Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 139 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cityscape     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access  
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access  
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access  
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Urban Technology and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access  
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nordic Concrete Research     Open Access  
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access  
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.583
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0143-6244 - ISSN (Online) 1477-0849
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Practical applications

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      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 43, Issue 4, Page 1-2, July 2022.

      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T03:32:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221106370
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Indoor thermal environment and energy performance in a central air heating
           system using a heat pump for a house with underfloor space for heat
           distribution

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      Authors: Sayaka Kindaichi, Tomonori Kindaichi
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Central air heating systems with heat pumps can use the underfloor space, rather than air ducts, for heat distribution in houses. To minimize the energy consumption, the actual thermal environment and energy performance of these systems must be evaluated through continuous field measurements. This study evaluates the thermal environment, operational characteristics, and energy performance of a central air heating system with a heat pump during two winters in a two-story house in Japan. In the first winter (i.e., before case), the supply air was automatically controlled at a relatively high average temperature of 45°C with low air flow rates, resulting in a non-uniform temperature distribution among the rooms and low energy efficiency. In the second winter (i.e., after case), an increase in the fan speed improved the heat distribution, with operational conditions of high air flow rates at a lower average temperature of 39°C. This led to average energy savings of 11% while maintaining thermal comfort.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T04:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221117356
       
  • A holistic sequential fault detection and diagnostics framework for
           multiple zone variable air volume air handling unit systems

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      Authors: Narges Torabi, Huseyin Burak Gunay, William O’Brien, Ricardo Moromisato
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      A holistic fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) method should explicitly consider the dependencies between faults at the system- and zone-level to isolate the root cause. A system-level fault can trigger false alarms at the zone-level, while concealing the presence of a zone-level fault. However, most FDD methods have focused on a single component/equipment without considering the importance of the interactions between zone- and system-level devices. This paper proposes a holistic hierarchical framework for FDD, combining the process of detection and diagnosis of controls hardware and sequencing logic faults affecting the actuators at the system- and zone-level. The proposed framework follows a holistic sequential procedure to diagnose faults and suppress false alarms in this order: hard faults in air handling units (AHUs), hard faults in variable air volume (VAV) zones, sequencing logic faults in AHUs, and sequencing logic faults in VAV zones. The detection of faults is performed by visualizing the discrepancies between the expected and measured operational behaviour of AHUs and VAV boxes. Examples demonstrating the framework are provided with data from 10 different VAV AHU systems.Practical application: This paper provides a sequential hierarchical FDD framework to address two main issues in VAV AHU systems: detectability and significance. Regarding detectability, the framework prioritizes hard faults over sequencing logic faults to avoid false positives and false negatives; about significance, system-level faults are prioritized over zone-level faults to triage high-impact faults in the system. The detection of faults is performed via visualizing the biases from the expected behaviour of AHU and VAV characteristics to provide an envisioning interpretation for the experts in facilities management in commercial buildings to find the root cause of the fault and fix them on-site.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T04:05:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221097827
       
  • Simulation and experimental study on the elbow pressure loss of large air
           duct with different internal guide vanes

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      Authors: Haidong Wang, Xiaohan Li, Yi Tang, Xiaowen Chen, Huihua Shen, Xiaocheng Cao, Huimin Gao
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Air duct pressure loss, especially the duct elbow, is a significant component of building air-conditioning energy consumption. Improving the airflow uniformity in the duct elbow for large prefabricated air ducts can help reduce the local resistance loss. In this paper, the influence of guide vanes on the pressure loss of elbows in the duct was investigated through experimentally validated simulation results. According to similarity theory, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results were employed to perform a parametric study to optimize the duct elbow guide vane. Different numbers, positions, and shapes of air guide vanes in the elbow were used to reduce the pressure loss and also played a crucial role in improving the uniformity of airflow in the elbow. Through CFD simulation, the optimized specifications of guide vanes in the elbow on the airflow and local pressure loss coefficients were explored. This study will provide a reference for numerical prediction and engineering application of using guide vane to minimize the local pressure loss of large prefabricated air ducts.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T12:03:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221107058
       
  • Study on the cooling performance of a radiative cooling-based ventilated
           roof for its application in buildings

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      Authors: Lufang Chen, Kai Zhang, Ge Song, Fei Li
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Radiative cooling has been demonstrated as an effective way to reduce building energy consumption especially for the recently developed diurnal radiative cooling materials. The most convenient application of radiative cooling materials is configured as the cool roofs. However, cool roofs will produce cooling energy throughout the year which will lead to the increase of heating penalty in the heating season. This phenomenon will offset part of the cooling benefit from radiative cooling. The ventilated roofs are also commonly employed in buildings for achieving energy-saving by reducing the heat gain from the roof to the building. To reduce the influence of radiative cooling in the heating season, a radiative cooling-based ventilated roof (RCVR) is proposed in this study by integrating the ventilated roof with the radiative cooling-based cool roof. The process of the heat transfer through RCVR is analyzed, and the simplified heat transfer model is developed. And then the effect of RCVR configuration on the room temperature is discussed in detail through CFD simulation. Finally, the annual electricity consumption of the building with RCVR is derived using EnergyPlus. The results show that the annual comprehensive performance of RCVR is superior to the cool roof and original roof since the total annual electricity consumption of the building with RCVR can be decreased by 21.8% and 16.9% compared with that of cool roof and original roof.Practical application: A radiative cooling-based ventilated roof (RCVR) is proposed by integrating the ventilated roof with the radiative cooling-based cool roof. The results show that the annual comprehensive performance of RCVR is superior to the cool roof and original roof. This study can provide the guiding significance for the application of RCVR, in which the building energy consumption can be further decreased for the application of radiative cooling in buildings.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T08:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221106342
       
  • Reduced multiple model predictive control of an heating, ventilating, and
           air conditioning system using gap metric and stability margin

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      Authors: Pouya Rikhtehgar, Mohammad Haeri
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, a reduced multiple-model predictive controller based on gap metric and stability margin is presented to control heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. To tackle the strong nonlinearity and large number of degrees of freedom in HVAC system, two approaches, called Reduced Order Model Bank-Multiple Model (ROMB-MM) and Multiple Model-Reduced Order Model (MM-ROM), are introduced. In the first approach, the order reduction is performed prior to multiple models selection and in the second one multiple models selection is implemented before the model order reduction. Furthermore, soft switching is employed to enhance the closed-loop performance as well as to gain optimal energy consumption. In order to evaluate the proposed approaches, a sliding mode controller is also simulated to compare the results in terms of energy and cost savings, transient and steady-state responses, and robustness against external disturbances and model uncertainties.Practical application: HVAC control systems are in charge of control indoor air temperature with energy optimization so that the thermal comfort is maintained. But how to model HVAC systems in each weather conditions is a significant challenge. A simpler and more accurate model will provide more efficient control of indoor air temperature. This paper suggests model order reduction and multiple model to select the simple linear model(s) in extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method can be implemented on nonlinear HVAC system.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T08:51:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221100362
       
  • Joint probability distribution of air temperature and global solar
           radiation for outdoor design conditions based on copula approach

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      Authors: Zhichao Jiao, Kazuo Emura
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In the common method of compiling outdoor design conditions by annual cumulative frequency of occurrence, the probability of simultaneous occurrence of the selected meteorological elements is not considered, which may lead to an overestimation of air-conditioning equipment capacity design. This paper aims at developing a novel approach for producing the outdoor design conditions, taking into consideration the dependency between the air temperature and global solar radiation, which have a strong influence on the HVAC capacity design. These two meteorological elements are analyzed for specific simultaneous occurrence probability based on the joint distribution. For this purpose, the copula approach which can describe the dependence between these two meteorological elements is used for modeling the joint distribution function. We investigated copula family selection for air temperature and global solar radiation at each hour of hourly weather data for 10 years from 2001 to 2010 in Osaka, Japan. The Joe-Frank copula has the best fitting results for the dependence between the air temperature and global solar radiation. According to the comparison of original exceeding probability and simultaneous occurrence probability, the results show that the design conditions based on the common method can significantly exceed that of the simultaneous occurrence probability method.Practical Application: Outdoor design conditions are used in the building design stage to estimate building performance and select the appropriate air conditioning equipment capacity. Excessive air-conditioning capacity may lead to a large amount of unnecessary energy wastage. Insufficient capacity may lead to not meeting the desired indoor environment conditions of utilization in extreme weather conditions, especially for large office buildings. Therefore, this paper provides a new approach to generate more realistic meteorological conditions for air-conditioning design to improve building energy efficiency.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T12:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221100599
       
  • Influence of gap size between aluminium radiant sheets on the efficiency
           of lightweight floor heating

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      Authors: Anna Justyna Werner-Juszczuk
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      For environmental and economic reasons, it is necessary to search for heating systems solutions that are efficient and provide thermal comfort at a low investment cost. In this study, the optimum gap between aluminium radiant sheets in lightweight floor heating is determined, ensuring high system efficiency and low material consumption. Numerical calculations were performed using the ANSYS. The structures analysed consist of thermal insulation covered with a 0.3 mm thick aluminium sheet, wood-like board and ceramic tiles or panels. The average surface temperature and the temperature amplitude are determined for the construction with no gap between the sheets and with gaps of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm. Increasing the gap size results in a decrease in the surface temperature and heat flux and an increase in temperature amplitude. For a 10–20 mm gap, the decrease in temperature (
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T06:57:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221099426
       
  • Improving indoor air quality and occupant health through smart control of
           windows and portable air purifiers in residential buildings

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      Authors: Yan Wang, Elizabeth Cooper, Farhang Tahmasebi, Jonathon Taylor, Samuel Stamp, Phil Symonds, Esfandiar Burman, Dejan Mumovic
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Indoor exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) has a substantial negative impact on people’s health. However, indoor PM2.5 can be controlled through effective ventilation and filtration. This study aimed to develop a smart control framework that (1) combines a portable home air purifier (HAP) and window control system to reduce indoor PM2.5 concentrations whilst maintaining thermal comfort; (2) evaluates the associated health impacts and additional energy use. The proposed framework was demonstrated through a simulation-based case study of a low-energy apartment. The simulation results showed that joint control of HAP and window openings has great potential to not only maintain thermal comfort but also achieve effective PM2.5 removal which, consequently, can lead to considerable health benefits at a low additional energy cost. Compared to similar previous studies, the strength of the proposed control framework lies in combining window operations and HAPs in the same system and including both thermal comfort and indoor PM2.5 as the control targets. This work also introduces a novel concept of linking a building control system with a health impact assessment, an important and innovative step in the creation of holistic and responsive building controls.Practical application: This study proposes a novel control framework that jointly controls portable home air purifiers (HAPs) and windows to maintain thermal comfort and achieve effective PM2.5 removal. The simulation results suggest that such a hybrid control strategy can result in considerable health benefits at low additional energy costs.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T04:27:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221099482
       
  • Investigation of displacement ventilation performance under various room
           configurations using computational fluid dynamics simulation

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      Authors: Ahmad Askari, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Mojtaba Ansari
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The performance of a ventilation system affects air quality, thermal comfort, and energy consumption in indoor environments. To evaluate the performance of displacement ventilation under various room configurations, steady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were used. The CFD model was validated using measurements of a full-scale test room. The age of air concept was used to evaluate the ventilation performance regarding indoor air quality. The PD index was used to control the case studies for draft risk. Twelve cases with different configurations were systematically studied and compared with the reference case. The configurations included plan aspect ratio, exhaust opening position, inlet position and geometry, and internal heat gains. The results showed that the overall ventilation performance of a room is less sensitive to room configurations compared with local ventilation performance around the occupants. However, almost in all cases, the occupants were exposed to better-than-average air quality in most cases. The results also indicated that when internal heat gains are small, displacement ventilation should be used with caution.Practical applicationAny HVAC system design is based on assumptions made for ventilation performance. Comprehensive knowledge of the influential factors is critical for an efficient design. Regarding the architecture and interior design, the architects are also involved in the ventilation systems since they have an axial role in decision making for room configuration, including but not limited to room geometry, the position of inlet and outlet air terminals, and heat/pollutant sources. Consequently, the impact of room configuration on ventilation performance is of practical importance in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T01:01:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221097312
       
  • Universal elevator round trip time calculation for general traffic
           conditions with extension to batch arrivals

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      Authors: Albert So, Lutfi Al-Sharif, Ricky Chan
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent studies have revealed that the dominant traffic pattern of a modern high-rise building is much more complicated than the conventional up-peak model, i.e. incoming traffic only, upon which the popular formula of round trip time (RTT) calculation is based. RTT calculation is still recommended by ISO 8100:32:2020 and CIBSE Guide D: 2020 to precede any computer simulation. Nowadays, the concern is more on the lunch peak with a mixture of incoming, outgoing and interfloor traffic patterns. Moreover, the independent one-passenger arrival model should be replaced by the more practical batch arrival model, in particular during lunch-time peak. This article first summarizes what were previously published on the universal RTT evaluation for mixed traffic conditions, highlights the main arguments, updates and supplements some previously introduced formulae such as that related to coincidental stops, uses more symmetrical and easily manipulated graphics, and, second in particular, brings in the concept of batch arrivals of any desirable probability distribution, where the conventional independent one-passenger arrival up-peak model now becomes a special case. A step-by-step presentation is adopted for convenient application of this universal calculation approach by designers and the detailed verification of the whole process by Monte Carlo simulation is also included.Practical applicationsRound trip time calculation is still recommended the first step of traffic design by the industry but it should reasonably include the consideration of mixed traffic patterns, versus a pure incoming (i.e. up-peak) approach in the past. Such universal RTT calculation was described in several articles previously, but with some missing details. Here, the whole process is summarized, updated and presented in a more graphical way for convenient use by designers. Furthermore, the more contemporarily practical batch passenger arrival mode is included in this universal RTT model as an extension to the methodology so that what are discussed in this article include incoming, outgoing, interfloor traffic patterns with batch arrival consideration. It is hoped that this article could provide a comprehensive universal RTT methodology that can eventually be popularly applied globally by designers and consultants.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T06:04:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221095195
       
  • Automatic velocity measurement system applied to elevator overspeed
           governors

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      Authors: Marco Tomé, Pedro Beirão, Luis Roseiro, Frederico Santos
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      All around the world, modern elevators transport safely and comfortably millions of passengers and freight each day. Since modern elevators emerged at the beginning of the 19th century, several advances have risen in this transportation system. Among them, safety conditions were significantly improved. Therefore, modern elevators must be equipped with safety protection systems to assure safety conditions and avoid accidents. An overspeed governor is one of the components of such a safety system. It acts as a stopping mechanism when the elevator car reaches an excessive velocity, known as tripping speed. When the tripping speed is reached, the overspeed governor is mechanically locked and halts the rope, thus stopping the elevator car. This paper describes the development of a new measuring system able to measure the trigger velocity of an overspeed governor with the help of a graphical interface available on a mobile electronic device (smartphone or tablet).Practical applicationA new overspeed governor velocity measuring system uses a mobile electronic device for non-contact velocity measurement. This new process may replace the inaccurate measuring system currently employed by maintenance technicians, thus increasing its reliability. The main objective consists of rigorously testing the operation of overspeed governors. The developed system guarantees the automatic execution of the test under several anomalous operating situations, thus allowing the user to have real-time access to the test data obtained through a graphical interface available on a mobile electronic device.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T03:34:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221090586
       
  • Optimization of chiller sequencing control for district cooling system at
           the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Port

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      Authors: Tin Chung Kerrick LAW, Pui Kei Calvin WONG, Kar Wai Gordon NG
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      To mitigate the climate change issue, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) proposed the “Hong Kong Climate Change Plan 2030+” with an ambitious goal of reducing the carbon intensity to 65%–70% below 2005 levels by 2030. To achieve this target, the HKSAR Government has developed two District Cooling Systems (DCS) to promote the use of district energy system, enhancing the overall energy efficiency for cooling purpose. One of the government-owned DCSs is located at the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Port (HZMB-HKP), producing a total design cooling capacity of 24.16 MW to passenger clearance building and ancillary buildings there. This paper demonstrates how the DCS at HZMB-HKP could enhance overall energy efficiency for cooling purpose, through proper chiller sequencing control, and reduce CO2 emission significantly. An optimal seasonal chiller operation mode is also suggested to be adopted at the DCS at HZMB-HKP from cost-effectiveness perspective.Practical application: District Cooling Systems are considered as a promising solution to alleviate the climate change issue. An optimized chiller sequencing control strategy of DCS can effectively reduce overall cooling energy consumption, so as to achieve carbon neutrality. This paper outlines a case study on a cost-effective operational control strategy of the DCS at HZMB-HKP. The analysis of both the theoretical and practical sequencing control strategy can be taken as a reference for DCS development in the future.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-16T06:58:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221088778
       
  • Indoor occupancy estimation from carbon dioxide concentration using
           parameter estimation algorithms

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      Authors: Yixuan Wei, Shu Wang, Longzhe Jin, Yifei Xu, Tianqi Ding
      First page: 419
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The number of building occupants is an important indicator for predicting building energy consumption and developing control strategies for building automation. However, most occupancy estimation models were developed depending on the training steps where the true number of occupants is necessary. In order to calculate the occupant number independently, the newly-developed parameter estimation models were proposed, which are based on Maximum Likelihood (ML) approach and Bayesian analysis. A combination of multiple common measurements is used, including real-time CO2 concentration, energy consumption of facilities and make-up air system. The model starts by smoothing the raw CO2 concentration data using moving average, two-hour median as well as globally smooth. Then, ML and Bayesian analysis are used to establish the occupancy estimation models. The proposed models are evaluated in a commercial office which contains 36 occupants for validation. We find that the calculation errors could be reduced by using moving averaged data and globally smoothed data. The superiority of the parameter estimation models can be identified based on its lower calculation error and higher calculation accuracy compared to the previous established models.Practical ApplicationOccupancy estimation models developed in this study are able to calculate occupant numbers independently and accurately in a non-intrusive way based on the indoor carbon dioxide concentration. This can provide input to a predictive building controller based on the application of occupancy estimation models. This could be applied to buildings across a district, informing demand-side management systems by employing occupancy behaviour and energy characteristics of individual buildings. This could allow both utility companies and building operators to simultaneously optimise their performance and benefit from this dedicated control strategy.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T04:08:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244211060903
       
  • A study on universal round trip time analysis for passenger demand beyond
           elevator contract capacity by Monte Carlo simulation

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      Authors: Albert T. So
      First page: 439
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The traditional elevator system design practice is to calculate the round trip time (RTT) and associated parameters of pure incoming traffic during up-peak, followed by real-time computer simulation. Recent studies indicated that the normal traffic is much more complicated, consisting of a mixture of incoming, outgoing and interfloor patterns. A major breakthrough to analytically calculate the Universal RTT, under such complicated traffic patterns, emerged 6 years ago based on an appropriate origin-destination matrix describing the passenger transit probability. That genesis model played safe by assuming that the total number of passengers demanding service within one round trip is limited elevator contract capacity, which is in line with the traditional up-peak incoming RTT formulae. In this article, such assumption is removed and the study is based on Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that there is room for enhancing the handling capacity, up to two times the contract capacity, by not sacrificing the RTT and average passenger transit time by too much. This phenomenon, that is, total passenger demand beyond contract capacity, is only valid under the existence of multiple entrance floors and/or mixed traffic conditions. This approach may prevent oversizing the design which could be more realistic.Practical applications: Elevator system designers, according to ISO 8100:32:2020 and CIBSE Guide D: 2020, are recommended to carry out calculation of the RTT and related parameters before any real-time computer simulation. This practice has been adopted by the elevator industry for decades. However, conventional RTT evaluation is mainly on pure incoming traffic during up-peak. The Universal RTT calculation method developed in 2014–15 extended RTT evaluation to cover dominant and complicated traffic patterns of modern buildings, but the assumed number of passengers to be handled within one round trip was limited to the contract capacity of the elevator. This article further removes this limitation to evaluate the limit of handling capacity with reasonable RTT and average passenger transit time. Then, the Universal RTT method could be more realistic and rolled out, and prevent oversizing the system design.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T03:14:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244211069658
       
  • The safe evacuation of persons from a building operating within COVID-19
           restrictions

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      Authors: Dorota Brzezińska, Mariusz Barański, Paul Bryant, Agnieszka Haznar-Barańska
      First page: 461
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Buildings’ environmental conditions were changed drastically around the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic hazards and restrictions. New social distance rules and organizational changes in the buildings appeared to require a modified fire safety evacuation analysis. The total number of building users under the revised requirements was often limited. Some additional restrictions, such as the reduction of evacuation exit availability, could cause escape problems in the case of fire. In order to determine how the pandemic restrictions could influence the evacuation conditions, a sports hall building was used to assess the impact of the restrictions on evacuation strategies. The research covered test evacuation simulations using the ‘Pathfinder’ modelling software, as well as manual calculations of the expected evacuation time. It was found that the pandemic social distance requirements could cause adverse evacuation conditions in the case of fire. The research helped formulate a simple mathematical algorithm for determining safety evacuation parameters under pandemic restrictions.Practical applicationThe surrounding conditions for new buildings are driven by the reduction of social distances imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. It has been found that pandemic social distancing can significantly extend the time of the evacuation of people. This article proposes a new simple mathematical algorithm for determining the evacuation parameters under pandemic restrictions, which allows the estimation of the required minimum width of emergency exits. This is a practical tool for those responsible for ensuring safety in buildings.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T05:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221074542
       
  • Securing Internet of Things devices by enabling Ethereum blockchain using
           smart contracts

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      Authors: Muralidhara Rao Patruni, Pedada Saraswathi
      First page: 473
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The development of the IoT is rapidly growing. These IoT devices are mainly deployed to control and report environmental changes, prevent risks, and bring many beneficial services. However, these benefits may open doors to the adversaries in conjunction with security vulnerabilities and privacy issues. In the recent past, Blockchain has been an emerging technology that reaches several use-cases apart from cryptocurrency. For instance, IoT integration with Blockchain implementation yet indefinite required further research because of resource-constrained IoT devices and ledger-based Blockchain protocol design. This paper presents the systematic implementation of securing IoT devices by enabling the Ethereum Blockchain smart contract. The results show that the collected information is securely stored in the Blockchain after successful authentication. Practical Application: Blockchain innovations have the power to transform manufacturing, construction, healthcare and building supply chains by eliminating the middleman, streamlining operations, improving overall security, and simplifying data management. Onboarding, recordkeeping, client screening, data management, security, privacy, and transaction and trade processing are examples of several practice applications in the financial, insurance, and eHealth services industries. Thus, this study ensures security by enabling Ethereum blockchain and smart contracts in an authentic blockchain applications for building sustainable environments to improve readability and trustworthiness of the transactions.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T09:08:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221078933
       
  • An improvement in clash detection process by prioritizing relevance
           clashes using fuzzy-AHP methods

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      Authors: Ali Hasannejad, Javad Majrouhi Sardroud, Ali Akbar Shirzadi Javid, Towhid Purrostam, Mohammad Hasan Ramesht
      First page: 485
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Design coordination and clash detection are the most common and appreciated applications of three-dimensional modeling (3D modeling). In some projects, millions of clashes are detected including a large number of irrelevant clashes. The purpose of this research is to determine the priority of resolving clashes before the construction phase. In this research, the results of Autodesk Navisworks have been used to improve the process of clash detection. Also, this study attempts to use the fuzzy-AHP for weighting criteria and then, by presenting a relationship, to provide a basis to prioritizing clashes for their resolution and, finally, for identifying irrelevant clashes. This method has been tested on a real project, and the comparison of the expert opinions and the proposed method showed that applying the proposed relationship can identify important and irrelevant clashes.Practical applicationIf clashes are not carefully detected in the design stage, project management components face a serious challenge. In this study, using the weight of clash elements and the degree of penetration of clash elements into each other, a logical and practical relationship is presented that improves the process of clash detection.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T04:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221080023
       
  • User-based fuzzy end-use modeling of indoor urban residential water demand

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      Authors: Rohit D Mangalekar, Krishnakedar S Gumaste
      First page: 507
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Stochastic models for estimating residential water demand use high-resolution field data consuming large costs and significant time. An attempt for the accurate estimation of water demand may result in its complex analytical model due to numerous factors affecting the water use event. Moreover, as the water supply system is always subjected to variations in demand, the accuracy of water demand estimation in its design can be side-lined. The water demand in residential buildings is mainly governed by the users’ characteristics and their daily schedule. In this view, the use of Fuzzy Logic can be advantageous to model the uncertainty in water demands. The presented study attempts to provide a methodology to estimate urban indoor residential water demand with the help of user-based end-use models in the absence of field data and generate various possible water demand patterns of fixtures. Usergroups were created for assuming spatial variations in water demand. Fuzzy Logic was used to develop the end-use models using data on urban users’ characteristics, their diurnal activities, and water use habits to estimate the demand characteristics of fixtures. The model may also facilitate the computation of pipe sizing in building water supply systems.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T04:37:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244221085916
       
  • A data-driven workflow to improve energy efficient operation of commercial
           buildings: A review with real-world examples

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      Authors: Tareq Abuimara, Brodie W Hobson, Burak Gunay, William O’Brien
      First page: 517
      Abstract: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Data-driven building operation and maintenance research such as metadata inference, fault detection and diagnosis, occupant-centric controls (OCCs), and non-invasive load monitoring have emerged (NILM) as independent domains of study. However, there are strong dependencies between these domains; for example, quality of metadata affects the usability of fault detection and diagnostics techniques. Further, faults in controls hardware and programs limit the performance of OCCs. To this end, a literature review was conducted to identify the dependencies between these domains of research. Additionally, real-world examples using operational data from three institutional buildings in Ottawa, Canada, were provided and discussed to demonstrate these dependencies. Finally, a holistic tool-agnostic workflow was introduced which suggested the implementation of operational energy efficiency measures in the following order to ensure their full potential: (1) improve metadata, (2) address faults, (3) implement OCCs, and (4) monitor enhanced key performance indicators (KPIs). The proposed workflow is intended to be comprehensive, reproducible, nonintrusive, and inexpensive to implement.Practical applications: Optimization of building operations has been emerging among energy management professionals as a relatively low-cost means to achieve energy efficiency and minimize occupants’ discomfort. To this end, this study introduces a tool-agnostic data-driven workflow to building energy management practitioners that can assist them in achieving increased energy efficiency. The proposed workflow recognizes the interdependency of the various domains of research which have historically been treated independently.
      Citation: Building Services Engineering Research and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T04:29:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01436244211069655
       
 
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