, and a 2-stage MCTS-based algorithm, AlphaTruss, is proposed for generating optimal truss layout considering topology, geometry, and bar size. In this MDP model, three sequential action sets of adding nodes, adding bars, and selecting sectional areas greatly expand the solution space and the reward function gives feedback to actions according to both geometric stability and structural simulation. To find the optimal sequential actions, AlphaTruss solves the MDP model and gives the best decision in each design step by searching and learning through MCTS. Compared with existing results from the literature, AlphaTruss exhibits better performance in finding the truss layout with the minimum weight under stress, displacement, and buckling constraints, which verifies the validity and efficiency of the established algorithm.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050641
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 642: Detailed Structural Characterization of
           Existing RC Buildings for Seismic Exposure Modelling of the Lisbon Area

    • Authors: Válter Xavier, Rita Couto, Ricardo Monteiro, José Miguel Castro, Rita Bento
      First page: 642
      Abstract: As many European countries, the Portuguese territory is a region of moderate seismicity, and a large part of its building stock includes reinforced concrete (RC) buildings built before the introduction of modern seismic codes (<1983s). Currently, the Lisbon building stock is composed of 45% of RC buildings, of which 71% were built in such a construction period. Being designed to only sustain gravitational loads and without adequate lateral load resistance, these buildings are likely to be severely damaged during an earthquake. This highlights the need to propose reliable seismic risk assessment and earthquake loss models for such structures. In this context, the development of an exposure model which quantifies the building stock susceptible to be seismically damaged, in terms of structural characteristics, spatial location, and occupancy, is of major importance. The main purpose of this paper is to contribute the definition of a building exposure model for the city of Lisbon, focusing on a detailed structural characterization of these typologies. It starts with an extensive collection and analysis of design blueprints of existing buildings in two Lisbon’s neighborhoods: Alvalade and Benfica, which were found to be representative of the RC building stock in the city. Then, the information collected is scrutinized and statistically post-processed through probability distributions that provide a clear insight on the RC typologies and their structural characteristics. These results can be used in the future for the development of a numerical models and to derive fragility and vulnerability models, fundamental to conducting seismic risk analyses.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050642
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 643: Selecting an Appropriate Configuration in a
           Construction Project Using a Hybrid Multiple Attribute Decision Making and
           Failure Analysis Methods

    • Authors: Ali Beiki Ashkezari, Mahsa Zokaee, Amir Aghsami, Fariborz Jolai, Maziar Yazdani
      First page: 643
      Abstract: To successfully complete a project, selecting the most appropriate construction method and configuration is critical. There are, however, plenty of challenges associated with these complex decision-making processes. Clients require projects with the desired cost, time, and quality, so contractors should trade-off project goals through project configuration. To address this problem, in this study, an integrated FTA-DFMEA approach is proposed that implements the integrated AHP-TOPSIS method to improve construction project configuration. The proposed approach applies quality management techniques and MADM methods concurrently for the first time to improve construction project configuration considering project risks, costs and quality. At first, the Client’s requirements and market feedback are considered to identify potential failures in fulfilling project goals, and an integrated AHP-TOPSIS is used to select the most critical potential failure. Then fault tree analysis is used to indicate minimal paths. An inverse search in the operational model is performed to determine relevant tasks and identify defective project tasks based on WBS. Afterward, failure modes and effect analysis are applied to identify failure modes, and an integrated AHP-TOPSIS is used to rank failure modes and select the most critical one. Then Corrective actions are carried out for failure modes based on their priority, and project configuration is improved. This study considers construction resource suppliers with different policies, delivery lead times, warranty costs, and purchasing costs. Moreover, redundancy allocation and different configuration systems such as series and parallel are taken into account based on the arrangement and precedence of tasks. Finally, a case study of a building construction project is presented to test the viability of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach is applicable as a time-efficient and powerful tool in the improvement of construction project configuration, which provides the optimal output by considering various criteria with respect to the client’s requirements and contractor’s obligations. Moreover, the algorithm provides various options for the contractor to improve the implementation of construction projects and better respond to challenges when fulfilling project goals.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050643
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 644: Calculation of Additional Internal Forces
           in Post-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete Frame Columns Based on Equivalent
           Lateral Stiffness

    • Authors: Li Wang, Donghui Cheng, Enxiang Qu, Daoming Zhang, Chun Lv
      First page: 644
      Abstract: The additional internal forces in vertical members caused by prestressed tendons are typically overlooked in the design of post-tensioned prestressed concrete. A calculation method for additional internal forces in single-story multi-span prestressed concrete frame columns based on equivalent lateral stiffness is proposed in this paper. The slope-deflection equation for the bar element was presented using Timoshenko beam assumptions, taking into account the influence of shear and bending deformations. Subsequently, the concept of equivalent lateral stiffness and calculation equations were proposed. On this basis, the equations of the third shear and third bending moment for single-story multi-span prestressed frame columns were established. Furthermore, applying engineering examples, the method in this study was verified by ABAQUS software and previous methods. The results show that theoretical values and FEA results are in good agreement. Compared to previous methods, the method in this paper is more accurate and widely applicable. In addition, the stretching plan has a significant path effect and time-varying effect on the interlayer distribution of the third moment. It should be considered at the building stage to check the calculation of the frame column.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050644
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 645: Dynamic Data Feeding into BIM for Facility
           Management: A Prototype Application to a University Building

    • Authors: Jonatan Villavicencio Moreno, Rita Machete, Ana Paula Falcão, Alexandre B. Gonçalves, Rita Bento
      First page: 645
      Abstract: Building information modelling (BIM) has demonstrated its potential as a solution providing support to a series of operations related to facility management (FM) through building data retrieval, analysis, and processing. However, some challenges to the effective adoption of BIM-centred FM information systems occur in their design and implementation, causing obstacles to usability. Among these challenges are the customization of the information structure for each application case, the dynamic character of data supporting building maintenance, and the range of FM specialities involved, frequently including persons who are not BIM experts. This paper presents a BIM–FM prototype to support operations and access updated environmental data for a university building. The two contributions of the developed prototype are its ability to register two types of dynamic data, namely, the regularly acquired environmental sensor information and the sporadic building intervention records, and the automation of the data feeding, updating, and retrieval processes, allowing a user-friendly environment for both BIM experts and non-BIM users. Exploring the BIM interoperability and the integration of plug-ins, the proposed solution enables the comprehensive registration of dynamic FM-related data in an updated model while being accessible to all the specialities involved in the building management operations, enhancing its usability as an integrated solution for data maintenance and retrieval.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050645
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 646: Bearing Capacity of Annular Foundations on
           

    • Authors: Bo Sung Kim, O-il Kwon, Yong Hyuk Choi, Joon Kyu Lee
      First page: 646
      Abstract: Estimating the performance of foundations on rock mass is essential in designing buildings. Stability assessment of weathered rocks under foundation load is a complicated task if there is an internal opening within the foundation. This study applies finite element limit analysis to evaluate the bearing capacity of annular foundations resting on medium to highly weathered rocks following the modified Hoek–Brown rock mass. Special attention is focused on the effect of rock mass disturbance. The level and heterogeneity of rock mass disturbance are considered as constant or linearly varying disturbance factors with depth, which capture the damage level and zones due to construction and blasting. The results obtained from the analysis compare well with the existing solutions. The numerical results are presented in the familiar form of bearing capacity factors as a function of the dimensionless parameters related to foundation perforation and rock mass properties as well as the foundation-rock interface. The failure patterns of annular foundations are also investigated for a few cases with different levels of disturbance and foundation roughness.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050646
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 647: Software for the Multi-Criteria Design of
           the External Walls Based on User Priority

    • Authors: Jiří Majer, Nikola Vavřínová, Kateřina Stejskalová, Lenka Pentková
      First page: 647
      Abstract: The external walls of buildings account for a substantial part of the financial costs of the entire construction, and there can be a loss of up to 35% of thermal energy through them. By properly optimizing the price for the construction of m2 of the external wall structure and its thermal technical parameters, interesting savings can be achieved. At present, there is no multi-criteria analysis for designing external wall structure compositions involving broader input options according to the user’s technical parameters and priorities. There is a large selection of special software in the Czech and European markets, but the software is focused only on the narrower area of design and ignores the issue of building material prices. The aim of this work is to create an algorithm that reliably finds the composition that best meets the user’s requirements using a wide database of materials and selected mathematical methods. This article presents an algorithm that would design the ideal composition of an external wall. This algorithm has two options for searching. The first is based on eight technical criteria and the prices of materials used in combination with user priorities. The second option is to find the best composition based only on the specified interval of the selected technical parameters. Materials databases and the use of existing computational methods, such as the Saaty method and the WSM—weighted sum method, applied to the algorithm are essential to find the composition. According to the assignment, the structures will be clearly quantified in values from 1 (best) to 0 (worst). The algorithm, which is based on the analysis of data, sources, and theories of multi-criteria decision-making, should, therefore, facilitate the design of the external wall. At the end of this article, there is a verification of the functionality of the algorithm on a case study. We believe that software that uses the proposed algorithm could be very useful for practice.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050647
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 648: Experimental Characterization of Raw Earth
           Properties for Modeling Their Hygrothermal Behavior

    • Authors: Yassine Elias Belarbi, Mohamed Sawadogo, Philippe Poullain, Nabil Issaadi, Ameur El Amine Hamami, Stéphanie Bonnet, Rafik Belarbi
      First page: 648
      Abstract: Raw earth is one of the oldest building materials of mankind. Almost a third of the world’s population is living in an earth-based house. However, their use remains low compared to conventional materials such as concrete, steel, and wood. Although these geosourced materials are abundant, recyclable, and have a low environmental footprint, their use is very limited in the construction sector. This can be explained by the lack of data regarding their hygrothermal behavior. In this context, the present work aims to highlight the properties of cob construction material with straw addition. An experimental characterization of hygrothermal and microstructural properties has been carried out. Thermal conductivity, specific heat, sorption isotherms, moisture storage capacity, moisture buffer value (MBV), and water vapor permeability are obtained experimentally. Then, the collected data are used as input parameters of a numerical prediction model to numerically assess the thermal and hygric behavior. Cob is then compared to other more commonly used materials to highlight the benefits of its use within the context of the energetic and environmental transition. Our results will allow better understanding of the behavior of the new geosourced material thanks to experimental and numerical investigation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050648
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 649: Compressive Behavior of a Fully
           Prefabricated Liftable Connection for Modular Steel Construction

    • Authors: En-Feng Deng, Jun-Yi Lian, Zhe Liu, Guang-Cao Zhang, Shi-Bo Wang, Dian-Bin Cao
      First page: 649
      Abstract: Modular steel construction (MSC) consists of the off-site prefabrication of a fully finished module and the on-site assembling of the module unit. The popularity of MSC is on the rise, attributable to its technical advantages of speed and quality of buildings with repetitive units. Inter-module connection is critical for the overall stability and load-bearing capacity of MSC. An innovative, fully prefabricated liftable connection (FPLC) using standard corner fittings and long stay bolts is proposed in this paper. This paper focuses on the axial compressive behavior and design of FPLC. Five full-scale specimens were tested under axial compression. Local buckling of the column and shear of the long stay bolts were observed during the test. It can be concluded from the test results that the load-bearing capacity may decrease as the number and diameter of the stay bolts increase. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model (FEM) was developed and validated against the test results by general purpose finite element software ABAQUS. Furthermore, a parametric study was conducted using the verified FEM to provide a better understanding of the axial compressive behavior of the FPLC. The results of the parametric study indicated that the corner fitting can be up to 15% lighter for columns with thicknesses of 6 mm and 8 mm without substantial reduction of the axial load-bearing capacity of the FPLC. Moreover, the location of the column can be adjusted to achieve a uniform Von Mises stress and equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) distribution of the connection. The presented research work provides an engineering-practical inter-module connection on its axial compressive behavior, which will provide helpful references for further application of MSC.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050649
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 650: Prototyping a Lighting Control System Using
           LabVIEW with Real-Time High Dynamic Range Images (HDRis) as the Luminance
           Sensor

    • Authors: Aris Budhiyanto, Yun-Shang Chiou
      First page: 650
      Abstract: Lighting control systems (LCSs) play important roles in maintaining visual comfort and energy savings in buildings. This paper presents a prototype LCS using LabVIEW with real-time high dynamic range images and a digital multiplex controller to brighten lamps sequentially to provide visual comfort. The prototype is applied to a scaled classroom model with three schemes involving different activities and needs: writing and reading, requiring a uniform luminance of approximately 100 cd/m2, teaching using a whiteboard, requiring an illuminance of approximately 120 cd/m2 for the whiteboard and 60 cd/m2 for the desks, and drawing and art activities focused on the center of the room, requiring an illuminance of approximately 100 cd/m2 for the center area and 50 cd/m2 for the background area. For each scheme, two conditions are presented: one in which the room is treated as a closed room without windows, and the one in which the room has a large window on one wall that enables daylight to penetrate the room. The prototype works well with both schemes and provides different combinations of lamp brightness levels, starting from 10% to 60%, based on the activities and required luminance, and can save around 73–82% of electricity. The presence of daylight does not always result in more energy savings, as the brightness contrast for visual comfort needs to be considered.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050650
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 651: Utility of BIM-CFD Integration in the
           Design and Performance Analysis for Buildings and Infrastructures of
           Architecture, Engineering and Construction Industry

    • Authors: Ki-Yeob Kang, Xiangyu Wang, Jun Wang, Shuyuan Xu, Wenchi Shou, Yanhui Sun
      First page: 651
      Abstract: To scrutinize the current application of building information modelling (BIM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) integration in research as well as industrial fields, the present study conducted a holistic review including a bibliometric exploration for existing articles, specific content analysis in different sectors, and follow-up qualitative discussion for the potential of this integrated technology. The bibliometric exploration is focused on analyzing main journals, keywords, and chronological change in representative research content by selecting 115 relevant studies. In content analysis, the representative integrated BIM and CFD application cases are divided into three different sectors. The functionality, interoperability, and sustainability of such integration in architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) projects are described in detail. Furthermore, the future research based on the applications of BIM and CFD integration is discussed. Specifically, the more advanced hazard analysis is proposed reflecting the strength of such an integration. Comprehensive information for the possible hazards in AEC projects is digitized and quantified to make a more sensitive hazard recognition tool which can formalize reduction strategies and measures of potential hazards. As a result, the present review study contributes to relevant research by identifying representative application parts and practical requirements for BIM and CFD integration in whole design aspects, reviewing the current research trends and future direction in detail, and analyzing the major issues, such as an interoperability in BIM-compatible CFD for sustainable built environments.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050651
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 652: Modeling and Measuring the Leaked-Air Rate
           into the Insulation Layer of a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    • Authors: Tengfei (Tim) Zhang, Jinsong Dong, Sumei Liu
      First page: 652
      Abstract: Leaked air from an aircraft cabin into its envelope walls through cracks can lead to a large amount of moisture condensation on inner shell skins and in insulation layers. The leaked-air rate is subject to the stack pressure difference and the geometry of the cracks. So far, the impacts of the crack sizes and positions, and the flight conditions on the resulting leaked-air rate have been unclear. This investigation adopts validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model leaked flow, pressure, and temperature distribution in a single-aisle aircraft cabin. Impacts of the flight cruising altitude, crack size and position, and flow blocker on the leaked-air rate were examined. In addition, measurements were conducted in a reduced-scale cabin mockup in an environmental chamber to mimic flight conditions. Obtained test data were adopted to validate CFD modeling. Results reveal that a higher cruising altitude of a flight results in greater leaked-air rate from the cabin to the envelope walls due to the larger temperature difference. The smaller the crack size was, the lower the leaked-air rate. In addition, more cracks farther away from the neutral plane lead to a greater leaked-air rate. A flow blocker in the middle of the insulation layer reduced the leaked-air rate by 34.5%.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050652
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 653: Failure Modes of RC Structural Elements and
           Masonry Members Retrofitted with Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix
           (FRCM) System: A Review

    • Authors: Irandegani, Zhang, Shadabfar, Kontoni, Iqbal
      First page: 653
      Abstract: Much research has been conducted and published on the examination of the behavior of reinforced steel and concrete structures with a FRP system. Nevertheless, the performance of FRP differs from that of FRCM, particularly at high temperature and ultimate strength. The present study provides a review of previous research on structural elements (viz. beams, columns, arches, slabs, and walls) retrofitted with FRCM systems, taking account of various parameters, such as layers, composite types, configurations, and anchors for controlling or delaying failure modes (FMs). Additionally, this paper discussed the details of different FMs observed during experimental tests, such as crushed concrete or bricks, fiber debonding from substrate materials, slippage, fiber rupture, and telescopic failure for strengthened specimens. Moreover, this paper investigated where and how fractures may develop in structural elements retrofitted with the FRCM system under various retrofit scenarios. To this end, in addition to the review of the relevant literature, a large dataset has been compiled from different (RC) structural elements and masonry members. Next, a relationship is developed between failure modes (FMS) and influential parameters, i.e., the number of layers and the type of composite, based on this dataset. This can be used as a benchmark example in future studies, as there is no such basis available in the literature, to the best of the authors’ knowledge.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050653
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 654: Design and Implementation of Quality
           Information Management System for Modular Construction Factory

    • Authors: Shin, Choi
      First page: 654
      Abstract: Modular construction has been gaining increasing attention from industry and academia as a solution to the limitations of the traditional on-site orient production systems in the construction industry. Various attempts have been made to improve modular construction performance. However, while previous studies have attempted to enhance the productivity of modular construction, attempts to improve the efficiency of quality management in modular construction have been limited. Moreover, the quality management practices in a modular factory still rely on document-oriented quality information management, which is inefficient. Therefore, this study aims to develop a quality information management system to improve quality information management during module manufacturing. Accordingly, quality information during module manufacturing has been standardized using integration definition for process modeling, and system functions are defined using standardized quality information. The developed modular factory quality information management system includes module information and production-type management, material management, and module production management. The practicability and validity of the developed system were examined by accredited tests and certification laboratory and modular construction experts. The developed system is expected to contribute to improving the existing inefficient quality management process of module manufacturers by providing an integrated and systematic method to manage quality information generated during manufacturing.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050654
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 655: A New Hybrid MCDM Model for Insulation
           Material Evaluation for Healthier Environment

    • Authors: Berrak Aksakal, Alptekin Ulutaş, Figen Balo, Darjan Karabasevic
      First page: 655
      Abstract: One of the easiest and most common methods for effectively reducing building energy demand is the selection of adequate thermal insulation materials. Thermal insulation is a substantial contribution and an evident, logical and practical first stage toward improving energy performance, particularly in envelope-load-dominant structures located in difficult climate zones. Today’s insulating materials come in a broad variety of sizes and shapes, each with its a own qualities. It is well acknowledged that material selection is one of the most difficult and time-consuming aspects of a construction project. Therefore, choosing the right insulation material is also a very important topic to increase energy efficiency. However, it is a complex problem with many criteria and alternatives. This study integrates three different multi criteria decision making methods, which are Fuzzy Best-Worst Method, CRiteria Importance Through Inter-criteria Correlation and Mixed Aggregation by COmprehensive Normalization Technique. In this study, the following eight criteria were taken into account in the evaluation: thermal conductivity, periodic thermal transmittance, specific heat, density, decrement factor, surface mass, thermal transmittance, and thermal wave shift. The first method will be used to find the subjective weights, while the second method will be used to find the objective weights. The third method will be used to rank the insulation materials. According to the results of the Fuzzy Best-Worst Method, the most important criterion was determined as thermal conductivity. According to the results of the CRiteria Importance Through Inter-criteria Correlation, the most important criterion was determined as thermal wave shift. According to the results of the Mixed Aggregation by COmprehensive Normalization Technique, the top 10 insulation materials are as follows: polyisocyanurate, polyurethane (1), polyurethane (2), wood fiber (1), kenaf, jute, cellulose (2), wood fiber (1), XPS (1) and XPS (2). According to the results of the proposed method, polyisocyanurate was determined as the best insulation material for healthier environment. This study makes two contributions to the literature: first, a new hybrid method was developed in this study. Secondly, in this study, the newly introduced Mixed Aggregation by COmprehensive Normalization Technique method was used.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050655
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 656: Comparative Study of Construction
           Information Classification Systems: CCI versus Uniclass 2015

    • Authors: Darius Pupeikis, Arunas Aleksandras Navickas, Egle Klumbyte, Lina Seduikyte
      First page: 656
      Abstract: By classifying BIM data, the intention is to enable different construction actors to find the data they need using software and machines. The importance of classification is growing as building projects become more international, generating more data that rely on automated processes, which help in making better decisions and operating devices. Different classification systems have been developed around the world. Each national construction information classification system (NCICS) aims to classify information on the built environment and thus meet national needs and ensure compliance with the principles of regional and international building information systems. The research purpose of this paper is to present a comparative assessment of two construction information classification systems, CCI and Uniclass 2015. The following methods were used: the expert assessment of NCICS alternatives; the assessment of NCICS alternatives; and a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of NCICS alternatives. We concluded that in the initial phase of NCICS development, CCI ontologies should be adopted as a base consisting of construction entities, spaces, and elements, with the gradual addition of complexes of buildings and infrastructure, along with roles and phases of the building life cycle (BLC). An explanatory NCICS development note should be drawn outlining the principles of classification and identification; the ontological structure; development and updating possibilities; methods of integrating existing national and international classification systems; and methods of integrating data of construction products, time, cost, or other individual characteristics.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050656
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 657: Inerter Location-Based Vibration
           Suppression Study of a Transmission Line Equipped with
           Tuned-Mass-Damper-Inerter (TMDI) under Harmonic Excitation

    • Authors: Xinpeng Liu, Yingwen Yang, Yi Sun, Yongli Zhong, Lei Zhou
      First page: 657
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel ungrounded TMDI to improve the vibration suppression performance of the transmission line under harmonic excitation. This type of inerter-based damper may transform a translational motion into a rotational motion, greatly increasing the efficiency of vibration suppression. In the present study, the differential equations of motion are first derived based on the transmission line with an ungrounded TMDI structure. Then the closed-form solution of the displacement response spectrum considering the influence of the suspension location of the inerter is developed. The impact of the inerter location on vibration suppression performance is investigated in depth by defining the suspension location factor (υ) and tuning the damping ratio and frequency ratio. The results demonstrate that the suspension location of the inerter has a substantial impact on the damping ratio, frequency ratio, and vibration suppression performance. When the connection location of the inerter is near to the mass of the damper, it degrades the vibration suppression performance of the system. The failure phenomenon of the inerter occurs in the range of 0.2 < υ < 0.3, indicating that the presence of the inerter in this range does not enhance vibration suppression performance. The modal coordinate difference has a considerable impact on the vibration suppression efficacy of the TMDI. With increasing modal coordinate differences, the vibration suppression performance of the TMDI grows dramatically.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050657
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 658: Status of Value Management Implementation
           in Small and Medium Construction Projects in Malaysia

    • Authors: Xiaobin Lin, Ain Naadia Mazlan, Syuhaida Ismail, Serdar Durdyev
      First page: 658
      Abstract: Value management (VM) should be implemented in construction projects to achieve the best value-for-money for clients, irrespective of project size. However, its regular implementation in Malaysia appears mostly in large projects driven by legislation. Negligence was therefore aroused towards implementing VM for smaller projects and the specific status remains ambiguous to date. This paper aims to investigate the current status of VM implementation in small and medium construction projects in Malaysia with a view to exploring the challenges and measures in improving the status. A total of 162 construction organizations directly involved in small and medium projects were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. The findings revealed that the execution of VM by organizations for smaller construction projects is relatively low and significantly subject to project size regardless of project type. Practitioners’ levels of frequency and awareness towards implementing VM in small and medium construction projects remain low and unsatisfactory. Also, VM implementation in smaller projects was found significantly correlated with the experience of organizations and practitioners. Challenges and measures in ameliorating the observed status were explored. The findings contribute to a clear understanding of VM in small and medium construction projects in Malaysia and call for more attention from both academia and industry on VM for smaller sizes of projects.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050658
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 659: Comparative Analysis Chinese Green
           Buildings’ of Input–Output Effect Based on Data Envelope
           Analysis

    • Authors: Wei Liu, Zhuan He, Huapeng Chen, Cheng Lin
      First page: 659
      Abstract: In order to measure implementation management efficiency of Chinese green buildings, the input–output index system of Chinese green buildings was constructed base on provincial-level panel data during 2017–2021.The basic model Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and DEA-Malmquist index method were adopted to measure and analyze the development law and time–region evolution tendency of implementation efficiency of Chinese green buildings from the static and dynamic perspectives, contributing to clarifying critical factors of restricting green building development, respectively. It was found that the comprehensive implementation management efficiency of Chinese green buildings was lower, but the development tendency was good. There was a remarkable regional and provincial difference, showing the development pattern of “east > middle > west” as a whole. Pure technical efficiency did not have a big gap, but most areas kept an invalid scale state, resulting in fluctuations of regional efficiency in varying degrees. The average annual increase of Total Factor Productivity (TFP) was 14.80%, indicating that TFP was developed well. Technical progress was considered as a decisive factor to restrain increase or decrease of TFP. As a result, to improve implementation efficiency of Chinese green buildings, it is necessary to focus on destroying the regional limitations, optimizing the input scale moderately, and paying attention to technical progress and innovation management.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050659
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 660: Satisfaction and Demands of Indoor Space in
           the High-Density Residential Areas in the COVID-19 Era

    • Authors: Jing Yang, Jiahang Xu, Tingting Hu, Jianing Cao
      First page: 660
      Abstract: The last few years have witnessed a change in residents’ demand for indoor space due to the COVID-19 pandemic. From the perspective of residential satisfaction in the urban areas in various levels of COVID-19 severity, the household survey was conducted to explore the changing residential demands. The IBM SPSS Statistics was employed to analyze the survey data with a focus on the relationship between pandemic severity and residents’ satisfaction, as well as the future influence of COVID-19 on indoor space and the varying demands. Correlation analysis was performed. The variables included in the correlation analysis were the following: urban epidemic severity, number of confirmed cases, density of confirmed cases, regional pandemic severity and satisfaction of different indoor spaces. This study revealed that the hallway, bathroom, living room and master bedroom are key areas in which the residential demands are concentrated. These should be paid attention to in the future residential design.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050660
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 661: Study on Optimal Design of Grotto-Eave
           System with Cable Inerter Viscous Damper for Vibration Control

    • Authors: Jizhong Huang, Ruoyu Zhang, Qingyang Luo, Xiuwei Guo, Meigen Cao
      First page: 661
      Abstract: In this paper, the mechanical model of grotto–eave system with cable inerter viscous damper (CIVD) is established, and the vibration control equations are established. Firstly, the stochastic response is carried out, and the optimization design of design parameters of CIVD is carried out for the grotto–eave systems with different connection types. Finally, the vibration mitigation control performance of CIVD under different seismic inputs is analyzed. The research shows that in the optimal design of CIVD, the inerter–mass ratio and damping ratio should be reduced as much as possible to improve the feasibility of the application of CIVD in cultural relics protection engineering under the condition of meeting the target damping ratio. The demand-based optimal method can minimize the cost by enhancing damping element deformation in a small damping ratio, while ensuring that the value of displacement index of grotto–eave system can be reached. Hence, the deformation and damping force of CIVD will increase simultaneously due to the efficient tuning and damping amplification of CIVD. CIVD can enlarge the apparent mass through rotation and damping force through enhancement deformation. Hence, compared with other conventional dampers (such as viscous damper), optimal CIVD has lower damping ratio under the same demand index of grotto–eave system. It can be realized that the lightweight and high efficiency of the damper, and can be applied to the vibration mitigation and reinforcement of the grotto–eave system.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050661
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 662: Organization Synchronization in Response to
           Complex Project Delays: Network-Based Analysis

    • Authors: Lin Yang, Xinran Hu, Xianbo Zhao
      First page: 662
      Abstract: In response to frequent complex project delays, organization synchronization, a set of interactions, is a dynamic behavior that helps to restore the stability of complex projects after delays. However, few studies have figured out how organizations synchronize effectively in order to deal with delay issues. To solve this problem, this study first provides a preliminary list of CDFs and indices of organization interactions are also given. A total of 15 key CDFs and 10 interaction ways were refined according to a questionnaire survey. In addition, the complex network synchronization (CNS) theory was adopted to analyze the synchronizability and importance of nodes by comprehensively using multiple parameters. A complex metro project with 51 project organizations was used as a case study and we found that specific signal organizations synchronized through three effective interaction ways (meetings, discussion and study, and the Internet) to cope with six CDFs (safety accidents, prominent problems of land expropriation, unreasonable timelines by clients, improper construction designs, delayed payments, and high financial risks). This study contributes to defining organization synchronization, providing a feasible research framework for assessing network synchronizability and identifying signal organizations in complex projects, and guiding practitioners to effectively cope with delays by interactions between signal organizations.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050662
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 663: A Modified Surgical Face Mask to Improve
           Protection and Wearing Comfort

    • Authors: Tengfei (Tim) Zhang, Tinglu Zhang, Sumei Liu
      First page: 663
      Abstract: Wearing face masks is essential for reducing infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, ordinary surgical face masks can provide only moderate protection. The N95 face masks should provide sufficient protection but may impose complaints about breathing difficulty or even impair respiratory health. This investigation proposed a novel face mask modified from the surgical face mask to improve both protection and comfort. The filter material of the surgical face mask was covered and sealed on a cardboard support frame but with openings for air permeating through. The modified face masks were worn by a test subject for measuring the air contents inside the face masks. The protection performance was evaluated by the overall PM1 filtration efficiency. The concentrations of CO2, O2, N2, and water vapor were adopted to evaluate the breathing comfort. The performance of the proposed face mask was compared with the market-available surgical and N95 face masks. In addition, CFD modeling was adopted to investigate the dynamic air exchange of the face mask with respiration and the surrounding air. Impacts of the air sampling tube positions on the measurement results were also examined. The results revealed that the overall PM1 filtration efficiency of the modified face mask could reach 96.2%, which was much higher than that of the surgical face mask and only slightly lower than the N95 face mask. As compared with the N95 face mask, the modified mask reduced the respiratory flow resistance and the concentrations of CO2 and water vapor and thus increased the O2 content and breathing comfort.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050663
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 664: Defect Identification of Concrete Piles
           Based on Numerical Simulation and Convolutional Neural Network

    • Authors: Chuan-Sheng Wu, Jian-Qiang Zhang, Ling-Ling Qi, De-Bing Zhuo
      First page: 664
      Abstract: Defects in pile foundations, such as neck defects, bulge imperfections, weak concretes, cracks, and broken piles, can cause a decrease in the bearing capacity and the structural stability of the foundation. Identification of the type of defect is vital in formulating a reasonable repair plan for the pile foundation. In this study, the authors proposed a scheme to identify the types of defects in concrete piles based on a convolution neural network and a low-strain pile integrity test (LSPIT). A batch modeling method of defective pile foundations using Python script was also proffered. The different degrees of signals of five types of defective pile foundations were simulated by this method. The original data were decomposed and reconstructed by wavelet packet decomposition (WPT). To prevent the data from losing too much information after WPT, the data of 400 × 1 after decomposition and reconstruction were processed by dimension-raising to obtain the data of 20 × 20 × 1. Then, the multidimensional feature index of 20 × 20 × 2 was generated by index fusion with the original data. Finally, the data were input onto convolutional neural network (CNN) as a training parameter. Following an improvement of the dataset, the recognition accuracy of the type of defect in the pile foundation by the proposed identification scheme reached 94.4%.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050664
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 665: Mechanical Characteristics and Acoustic
           Emission Characteristics of Mortar-Rock Binary Medium

    • Authors: Wenyu Tang, Hang Lin, Yifan Chen, Jingjing Feng, Huihua Hu
      First page: 665
      Abstract: The stability of the interface between mortar and rock is very important in engineering construction. In this paper, the all-digital acoustic emission (AE) system is used to detect the direct shear test of the mortar-rock binary medium interface with different sawtooth angles under different normal stress states. The stress-displacement information and AE signal during the whole shearing process are extracted. The coupling relationship between stress and AE characteristic parameters is discussed. The quantitative relationship between sawtooth angle and shear strength of binary medium is established, and three AE characteristic parameters that can be used to predict structural instability are proposed. The research shows that: With the increase of the normal stress and the sawtooth angle, the shear strength of the mortar-rock binary medium increases. The relationship of that is obtained by least squares fitting. The shear stress-displacement curve is divided into five stages according to the change of deformation law. Through the analysis of AE characteristic parameters, it is found that increasing the sawtooth angle makes the AE count and AE cumulative count increase. Based on the analysis of the characteristic parameters of RA-AF, the changes of shear cracks and tensile cracks within the whole shearing process were obtained, respectively. In the process of binary medium shearing, the AE peak frequency is in the range of 120–340 kHz. Three acoustic emission parameters that can predict the macroscopic damage of binary media are obtained: the AE b value, the ratio of shear crack signals, and the number of signals with a peak frequency of 220 Hz to 320 Hz.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050665
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 666: Learning Environment Design and Use

    • Authors: Pamela Woolner, Paula Cardellino
      First page: 666
      Abstract: Reflecting a global trend of increased school construction, research into the built environment of education has multiplied over the last two decades [...]
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050666
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 667: Vision-Based Methods for Relative Sag
           Measurement of Suspension Bridge Cables

    • Authors: Can Huang, Yongwei Wang, Shuyuan Xu, Wenchi Shou, Chengming Peng, Danfeng Lv
      First page: 667
      Abstract: Main cables, comprising a number of wire strands, constitute a vital element in long-span suspension bridges. The determination of their alignment during construction is of great importance, and relative sag is commonly measured for the efficient sag adjustment of general strands. The conventional approach uses the caterpillar method, which is inconvenient, difficult-to-implement, and potentially dangerous. In order to realize the high-precision measurement of cable alignment in a strong wind environment, a vision-based method for relative sag measurement of the general cable strands is proposed in this paper. In the proposed measurement system, images of pre-installed optical targets are collected and analyzed to realize the remote, automatic, and real-time measurement of the relative sag. The influences of wind-induced cable shaking and camera shaking on the accuracy of the height difference measurement are also theoretically analyzed. The results show that cable strand torsion and camera roll have a great impact on the measurement accuracy, while the impacts of the cable strand swing and vibration, camera swing and vibration, and camera pitch and yaw are insignificant. The vision-based measurement system tested in the field experiment also shows a measurement error within 3 mm, which meets the requirements for cable adjustment construction. At the same time, the vision-based measurement method proposed and validated in this paper can improve the measurement accuracy and efficiency of strand alignment in a strong wind environment. Potential risks involved in the manual measurement, e.g., working at heights and in strong wind environments, can be eliminated, facilitating the automation of the cable erection process.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050667
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 668: Influence of Ventilation Operating Modes on
           Energy Efficiency

    • Authors: Tihana, Zajacs, Ivancovs, Gaujena
      First page: 668
      Abstract: The most significant increase in construction volumes in Latvia was registered in the time period from 2005 to the middle of 2008. Many large suburban areas around Riga were landscaped for building single-family-type houses. People have been using these properties for 12–15 years, and now, the challenge for the inhabitants is to find the most efficient way to maintain a high level of living comfort. Deteriorating systems require investments, so it is in the interest of owners to ensure that the benefits of such investments are maximized and that energy consumption is as low as possible. In this study, the authors simulated various scenarios where HVAC system parameters were changed, and the thermal performance of building structures was improved. Annual energy consumption, indoor quality and thermal comfort were analyzed. The importance of this work is justified by the need to realize and define the energy efficiency levels of existing single-family houses and demonstrate the amount of investment required to move closer to established energy efficiency targets.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050668
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Buildings, Vol. 12, Pages 669: Evaluation of Residual Lateral Capacities
           of Impact-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Members

    • Authors: Jiabin Ye, Yingtao Wang, Jian Cai, Qingjun Chen, An He
      First page: 669
      Abstract: To study the residual lateral capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns after being subjected to static and horizontal impact action, static and horizontal impact tests of a total of sixteen RC columns were conducted. The variables considered in the tests included the shear-span ratio, the impact weight and the velocity. The experimental results, including the impact force, the deflection and the strain, as well as the cracking pattern and the failure mode, were discussed. Compared with the load–deflection curves under static and impact loading, it can be found that the inertial effect plays a significant part in the dynamic behaviour of the RC columns. Subsequently, static tests of six specimens with slight impact damage were carried out to obtain their residual performance. Based on the Park–Ang damage model that is widely used for assessing the post-seismic performance of RC members, an evaluation method for the structural residual capacity of RC columns after being subjected to impact loading was developed, with its accuracy confirmed by the experimental results.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings12050669
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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