Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access  
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  


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Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2075-5309
Published by MDPI Homepage  [233 journals]
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 79: The Disruptive Adaptations of Construction
           4.0 and Industry 4.0 as a Pathway to a Sustainable Innovation and
           Inclusive Industrial Technological Development

    • Authors: Amusan Lekan, Aigbavboa Clinton, Owolabi James
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Construction 4.0 (C4.0) has tremendously impacted construction activities worldwide in recent times. This effect was made possible on account of innovations brought about by Industry 4.0 (I4.0). Industry 4.0 has the potential to create Construction 4.0 through the integration of the design, construction and maintenance of infrastructure through useful component integration for industrial and technological development. Therefore, this study aimed to present a pathway for achieving sustainable innovations and inclusive technological and infrastructural developments. The following parameters were reviewed in this study as part of the goals and objectives set in the survey: identifying the adaptable areas of Construction 4.0 in design, planning, construction and maintenance as part of infrastructural innovation in order to study the industrial application drivers of I4.0 and C4.0 hindrances in achieving C4.0; achieving the automation dream through C4.0, benchmarking the social and economic implications of C4.0 and identifying the issues and challenges in achieving sustainable innovation through infrastructural development and documenting the disruptive tools of C4.0 in achieving a sustainable design through technological development and examining the critical factors influencing the effective adaptation of C4.0 in achieving growth. The authors utilised 200 construction firms for this study using the Cochran and Slovin’s formulas. In addition, the sample size of 150 respondents that constituted the study were construction professionals. The respondents used the simple percentage, relative index, Spearman’s rank, Mann–Whitney U test, Kendall’s Tau test, Student’s t-test, ANOVA and chi-square tools in the data processing. The study found out, among other things, the following as part of the parameters earlier proposed: the introduction of a circular economy by adopting intelligent innovation, engaging new tools, technological innovation diffusion and the vertical and horizontal integration of versatile tools like I4.0 and C4.0 for inclusive technological development. This study recommended the objective and effective adaptation of I4.0 tools to enhance C4.0 for technical development, circular economic integration and a framework for sustainable innovation and a system for the inclusive monitoring of innovations in the design and planning of construction maintenance.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030079
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 80: Medieval Bourgeois Tenement Houses as an
           Archetype for Contemporary Architectural and Construction Solutions: The
           Example of Historic Downtown Gdańsk

    • Authors: Antoni Taraszkiewicz, Karol Grębowski, Karolina Taraszkiewicz, Jarosław Przewłócki
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The basic urban tissue of medieval European cities consisted of brick townhouses. In the cities of northern Europe, these tenements were characterised by a block based on an elongated rectangular plan, covered with a gable roof with a ridge oriented perpendicularly to the street. The side walls of the tenement house were common for both neighbours and constituted a basic structural element. The gable façades were not loaded with ceilings, providing freedom in shaping them. The aim of this work is to determine the reasons why this method of shaping tenement houses in historical city centres has survived to the present day, becoming an archetype for contemporary architectural and construction solutions, despite the passage of time, numerous historical events, war damage, changing architectural styles, fashions and building techniques and technologies. The historical centre of Gdańsk has become the research material in this paper, where by means of such methods as historical source material analysis (iconographic), observation (operationalisation of preserved historical objects), comparative analysis of completed contemporary investments, and 3D modelling of structural systems, an attempt has been made to determine the main factors determining contemporary architectural and structural solutions. The reason for the extraordinary durability of this type of construction model can be found in the enormous rationality and efficiency of this solution. It allows for very intensive use of land, easy access of all front elevations to the main communication routes, cheapness of construction resulting from small spans and use of common structural walls for the neighbouring buildings, ease of shaping gable elevations, and fire safety. Aesthetic considerations are probably also important here, although it should be assumed that their significance began to grow only in the second half of the 19th century. However, it seems that the most important factor which made the model of the mediaeval bourgeois tenement house become an archetype for contemporary architectural and construction solutions is the timeless message contained in this model, a specific code allowing it to be unambiguously identified as a form of urban house – a place of safe living and at the same time a visible sign of the rich history of European cities, an element creating their cultural and spatial identity, a component of the living, constantly transforming urban fabric.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030080
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 81: Preliminary Analysis of the Use of
           Construction Waste to Replace Conventional Aggregates in Concrete

    • Authors: Fernando A. N. Silva, João M. P. Q. Delgado, António C. Azevedo, António G. B. Lima, Castorina S. Vieira
      First page: 81
      Abstract: This work aims to study the influence of using construction and demolition waste in the replacement of coarse and fine aggregate to produce recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). A moderate compressive strength concrete made with usual fine and coarse aggregate was used as a benchmark material. Compressive and split tensile tests were performed using 120 cylindrical concrete specimens with 150 mm diameter and 300 mm length. Four-point flexural tests in reinforced beams made with conventional concrete and RAC were performed. The results obtained showed that the use of recycled fine aggregates, in both percentages of substitution investigated—50% and 100%— did not generate any deleterious influence on the values of compressive strength and split tensile strength of the RACs produced. Tin fact, the mechanical strengths of RACs produced with recycled fine aggregate were equal or higher than those from the reference concrete. The same behavior was not observed, however, when the recycled coarse aggregate was used. For this case, decreases in concrete mechanical strengths were observed, especially in compressive strength, with values around 35% lower when compared to the reference concrete. Tensile mechanical tests results confirmed the excellent behavior of all RACs made with replacement of usual fine aggregates by recycled. Bending tests performed in reinforced RAC beams had as objective to evaluate the deformation profile of the beams. The obtained results showed that RAC beams with full replacement of usual fine aggregate by the recycled aggregates have presented little changes in the global behavior, an aspect that encourages its use.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030081
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 82: Fire Resistance Behaviour of Geopolymer
           Concrete:An Overview

    • Authors: Salmabanu Luhar, Demetris Nicolaides, Ismail Luhar
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Even though, an innovative inorganic family of geopolymer concretes are eye-catching potential building materials, it is quite essential to comprehend the fire and thermal resistance of these structural materials at a very high temperature and also when experiencing fire with a view to make certain not only the safety and security of lives and properties but also to establish them as more sustainable edifice materials for future. The experimental and field observations of degree of cracking, spalling and loss of strength within the geopolymer concretes subsequent to exposure at elevated temperature and incidences of occurrences of disastrous fires extend an indication of their resistance against such severely catastrophic conditions. The impact of heat and fire on mechanical attributes viz., mechanical-compressive strength, flexural behavior, elastic modulus; durability—thermal shrinkage; chemical stability; the impact of thermal creep on compressive strength; and microstructure properties—XRD, FTIR, NMR, SEM as well as physico-chemical modifications of geopolymer composites subsequent to their exposures at elevated temperatures is reviewed in depth. The present scientific state-of-the-art review manuscript aimed to assess the fire and thermal resistance of geopolymer concrete along with its thermo-chemistry at a towering temperature in order to introduce this novel, most modern, user and eco-benign construction materials as potentially promising, sustainable, durable, thermal and fire-resistant building materials promoting their optimal and apposite applications for construction and infrastructure industries.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030082
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 83: Global Performance of Sustainable Thermal
           Insulating Systems with Cork for Building Facades

    • Authors: Malanho, Veiga, Farinha
      First page: 83
      Abstract: : Rehabilitation of facades may be carried out with the application of External Thermal Insulation Systems (ETICS). Their main contribution is the increase of the energy efficiency of buildings. In the literature, hygrothermal, impact and fire performance studies have been carried out on several systems with different insulation materials, such as expanded polystyrene, mineral wool and extruded polystyrene foam insulation. Due to the growing concern with the environment, systems are being developed with more sustainable and ecological materials, such as ICB (expanded cork). These type of boards are responsible for a negative impact in global warming potential, significantly improving the environmental benefits of their use. As these systems were recently introduced to the market, applications on site are very recent and their behaviour over time still unknown. In this research, the durability and global performance of more sustainable systems (with ICB) were analysed through an experimental campaign and compared with EPS (expanded polystyrene) systems. The results show that the systems with ICB obtained satisfactory global behaviour comparable with the EPS systems. The ICB sustainable systems analysed stood out in acoustic performance.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030083
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 84: Influence of the Thermal Conductivity and
           Ambient Temperature Uncertainty on the Heat Losses through the External

    • Authors: Marcin Koniorczyk, Witold Grymin
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Numerous parameters assumed in the calculations of the buildings’ energy demand are uncertain. Therefore, calculations should be accompanied by determination of propagation of such uncertainties in the mathematical model. In the article, the influence of uncertainty of thermal conductivity and ambient temperature has been studied by means of the generalized perturbation stochastic finite element method and compared against the Monte Carlo results, indicating good accordance. Expected value and variance of heat flux on the internal side of the wall have been investigated. The perturbation stochastic finite element method is much more efficient than the Monte Carlo method for the analysed problem. The largest variance of temperature is noted in the node between the constructive layer and insulation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030084
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 85: Micro-Mechanical and 3D Fractal Analysis,
           Durability, and Thermal Behaviour of Nano-Modified Cementitious
           Lightweight Composites for Building Facades

    • Authors: Marva Angela Blankson, Savaş Erdem, Ezgi Gürbüz
      First page: 85
      Abstract: There are increasing research endeavours on the application of nanotechnology in the construction industry and lightweight composites. In this study, the influence of different percentage (1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of cement) colloidal nano-silica particles on the mechanical, thermal, and durability properties of lightweight cementitious composites was studied through measurement of compressive strength, flexural response, micro-hardness measurement, pore structure analysis, thermal conductivity, water permeability, and chloride penetration. Moreover, 3D X-ray Compute Tomography together with digital image analysis and 3D fractal analysis was used to characterize the nano-silica, micro-structures, and the fracture surfaces. The experimental results show that incorporating nano-silica particles resulted in a mechanical strength increase up to 45.4 % and a water permeability and chloride migration decrease up to 51.2% and 48.2%, respectively. The micro-structural and 3D fractal analysis also indicated that dense, flaw-free, and thus more resistant, interfaces to micro-cracks were formed and greater fractal dimensions were obtained with the increase of the nano-silica content. Finally, the 3D views confirmed that the nano-silica clusters were well interconnected which further increase the carrying capacity and reducing the heat flow.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030085
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 86: Development of Sustainable and Eco-Friendly
           Materials from Termite Hill Soil Stabilized with Cement for Low-Cost
           Housing in Chad

    • Authors: Assia Aboubakar Mahamat, Numfor Linda Bih, Olugbenga Ayeni, Peter Azikiwe Onwualu, Holmer Savastano, Winston Oluwole Soboyejo
      First page: 86
      Abstract: This paper explores the effects of cement stabilization (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) on the structural and mechanical properties (compressive/flexural strengths and fracture toughness) of abandoned termite mound soil. The crystal structures and crystallinity of the constituents were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the microstructure was characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The functional groups were also identified using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The compressive/flexural strengths of the stabilized and un-stabilized termite mound soil were also studied after curing for 7, 14 and 28 days. The fracture toughness mechanism was analyzed with the aid of the R-curve method. Additionally, the underlying deformation and cracking mechanisms are elucidated via in-situ/ex-situ optical and scanning electron microscopy. The stabilized termite mound soil displayed the highest mechanical properties of 13.91 MPa, 10.25 MPa and 3.52 kPa·m1/2 for compressive strength, flexural strength and fracture toughness, respectively. Besides displaying good mechanical properties and being locally available at no cost, renewable and an eco-friendly material, the termite mound soil will contribute to lowering the cost of housing in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Chad.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030086
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 87: The Public Role for the Effectiveness of the
           Territorial Enhancement Initiatives: A Case Study on the Redevelopment of
           a Building in Disuse in an Italian Small Town

    • Authors: Morano, Tajani, Di Liddo, Amoruso
      First page: 87
      Abstract: The present research is focalized on public-private partnership (PPP) procedures as a driving force of urban sustainable development. The paper intends to point out the relevant role played by the public administrations in the implementation of these mechanisms aimed at degraded urban area renovation, public property assets enhancement, or ex novo realization. In this sense, in the existing reference literature, the private investor tasks and risks have been often explored, neglecting the significant public entities position. The efficiency in the use of the PPP is verified through the discounted cash-flow analysis (DCFA) implementation: the assessment of the costs and the revenues derived from the project allows the private investor to verify the financial feasibility of the initiative. In the context outlined, the public administration could contribute to the success of the intervention through a periodic fee paid to the private investor in order to ensure the financial convenience of the project. In the present research, a functional reconversion operation related to a building located in the small town of Cesano Romano (Italy) and carried out through the PPP operational tool, has been illustrated. In the analysis, a public monetary amount has been considered and determined, able (i) to guarantee the financial sustainability for the private investor and (ii) to comply with the regulatory constraints in the Italian context. Finally, a scenario analysis has been developed to identify the situation/s in which public participation is necessary for the convenience of the initiative and to quantify this monetary amount.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030087
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 88: The Stress–Strain State of Three-Layer
           Precast Flexural Concrete Enclosure Structures with the Contact

    • Authors: Vu Dinh Tho, Elena Anatolyevna Korol, Nikolai Ivanovich Vatin, Hoang Minh Duc
      First page: 88
      Abstract: The research object was three-layer reinforced precast concrete enclosure structures. The structures consist of heavy concrete B25 in the external layers and polystyrene concrete B1 in the internal layer. The stress–strain state of precast concrete structures during crack formation was studied by considering the influence of contact interlayers between different types of concretes. Stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used in the experimental study of multilayer concrete blocks. Samples were made with a varied break time from 30 min to two hours between the previous and the next concrete layer placings. The experimental results showed that the contact interlayer with mutual penetration of aggregates into the adjacent concrete layers is formed in the successive layer-by-layer placing of various concretes. The thickness of the contact interlayer was up to 1 cm. The contact interlayer affects the solidity of the concrete layers’ connection and the structure’s stress–strain state. A model and method for calculating cracking in three-layer reinforced concrete structures with contact interlayers based on analytical and numerical calculations are proposed. Experimental data confirm the proposed calculation method. The results of three-layer reinforced concrete beams calculations show that: (i) the difference of the moment during crack formation in three-layer reinforced concrete beams schemes with and without taking into account the contact interlayer can reach 9.9%; (ii) the moment during crack formation obtained according to the proposed method is greater than that obtained according to the scheme of the cross-section conversion from 7.4% to 9.1%.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030088
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 89: Conceptualising Project Uncertainty in the
           Context of Building Refurbishment Safety: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Udara Ranasinghe, Marcus Jefferies, Peter Davis, Manikam Pillay
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Project uncertainty is an inherent attribute in safety-critical projects, such as building refurbishment. While it has been suggested that project safety performance is often challenged due to project uncertainty, uncertainties are yet to be conceptualised in building refurbishment projects. The purpose of this research is to propose an industry-specific factor model of project uncertainty that can be used to diagnose and assess uncertainty in construction refurbishment research and practice. An extensive review of existing literature, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, where 53 articles were selected to identify the determinants of project uncertainty and strategies for managing uncertainty. In total, 23 project uncertainty factors were identified and clustered under the taxonomy of uncertain information, uncertain complexity, uncertain temporal clarity, and uncertain understanding. Thus, twelve management strategies for coping with uncertainty in building refurbishment projects were determined. Learning and a flexible working environment were the most frequently raised strategies among all the reviewed articles. The factor model proposed enables project managers and academics to better understand, assess and manage project uncertainty and deliver safer building refurbishment projects. As such, it also provides a sufficient platform and initiates debate towards the development of uncertainty management strategies to better prepare for surprises as projects progress.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030089
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 90: A Structural Grammar Approach for the
           Generative Design of Diagrid‐Like Structures

    • Authors: Cascone, Faiella, Tomei, Mele
      First page: 90
      Abstract: An innovative generative design strategy, based on shape grammar, is proposed for the minimum‐weight design of diagrid tall buildings. By considering the building as a three‐dimensional vertical cantilever beam with a tubular section under horizontal load, it is evident that bending and shear stiffness demands vary along the width and elevation of the building. Further, while the structural design of tall buildings is usually governed by stiffness, the predominant design criterion for diagrids could be the local strength demand, especially for low slenderness values, thanks to the inherent rigidity of the triangular pattern. Starting from these considerations, in this paper, a generative design strategy is proposed, able to find diagrid patterns that accommodate the differentiated stiffness demand along width/elevation and satisfy the predominant design criterion, stiffness or strength. The design strategy is applied to tall building models characterised by different slenderness values. The comparison to diagrid patterns analysed in previous literature works in terms of structural weight and performance parameters highlights the effectiveness of the design strategy and the efficiency of the generated patterns.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030090
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 91: Visual Communication for Students’
           Creative Thinking in the Design Studio: Translating Filmic Spaces into
           Spatial Design

    • Authors: Eun Joo Park, Mi Jeong Kim
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Representing visual experiences is an essential part of architectural design education for creativity. The representation of creative ideas relates to the ability to communicate spatial design concepts. This study examined whether filmic spaces could function as visual communication to enhance students’ creative thinking in architecture. It explored how creativity can be supported throughout an architectural design studio with a conceptual tool that translates filmic spaces into spatial design. To investigate the ways to translate filmic space into spatial design tools for creative thinking, we conducted a design studio with first-year university students. Focusing on using various elements of film, including movement, frame, montage, light, and color, and scene changes to represent architectural languages, a curriculum was developed and implemented in a Visual Communication Design Studio for one semester, stimulating students to engage in expressing their ideas in three-dimensional spaces. The overall results suggested that the design education method that used the filmic space as a stimulating tool for creative thinking, emphasizing the role of visual communication, could enhance students’ creative thinking, leading to improved creative design processes.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030091
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 92: Takt Production Monitoring and Control in
           Apartment Renovation Projects

    • Authors: Kimmo Keskiniva, Arto Saari, Juha-Matti Junnonen
      First page: 92
      Abstract: Construction production is steered with the help of monitoring task progressions and comparing them to the schedule. Construction monitoring is often imprecise. Especially in takt production, more detailed and systematic monitoring methods should be pursued. In takt production, production must be monitored frequently to make sure that the production follows the takt schedule. However, takt production monitoring methods have not been discussed in literature. In this study, a digital monitoring solution for takt production is developed and tested in a case apartment renovation project in Finland. At first, the production monitoring in the case project was done in paper format. This monitoring form was then developed into a digital monitoring application. The progression of production tasks was entered into the application manually. These entries were then automatically compared with a digital takt schedule. As a result, production status can be analyzed automatically and provide diverse information for the construction foremen. This information can be automatically visualized and used as a detailed status report for site meetings. Gathered information can also be revisited afterwards for development or reclamation purposes, for example.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030092
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 93: Combating Urban Heat Island Effect—A
           Review of Reflective Pavements and Tree Shading Strategies

    • Authors: V. R. Sankar Cheela, Michele John, Wahidul Biswas, Prabir Sarker
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Pavements occupy about 40% of urban land cover, with 75–80% black top roads, playing a critical role in urban connectivity and mobility. Solar energy is absorbed and stored in pavements leading to an increase in surface temperatures. Decreasing green cover is further contributing to rise in regional temperatures. Due to this activity, the city experiences urban heat island (UHI). This study presents a critical review of the literature on mitigation measures to combat UHI using reflective pavements with an emphasis on durability properties and impacts of tree canopy. The strategies with a focus on application of chip seals, white toppings, and coatings were discussed. Role of surface reflectance, including those from asphalt and concrete pavements, albedo improvements, and technological trends, application of waste materials, and industrial by‐products are presented. Also, urban tree shading systems’ contribution to pavement temperature and microclimate systems is presented. The review shows that the development of mitigation measures using tree shading systems can reduce the pavement temperature during daytime and increase human thermal comfort. The outcomes of this review provide a scope for future studies to develop sustainable and state‐of‐the-art engineering solutions in the field of reflective coatings and urban forest systems.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030093
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 94: Influence of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete
           Materials on Building Energy Performance

    • Authors: Tara L. Cavalline, Jorge Gallegos, Reid W. Castrodale, Charles Freeman, Jerry Liner, Jody Wall
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Due to their porous nature, lightweight aggregates have been shown to exhibit thermal properties that are advantageous when used in building materials such as lightweight concrete, grout, mortar, and concrete masonry units. Limited data exist on the thermal properties of materials that incorporate lightweight aggregate where the pore system has not been altered, and very few studies have been performed to quantify the building energy performance of structures constructed using lightweight building materials in commonly utilized structural and building envelope components. In this study, several lightweight concrete and masonry building materials were tested to determine the thermal properties of the bulk materials, providing more accurate inputs to building energy simulation than have previously been used. These properties were used in EnergyPlus building energy simulation models for several types of commercial structures for which materials containing lightweight aggregates are an alternative commonly considered for economic and aesthetic reasons. In a simple model, use of sand lightweight concrete resulted in prediction of 15–17% heating energy savings and 10% cooling energy savings, while use of all lightweight concrete resulted in prediction of approximately 35–40% heating energy savings and 30% cooling energy savings. In more complex EnergyPlus reference models, results indicated superior thermal performance of lightweight aggregate building materials in 48 of 50 building energy simulations. Predicted energy savings for the five models ranged from 0.2% to 6.4%.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030094
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 95: Obstacles to Developing Net-Zero Energy
           (NZE) Homes in Greater Toronto Area

    • Authors: Makvandia, Safiuddin
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Efforts have been put in place to minimize the effects of construction activities and occupancy, but the problem of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continues to have detrimental effects on the environment. As an effort to reduce GHG emissions, particularly carbon emissions, countable commercial, industrial, institutional, and residential net-zero energy (NZE) buildings were built around the globe during the past few years, and they are still operating. But there exist many challenges and barriers for the construction of NZE buildings. This study identifies the obstacles to developing NZE buildings, with a focus on single-family homes, in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The study sought to identify the technical, organizational, and social challenges of constructing NZE buildings, realize the importance of the public awareness in making NZE homes, and provide recommendations on how to raise public knowledge. A qualitative approach was employed to collect the primary data through survey and interviews. The secondary data obtained from the literature review were also used to realize the benefits, challenges, and current situation of NZE buildings. Research results indicate that the construction of NZE buildings is faced with a myriad of challenges, including technical issues, the lack of governmental and institutional supports, and the lack of standardized measures. The public awareness of NZE homes has been found to be very low, thus limiting the uptake and adoption of the new technologies used in this type of homes. The present study also recommends that the government and the academic institutions should strive to support the NZE building technology through curriculum changes, technological uptake, and financial incentives to buyers and developers. The implementation of these recommendations may enhance the success and popularity of NZE homes in the GTA.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030095
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 96: Assessing the Energy Resilience of Office
           Buildings: Development and Testing of a Simplified Metric for Real Estate

    • Authors: Paul Mathew, Lino Sanchez, Sang Hoon Lee, Travis Walter
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Increasing concern over higher frequency extreme weather events is driving a push towards a more resilient built environment. In recent years there has been growing interest in understanding how to evaluate, measure, and improve building energy resilience, i.e., the ability of a building to provide energy-related services in the event of a local or regional power outage. In addition to human health and safety, many stakeholders are keenly interested in the ability of a building to allow continuity of operations and minimize business disruption. Office buildings are subject to significant economic losses when building operations are disrupted due to a power outage. We propose “occupant hours lost” (OHL) as a means to measure the business productivity lost as the result of a power outage in office buildings. OHL is determined based on indoor conditions in each space for each hour during a power outage, and then aggregated spatially and temporally to determine the whole building OHL. We used quasi-Monte Carlo parametric energy simulations to demonstrate how the OHL metric varies due to different building characteristics across different climate zones and seasons. The simulation dataset was then used to develop simple regression models for assessing the impact of ten key building characteristics on OHL. The most impactful were window-to-wall ratio and window characteristics. The regression models show promise as a simple means to assess and screen for resilience using basic building characteristics, especially for non-critical facilities where it may not be viable to conduct detailed engineering analysis.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030096
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 97: A Risk Analysis‐Best Worst Method Based
           Model for Selection of the Most Appropriate Contract Strategy for Onshore
           Drilling Projects in the Iranian Petroleum Industry

    • Authors: Amir Faraji, Maria Rashidi, Pegah Khadir, Srinath Perera
      First page: 97
      Abstract: The pre-project planning phase has a significant impact on the achievement of project objectives because during this stage, major decisions including involving contract strategies are made with a high degree of uncertainty. Studies show that the contract type can play a unique role in the achievement of project success. On the other hand, drilling projects can be considered as one of the most critical types of projects in the petroleum industry. In this research, a novel risk based best-worst method (risk-BWM) is proposed for solving the issue of selecting the best contract strategy. A three level methodology was designed; firstly, the risk breakdown structure (RBS) of drilling projects was created in four levels including one heading in level 0, eight main areas of risk in level 1, 34 sub-areas of risk in level 2, and finally, 217 risk items in level 3. Secondly and on the basis of BWM, the weights of risk factors were determined as the selection criteria and consequently the best and the worst criteria were specified. Finally, using pair-wise comparisons between six types of drilling prevalent in contracts, the most appropriate contract type was proposed. The contribution of this study is the development of a generic RBS for drilling projects and application of the risk factors for the first time for the selection of contract type using the BWM method, which has the potential of being adapted for other types of underground projects.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030097
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 98: Modified Lime Binders for Restoration Work

    • Authors: Valentina Loganina, Kristina Sergeeva, Roman Fediuk, Sergey Klyuev, Nikolai Vatin, Yuriy Vasilev
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Lime mixes are the primary material for restoration work in historic buildings. The research object of this study is modifying lime binders with specially synthesized calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs). This study aimed to improve lime render mixes’ weather resistance. The following factors were considered: the density of the liquid glass, the amount of the precipitating additive, the rate of introduction of the precipitating additive, the drying mode of the precipitate, and the storage time of the precipitate. The research methods were X-ray diffraction analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and optical and electron microscopy. It was revealed that lime compositions with CSH have a higher strength gain rate than the control compositions. A mathematical model of the kinetics of hardening a lime composite based on a binder filled with CSH was obtained. The regularities of the change in the lime composite’s strength depending on the filler grinding’s fineness, its content, and the amount of mixing water have been established. It was revealed that the introduction of CSH into the lime composition increases the weather resistance of facade lime mixtures by reducing the porosity and increasing the volume of closed pores of the composite.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030098
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 99: Optimizing Multi-Family Building Massing for
           Affordability and Envelope Performance: An Investigation of the Trade-Offs
           Implicit in Low Rise Residential Buildings

    • Authors: Mosey, Deal
      First page: 99
      Abstract: The United States faces twin crises of housing affordability and environmental degradation. Under these clouds, the nation is experiencing an explosive growth in new construction multi-family housing. This paper seeks to evaluate how designers might optimize the organization of such projects to minimize cost and maximize environmental performance. A method is developed for evaluating the construction costs and environmental performance of multifamily developments across four variables: building height, number of buildings, building width, and building floor area. Our analysis suggests that buildings with deeper floor plates are preferable for both economic and environmental reasons. We also suggest that taller buildings have more performative envelopes while shorter buildings are more economical to construct. Finally, we offer a method of finding a compromise between economic and environmental objectives for projects of a given square footage. Most commonly, this “compromise” takes the form of a moderate number of mid-rise buildings with deep floor plates. This investigation adds nuance to the existing literature on the effects of building shape on building cost and envelope performance. It also provides designers with a method of potentially constructing multifamily buildings in a less expensive and more environmentally conscious way.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030099
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 100: Keeping Cool in the Desert: Using Wind
           Catchers for Improved Thermal Comfort and Indoor Air Quality at Half the

    • Authors: Saif, Wright, Khattak, Elfadli
      First page: 100
      Abstract: In hot arid climates, air conditioning in the summer dominates energy use in buildings. In Kuwait, energy demand in buildings is dominated by cooling, which also determines the national peak electricity demand. Schools contribute significantly to cooling demand, but also suffer from poor ventilation. This paper presents analysis of a ventilation and cooling system for school classrooms using a wind catcher for natural ventilation and evaporative cooling. A school classroom in Kuwait with single-sided ventilation was modelled using the DesignBuilder V5.4/EnergyPlus V9.1 software and calibrated using field data. The model was used to analyse the performance of a wind catcher, with and without evaporative cooling, in terms of energy use, thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Compared to the baseline of using air-conditioning only, a wind catcher with evaporative cooling was found to reduce energy use by 52% during the summer months while increasing the comfortable hours from 76% to 100% without any supplementary air conditioning. While the time below the ASHRAE CO2 limit also improved from 11% to 24% with the wind catcher, the indoor air quality was still poor. These improvements came at the cost of a 14% increase in relative humidity. As the wind catcher solution appears to have potential with further development; several avenues for further research are proposed.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030100
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 101: Prestressing Effect of Shape Memory Alloy
           Reinforcements Under Serviceability Tensile Loads

    • Authors: Markus Beßling, Christoph Czaderski, Jeanette Orlowsky
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Repairing and strengthening of existing aged steel-reinforced concrete structures is a major challenge. Today, much of the repair work completed is insufficient and brittle. A promising new solution for repair and strengthening tasks is the use of iron-based shape memory alloy (Fe-SMA). The pre-strained Fe-SMA components enable the pre-stressing of existing building components due to the heat-triggered contraction of the steel. Thus, deflections can be reduced or even recovered. In addition, the cracking process can be adapted, and an improvement in the load, under which the first crack appears, is possible. In this paper, the effects of pre-stress generated by activated Fe-SMA rebars, which were centrally embedded inside of a concrete specimen, are shown. The objective of the study is to quantify the improvement in the loads of the first crack and show the influences of the pre-stressing on the load-bearing behavior and the cracking process. For this purpose, axial tensile tests were performed on concrete bars with height, width, and length of 50 mm, 70 mm, and 900 mm, respectively. These were compared to usual construction steel rebars, pre-strained but nonactivated Fe-SMA rebars, and activated Fe-SMA steel rebars. The evaluation of crack patterns and openings was done using digital image correlation (DIC). The pre-stressing of the concrete causes an increase in the first crack loads of more than 150%, which indicates a clear improvement in the state of serviceability limit.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030101
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 102: Citizens and Positive Energy Districts: Are
           Espoo and Leipzig Ready for PEDs'

    • Authors: Zarrin Fatima, Uta Pollmer, Saga-Sofia Santala, Kaisa Kontu, Marion Ticklen
      First page: 102
      Abstract: In urban transformation, no solution works without citizen support. With increasing numbers of building technologies and large-scale urban development on its way across cities, it has become vital to keep citizens informed, engaged, and content with the new changes. This paper looks at citizen engagement in Espoo (Finland) and Leipzig (Germany), and it determines whether the cities are ready for developing and implementing positive energy districts (PEDs). The authors studied the cities’ operations and current citizen engagement methods to understand how the efforts could be combined and improved. The analysis indicated that the city of Espoo already has a well-established system that continuously promotes citizen engagement at various levels, and combining the available infrastructure with company experts on citizen participation will allow Espoo to seamlessly transition towards PEDs in the near future. The city of Leipzig has a rich experience due to several national projects and participation in an earlier European project, which enabled the city to set clearer goals for the future and modify existing citizen methods. As lighthouse cities, findings from Espoo and Leipzig are also aimed at cities across Europe and beyond to boost development of PEDs together with citizens.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030102
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 103: Rechargeable Concrete Battery

    • Authors: Emma Qingnan Zhang, Luping Tang
      First page: 103
      Abstract: A rechargeable cement-based battery was developed, with an average energy density of 7 Wh/m2 (or 0.8 Wh/L) during six charge/discharge cycles. Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were selected as anodes, and nickel-based (Ni) oxides as cathodes. The conductivity of cement-based electrolytes was modified by adding short carbon fibers (CF). The cement-based electrodes were produced by two methods: powder-mixing and metal-coating. Different combinations of cells were tested. The results showed that the best performance of the rechargeable battery was the Ni–Fe battery, produced by the metal-coating method.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030103
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 104: Diagnosis and Assessment of Deep Pile Cap
           Foundation of a Tall Building Affected by Internal Expansion Reactions

    • Authors: Fernando A. N. Silva, João M. P. Q. Delgado, António C. Azevedo, Tahlaiti Mahfoud, Abdelhafid Khelidj, Nicole Nascimento, António G. B. Lima
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Early deterioration of reinforced concrete foundations has been often reported in recent years. This process is usually characterized by an extensive mapping cracking process on concrete surfaces that results from several types of Internal Swelling Reaction (ISR). In this paper, a real case study of a tall reinforced concrete building with a severe deterioration process installed in its deep foundations is discussed. Laboratory tests were performed in concrete drilled cores extracted from a deep pile cap block 19 years after the beginning of construction. Tests to assess the compressive strength, the static and the dynamic modulus of elasticity, the gas permeability, and electron microscopy scanning to find out the primary mechanism responsible for the deterioration observed during in situ inspections. Chemical alterations of materials were observed in concrete cores, mainly due to Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF), which significantly affected the integrity and durability of the structure. Dynamic modulus of elasticity showed to be a better indicator of damage induced by ISR in concrete than compressive strength. Procedures to strengthen the deteriorated elements using prestressing proved to be an efficient strategy to recover the structural integrity of pile caps deteriorated due to expansions due to ISR.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030104
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 105: Construction Logistics Centres Proposing
           Kitting Service: Organization Analysis and Cost Mapping

    • Authors: Soufiane El Moussaoui, Zoubeir Lafhaj, Fernanda Leite, Julien Fléchard, Bruno Linéatte
      First page: 105
      Abstract: The construction industry represents an important part of the global economy but is known for many issues such as harmful emissions, low productivity, waste generation, poor ergonomics, and construction incidents and accidents. A logistical view has proved to be a solid basis for improving construction performance while construction logistics centres (CLC) are gaining interest and proposing more services such as Kitting. Since the CLC-kitting-based approach is a new phenomenon, it is still a relatively unexplored topic. Hence, this paper addresses how this configuration could be applied to construction projects and what are its related costs information. The research design is based on a single case study showing the CLC-kitting use by a French general contractor in a student housing project. Data has been collected through site visits, observations, project documents, and discussions conducted with construction managers and logistics planners. Data analysis identified realized effects from deploying CLC-kitting in construction projects. Therefore, recommendations are provided, at both strategic and operational levels, which can be leveraged in similar projects. Finally, an identification of constructions logistics costs shows their distribution along the supply chain and was evaluated at 14.7% over material purchasing price.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030105
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 106: Actuation Characteristics of Basic Body
           Plans for Soft Modular Pneubotics in Architecture

    • Authors: Davor Andrić, Josip Galić, Karin Šerman
      First page: 106
      Abstract: The article examines the actuation characteristics of different basic structural schemes—basic body plans—for soft modular pneubotics in architecture are investigated. Eight basic body plans are translated from abstract expressions into their corresponding modular structures and (re)constructed in their physical form using up to 12 soft unit elements in the shape of a cube. Reconstructed basic body plans are then examined through a qualitative analysis of their ability to actuate and change the shape of the structure. Through adaptive manual inflation of an individual element, a group of elements, or all elements at once, motions and transformations are produced and evaluated. The results show that five out of eight basic body plans have higher actuation capacity while three show a less pronounced capacity to change shape. Based on the most pronounced characteristics of the examined basic body plans, design opportunities for potential architectural applications are proposed. These include structures that can self-erect, lift, tilt, bend, change thickness, curvature, etc. What is also shown is that basic body plans could be combined into one complex structural body.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030106
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 107: Seismic and Coastal Vulnerability
           Assessment Model for Buildings in Chile

    • Authors: Catalina Quiñones-Bustos, Maria Teresa Bull, Claudio Oyarzo-Vera
      First page: 107
      Abstract: This article proposes a vulnerability assessment model for evaluating buildings’ expected seismic performance, as well as their vulnerability to tsunamis. The objective of this assessment is to provide appropriate information for decision makers regarding the need of repairs and reinforcement of buildings or other mitigation measures that need to be applied in a territory. A procedure for assessing seismic vulnerability and another methodology for evaluating tsunami vulnerability faced by coastal structures is presented. Finally, a method that integrates both procedures is proposed, providing a combined index of vulnerability. The assessment model was applied to the central area of the city of Talcahuano, Chile, which was affected by the 2010 Maule earthquake and tsunami.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030107
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 108: Critical Review of Public Policies for the
           Rehabilitation of Housing Stock: The Case of Barcelona

    • Authors: Angel Uzqueda, Pilar Garcia-Almirall, Còssima Cornadó, Sara Vima-Grau
      First page: 108
      Abstract: This article reviews rehabilitation programs in Barcelona, focusing on aspects such as the intervention model, actual public investment, and results. Programs of this type are not exclusive to Barcelona; however, similar examples can be found in other European cities, especially where European Union (EU) funding is present. After analyzing these models, we reached a series of general conclusions that may be of interest. Thus, an eminently practical and reflective analysis is presented, aimed at technicians and those responsible for the design of intervention policies in urban regeneration. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly focused on vulnerable settings, and in this context, the participation and service function of public administrations are particularly relevant. The general model for rehabilitation subsidies rarely takes into account the specific characteristics of disadvantaged urban settings, as the article will show. After analyzing the different policies presented in this research, we identified two essential requirements: detailed knowledge of the affected neighborhood, and ongoing evaluation of the development of programs—beyond simple management indicators—so negative effects can be corrected in time such as gentrification, real estate speculation, and other by-products that the intervention itself can promote. This study confirms that not all public investments have the expected results.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030108
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 109: An Overarching Review on Delay Analyses in
           Construction Projects

    • Authors: Murat Çevikbaş, Zeynep Işık
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted by researchers on the delay analysis topic, which is one of the primary areas of scientific study due to the effects of delays on time and cost in construction projects. Following fruitful contributions made by the researchers, it is believed to be extremely important to summarize the existing studies in terms of being a road map for future studies and practitioners. In this context, not only does this study aim to detect the most significant authors, sources, organizations and countries contributing to the improvement of delay domain in the construction industry concerning delay analyses worldwide but also to provide the researchers with extensive insights concerning the prominent research themes, trends and gaps in the literature. Hence, 168 documents related to delay analyses from 1982 to 11 February 2021 were detected through the Scopus Database and the Web of Science Database, and scientometric analyses were conducted via VOSviewer software. By evaluating the related research, two main research areas were detected in this field, namely; improving the delay analysis methods and resolving the disputes before they occur. This study is believed to make theoretical and practical contributions in that it examines the delay analysis topic in all aspects such as prominent institutions, countries, authors and sources, synthesizes the data and highlights possible research domains, gaps and trends concerning the delay analysis topic in construction industry.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030109
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 110: Experimental Investigation and Numerical
           Simulation of a Levy Hinged-Beam Cable Dome

    • Authors: Mingmin Ding, Bin Luo, Shuyao Ding, Yuzhou Shen, Lifan Huang
      First page: 110
      Abstract: According to existing rigid roofing projects, a new structure called the Levy hinged-beam cable dome is proposed. By replacing the upper flexible cables with hinged beams, rigid plates can be installed overhead. To fulfill the requirements of integral tow-lifting construction, the setting criteria for the temporary hinged joints on ridge beams were presented. An 8-m diameter specimen was manufactured and monitored to investigate the structural configurations during the accumulative traction-hoisting construction process. Finally, the specimen was tested under full-span and half-span loading conditions, while a numerical model was built to verify the experimental values. The results show that in the early stages of traction-hoisting, the structure establishes the overall prestress and finds its internal force balance, while the entire structure is in a shape of “ω”. As the component’s internal force increases during the construction steps, and the local deformations of the hinged beams gradually decrease, with the entire structure changing from “ω” to “m”, and finally reach their designed states. Under full-span loads, large local deformations occurred at the HB-3 hinges, while the bending stresses of these hinged beams were relatively small. Under half-span loads, the loading part exhibits a downward appearance, while the unloading part exhibits upward deflection.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030110
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 111: Seismic Retrofitting Resilience-Based for
           Strategic RC Buildings

    • Authors: Marco Vona, Amedeo Flora, Emiliano Carlucci, Enrico Foscolo
      First page: 111
      Abstract: The resilience of communities is given by the ideal convolution of the resilience of all their single parts. Strategic buildings require high levels of performance during and after a seismic sequence. Consequently, the seismic retrofitting of old strategic buildings is a central issue in prevention and mitigation strategies. The core of the study is a resilience approach to the seismic retrofitting of existing strategic buildings. Different performance levels are considered and four different retrofitting techniques are compared according to their fragility, and their post-earthquake cost and time recovery analyses. Lastly, the retrofitting techniques are compared based on the considered resilience index, which in turn is related to the estimated reduction of the seismic losses owing to the different retrofitting techniques, but especially to the effectiveness of the intervention based on the relevant cost and recovery times. In other words, these aspects take into account the key role of a building’s characteristics, and its public and strategic role during and after an earthquake. The intervention is selected not only (as is currently done) to reduce its construction times and costs, but to limit the service interruption after earthquakes. The results of this study could be operatively used as support tools in the seismic retrofitting of strategic buildings, either individually or on a large territorial scale.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030111
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 112: Computational Simulation of Wind
           Microclimate in Complex Urban Models and Mitigation Using Trees

    • Authors: Azin Hosseinzadeh, Amir Keshmiri
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Due to a rapid increase in urbanisation, accurate wind microclimate assessment is of crucial importance. Evaluating wind flows around buildings is part of the planning application process in the design of new developments. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out for a case study, representing the East Village in the London Olympic Park. Following a validation test against experimental data for a simpler urban configuration, the key input parameters, including appropriate boundary conditions, mesh setting and type of turbulence model, are selected for the Olympic Park model. All the simulations are conducted using the commercial code STARCCM+ under steady-state conditions with the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) method. The turbulence is modelled using different common variants of eddy-viscosity models (EVMs) including standard k-ε, realizable k-ε and standard and shear stress transport (SST) k-ω. The results demonstrate that standard and realisable k-ε models correlate very well with the experimental data, while some discrepancies are found with standard and SST k-ω. Following the determination of areas of high velocity, appropriate tree planting is proposed to overcome the effect of corner and downwash acceleration. With the optimised arrangement of trees and using specific types of tree (e.g., birch), wind speeds at the pedestrian level are reduced by 3.5, 25 and 66% in three main regions of interest. Moreover, we investigate the effects of tree heights. The obtained results illustrate that the wind velocity reduces when the crowns of the trees are located closer to the buildings and the ground. Our high-resolution CFD simulation and results offer a quantitative tool for wind microclimate assessment and optimised design and arrangement of trees around buildings to improve pedestrian comfort.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030112
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 114: Relationship between Energy and Atmosphere
           (EA) Credits and Project Size in the LEED-NC Version 3 (v3) and 4 (v4)

    • Authors: Svetlana Pushkar
      First page: 114
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the influence of project size on the Energy and Atmosphere (EA) credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction and Major Renovations (LEED-NC) version 3 (v3) in California and version 4 (v4) in the United States (US) in office-type projects. If the relationship between the ordinal data of EA credits and project size changed monotonically, then Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used. If the relationship between the EA credits ordinal data and project size did not change monotonically, then the EA credit data were divided into below and above the median project size groups, and, as a consequence, the Cliff′s δ effect size and exact Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests were used. If the EA credits were binary or dichotomous data, then the natural logarithm of the odds ratio and Fisher’s exact 2 × 2 test with Lancaster’s mid-p-value were used. The results showed that the performance of operational energy, enhanced the refrigerant management and that the renewable energy credits in LEED-NC v3/v4 Certified, Silver, and Gold projects depended on the project size. We concluded that the LEED project size is an important variable for developing LEED-NC strategies for office-type projects.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11030114
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 35: Effects of Climate Change on the Moisture
           Performance of Tallwood Building Envelope

    • Authors: Maurice Defo, Michael A. Lacasse
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of climate change on the moisture performance and durability of massive timber walls on the basis of results derived from hygrothermal simulations. One-dimensional simulations were run using DELPHIN 5.9.4 for 31 consecutive years of the 15 realizations of the modeled historical (1986–2016) and future (2062–2092) climates of five cities located across Canada. For all cities, water penetration in the wall assembly was assumed to be 1% wind-driven rain, and the air changes per hour in the drainage cavity was assumed to be 10. The mold growth index on the outer layer of the cross-laminated timber panel was used to compare the moisture performance for the historical and future periods. The simulation results showed that the risk of mold growth would increase in all the cities considered. However, the relative change varied from city to city. In the cities of Ottawa, Calgary and Winnipeg, the relative change in the mold growth index was higher than in the cities of Vancouver and St. John’s. For Vancouver and St. John’s, and under the assumptions used for these simulations, the risk was already higher under the historical period. This means that the mass timber walls in these two cities could not withstand a water penetration rate of 1% wind-driven rain, as used in the simulations, with a drainage cavity of 19 mm and an air changes per hour value of 10. Additional wall designs will be explored in respect to the moisture performance, and the results of these studies will be reported in a future publication.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020035
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 36: Assessment of Cloud Computing Success
           Factors for Sustainable Construction Industry: The Case of Nigeria

    • Authors: Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke, Ahmed Farouk Kineber, Ibraheem Albukhari, Idris Othman, Chukwuma Kingsley
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Cloud Computing has become a valuable platform for sustainability in many countries. This study evaluates the cloud computing implementation and its Critical Success Factors (CSFs) towards ensuring sustainable construction projects in Nigeria. Data were collected from previous literature, supplemented by a quantitative approach via a questionnaire survey. Data were collected from 104 construction professionals while cloud computing CSFs were examined using Relative Importance Ranking (RII) and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The results show that cloud computing’s awareness level is 96.2%, which means that the respondents are aware of cloud computing concept. Furthermore, the result shows that most of the respondents are adopting the concept. The analysis of the CSFs indicated that reliable data storage, performance as well as cost of accessibility and availability were the four most significant CSFs to cloud computing applications. Analysis of the CSFs through EFA generated four main components which include human satisfaction, organization, client’s acceptance, and industry-based. Consequently, this study contributed to existing body of knowledge by highlighting the cloud computing CSFs for achieving sustainable construction project. As such, the results could be a game-changer in the construction industry—not only in Nigeria but also in developing nations where construction projects are implemented through similar style and procedure. This study would be a benchmark for supporting decision-makers to improve data fragmentation, in which the use of data is paramount to the execution of construction works. Finally, the results of this study would be useful for enhancing sustainability and general management of construction projects through cloud computing implementation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020036
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 37: Spatial Analysis, Interactive Visualisation
           and GIS-Based Dashboard for Monitoring Spatio-Temporal Changes of Hotspots
           of Bushfires over 100 Years in New South Wales, Australia

    • Authors: Michael Visner, Sara Shirowzhan, Chris Pettit
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The 2019–2020 bushfire season is estimated to be one of the worst fire seasons on record in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). The devastating fire season ignited a heated public debate on whether prescribed burning is an effective tool for preventing bushfires, and how the extent of bushfires has been changing over time. The objective of this study is to answer these questions, and more specifically to identify how bushfire patterns have changed in the last 100 years in NSW. To do so, we conducted a spatio-temporal analysis on prescribed burns and bushfires using a 100-year dataset of bushfires. More specifically, three research questions were developed, with each one of them addressed differently. First, generalised linear modelling was applied to assess the changes in fire patterns. Second, a correlation analysis was conducted to examine whether prescribed burns are an effective tool for reducing bushfire risk. Third, a spatio-temporal analysis was applied to the bushfire location data to explore spatio-temporal clusters of high and low values for bushfires, known as hotspots and coldspots, respectively. The study found that the frequency of bushfires has increased over time; however, it did not identify a significant trend of change in their size. Based on the results of this study for the relationship between prescribed burns and bushfires, it seems impossible to determine whether prescribed burns effectively reduce bushfire risk. Thus, further analysis with a larger amount of data is required in the future. The results of the spatio-temporal analysis showed that cold spots are propagated around metropolitan areas such as Sydney, while hotspots are concentrated in rural areas such as the North Coast and South Coast regions of NSW. The analysis found four statistical areas that have become new bushfire frequency hotspots in the 2019–2020 bushfire season. These areas combined have about 40,000 residents and at least 13,000 built dwellings. We suggest that further analysis is needed in the field to determine if there is a pattern of movement of bushfire towards metropolitan areas. To make the results of this research accessible to the public, an online interactive GIS-based dashboard was developed. The insight gained from the spatial and temporal analyses in this research is crucial to making smarter decisions on allocating resources and developing preventive or mitigating strategies.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020037
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 38: Floor Acceleration Demands in a
           Twelve-Storey RC Shear Wall Building

    • Authors: Vladimir Vukobratović, Sergio Ruggieri
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The seismic response of acceleration-sensitive non-structural components in buildings has attracted the attention of a significant number of researchers over the past decade. This paper provides the results which improve the state-of-knowledge of the influences that higher vibration modes of structures and nonlinearity of non-structural components have on floor acceleration demands. In order to study these influences, a response-history analysis of a code-designed twelve-storey reinforced concrete building consisting of uncoupled ductile cantilever shear walls was conducted. The obtained absolute floor accelerations were used as a seismic input for linear elastic and nonlinear non-structural components represented by simple single-degree-of-freedom systems, and the main observations and findings related to the studied influences along the building height are presented and discussed. Additionally, the accuracy of the method for the direct determination of peak floor accelerations and floor response (acceleration) spectra recently co-developed by the first author was once again investigated and validated. A brief summary of the method is provided in the paper, along with the main steps in its application. Being relatively simple and sufficiently accurate, the method (in its simplified form) has been recently incorporated into the draft of the new generation of Eurocode 8.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020038
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 39: 2020 Buildings Young Investigator Award:
           Announcement and Interview with the Winner

    • Authors: Office
      First page: 39
      Abstract: After an extensive voting period, we are proud to present the winner of the Buildings Young Investigator Award [...]
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020039
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 40: Tests and Simulation of the Bond-Slip
           between Steel and Concrete with Recycled Aggregates from CDW

    • Authors: Miguel Bravo, António P. C. Duarte, Jorge de Brito, Luís Evangelista
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This works intends to analyze, experimentally and numerically, the bond-slip behavior between steel and concrete made with recycled aggregates (RA) from construction and demolition waste (CDW) from several recycling plants in Portugal. Pull-out tests performed in concrete mixes with RA from CDW are described and the main results (bond strength, bond-slip curves and failure modes) are shown and discussed. Additionally, a comparison between experimental and analytical (using equations from the literature) results is made. Afterwards, finite element (FE) models using Abaqus are developed and compared with the experimental results. The interface behavior between steel and concrete follows that prescribed by the CEB-FIP Model Code and uses as input experimental results. After validation, the models show good results when extended to predict the bond-slip behavior of the remaining concrete mixes studied. It is generally concluded that, per each 10% of natural aggregates replaced with RA from CDW, the bond strength decreases in circa 3% (numerically) to 5% (experimentally). CEB-FIP Model Code equations are shown to be able to predict bond strength and, when used in FE models, to lead to accurate simulation of the bond-slip response of steel and concrete with RA from CDW: the average ratio between numerical and experimental bond strengths is 0.95. In the scope of the FE models developed, a simple equation to be used along with those prescribed by CEB-FIP, which accounts for fraction and ratio of aggregates replaced, is put forward, as a first approach, showing good results.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020040
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 41: Influence of Occupant Behavior for Building
           Energy Conservation: A Systematic Review Study of Diverse Modeling and
           Simulation Approach

    • Authors: Mohammad Nyme Uddin, Hsi-Hsien Wei, Hung Lin Chi, Meng Ni
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Energy consumption in buildings depends on several physical factors, including its physical characteristics, various building services systems/appliances used, and the outdoor environment. However, the occupants’ behavior that determines and regulates the building energy conservation also plays a critical role in the buildings’ energy performance. Compared to physical factors, there are relatively fewer studies on occupants’ behavior. This paper reports a systematic review analysis on occupant behavior and different modeling approaches using the Scopus and Science Direct databases. The comprehensive review study focuses on the current understanding of occupant behavior, existing behavior modeling approaches and their limitations, and key influential parameters on building energy conservation. Finally, the study identifies six significant research gaps for future development: occupant-centered space layout deployment; occupant behavior must be understood in the context of developing or low-income economies; there are higher numbers of quantitative occupant behavior studies than qualitative; the extensive use of survey or secondary data and the lack of real data used in model validation; behavior studies are required for diverse categories building; building information modeling (BIM) integration with existing occupant behavior modeling/simulation. These checklists of the gaps are beneficial for researchers to accomplish the future research in the built environment.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020041
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 42: Energy Performance of School Buildings by
           Construction Periods in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    • Authors: Dragan Katić, Hrvoje Krstić, Saša Marenjak
      First page: 42
      Abstract: This paper is part of broader research aimed at determining the relationship between energy performance and energy costs as a part of the operational and life cycle costs in school buildings in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), as exceptionally important social and public buildings. The research was conducted by statistical analysis of data collected from documents of detailed energy audits (DEA) for 185 school buildings in FBiH in relation to construction periods. The paper analyzes the characteristics of buildings such as construction period, building envelope characteristics, climatic conditions, efficiency of installed space heating system, number of users and heating mode. The aim of this research was to determine the energy performance for the existing state and to compare them with the allowable values in accordance with the applicable legal regulations. There is a performance gap between predicted (calculated) and measured (actual) delivered energy for space heating. This research shows poor energy performance and provides a basis for developing strategies and plans to improve energy efficiency. The results of the energy performance of school buildings in the FBiH are the first step towards the development of a model for predicting energy costs.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020042
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 43: Optimising the Parameters of a Building
           Envelope in the East Mediterranean Saharan, Cool Climate Zone

    • Authors: Aiman Albatayneh
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Enhancing the energy efficiency and environmental sustainability of buildings is a significant global aim. New construction regulations are, therefore, geared specifically towards low-emission and energy-efficient projects. However, there are numerous and typically competitive priorities, such as making the most of energy usage in residential buildings. This leads to the complex topic of multi-objective optimisation. The primary aim of this research was to reduce the energy consumed for heating and cooling loads in residential buildings in Ma’an City, which is located in the Jordanian Saharan Mediterranean, a cool climate zone. This was achieved by optimising various design variables (window to wall percent, ground floor construction, local shading type, infiltration rate (ac/h), glazing type, flat roof construction, natural ventilation rate, window blind type, window shading control schedule, partition construction, site orientation and external wall construction) of the building envelope. DesignBuilder software (version 6.1) was utilised to run a sensitivity analysis (SA) for 12 design variables to evaluate their influence on both heating and cooling loads simultaneously using a regression method. The variables were divided into two groups according to their importance and a genetic algorithm (GA) was then applied to both groups. The optimum solution selected for the high-importance variables was based on minimising the heating and cooling loads. The optimum solution selected for the low-importance variables was based on the lowest summation of the heating and cooling loads. Finally, a scenario was devised (using the combined design variables of the two solutions) and simulated. The results indicate that the total energy consumption was 1186.21 kWh/year, divided into 353.03 kWh/year for the cooling load and 833.18 kWh/year for the heating load. This was compared with 9969.38 kWh/year of energy, divided into 3878.37 kWh/year for the heating load and 6091.01 kWh/year for the cooling load for the baseline building. Thus, the amount of energy saved was 88.1%, 94.2% and 78.5% for total energy consumption, cooling load and heating load, respectively. However, implementing the modifications suggested by the optimisation of the low-importance variables was not cost-effective, especially the external wall construction and partition construction, and therefore these design variables can be neglected in future studies.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020043
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 44: Use of Nondestructive Testing of Ultrasound
           and Artificial Neural Networks to Estimate Compressive Strength of

    • Authors: Fernando A. N. Silva, João M. P. Q. Delgado, Rosely S. Cavalcanti, António C. Azevedo, Ana S. Guimarães, Antonio G. B. Lima
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The work presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out on concrete elements in order to investigate the potential of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to estimate the compressive strength based on relevant parameters, such as the water–cement ratio, aggregate–cement ratio, age of testing, and percentage cement/metakaolin ratios (5% and 10%). We prepared 162 cylindrical concrete specimens with dimensions of 10 cm in diameter and 20 cm in height and 27 prismatic specimens with cross sections measuring 25 and 50 cm in length, with 9 different concrete mixture proportions. A longitudinal transducer with a frequency of 54 kHz was used to measure the ultrasonic velocities. An ANN model was developed, different ANN configurations were tested and compared to identify the best ANN model. Using this model, it was possible to assess the contribution of each input variable to the compressive strength of the tested concretes. The results indicate an excellent performance of the ANN model developed to predict compressive strength from the input parameters studied, with an average error less than 5%. Together, the water–cement ratio and the percentage of metakaolin were shown to be the most influential factors for the compressive strength value predicted by the developed ANN model.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020044
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 45: The Cartis Form for the Seismic
           Vulnerability Assessment of Timber Large‐Span Structures

    • Authors: Beatrice Faggiano, Giacomo Iovane, Andrea Gaspari, Eric Fournely, AbdelHamid Bouchair, Raffaele Landolfo, Maurizio Piazza
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Italy is located in a very active seismic zone, and many earthquakes have marked the country, some of them in the recent past. In order to take adequate measures of seismic prevention and protection, in the last decades, the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) initiated a survey and introduced a specific form for the quick and/or post-seismic assessment of buildings. This is useful to obtain statistics on the types of structures and their vulnerability and a judgement on the damage, leading to a decision about the possibility of reuse and/or the level of retrofitting to be applied. Those activities have been developed since the beginning of 2000. This task is currently carried out by the Italian DPC-ReLUIS project research, line WP2 on the inventory of building structures, setting up the CARTIS form for any structural type, like masonry, reinforced concrete, precast concrete, steel, and timber structures, the latter being mainly related to large span buildings, extensively used in Italy. In this context, the paper presents the first draft of the CARTIS form for large span timber structures that provides a general description for typical structural schemes, through the singular points commonly considered as seismic structural vulnerabilities. Moreover, the statistics on timber large span structures based on a sample of 10 buildings is presented.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020045
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 46: Multi-Span Composite Timber Beams with
           Rational Steel Reinforcements

    • Authors: Mikhail Lukin, Evgeny Prusov, Svetlana Roshchina, Maria Karelina, Nikolay Vatin
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Wooden multi-span beams with steel reinforcement were studied experimentally on a stationary stand using an eight-point loading scheme that simulated a load uniformly distributed over the beam span. The studies were carried out on beams with a span of 4.8 m with a cross-sectional area of 40 mm × 80 mm, reinforced in the stretched zones of the cross-section with rods made of hot-rolled steel reinforcement of A400 class. The rational zones for the location of reinforcements in the tensioned and compressed zones of the beams were determined. The rational placements of reinforcement in the support and span zones was based on the numerical simulation of the volumetric stress state calculated using the finite element method. It was experimentally confirmed that the failure of wood composite beams had a plastic nature and occurred only along normal sections. This excluded the possibility of brittle fracture from shear stresses and ensured the operational reliability of structures as a whole. It was shown that the proposed rational reinforcement of wooden beams increased their bearing capacity by 175% and reduced bearing deformability by 85%. The results obtained indicated high efficiency of the application of the developed method of reinforcement in beams of roofs and floors of buildings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020046
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 47: Bidding Strategy in Construction Public
           Procurement: A Contractor’s Perspective

    • Authors: Tomáš Hanák, Adriana Drozdová, Ivan Marović
      First page: 47
      Abstract: A contractor’s ability to prepare a competitive bid for a construction tender is crucial for its survival on the market. The bid price estimation strategy should promote the probability of winning a sufficient amount of tenders but, at the same time, ensure the economic stability and development of the company. This paper aims to address this issue in the area of Czech public construction procurement. The opinions, experiences and practices of contractors were collected through a questionnaire survey, and the data were evaluated with the support of statistical methods. This revealed that Czech contractors mostly base their multicriteria bidding strategy on cost-oriented pricing while considering various aspects such as the risks and attractiveness of the tender. The Czech construction market is generally perceived as oriented toward low costs, and with a relatively common occurrence of abnormally low bids. The findings presented in this paper may help contractors improve their current bidding strategies in public construction procurement.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020047
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 48: Macro-Impacts of Air Quality on Property
           Values in China—A Meta‐Regression Analysis of the Literature

    • Authors: Jianing Wang, Chyi Lin Lee, Sara Shirowzhan
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Air pollution has received increasing attention in recent years, particularly in China, due to the rapid industrialisation that has wrought intense levels of air pollution. A number of studies, therefore, have been devoted to quantifying the impacts of air pollution on property value in China. However, the empirical results are somewhat mixed. This naturally raises questions of whether there is a significant relationship between air quality and housing prices and the plausible reasons for the mixed results in previous studies. This study aims to fill this gap by explaining the variations in the findings by a meta-regression analysis. To control for heterogeneity, a weighted least square model was used to explore the factors influencing the magnitude and significance of the air quality effect based on empirical estimates from 117 observations. This study confirms that air quality does have a discernible impact on housing prices beyond the publication bias. Besides, the types of air quality indicator and the air data source do significantly influence estimates through affecting both the magnitude of the elasticity and the partial correlation coefficient (PCC). Further, the selections of control variables and estimation approaches also have significant impacts on estimates. This study also finds that published papers tend to be biased towards more economically significant estimates. The implications of the findings have also been discussed.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020048
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 49: Evaluation of Metaheuristic-Based Methods
           for Optimization of Truss Structures via Various Algorithms and Lèvy
           Flight Modification

    • Authors: Gebrail Bekdaş, Melda Yucel, Sinan Melih Nigdeli
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Truss structures are one of the major civil engineering members studied in the optimization research area. In this area, various optimization applications such as topology, size, cost, weight, material usage, etc., can be conducted for different truss structure types. In this scope with the present study, various optimization processes were carried out concerning two different large-scale space trusses to minimize the structural weight. According to this state, three structural models provided via two different truss structures, including 25 bar and 72 bar truss models, were handled for evaluation of six different metaheuristics together with the modification of Lèvy flight for three of the algorithms using swarm intelligence by considering both constant and variable populations, and different ranges for iterations, too. Additionally, the effects of the Lèvy flight function and whether it is successful or not in terms of the target of optimization were also investigated by comparing with some documented studies. In this regard, some statistical calculations were also realized to evaluate the optimization method performance and detection of optimum values for any data stably and successfully. According to the results, the Jaya algorithm can handle the optimization process successfully, including the case, without grouping truss members. The positive effect of Lèvy flight on swarm-based algorithms can be seen especially for the gray wolf algorithm.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020049
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 50: Advanced Multi-Body Modelling of DCCSS
           Isolators: Geometrical Compatibility and Kinematics

    • Authors: Vincenzo Bianco, Giorgio Monti, Nicola Pio Belfiore
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The effectiveness of Double Concave Curved Surface Sliders (DCCSS), which initially spread under the name of Double Friction Pendulum (DFP) isolators, was already widely proven by numerous experimental campaigns carried out worldwide. However, many aspects concerning their dynamical behavior still need to be clarified and some details still require improvement and optimization. In particular, due to the boundary geometrical conditions, sliding along the coupled surfaces may not be compliant, where this adjective is adopted to indicate an even distribution of stresses and sliding contact. On the contrary, during an earthquake, the fulfillment of geometrical compatibility between the constitutive bodies naturally gives rise to a very peculiar dynamic behavior, composed of continuous alternation of sticking and slipping phases. Such behavior yields a temporary and cyclic change of topology. Since the constitutive elements can be modelled as rigid bodies, both approaches, namely Compliant Sliding and Stick-Slip, can be numerically modelled by means of techniques typically adopted for multi-body mechanical systems. With the objective of contributing to the understanding and further improvement of this technology, a topology-changing multi-body mechanical model was developed to simulate the DCCSS. In the present work, attention is focused on details regarding geometrical compatibility and kinematics, while the complete dynamics is presented in another work. In particular, for the sake of comparison, the kinematic equations are presented and applied not only for the proposed Stick-Slip approach, but also for the currently accepted Compliant Sliding approach. The main findings are presented and discussed.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020050
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 51: Evaluation of the Legal Framework for
           Building Fire Safety Regulations in Spain

    • Authors: Amaya Osácar, Juan Bautista Echeverria Trueba, Brian Meacham
      First page: 51
      Abstract: There is a trend in Europe towards increasing the quality and performance of regulations. At the same time, regulatory failure has been observed in the area of building fire safety regulation in England and elsewhere. As a result, an analysis of the appropriateness of fire safety regulations in Spain is warranted, with the objective being to assess whether a suitable level of fire safety is currently being delivered. Three basic elements must be considered in such analysis: the legal and regulatory framework, the level of fire risk/safety of buildings that is expected and the level which actually results, and a suitable method of analysis. The focus of this paper is creating a legal and regulatory framework, in particular with respect to fire safety in buildings. Components of an ”ideal” building regulatory framework to adequately control fire risk are presented, the existing building regulatory framework is summarized, and an analysis of the gaps between the ideal and the existing systems is presented. It is concluded that the gaps between the ideal and the existing framework are significant, and that the current fire safety regulations are not appropriate for assuring delivery of the intended level of fire risk mitigation.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020051
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 52: Mechanical Behavior and Frost-Resistance of
           Alkali-Activated Cement Concrete with Blended Binder at Ambient Curing

    • Authors: Biruk Hailu Tekle, Klaus Holschemacher, Philipp Löber, Björn Heiden
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Concrete is the most commonly used construction material because of its various advantages, such as versatility, familiarity, strength, and durability, and it will continue to be in demand far into the future. However, with today’s sensitivity to environmental protection, this material faces unprecedented challenges because of its high greenhouse gas emissions, mainly during cement production. This paper investigates one of the promising cement replacement materials, alkali-activated cement (AAC) concrete. Being produced mainly from byproduct materials and having a comparable structural performance to conventional concrete, AAC concrete can transform the construction industry. Mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength and the relationship between them are studied. Different source materials such as fly ash (FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), silica fume (SF), and Metakaolin (MK) are used. The effect of the source materials and the activator solutions on the concrete performance is studied. Furthermore, the freeze-thaw resistance of the concrete is studied. The study results showed that the behavior of AAC depends highly on the source material combinations and type used. The effect of the alkaline solution is also dependent on the source material used. Mixes with higher GGBS content showed the highest strength, while mixes with MK showed the highest flexural strength. The freeze-thaw test results showed that proper design of AAC concrete with lower water content is critical to achieving a good resistance.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020052
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 53: Critical Analysis about Emerging
           Technologies for Building’s Façade Inspection

    • Authors: Ilídio S. Dias, Inês Flores-Colen, Ana Silva
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The diagnosis of the building’s façades pathology is extremely important to support rational and technically informed decisions regarding maintenance and rehabilitation actions. With a reliable diagnosis, the probable causes of the anomalies can be correctly identified, and the correction measures adopted can be more compatible with the existing elements, promoting the durability of the façades. Visual inspection is the most common approach to identify anomalies in a building’s façade and, in many cases, this technique is sufficient to support the decision to intervene. However, the pathological phenomenon is complex, and the anomalies observed may indicate the presence of other defects, or some anomalies may not be visible in a simple visual observation. This study intends to discuss the application of emerging technologies on the diagnosis and anamneses of building’s façade, in order to automatise the collection of reliable on-site data and, thus, reduce the uncertainty of the diagnosis. The use of these techniques can help existing inspection methodologies, already tested, based mainly on the visual assessment of the buildings’ elements degradation condition.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020053
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 54: Evaluation of Seismic Vulnerability of
           Hospitals in the Tehran Metropolitan Area

    • Authors: Setareh Ghaychi Afrouz, Alireza Farzampour, Zahra Hejazi, Masoud Mojarab
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The Tehran metropolitan area is extremely vulnerable to earthquakes due to the location of its active faults and its dense population. Assessing the probable damage of a high magnitude earthquake on buildings and facilities relies on a precise structural survey, which has an empirical basis depending on historic ground motions. The probability of damage and failure in discrete limits based on different ground motions is estimated by fragility curves. Using the most matching fragility curves for buildings in Tehran, the vulnerability of the hospitals in the capital, as one of the most critical structures in crisis management of disasters, was investigated in this study. Subsequently, the existing fragility curves, developed for Tehran and the other seismic prone countries such as Japan and the United States, were compared considering the typology of Tehran’s hospitals. Finally, the possible damages for each hospital were calculated based on the most conservative fragility curve and the most pessimistic scenario, which were used to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of hospitals and health care systems for different damage states. After zoning the damage of therapeutic areas of Tehran, it was observed that at least 2% to 10% damage occurred in all hospitals of Tehran, and none of the healthcare centers would remain structurally undamaged after a strong earthquake with the moment magnitude of 7 or more. In addition, the healthcare buildings could be prone to significant structural damage, especially in southern parts, which necessitates proactive management plans for Tehran metropolitan area.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020054
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 55: Office Distractions and the Productivity of
           Building Users: The Effect of Workgroup Sizes and Demographic

    • Authors: Maryam Khoshbakht, Eziaku O. Rasheed, George Baird
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Knowledge workers are experiencing ever-increasing distractions or unwanted interruptions at workplaces. We explored the effect of unwanted interruptions on an individual’s perceived productivity in various building types, user groups and workgroups. A case study of 68 buildings and their 5149 occupants using the Building Use Studies methodology was employed in this study. The database contains information on the occupants’ perceptions of physical and environmental parameters, including unmined data on the frequency of unwanted interruptions. Pearson’s correlation was used to test the correlation between the variables. In order to determine whether there are any statistically significant differences between the means of two or more independent (unrelated) groups, one-way ANOVA was employed to examine the significance of differences in mean scores between various user groups and workgroups. The evidence of clear correlations between the frequency of unwanted interruptions and perceived productivity is detailed in various user groups and in multiple building types. The Pearson correlation coefficients were −0.361 and −0.348 for sustainable and conventional buildings, respectively, demonstrating a lower sensitivity to unwanted interruptions in sustainable buildings. Females and older participants were more sensitive to unwanted interruptions and their productivity levels were reduced much more by unwanted interruptions. Comparing different sized workgroups, the highest sensitivity to unwanted interruptions for occupants in offices shared with more than 8 people was found. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of different user needs and preferences in the design of workplaces.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020055
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 56: Damage Detection in Multiple RC Structures
           Based on Embedded Ultrasonic Sensors and Wavelet Transform

    • Authors: Joyraj Chakraborty, Xin Wang, Marek Stolinski
      First page: 56
      Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of research aimed at assessing cracks in reinforced concrete structures using embedded ultrasonic sensors. The diffuse ultrasonic waves were considered to evaluate the health status of the tested structures. There are different algorithms used to detect cracks in the structure, but most studies have been performed on benchmark reinforced concrete (RC) structures and in laboratory conditions. Since there were difficulties with the validity of damage detection in real structures in the presence of environmental changes and noises, the application of advanced signal processing methods was necessary. Therefore, the wavelet transform was applied to process ultrasonic signals acquired from multiple civil structures. It is shown that the ultrasonic sensors with an applied wavelet transform algorithm on collected signals can successfully detect cracks in the laboratory as well as in a real environment. Experimental results showed a perfect match for detecting damage and quasi-static load in the presence of environmental changes. The results were confirmed with other techniques. In addition, designing an extra filter for removing noises can be avoided by using the applied algorithms. The obtained results confirmed that diffuse ultrasonic sensor methodology with the proposed algorithm is useful and effective in monitoring real RC structures, and it is better than traditional techniques.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020056
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 57: Effect of Masonry Infill Constitutive Law on
           the Global Response of Infilled RC Buildings

    • Authors: Marco Gaetani d’Aragona, Maria Polese, Andrea Prota
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Masonry-infilled reinforced concrete frames represent a very common construction typology across the Mediterranean countries. The presence of infills substantially modifies the global seismic performances of buildings in terms of strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation. Although several research studies focused on the overall performances of infilled reinforced concrete frames, the modeling of infill panels remains an open issue due to the complex interaction between the infill and the frame and the uncertainties involved in the definition of the problem. In the present paper, an existing masonry-infilled RC frame designed according to obsolete seismic codes is chosen as a case study. A refined three-dimensional finite element model is built for performing nonlinear static and time-history analyses in order to investigate some significant aspects related to the modeling of infills. In particular, it is investigated the effect of different infill constitutive models on the seismic performance of infilled RC building expressed in terms of engineering demand parameters such as interstory drift ratios and peak floor accelerations, and on the generation of damage fragility curves.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020057
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 58: Failure Analysis of Apennine Masonry
           Churches Severely Damaged during the 2016 Central Italy Seismic Sequence

    • Authors: Francesco Clementi
      First page: 58
      Abstract: This paper presents a detailed study of the damages and collapses suffered by various masonry churches in the aftermath of the seismic sequence of Central Italy in 2016. The damages will first be analyzed and then compared with the numerical data obtained through 3D simulations with eigenfrequency and then nonlinear static analyses (i.e., pushover). The main purposes of this study are: (i) to create an adequately consistent sensitivity study on several definite case studies to obtain an insight into the role played by geometry—which is always unique when referred to churches—and by irregularities; (ii) validate or address the applicability limits of the more widespread nonlinear approach, widely recommended by the Italian Technical Regulations. Pushover analysis are conducted assuming that the masonry behaves as a nonlinear material with different tensile and compressive strengths. The consistent number of case studies investigated will show how conventional static approaches can identify, albeit in a qualitative way, the most critical macro-elements that usually trigger both global and local collapses, underlining once again how the phenomena are affected by the geometry of stones and bricks, the texture of the wall face, and irregularities in the plan and elevation and in addition to hypotheses made on the continuity between orthogonal walls.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020058
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 59: Energy Rating of Buildings to Promote
           Energy-Conscious Design in Israel

    • Authors: Abraham Yezioro, Isaac Guedi Capeluto
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Improving the energy efficiency of existing and new buildings is an important step towards achieving more sustainable environments. There are various methods for grading buildings that are required according to regulations in different places for green building certification. However, in new buildings, these rating systems are usually implemented at late design stages due to their complexity and lack of integration in the architectural design process, thus limiting the available options for improving their performance. In this paper, the model ENERGYui used for design and rating buildings in Israel is presented. One of its main advantages is that it can be used at any design stage, including the early ones. It requires information that is available at each stage only, as the additional necessary information is supplemented by the model. In this way, architects can design buildings in a way where they are aware of each design decision and its impact on their energy performance, while testing different design directions. ENERGYui rates the energy performance of each basic unit, as well as the entire building. The use of the model is demonstrated in two different scenarios: an office building in which basic architectural features such as form and orientation are tested from the very beginning, and a residential building in which the intervention focuses on its envelope, highlighting the possibilities of improving their design during the whole design process.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020059
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 60: A Comparative Study on the Influence of Nano
           and Micro Particles on the Workability and Mechanical Properties of Mortar
           Supplemented with Fly Ash

    • Authors: Mostafa Seifan, Shaira Mendoza, Aydin Berenjian
      First page: 60
      Abstract: In this study, the effects of micro‐Al2O3 (MA) and nano‐Al2O3 (NA) on the mechanical properties and durability performance of a mortar containing fly ash (FA) were investigated. In the first step, MA and NA were added to the mortar (as a cement replacement) at dosages of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight. The flowability of the mixture containing NA and MA showed a dosage‐dependent behavior, and the addition of MA resulted in a higher flow spread compared with NA. The flow spread increased at 5% (for both NA and MA), and a further increase in the particle content to 10% and 15% decreased the flow spread value. Although the presence of MA and NA contributed to increasing the compressive strength as the particle content increased, the addition of NA resulted in a greater increase in compressive strength (40% increase when adding 15% of NA). The highest splitting tensile strength was obtained when 10% NA was used, and a further increase in the particle content decreased the splitting tensile strength. In the optimization step, the effect of a binder replacement with FA (10, 20 and 30%) in the presence of 10% NA as the optimum level of additive was investigated. Generally, the addition of FA decreased the compressive strength. The highest drop in compressive strength was noticed at early ages, and there was no significant difference in strength development from 14 days to 28 days. A decreasing trend in the splitting tensile strength was observed with the addition of FA content.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020060
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 61: Construction Waste Audit in the Framework of
           Sustainable Waste Management in Construction Projects—Case Study

    • Authors: Marcela Spišáková, Peter Mésároš, Tomáš Mandičák
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The issue of sustainability has long been the subject of interest in architecture engineering and the construction sector. All three aspects of sustainability—economic, environmental, and social—can be affected through appropriate construction waste management. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) is one of the largest worldwide waste streams, therefore, it is given great attention by all stakeholders (investors, contractors, authorities, etc.). Research studies show that one of the main barriers to insufficient CDW recovery is inadequate policies and legal frameworks to manage CDW. It is also one of European Union’s (EU) environmental priorities. The aim of the article was to confirm the economic potential of construction and demolition waste audit processing through a case study. A pre-demolition waste audit was processed for an unused shopping center building in the town Snina in Slovakia. Subsequently, a comparison of economic parameters (waste disposal costs and transport costs) of the recommended CDW management was performed. This comparison confirmed the economic benefits of environmentally friendly construction waste management methods according to the waste audit results, which would also increase the sustainability of construction projects. Additionally, the cost parameters of selected waste disposal methods could be another dimension of building information modeling.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020061
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 62: Architectural Photovoltaic Applications:
           Lessons Learnt and Perceptions from Architects

    • Authors: Zoheir Haghighi, Mahboubeh Angali Dehnavi, Thaleia Konstantinou, Andy van den Dobbelsteen, Tillmann Klein
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Researchers have reported that despite technological development in photovoltaic technology and substantial cost reduction, there is still a narrow interest in architectural photovoltaic applications (APA). Lack of interest is correlated to various bottlenecks, and one of them is a lack of knowledge among architects on the possibilities and approaches to adopt APA. In response to the issues mentioned, the aim of the research presented was collecting qualitative and quantitative information from architects as lessons learned and perceptions in regards to APA. In total, 30 architects with and without experience of using photovoltaics (PV) were invited and interviewed. They were asked about their experience, design and decision-making process with PV, their understanding of integration, and the decisive factors to use APA. The results showed apparent differences between the experiences and perceptions, and they highlighted the lessons learned from realized projects. The analysis of the visual implication of PV integration shows that, to the eyes of architects, integration of PV into architecture does not depend on the PV product used, but instead, that when PV is part of the design concept and design process, the outcome is seen as a meaningful integration.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020062
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 63: Resistance of an Optimized Ultra-High
           Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete to Projectile Impact

    • Authors: Anna L. Mina, Michael F. Petrou, Konstantinos G. Trezos
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) concrete slabs, under projectile impact. Mixture performance under impact loading was examined using bullets with 7.62 mm diameter and initial velocity 800 m/s. The UHPFRC, used in this study, consists of a combination of steel fibers of two lengths: 6 mm and 13 mm with the same diameter of 0.16 mm. Six composition mixtures were tested, four UHPFRC, one ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), without steel fibers, and high strength concrete (HSC). Slabs with thicknesses of 15, 30, 50, and 70 mm were produced and subjected to real shotgun fire in the field. Penetration depth, material volume loss, and crater diameter were measured and analyzed. The test results show that the mixture with a combination of 3% 6 mm and 3% of 13 mm length of steel fibers exhibited the best resistance to projectile impact and only the slabs with 15 mm thickness had perforation. Empirical models that predict the depth of penetration were compared with the experimental results. This material can be used as an overlay to buildings or to construct small precast structures.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020063
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 64: Danish Dwellings with Cold
           Attics—Ventilation Rates and Air Exchange between Attic and Dwelling

    • Authors: Kvist Hansen
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Naturally ventilated cold attics are traditional in many Danish single-family homes. The moisture balance of these attics is dependent on sufficient ventilation for removal of excess moisture. Moisture is generated in the dwelling below, and transported to attic spaces through convection and diffusion. Therefore, airtight ceilings are vital for reduction of excess moisture, which may yield mould growth in the attic. If mould spores migrate to the dwelling it can cause risk of health concerns for occupants. The presents study includes analysis of tracer gas and temperature/relative humidity measurements, in 30 dwellings/attics. The measurements yielded results of both air change rates in attics and dwellings, as well as air exchange between the two zones. Four of 30 houses, met the recommended air change rate of 0.5 h−1, and only in summer. The air change rate in the attics was found to be higher, and with larger variation compared to the dwelling. Visible mould growth was found in three attics, which all exhibited low air change rates. Air exchange between zones occurred in houses both with and without vapour barriers. The downward air exchange in summer, was however slightly larger in cases without vapour barriers. These results highlight the importance of airtight ceilings for both dwelling and attic performance.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020064
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 65: Systemic Issues Influencing Technical

    • Authors: Aaron A. Chadee, Indrajit Ray, Xsitaaz T. Chadee
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Underestimating costs in major public sector social infrastructure development projects is a highly contested and problematic issue. Several gaps exist in the identification of root causes of cost overruns. Behavioural science academics advocate political and psychological explanations as root causes for cost overruns against technical factors, such as errors and omissions by engineers, practitioners and scientists. Most studies in this field primarily concentrate on developed countries. Although some studies have been undertaken in developing countries, very little attention is given to the Small Island Developing States (SIDS). This paper presents a case study of public sector social housing construction programmes in a Caribbean SIDS to further understand the root causes of cost overruns. Primary and secondary data spanning across two different political cycles were collected to test the concepts of whether political influences or technical influences are the true root causes of cost overruns. It was found that political explanations based on the psycho-strategic concept are the leading sources of cost risks on the final estimated contract price. This study strengthens the argument and discusses how strategic decisions emanating from the political directorate outweigh and influence informed technical decisions formulated during the planning stages.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020065
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 66: Structural Optimization in Civil
           Engineering: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Mei, Wang
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Since tremendous resources are consumed in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, the sustainability and efficiency in this field have received increasing concern in the past few decades. With the advent and development of computational tools and information technologies, structural optimization based on mathematical computation has become one of the most commonly used methods for the sustainable and efficient design in the field of civil engineering. However, despite the wide attention of researchers, there has not been a critical review of the recent research progresses on structural optimization yet. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to comprehensively review the previous research on structural optimization, provide a thorough analysis on the optimization objectives and their temporal and spatial trends, optimization process, and summarize the current research limitations and recommendations of future work. The paper first introduces the significance of sustainability and efficiency in the AEC industry as well as the background of this review work. Then, relevant articles are retrieved and selected, followed by a statistical analysis of the selected articles. Thereafter, the selected articles are analyzed regarding the optimization objectives and their temporal and spatial trends. The four major steps in the structural optimization process, including structural analysis and modelling, formulation of optimization problems, optimization techniques, and computational tools and design platforms, are also reviewed and discussed in detail based on the collected articles. Finally, research gaps of the current works and potential directions of future works are proposed. This paper critically reviews the achievements and limitations of the current research on structural optimization, which provide guidelines for future research on structural optimization in the field of civil engineering.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020066
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 67: Structural Performance of Reinforced
           Concrete Beams Incorporating Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) Glass Waste

    • Authors: Jad Bawab, Jamal Khatib, Ali Jahami, Adel Elkordi, Elhem Ghorbel
      First page: 67
      Abstract: The performance of reinforced concrete beams in the presence of cathode-ray tube (CRT) glass waste is examined. Four concrete mixes containing 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% CRT glass waste as partial replacement of sand were prepared. The compressive and flexural strength as well as the modulus of elasticity of concrete were determined. Reinforced concrete beams with varying amounts of CRT glass were prepared and the three-point bending test was conducted. The load-deflection curve as well as the strain distribution along the depth of the beams were determined. Concrete containing CRT glass showed an increase in compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity especially at 10% replacement level. The load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete beam is higher when 10% of sand is replaced with CRT glass compared to the control beam and the beams with 20% and 30% CRT glass substitution. The failure mode of the reinforced concrete beams is flexural failure, and the failure pattern is similar for all beams. Strain distribution showed a better ductility at control beam where the deflection was higher than the other beams at the same load. Numerical analysis was conducted, and comparison was made with the experimental results. The comparison showed the accuracy of the software used, where the results of maximum load capacity and maximum deflection were very similar, and the difference did not exceed 5%. In addition, the tensile damage generated by the numerical analysis was very similar to that obtained by the experimental study.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020067
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 68: Numerical Analysis of Bearing Capacity of a
           Ring Footing on Geogrid Reinforced Sand

    • Authors: Haidar Hosamo, Iyad Sliteen, Songxiong Ding
      First page: 68
      Abstract: A ring footing is found to be of practical importance in supporting symmetrical constructions for example silos, oil storage container etc. In the present paper, numerical analysis was carried out with explicit code FLAC3D 7.0 to investigate bearing capacity of a ring footing on geogrid reinforced sand. Effects of the ratio n of its inner/ outer diameter (Di / D) of a ring footing, an optimum depth to lay the geogrid layer were examined. It was found that an intersection zone was developed in soil under inner-side (aisle) of ring footing, contributing to its bearing capacity. Substantial increase of bearing capacities could be realized if ratio n of a ring footing was around 0.6. Numerical results also showed that, bearing capacity of a ring footing could increase significantly if a single-layer geogrid was laid at a proper depth under the footing. Similar contribution was found if a double-layer geogrid was implemented. However, such increases appeared to be rather limited if a triple-layer geogrid or a four-layer geogrid was used. A double-layer geogrid was recommended to increase the bearing capacity of a ring footing; the depth to lay this double-layer geogrid was also discussed.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020068
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 69: Effects of the Earthquake Nonstationary
           Characteristics on the Structural Dynamic Response: Base on the BP Neural
           Networks Modified by the Genetic Algorithm

    • Authors: Yunlong Zhang, Dongsheng Du, Sheng Shi, Weiwei Li, Shuguang Wang
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The intensity non-stationarity is one of the basic characteristics of ground motions, the influences of which on the dynamic responses of structures is a pressing issue in the field of earthquake engineering. The BP neural network modified by the genetic algorithm was adopted in this research to investigate the influence of intensity nonstationary inputs on the structural dynamic responses from a new perspective. Firstly, many training data were generated from the prediction formula of dynamic response. The BP neural network was then pre-trained by sparsely selected data to optimize the initial weights and biases. Finally, the BP neural network was trained by all data, and the mean square error of predicted responses compared with the target response were less than 10−5. The calculation formula of sensitivity was also derived here to quantify the influence of the input change on the output. The presented method combines the advantages of neural networks in nonlinear multi-variable fitting and provides a new perspective for the study of earthquake nonstationary characteristics and their influence on the structural dynamic responses.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020069
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 70: Building Drainage System Design for Tall
           Buildings: Current Limitations and Public Health Implications

    • Authors: Michael Gormley, David Kelly, David Campbell, Yunpeng Xue, Colin Stewart
      First page: 70
      Abstract: National design guides provide essential guidance for the design of building drainage systems, which primarily ensure the basic objectives of preventing odor ingress and cross-transmission of disease through water-trap seal retention. Current building drainage system design guides only extend to buildings of 30 floors, while modern tall buildings frequently extend to over 100 floors, exceeding the predictive capability of current design guides in terms of operating system conditions. However, the same design guides are being used for tall buildings as would be used for low-rise buildings. A complicating factor is the historic roots of current design guides and standards (including the interpretation of the governing fluid mechanics principles and margins of safety), causing many design differences to exist for the same conditions internationally, such as minimum trap seal retention requirements, stack-to-vent cross-vent spacing, and even stack diameter. The design guides also differ in the size and scale of the systems they cover, and most make no allowance for the specific building drainage system requirements of tall buildings. This paper assesses the limitations of applying current building drainage system design guides when applied to the case of tall buildings. Primarily, the assessments used in this research are based on codes from Europe, the USA and Australia/New Zealand as representative of the most common approaches and from which many other codes and standards are derived. The numerical simulation model, AIRNET, was used as the analysis tool. Our findings confirm that current design guides, which have been out of date for a number of decades, are now in urgent need of updating as code-compliant systems have been shown to be susceptible to water-trap seal depletion, a risk to cross-transmission of disease, which is a major public health concern, particularly in view of the current COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020070
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 71: Implementation of Pushover Analysis for
           Seismic Assessment of Masonry Towers: Issues and Practical Recommendations

    • Authors: Rafael Shehu
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Seismic assessment is a paramount issue and a valuable instrument towards the conservation of vulnerable structures in seismic prone regions. The past seismic events have highlighted the vulnerability of masonry towers that is exhibited by severe structural and nonstructural damages or even collapses. The preservation of existing structures, mainly focused on the built heritage, is emerging and imposing substantial enhancements of numerical methods, including pushover analysis approaches. The accuracy of the estimated seismic capacity for these structures is correlated with the assumed strategies and approximations made during the numerical modeling. The present paper concerns those aspects by exploring the limitations and possibilities of conceiving pushover analysis in the finite element method environment. The most crucial target is tracing in a pushover capacity curve the corresponding initiation of structural damages, maximum load-bearing capacity, and the ultimate displacement capacity. Different recommendations for achieving this target have been proposed and illustrated for practical utilization. Three representative geometrical towers, adopting three different materials and five different load patterns, are investigated in this study. The load pattern’s role and necessity of the displacement-like control approach for the pushover analysis are exploited. This paper highlights the load-bearing capacity overestimation when the force-controlled are implemented. The material model influences the achievement of softening branch with a distinguishable displacement capacity.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020071
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 72: A Top-Down Digital Mapping of
           Spatial-Temporal Energy Use for Municipality-Owned Buildings: A Case Study
           in Borlänge, Sweden

    • Authors: Samer Quintana, Pei Huang, Mengjie Han, Xingxing Zhang
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Urban energy mapping plays a crucial role in benchmarking the energy performance of buildings for many stakeholders. This study examined a set of buildings in the city of Borlänge, Sweden, owned by the municipality. The aim was to present a digital spatial map of both electricity use and district heating demand in the spatial–temporal dimension. A toolkit for top-down data processing and analysis was considered based on the energy performance database of municipality-owned buildings. The data were initially cleaned, transformed and geocoded using custom scripts and an application program interface (API) for OpenStreetMap and Google Maps. The dataset consisted of 228 and 105 geocoded addresses for, respectively, electricity and district heating monthly consumption for the year 2018. A number of extra parameters were manually incorporated to this data, i.e., the total floor area, the building year of construction and occupancy ratio. The electricity use and heating demand in the building samples were about 24.47 kWh/m2 and 268.78 kWh/m2, respectively, for which great potential for saving heating energy was observed. Compared to the electricity use, the district heating showed a more homogenous pattern following the changes of the seasons. The digital mapping revealed a spatial representation of identifiable hotspots for electricity uses in high-occupancy/density areas and for district heating needs in districts with buildings mostly constructed before 1980. These results provide a comprehensive means of understanding the existing energy distributions for stakeholders and energy advisors. They also facilitate strategy geared towards future energy planning in the city, such as energy benchmarking policies.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020072
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 73: Multiple Dimensions of Smart Cities’
           Infrastructure: A Review

    • Authors: Ana Paula P. P. Kasznar, Ahmed W. A. W. A. Hammad, Mohammad Najjar, Eduardo Linhares Linhares Qualharini, Karoline Figueiredo, Carlos Alberto Pereira Soares, Assed N. N. Haddad
      First page: 73
      Abstract: In recent years, there has been significant focus on smart cities, on how they operate and develop, and on their technical and social challenges. The importance of infrastructure as a major pillar of support in cities, in addition to the rapid developments in smart city research, necessitate an up-to-date review of smart cities’ infrastructure issues and challenges. Traditionally, a majority of studies have focused on traffic control and management, transport network design, smart grid initiatives, IoT (Internet of Things) integration, big data, land use development, and how urbanization processes impact land use in the long run. The work presented herein proposes a novel review framework that analyzes how smart city infrastructure is related to the urbanization process while presenting developments in IoT sensor networks, big data analysis of the generated information, and green construction. A classification framework was proposed to give insights on new initiatives regarding smart city infrastructure through answering the following questions: (i) What are the various dimensions on which smart city infrastructure research focuses' (ii) What are the themes and classes associated with these dimensions' (iii) What are the main shortcomings in current approaches, and what would be a good research agenda for the future' A bibliometric analysis was conducted, presenting cluster maps that can be used to understand different research trends and refine further searches. A bibliographic analysis was then followed, presenting a review of the most relevant studies over the last five years. The method proposed serves to stress where future research into understanding smart systems, their implementation and functionality would be best directed. This research concluded that future research on the topic should conceptualize smart cities as an emergent socio-techno phenomenon.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020073
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 74: Effect of Frequency Characteristics of
           Ground Motion on Response of Tuned Mass Damper Controlled Inelastic
           Concrete Frame

    • Authors: Rahman, Nahar, Kim
      First page: 74
      Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of tuned mass damper (TMD) and dynamic behavior of TMD-controlled concrete structure considering the ground motion (GM) characteristics based on frequency content. The effectiveness of TMD in reducing the structural response and probability of collapse of the building frames are affected by the frequency characteristics of GMs. To attenuate the seismic vibration of the buildings, the TMD controlled building has been designed based on the modal analysis (modal frequencies and modal mass participation ratio). In this study, to investigate the performance of TMD, four different heights (i.e., 3, 5, 10, 20 stories) inelastic concrete moment-resisting frames equipped with TMDs are developed using an open-source finite element software. A series of numerical analyses have been conducted using sixty earthquakes classified into three categories corresponding to low, medium, and high-frequency characteristics of GMs. To evaluate the proposed strategy, peak lateral displacements, inter-story drift, and the probability of collapse using fragility analysis have been investigated through the structures equipped with and without TMD. The results appraise the effect of TMD and compare the seismic responses of earthquake frequency contents and the vibration control system of the inelastic building frames.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020074
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 75: Design for Maintainability of Basements and
           Wet Areas

    • Authors: Chew
      First page: 75
      Abstract: : With the motto of “doing it right the first time”, this study focuses on spearheading the integration of designers, constructors, and facility mangers, at the outset of the planning/design stage, by providing easy-to-read tables summarising (1) knowledge learnt from past mistakes and (2) maintainability benchmarks, to ensure high maintainability for Basements and Wet Areas. The commonly occurring problems in Basements and Wet Areas of a total of 110 buildings comprising of commercial, hotels, industrial, institutions, healthcare facilities, and residential facilities were evaluated using case and field studies. Face-to-face interviews and workshops with the respective professionals involved in the design, construction, operation and maintenance (O&M) of the buildings were conducted for detailed investigation on each problem for their (a) problem types, (b) extent of problem, (c) failure mechanism, (d) good practices in design/construction/O&M/facilities management (FM), and (e) environmental issues. Easy-to-read tables of checklists based on a preventive/predictive performance-based approach, which defines acceptable standards in design, construction and O&M/FM practices, were derived. The checklists help enhance the integration of designers, constructors, and facilities managers (FM), ensuring high maintainability and productivity right at the outset of the planning/design stage. They also help professionals derive, customise, and validate their own Maintainable Design Appraisal System (MDAS) according to their own needs.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020075
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 76: Effect of the Particle Size on TDA Shear
           Strength Parameters in Triaxial Tests

    • Authors: Hany El El Naggar, Khaled Zahran
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Tire recycling and reuse in North America and worldwide have increased considerably, intending to reduce the harmful effects of scrap tires on the environment. Accordingly, the use of tire derived aggregates (TDA) as backfill material in civil engineering applications is on the rise at an unprecedented rate. However, to use TDA in the construction industry, its strength and stiffness parameters properties must be evaluated. One key factor that is known to influence the strength and stiffness of backfill material is the particle size of the used material. Hence, in this paper, a series of large-scale triaxial tests on five TDA samples with different maximum particle size, Dmax, of 19.05, 25.4, 38.1, 50.8 and 76.2 mm were conducted to investigate the effect of the particle size on the obtained results. The tests were done under consolidated drained conditions using three confining pressures of 50, 100, and 200 kPa. The results showed that the shear strength of TDA increase by increasing the maximum particle size while the cohesion did not show a specific trend. Moreover, the samples exhibited an increase in the secant elastic modulus by increasing the particle size.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020076
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 77: Augmented Reality to Enable Users to
           Identify Deviations for Model Reconciliation

    • Authors: Jad Chalhoub, Steven K. Ayer, Kieren H. McCord
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Effective use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) during operation typically requires modeled content to accurately match the built spaces, which necessitates effective field verification techniques to ensure that BIM content matches the actual built conditions. Some contractors leverage laser scanning and other reality-capture technologies to verify modeled content prior to turnover, but these approaches can be time- and resource-intensive. Augmented reality (AR) enables users to view BIM content overlaid on their field of view of the built space. Research suggests potential for using AR for tasks related to field verification, but a study that systematically explores the specific types of deviations that can be detected with this technology is missing from the current literature. This paper tasks participants with using immersive AR to identify deviations from BIM in a ceiling plenum space that includes installed Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) components, which would typically be included in a coordinated BIM. The results suggest that AR can enable users to effectively identify large deviations and missing building elements. However, the results do not indicate that AR effectively enables users to identify small deviations and can potentially lead to identifying false positive observations, where accurately constructed elements are perceived as deviating from BIM. These results suggest that immersive AR can effectively be used to check whether recently built elements conform to the intended BIM in instances where speed of verification is more important than adhering to strict tolerances. For instances where accuracy (less than two inches) is critical, the results of this work suggest that AR can be used to help determine where in the building more accurate, but more resource-intensive, reality-capture technologies should be used.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020077
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 78: Challenges and Barriers for
           Net‐Zero/Positive Energy Buildings and Districts—Empirical Evidence
           from the Smart City Project SPARCS

    • Authors: Daria Uspenskaia, Karl Specht, Hendrik Kondziella, Thomas Bruckner
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Without decarbonizing cities energy and climate objectives cannot be achieved as cities account for approximately two thirds of energy consumption and emissions. This goal of decarbonizing cities has to be facilitated by promoting net-zero/positive energy buildings and districts and replicating them, driving cities towards sustainability goals. Many projects in smart cities demonstrate novel and groundbreaking low-carbon solutions in demonstration and lighthouse projects. However, as the historical, geographic, political, social and economic context of urban areas vary greatly, it is not always easy to repeat the solution in another city or even district. It is therefore important to look for the opportunities to scale up or repeat successful pilots. The purpose of this paper is to explore common trends in technologies and replication strategies for positive energy buildings or districts in smart city projects, based on the practical experience from a case study in Leipzig—one of the lighthouse cities in the project SPARCS. One of the key findings the paper has proven is the necessity of a profound replication modelling to deepen the understanding of upscaling processes. Three models analyzed in this article are able to provide a multidimensional representation of the solution to be replicated.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11020078
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 17: Review of the Construction Labour Demand and
           Shortages in the EU

    • Authors: Belinda Brucker Juricic, Mario Galic, Sasa Marenjak
      First page: 17
      Abstract: This paper reviews the recent literature on skill and labour shortages in the labour market with special emphasis on the construction sector in the European Union Member States, foreseeing the Construction 4.0 era. The free movement of people is one of the rights of all citizens of the EU which also includes the free movement of workers. Labour shortages in the EU are expected to increase in the future due to a declining population and an ageing workforce. In order to recognize and forecast labour shortages, EU Member states use a variety of instruments but they do not answer as to whether it is possible to use migrant labour to appease those shortages. There are several systems used to classify labour shortages in the EU Member states. Most of the countries classify labour shortages in relation to different sectors or occupation groups as well as by skill levels, but in some Member States, classification is made according to the type of employment. Instruments used to measure labour shortages significantly differ from country to country. Several criteria are used for creating lists of shortage occupations and most of the criteria include demand side and supply side criteria. A majority of the Member States are facing labour and skill shortages in various sectors and the construction sector is not an exception. As total employment in the construction sector decreased, so did the share of employed migrants. Labour shortages in the construction sector can be eased by the availability of a labour supply willing to accept unqualified and low-paying jobs. The construction sector seeks low-, medium-, and high-skilled individuals and is most likely the sector where most of the incoming migrants will be working, which has an impact on the development and implementation dynamic of Construction 4.0.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010017
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 18: Future Housing Identities: Designing in Line
           with the Contemporary Sustainable Urban Lifestyle

    • Authors: Ana Nikezić, Jelena Ristić Trajković, Aleksandra Milovanović
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Over the past decade, urban housing typologies have evolved from being a feature of modern life to an essential postmodern issue, questioning future housing identities. One of the ways in which architecture can become engaged in this ever-changing process of urban regeneration is to challenge the inherited traditional housing typologies with the newly recognized values of contemporary lifestyle. This paper presents research and design aimed at exploring contemporary sustainable urban lifestyles as a resource for positioning housing structures as cultural urban infrastructure. The main focus of this study is design principles and strategies for generating future housing identities in accordance with sustainable urban development and sustainability of life in urban areas. It is about finding housing conceptual models for an interaction between housing and identity as a response to the impact of increased cities, changed lifestyles in contemporary cities and the requirements for the preservation of the city image and the public space within the housing areas in the city center. The main goal of this study is to understand whether and how an architectural design can preserve a sustainability of life within the city center and become a valuable agent of place identity in the process of urban regeneration. The paper indicates that the contemporary development of society requires a new architectural paradigm, in which lifestyle and architecture create a unique elastic open-ended system with the ability to adapt and change over time and throughout the place.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010018
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 19: Positioning Positive Energy Districts in
           European Cities

    • Authors: Oscar Lindholm, Hassam ur Rehman, Francesco Reda
      First page: 19
      Abstract: There are many concepts for buildings with integrated renewable energy systems that have received increased attention during the last few years. However, these concepts only strive to streamline building-level renewable energy solutions. In order to improve the flexibility of decentralized energy generation, individual buildings and energy systems should be able to interact with each other. The positive energy district (PED) concept highlights the importance of active interaction between energy generation systems, energy consumers and energy storage within a district. This paper strives to inform the public, decision makers and fellow researchers about the aspects that should be accounted for when planning and implementing different types of PEDs in different regions throughout the European Union. The renewable energy environment varies between different EU regions, in terms of the available renewable energy sources, energy storage potential, population, energy consumption behaviour, costs and regulations, which affect the design and operation of PEDs, and hence, no PED is like the other. This paper provides clear definitions for different types of PEDs, a survey of the renewable energy market circumstances in the EU and a detailed analysis of factors that play an essential role in the PED planning process.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010019
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 20: Seawater-Neutralized Bauxite
           Residue–Polyester Composites as Insulating Construction Materials

    • Authors: Maissa Adi, Basim Abu-Jdayil, Fatima Al Ghaferi, Sara Al Yahyaee, Maryam Al Jabri
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Bauxite residue (BR) is one of the most commonly generated industrial wastes in the world. Thus, novel techniques for its proper utilization must be urgently developed. Herein, seawater-neutralized BR–unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) composites are presented as insulating construction materials with promising mechanical performance. Composites with different BR content (0–60 vol.%) were prepared to evaluate the influence of BR content on the compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths as well as the moduli of BR–UPR composites. Experimental results revealed that adding BR particles to the polyester matrix increased the compressive properties (strength, modulus, and strain). The composites containing 20 vol.% BR showed the maximum compressive strength (108 MPa), while the composites with 30 vol.% BR exhibited the maximum compressive modulus (1 GPa). Moreover, the reduction in tensile and flexural strengths with an increase in the BR content may be attributed to the lower efficiency of stress transfer between the BR particle–polyester interface due to weak adhesion at the interface, direct contact between particles, and presence of voids or porosity. Although the tensile strength and failure stress decreased with increasing filler content, the produced composites showed outstanding tensile strength (4.0–19.3 MPa) compared with conventional insulating materials. In addition, the composite with 40 vol.% BR demonstrated a flexural strength of 15.5 MPa. Overall, BR–UPR composites showed excellent compatibility with promising mechanical properties as potential insulating construction materials.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010020
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 21: Proposal for Tower Crane Productivity
           Indicators Based on Data Analysis in the Era of Construction 4.0

    • Authors: Thomas Danel, Zoubeir Lafhaj, Anand Puppala, Sophie Lienard, Philippe Richard
      First page: 21
      Abstract: This article proposes a methodology to measure the productivity of a construction site through the analysis of tower crane data. These data were obtained from a data logger that records a time series of spatial and load data from the lifting machine during the structural phase of a construction project. The first step was data collection, followed by preparation, which consisted of formatting and cleaning the dataset. Then, a visualization step identified which data was the most meaningful for the practitioners. From that, the activity of the tower crane was measured by extracting effective lifting operations using the load signal essentially. Having used such a sampling technique allows statistical analysis on the duration, load, and curvilinear distance of every extracted lifting operation. The build statistical distribution and indicators were finally used to compare construction site productivity.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 22: Influence of Ausforming Treatment on Super
           Elasticity of Cu-Zn-Al Shape Memory Alloy for Seismic Energy Dissipaters

    • Authors: Danko Ćorić, Irena Žmak
      First page: 22
      Abstract: In order to develop the application of the more cost-effective copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs), rather than nickel–titanium as earthquake energy dissipaters, the influence of ausforming-induced plastic deformation on phase transformations, microstructure, super elasticity and mechanical properties of the shape memory alloy Cu-26Zn-4Al was examined. These specific SMA properties were targeted by applying appropriate parameters of the thermomechanical (the so-called ausforming) process: beta-phase homogenization at 800 °C for 20 min, one-step hot rolling at 800 °C and water quenching. The results showed significant microstructural changes, increased mechanical resistance and change in the phase transformation behavior. The SMA treated by ausforming retained the reversible austenitic–martensitic transformation ability, with the appearance of the super-elastic effect up to 6% of strain recovery. Although some strengthening occurred after hot rolling (an increase in true yield strength of 125 MPa was detected), all phase transformation temperatures were decreased. The smallest decrease was detected for the austenite finish temperature (32.8 °C) and the largest for the martensite finish temperature (42.0 °C), allowing both the expansion and the lowering of the temperature range of super elasticity, which is favorable for construction applications. It is concluded that it is possible to achieve an optimal combination of adequate strength and improved transformation behavior of Cu-Zn-Al alloy by applying the ausforming treatment.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010022
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 23: How Long Can a Wood Flooring System

    • Authors: Coelho, Silva, de Brito
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Wood is a natural, sustainable, and renewable material, which has been used as flooring for centuries, but not enough is known about its durability and performance over time when subjected to different degradation agents. This study proposes a methodology for the service life prediction of wood flooring systems, considering the impact of different factors that influence the floors’ durability. For that purpose, a fieldwork survey is performed to evaluate the degradation phenomena of 96 indoor wood floorings in-use conditions, located in Portugal. The data collected are converted into degradation patterns that graphically illustrate the loss of performance of wood floorings over time. An estimated service life of 44 years is obtained. This study thus allows quantifying the impact of various characteristics on the indoor wood floorings’ service life. The results reveal the high importance of the type of protection, the type of wood, and the type of floor (with a range of estimated service life values of around 18, 17 and 16 years, respectively). This study is a first step to understanding the degradation mechanisms of the wood flooring systems, in order to extend their service life, while allowing optimising of maintenance actions, thus promoting the durability and sustainability of these floorings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010023
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 24: Seismic Upgrading of a Historical Masonry
           Bell Tower through an Internal Dissipative Steel Structure

    • Authors: Arianna Pavia, Fabrizio Scozzese, Enrica Petrucci, Alessandro Zona
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Masonry towers are part of a valuable architectural heritage characterizing the landscape of many historical areas. These towers are vulnerable structures that are prone to earthquake damage. Hence, the design of effective seismic upgrading interventions is an important task for preserving such architectural forms for future generations. In view of that, the objective of this study is to contribute a possible addition to the portfolio of available approaches for seismic upgrading of masonry towers. This goal was pursued by exploring an innovative structural solution that does not alter the external appearance of the tower and its static scheme under gravity loads, yet is able to increase its capacity to withstand seismic actions through added damping. Specifically, the proposed solution consists of a steel structure internal to the masonry tower that incorporates fluid viscous dampers. In order to evaluate its potentialities, a real case study was taken as a testbed structure, historic analysis as well as geometric and architectural surveys were undertaken, an initial design for the upgrading was made, and numerical simulations were performed. The obtained results, although preliminary, highlight the potentialities of the proposed structural solution for the seismic upgrading of masonry towers and might open the way to future developments and applications.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010024
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 25: Understanding the Operation of Contextual
           Compatibility through the Relationships among Heritage Intensity, Context
           Density, and Regulation Degree

    • Authors: Jeongyoon Choi, Sohyun Park
      First page: 25
      Abstract: It is easy to assume that historic environments consist mainly of traditional pre-modern style buildings; however, contemporary architecture is continuously added to historic environments, and its construction is positively encouraged by international heritage organizations such as UNESCO and ICOMOS. The conditions required for introducing contemporary architecture to historic urban environments manifest through the concept of contextual compatibility. This paper examines the meaning and operation of this compatibility in changing urban historical and cultural environments. It offers an empirical interpretation of ‘compatibility’ using three new conceptual parameters: the level of conservation value and importance designated by the heritage conservation system (heritage intensity), the ratio of contemporary architecture in a historic environment (context density), and the range of controlling measures available for conservation (regulation degree). Based on a content analysis of the relevant literature and a case study of 24 sample sites, this paper illuminates how ‘compatibility’ operates in the field, which sometimes contradicts our common assumptions. The notable findings reveal that heritage intensity and context density in the historical environment are not directly proportional to regulation degree. Meanwhile, low context density tends to correspond with highly detailed regulations and emphasise the physical realization of traditional elements.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010025
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 26: Structural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete
           Slabs Containing Fine Waste Aggregates of Polyvinyl Chloride

    • Authors: Nisreen S. Mohammed, Bashar Abid Hamza, Najla’a H. AL-Shareef, Husam H. Hussein
      First page: 26
      Abstract: In several areas worldwide, the high cost and shortage of natural resources have encouraged researchers and engineers to explore the serviceability and feasibility of using recycled aggregates in concrete mixtures, substituting a normal aggregate percentage. This technique has advantages for the environment by reducing the accumulation of waste materials, while it impacts the fresh and hardened concrete performances, reducing workability, flexural strength, compressive strength, and tensile strength. However, most studies have investigated the influence of replacing normal aggregates with waste aggregates on the concrete mechanical properties without examining the impact of using waste materials on concrete structural performance. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of replacing 75% of sand volume with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fine waste aggregates on the performance of reinforced concrete slabs. Different thicknesses of the concrete layer (0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of slab thickness) containing PVC fine waste aggregates are investigated. Based on the reductions in the toughness and flexural strength capacity due to incorporating 75% PVC fine aggregate dosage, two approaches are used to strengthen the slabs with 75% PVC fine aggregates. The first approach is adding polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to the PVC fine aggregate concrete mix to improve the mechanical properties of the concrete. The PVA increases the water viscosity in the concrete, which reduces the dry out phenomenon. With that said, the PVA modified fresh concrete does enable the use of the limits of the PVC fine aggregate dosage for high dosage plastic aggregate concrete. The second approach uses two fiber wire mesh layers as an additional reinforcement in the tested slab. Results show that the PVC-30 slab exhibits an 8% decrease in total area toughness compared to the control (Con) slab, while for PVC-60 slab toughness, the total area shows 26% less. Additionally, the inclusion of PVA in the concrete with 75% PVC plastic waste fine aggregate replacement greatly influences the pre-and post-cracking ductile performance among other slabs, representing that using PVA with higher contents might increase the flexural performance. Therefore, due to the substantial effect of PVA material on the concrete flexural performance, it is proposed to utilize PVA with an optimum PCV fine aggregate dosage in the concrete mix.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010026
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 27: Most Frequent Problems of Building
           Structures of Urban Apartment Buildings from 2nd Half of 19th Century and
           the Start of 20th Century

    • Authors: Klara Kroftova
      First page: 27
      Abstract: An urban residential building from the second half of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century, the so-called tenement house, is a significant representative of the architecture of the developing urban fabric in Central Europe. The vertical and horizontal load-bearing structures of these houses currently tend to show characteristic, repeated defects and failures. Their knowledge may, in many cases, facilitate and speed up the design of the historic building’s restoration without compromising its heritage value in this process. The article presents the summary of the most frequently occurring defects and failures of these buildings. The summary, however, is not an absolute one, and, in the case of major damage to the building, it still applies that, first of all, a detailed analysis of the causes and consequences of defects and failures must be made as a basic prerequisite for the reliability and long-term durability of the building’s restoration and rehabilitation. An integral part of the rehabilitation of buildings must be the elimination of the causes of the appearance of their failures and remediation of all defects impairing their structural safety, health safety and energy efficiency.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010027
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 28: Development of Retrofitting Solutions:
           Remedial Wall Ties for Masonry Enclosure Brick Walls

    • Authors: Filipe Rebelo, António Figueiredo, Gonçalo Correia Lopes, Tiago Miguel Ferreira, Romeu Vicente
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The external envelope walls of a significant percentage of the residential building stock in Southern European countries is commonly constituted by infill masonry walls. However, thousands of square meters of this masonry wall typology presents severe issues of cracking and instability, related to the incorrect and deficient support conditions of the outer brick panel of the double-leaf wall solution. In this work, an experimental campaign divided in two phases has been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two different remedial wall ties retrofitting techniques (Solution A and Solution B) used for double leaf horizontally hollowed clay brick masonry façades. The first phase of the experimental campaign was performed on 120 isolated specimens of horizontally hollowed clay bricks, resorting to post- and pre-NP EN 771-1 brick exemplars (that is, new and pre-existent aged bricks, respectively), as well as on 4 square wallettes, with a side length of 1.20 m, considered as representative of a real scale scenario, for evaluating the two remedial wall ties retrofitting techniques. The second phase of the experimental campaign was performed to fully characterize the different failure types as well as the slipping phenomena observed in the first phase of the experimental campaign, focusing solely on the retrofitting technique Solution B and comprises 24 tests performed on isolated specimens, resourcing to new and pre-existent aged bricks as well. The results obtained by the use of these techniques revealed an average anchorage strength value ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 kN for each tested tie-bar. Solution B reveals an increase of double of the anchorage strength value in comparison to Solution A. In this sense, the global results revealed a suitable applicability of both retrofit studied solutions.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010028
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 29: A Critical Review of Computational
           Creativity in Built Environment Design

    • Authors: Ning Gu, Peiman Amini Behbahani
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Computational creativity in built environment (BE) design has been a subject of research interest in the discipline. This paper presents a critical review of various ways computational creativity has been and can be defined and approached in BE design. The paper examines a comprehensive body of contemporary literature on the topics of creativity, computational creativity, and their assessment to identify levels of computational creativity. The paper then proceeds to a further review of the implications of these levels specifically in BE design. The paper identifies four areas in BE design where computational creativity is relevant. In two areas—synthesis (generation) and analysis—there is considerable literature on lower levels of computational creativity. However, in two other areas—interfacing and communication—even the definition of computational creativity is not as defined and clear for the discipline, and most works only consider the role of computers as a supporting tool or medium. These open up future research opportunities for the discipline.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010029
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 30: An Approach to Data Acquisition for Urban
           Building Energy Modeling Using a Gaussian Mixture Model and
           Expectation-Maximization Algorithm

    • Authors: Mengjie Han, Zhenwu Wang, Xingxing Zhang
      First page: 30
      Abstract: In recent years, a building’s energy performance is becoming uncertain because of factors such as climate change, the Covid-19 pandemic, stochastic occupant behavior and inefficient building control systems. Sufficient measurement data is essential to predict and manage a building’s performance levels. Assessing energy performance of buildings at an urban scale requires even larger data samples in order to perform an accurate analysis at an aggregated level. However, data are not only expensive, but it can also be a real challenge for communities to acquire large amounts of real energy data. This is despite the fact that inadequate knowledge of a full population will lead to biased learning and the failure to establish a data pipeline. Thus, this paper proposes a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm that will produce synthetic building energy data. This method is tested on real datasets. The results show that the parameter estimates from the model are stable and close to the true values. The bivariate model gives better performance in classification accuracy. Synthetic data points generated by the models show a consistent representation of the real data. The approach developed here can be useful for building simulations and optimizations with spatio-temporal mapping.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010030
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 31: A Systematic Review of Design Creativity in
           the Architectural Design Studio

    • Authors: Hernan Casakin, Andrew Wodehouse
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Creativity is fundamental to design problem-solving. This paper sets out a systematic review of the literature in relation to its role in the architectural design studio in order to identify central issues that impact upon this activity. Challenges and best practices in relation to systematic reviews are outlined, and the procedure followed in this context is set out in detail. This involves an iterative evaluation process that resulted in a pool of 17 papers for analysis. Eleven themes emerged in the analysis of the papers, which were organized into five key categories dealing with: pedagogy, cognitive approach, interaction and socialization, information representation, and measuring ideation and creativity. A discussion of these categories contributed to the comparison and connections between the selected papers, and the identification of critical issues and directions for promoting creativity in the architectural design studio.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010031
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 32: Investigating the Impact of Actual and
           Modeled Occupant Behavior Information Input to Building Performance

    • Authors: Mengda Jia, Ravi Srinivasan, Robert J. Ries, Gnana Bharathy, Nathan Weyer
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Occupant behaviors are one of the most dominant factors that influence building energy use. Understanding the influences from building occupants can promote the development of energy–efficient buildings. This paper quantifies the impact of different occupant behavior information on building energy model (BEM) from multiple perspectives. For this purpose, an occupant behavior model that uses agent–based modeling (ABM) approach is implemented via co-simulation with a BEM of an existing commercial building. Then, actual occupant behavior data in correspondence to ABM output, including operations on window, door, and blinds in selected thermal zones of the building are recorded using survey logs. A simulation experiment is conducted by creating three BEMs with constant, actual, and modeled occupant behavioral inputs. The analysis of the simulation results among these scenarios helps us gain an in–depth understanding of how occupant behaviors influence building performance. This study aims to facilitate robust building design and operation with human–in–the–loop system optimization.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010032
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 33: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Buildings in

    • Authors: Buildings Editorial Office Buildings Editorial Office
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Buildings maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010033
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 34: Indoor Daylighting and Thermal Response of a
           Passive Solar Building to Selective Components of Solar Radiation

    • Authors: Ochuko Kelvin Overen, Edson Leroy Meyer, Golden Makaka
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Solar radiation provides the most significant natural energy in buildings for space heating and daylighting. Due to atmospheric interference, solar radiation received at the Earth’s surface consists of direct beam and diffuse radiation, where diffuse can be further broken down into longwave and visible radiation. Although each of these components co-occurs, their influence on the indoor visual and thermal conditions of a building differ. This study aims to analyze the influence of the various components of solar radiation on the indoor thermal and daylighting of a passive solar building. Thus, a pyrheliometer, pyranometer, shaded-pyranometer, and pyrgeometer mounted on a SOLYS 2 (Kipp & Zonen, Delft, Netherlands) dual Axis sun tracker, were used to monitor direct, global horizontal, diffuse and downward longwave radiation, respectively. The seasonal indoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured using an HMP 60 temperature relative humidity probe. A Li-210R photometric sensor was used to monitor the indoor illuminance. The summer and winter indoor air temperature, as well as relative humidity, were found to be influenced by diffuse horizontal and global horizontal irradiance, respectively. In summer, the indoor air temperature response to diffuse horizontal irradiance was 0.7 °C/ħW/m2 and 1.1 °C/ħW/m2 to global horizontal irradiance in winter, where ħ is 99.9 W/m2. The indoor daylighting which was found to be above the minimum office visual task recommendation in most countries, but within the useful daylight illuminance range was dominated by direct normal irradiance. A response of 260 lux/ħW/m2 was observed. The findings of the study support the strategic locating of the windows in passive solar design. However, the results show that north-facing clerestory windows without shading device could lead to visual discomfort.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010034
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2021)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 14: Numerically Evaluation of FRP-Strengthened
           Members under Dynamic Impact Loading

    • Authors: Faham Tahmasebinia, Linda Zhang, Sangwoo Park, Samad Sepasgozar
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Reinforced concrete (RC) members in critical structures, such as bridge piers, high-rise buildings, and offshore facilities, are vulnerable to impact loads throughout their service life. For example, vehicle collisions, accidental loading, or unpredicted attacks could occur. The numerical models presented in this paper are shown to adequately replicate the impact behaviour and damage process of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)-strengthened concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns and Reinforced Concrete slabs. Validated models are developed using Abaqus/Explicit by reproducing the results obtained from experimental testing on bare CFST and RC slab members. Parameters relating to the FRP and material components are investigated to determine the influence on structural behaviour. The innovative method of using the dissipated energy approach for structural evaluation provides an assessment of the effective use of FRP and material properties to enhance the dynamic response. The outcome of the evaluation, including the geometrical, material, and contact properties modelling, shows that there is an agreement between the numerical and experimental behaviour of the selected concrete members. The experimentation shows that the calibration of the models is a crucial task, which was considered and resulted in matching the force–displacement behaviour and achieving the same maximum impact force and displacement values. Different novel and complicated Finite Element Models were comprehensively developed. The developed numerical models could precisely predict both local and global structural responses in the different reinforced concrete members. The application of the current numerical techniques can be extended to design structural members where there are no reliable practical guidelines on both national and international levels.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010014
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 15: Vibrations Induced by Mechanical Rock
           Excavation on R.C. Buildings in an Urban Area

    • Authors: Valeria Leggieri, Annamaria di Lernia, Gaetano Elia, Domenico Raffaele, Giuseppina Uva
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The paper describes the numerical approach adopted to investigate the effects of vibrations induced on reinforced concrete (R.C.) buildings by the excavation works needed to bury an existing railway line crossing an urban area in the south of Italy. The construction works are carried out in dolomitic rocks, characterized by a high resistance to excavation. Therefore, they may have a great impact on the surrounding environment in terms of induced vibrations. The study is conducted through an uncoupled approach, investigating the dynamic response of the geotechnical system and the above-surface structure, separately. The impulse force equivalent to the dynamic action of a breaker hammer is used as input motion for 2D finite element (FE) geotechnical simulations of the wave propagation process occurring during the excavation. Then, the acceleration time histories obtained from the geotechnical analyses are adopted to study the dynamic performance of an “index” R.C. building, representing the most recurrent structural typology in the examined area, through a 3D FE model. The results show how the adoption of a mitigation strategy consisting in the execution of a preliminary vertical cut followed by a rock crushing treatment allows to significantly reduce the vibrations induced by the excavation processes on existing buildings.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010015
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
  • Buildings, Vol. 11, Pages 16: Relief Method: The Analysis of Architectonic
           Façades by Fractal Geometry

    • Authors: Vilmos Katona
      First page: 16
      Abstract: This paper explores the working hypothesis that fractal patterns that closely match those found in nature are more likely to convey a strong sense of genius loci to humans by comparison with ‘Euclidean’ patterns that do not occur in nature frequently. A part of this survey is concerned with showing the pattern-conscious thinking, regarding the façade composition and material textures, of historical buildings compared to different ecological or geological scenes. We also examine the background of pattern-design from architectural theory, and extrapolate the matter to certain questions about spatial quality, tectonics, and the phenomenon of place. Our most important concern is an attempt to enhance architectural arguments regarding place and character with mathematical calculations. We introduce ‘relief method’ as a possible way to capture the haptic nature of architecture beyond the patterns of its two-dimensional projections. Through this approach, façades are considered as reliefs and pictures at the same time, thus reflecting the tension between their materiality and visual representation. Fractal geometry also helps to understand how architectonic layers define scale, and by which means architecture could be translated into the human level of physical existence.
      Citation: Buildings
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/buildings11010016
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2020)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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