Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.446
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2040-2317 - ISSN (Online) 2040-2325
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • Properties of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing steel subjected to
           high temperature and different cooling conditions
    • Authors: Izabela Hager, Stanisław Kańka, Mariusz Maślak
      Abstract: The study presents test results concerning the impact of high temperature and different cooling conditions on the mechanical properties of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing steel. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the extent of the history of the material’s temperature development profile, the course and the intensity of fire exposure and how cooling conditions determines its properties. Each specimen series was heated to the temperatures of T = 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 700°C, 800°C and 1,000 °C. The specimens were either slowly cooled down or subjected to rapid cooling with water quenching, which can be encountered during a firefighting operation. Additionally, stress–strain relationships, microhardness and structural observations were also performed. The results of the presented experiments have shown that the steel bars previously heated in fire conditions were very sensitive to the cooling intensity. The test results from the steel specimens – that were heated and quenched with water – demonstrate an increase in tensile strength but a significant reduction in material plasticity. The presented piece of work provides a contribution for fire safety engineering giving insight into the fire behaviour of reinforcing steel under fire conditions and subjected to rapid or slow cooling. This study has shown the threats arising from thermally induced changes in steel microstructure because of high-temperature exposure. It should also be noted that structure changes may have a local character and refer to steel rebars that are exposed because of fire spalling of concrete cover.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-08-2019-0030
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Residual shear capacity of cold-formed steel-to-sheathing screwed
           connections at elevated temperatures
    • Authors: Kun Liu, Wei Chen, Jihong Ye, Jian Jiang, Wenwen Chen, Mingyue Zhao
      Abstract: Most previous thermal-mechanical modeling of cold-formed steel (CFS) walls did not consider the failure of screwed connections under fire conditions because of the limited data of such connections at elevated temperatures. In this study, 285 steady-state tests are conducted on CFS screwed connections with single-layer gypsum plasterboard (GPB) and Bolivian magnesium board (BMB) sheathing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The failure of these connections is described as the breaking of the loaded sheathing edge. For the BMB sheathing screwed connections, hydrochloric acid gas is generated and released above 300°C, and the shear strength becomes much less than that of the GPB sheathing screwed connection above 370°C. Hence, BMB may not be suitable for use as the face-layer sheathing of CFS walls but is still recommended to replace GPB as the base-layer sheathing. The major influencing parameters on the shear strength of screwed connections are identified as the type of sheathing material and the loaded sheathing edge distance. Based on the previous and present test results, a unified expression for the residual shear strength of screwed connections with GPB and BMB is proposed at ambient and elevated temperatures with acceptable accuracy. It can be used as the basic input parameter of the numerical simulation of the CFS structures under fire conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-07-2020-0024
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Flame behaviour, fire hazard and fire testing approach for lightweight
           composite claddings – a review
    • Authors: Md Delwar Hossain, Md Kamrul Hassan, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Yaping He, Swapan Saha, Waseem Hittini
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to review and summarise the existing available literature on lightweight cladding systems to provide detailed information on fire behaviour (ignitibility, heat release rate and smoke toxicity) and various test method protocols. Additionally, the paper discusses the challenges and provides updated knowledge and recommendation on selective-fire mechanisms such as rapid-fire spread, air cavity and fire re-entry behaviours due to dripping and melting of lightweight composite claddings. A comprehensive literature review on fire behaviour, fire hazard and testing methods of lightweight composite claddings has been conducted in this research. In summarising all possible fire hazards, particular attention is given to the potential impact of toxicity of lightweight cladding fires. In addition, various criteria for fire performance evaluation of lightweight composite claddings are also highlighted. These evaluations are generally categorised as small-, intermediate- and large-scale test methods. The major challenges of lightweight claddings are rapid fire spread, smoke production and toxicity and inconsistency in fire testing. The review highlights the current challenges in cladding fire, smoke toxicity, testing system and regulation to provide some research recommendations to address the identified challenges.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-09-2020-0027
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Performance of fire protective coatings on structural steel member exposed
           to high temperature
    • Authors: H.M. Iqbal Mahmud, Autri Mandal, Sudip Nag, Khalid A.M. Moinuddin
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of fire protective materials in protecting steel section. A new indexing system is introduced, named as fire endurance index (FEI), which can be used to evaluate the performance of fire protective materials. In this study, experiments were carried out using W4 × 13 steel section. Eight samples were prepared; one was a bare steel section without any coating material, and seven were prepared using four types of materials such as vermiculite-gypsum plaster, gypsum plaster, concrete cover and glass wool-concrete cover for fireproofing of the sections. An enclosed electric coiled furnace was used for heating the samples for a certain period. The duration of protection was determined, and the FEI of the materials was calculated. The higher the index value is, the better the performance. The results demonstrate that the glass-wool-concrete cover offered the best performance at high temperature among the four types of materials. In the experiment with glass-wool-concrete cover, the furnace temperature reached 750°C, whereas the steel temperature reached only 100°C. The FEI of the coatings were calculated. Among the eight samples, glass wool-concrete cover also achieved the highest index value. The experimental work was performed using a limited number of specimens. Furthermore, the robustness of the indexing system needs to be evaluated with other materials and a wide range of heating rate and temperature. This study sets the foundation for future work. The findings of this research may contribute to a better understanding of the performance of the materials used as fire protective coatings. This might be helpful for the researchers and practitioners in their design and implementation of legislation of fire safety codes. Understanding the performance of the fire protective coatings will help in evaluating the fire resistance capabilities of the materials to use for the structural steel members, which may protect collapses and disasters of buildings. This paper deals with the performance of four types of materials, that can be used as fire protective coatings for structural steel members. Furthermore, the FEI explicitly indicated their performance with numerical values. In this study, the heating of the specimens was performed using a non-standard fire curve based on the concept that naturally occurring incidents of fire do not follow the standard fire curves.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-03-22
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-07-2020-0025
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Post-thermal properties of Portland cement concrete made with copper slag
           as fine aggregates
    • Authors: N. Suresh, Manjunatha M.
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of elevated temperature on mechanical and physical properties of concrete specimens obtained by substituting the river sand with copper slag (CS) at proportions of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The specimens were heated in an electric furnace up to 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 C and kept at these temperatures for 2 h duration. After the specimens were cooled in the furnace, mass loss, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), compressive strength, split tensile strength (STS), flexural strength (FS) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) values were determined. No spalling occurred in the specimens after subjected to elevated temperature. The surface cracks were observed only in specimens exposed to 600 C. The maximum reduction in compressive strength and STS at 600C is 50.3% and 36.39% for referral mix (NC), 18% and 16% for specimens with 100% CS (MCS4). The reduction in MOE of specimens is observed to be high as copper slag content increases with increasing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies are carried out to examine the changes in micro-structures of specimens after exposed to elevated temperatures. After casting of concrete specimens, it is cured for 28 days. After attainment of 28 days age, the concrete specimens is taken out from the curing tank and allowed to dry for 2 days to remove any moisture content in the specimens to prevent explosive spalling during the time of heating. The prepared concrete specimen is subjected to temperatures of 100°C, 200°C, 300°C, 400°C, 500°C and 600°C up to 2 h duration. The physical test, mechanical test and SEM studies are carried out after cooling of specimens to room temperature (RT). The quality of concrete specimens is measured by conducting UPV test after cooling to RT. The post-thermal strength properties of concrete specimens with copper slag contents are higher than referral mix concrete. The reduction of MOE of concrete specimens is more with incremental in copper slag content with increase in temperatures. Furthermore, the quality of concrete specimens is ranging from “good to medium” up to 500C temperatures based on UPV test. In this research work, the natural sand is fully replaced with copper slag materials in the concrete mixes. The post-thermal strength properties like residual compressive strength, residual STS, residual FS and residual MOE is higher than referral mix after subjected to elevated temperature conditions. Higher density and toughness properties of copper slag materials will contribute to concrete strength. The effect of elevated temperature is more on MOE of concrete specimens having higher copper slag contents when comparing to specimens compressive strength.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2020-0018
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A comparison between CFD and thermal-structural analysis of structural
           steel members subjected to fire
    • Authors: Muhannad R. Alasiri, Mustafa Mahamid
      Abstract: Standard fire resistance curves such as ASTM E119 have been used for so long in structural fire practice. The issue with use of these curves that they do not represent real fire scenarios. As a result, the alternatives have been to either conduct experiments or find other tools to represent a real fire scenario. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to understand the temperature effects resulted from a designed fire on steel beams and whether the standard fire curves represent a designed fire scenario. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to simulate a designed fire scenario and to understand the structural responses on the beams under elevated temperatures. Consequently, the results obtained from the CFD models were compared with the results of three-dimensional (3D) non-linear finite element (FE) models developed by other researchers. The developed FE models were executed using a standard fire curve (ASTM E119). A parametric study including two case studies was conducted. Results obtained from performing this study showed the importance of considering fire parameters such as fuel type and flame height during the thermal analysis compared to the standard fire curves, and this might lead to a non-conservative design as compared to the designed fire scenario. The studied cases showed that the steel beams experienced more degradation in their fire resistance at higher load levels under designed fires. Additionally, the models used the standard fire curves underestimated the temperatures at the early stages. This paper shows results obtained by performing a comparison study of models used ASTM E119 curve and a designed fire scenario. The value of this study is to show the variability of using different fire scenarios; thus, more studies are required to see how temperature history curves can be used to represent real fire scenarios.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-03-2020-0011
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A review on utilization of different concretes as in-filled steel hollow
           column subjected to fire loading
    • Authors: Nurizaty Zuhan, Mariyana Aida Ab Kadir, Muhammad Najmi Mohamad Ali Mastor, Shek Poi Ngian, Abdul Rahman Mohd. Sam
      Abstract: Concrete-filled steel hollow (CFHS) column is an innovation to improve the performance of concrete or steel column. It is believed to have high compressive strength, good plasticity and is excellent for seismic and fire performance as compared to hollow steel column without a filler. Experimental and numerical investigation has been carried out to study the performance of CFHS having different concrete in-fill and shape of steel tube. In this paper, an extensive review of experiment performed on CFHS columns at elevated temperature is presented in different types of concrete as filling material. There are three different types of concrete filling used by the researchers, such as normal concrete (NC), reinforced concrete and pozzolanic-fly ash concrete (FC). A number of studies have conducted experimental investigation on the performance of NC casted using recycled aggregate at elevated temperature. The research gap and the recommendations are also proposed. This review will provide basic information on an innovation on steel column by application of in-filled materials. Design guideline is not considered in this paper. Fire resistance is an important issue in the structural fire design. This can be a guideline to define the performance of the CFHS with different type of concrete filler at various exposures. Utilization of waste fly ash reduces usage of conventional cement (ordinary Portland cement) in concrete production and enhances its performance at elevated temperature. The new innovation in CFHS columns with FC can reduce the cost of concrete production and at the same time mitigate the environmental issue caused by waste material by minimizing the disposal area. Review on the different types of concrete filler in the CFHS column. The research gap and the recommendations are also proposed.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2020-0017
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Predicting fire resistance of SRC columns through gene expression
           programming
    • Authors: Meisam Hassani, Mohammad Safi, Reza Rasti Ardakani, Amir Saedi Daryan
      Abstract: This paper aims to predict the fire resistance of steel-reinforced concrete columns by application of the genetic algorithm. In total, 11 effective parameters are considered including mechanical and geometrical properties of columns and loading values as input parameters and the duration of concrete resistance at elevated temperatures as the output parameter. Then, experimental data of several studies – with extensive ranges – are collected and divided into two categories. Using the first set of the data along with the gene expression programming (GEP), the fire resistance predictive model of steel-reinforced concrete (SRC) composite columns is presented. By application of the second category, evaluation and validation of the proposed model are investigated as well, and the correspondent time-temperature diagrams are derived. The relative error of 10% and the R coefficient of 0.9 for the predicted model are among the highlighted results of this validation. Based on the statistical errors, a fair agreement exists between the experimental data and predicted values, indicating the appropriate performance of the proposed GEP model for fire resistance prediction of SRC columns.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-11-09
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-04-2020-0013
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Performance-based design of RC beams using an equivalent standard fire
    • Authors: Robert Kuehnen, Maged Youssef, Salah El-Fitiany
      Abstract: The design of buildings for fire events is essential to ensure occupant safety. Supplementary to simple prescriptive methods, performance-based fire design can be applied to achieve a greater level of safety and flexibility in design. To make performance-based fire design more accessible, a time-equivalent method can be used to approximate a given natural fire event using a single standard fire with a specific duration. Doing so allows for natural fire events to be linked to the wealth of existing data from the standard fire scenario. The purpose of this paper is to review and assess the application of an existing time-equivalent method in the performance-based design of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The assessment is established by computationally developing the moment-curvature response of RC beam sections during fire exposure. The sectional response due to natural fire and time equivalent fire are compared. It is shown that the examined time equivalent method is able to predict the sectional response with suitable accuracy for performance-based design purposes. The research is the first to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the moment-curvature diagram of RC beams using time-equivalent standard fire scenarios that model realistic fire scenarios.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-12-23
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-02-2020-0008
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Progressive collapse behavior of reinforced concrete frame exposed to high
           temperature
    • Authors: Parthasarathi N., Satyanarayanan K.S.
      Abstract: Technological innovations in the construction field correspond to a wider revolution in metropolitan life and in structural design. With the demand for advanced concrete technology, the introduction of new reinforced materials in concrete, namely, iron, steel and other reinforcing elements. Reinforcement in concrete is developed in the centuries back and several advancements are being stirred to improvise the properties of the concrete through reinforcements. On the basis of this finding from the earlier research studies, a reinforcement methodology is practiced on the current study to investigate the deflection of the M30 mix concrete frame under thermal load conditions. For the examination, corner and the middle frame are considered with the reinforcement provided on four zones with 16-mm diameter for compression and 8-mm diameter is used for the stirrup at 150 mm c/c spacing. The load is applied to the column with live and wall load of 3.5 kN/m and 14.7KN/m. The experimentation is carried out by the finite element analysis strategy in ABAQUS simulation software with five test conditions with the bare frame at single, two and three-bay infill. The model of the frame is developed and meshed with the meshing type of C3D8T under 8-node thermally coupled brick mesh type for the mesh size of 25 mm. From the simulation outcome, the effect of thermal gradient on the reinforced concrete is analyzed and its structural properties are plotted as performance graphs in the result section. Under the thermal load condition, the model is simulated for 180 min for five different cases and analyzed the deflection parameters such as deformation, stress and failure rate.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-12-09
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2020-0016
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Numerical modelling of changes of pressure inside the protected room
           during fighting the fire using carbon dioxide
    • Authors: Sylwia Boroń
      Abstract: This paper aims to study and assess a new approach for prediction of changes of pressure during gas discharge inside the room protected by fixed gaseous extinguishing system by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The research program consisted of two stages. The first stage was dedicated to the experimental measurements of pressure changes during extinguishing gas discharge into the test chamber in a real scale (70 m3), for two relief openings that differ in their area. The next step was about performing CFD simulations forecasting pressure changes during gas discharge into the numerically represented test chamber. Estimation of the correctness and usefulness of the CFD model was based on a comparison of the CFD results with standard calculations and experimental measurements. Numerical modelling of pressure changes during the carbon dioxide discharge was very close to the experiment. The obtained results had sufficient accuracy (in most cases relative error
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2020-0003
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • How bracing and heating regimes influence the fire performance of
           composite frames
    • Authors: Oliver Bahr
      Abstract: Unbraced one-bay composite frames are an interesting load-bearing structure for buildings with up to three storeys. However, their fire design is demanding given the lack of simplified design methods. This paper aims to deepen the understanding of the load-bearing behaviour of both unbraced and braced frames when exposed to fire. In a previous paper, a numerical model for the fire design of these frames was established and validated with good agreement against fire tests. In the current paper, this model was used to compare the typical differences between braced, semi-braced and unbraced composite frames under fire conditions. Further studies addressed the effect of different heating regimes, i.e. partial fire exposure of the columns in the frames and varying location of the ISO standard fire. Numerical investigations showed that it is necessary to take local failure and deformation limits of the fire-exposed frames into account. On this basis, unbraced composite frames can compete with braced frames as they have to endure less thermal restraints than braced frames. In contrast to other investigations on frames, the numerical model is able to take into account the shear failure, which is especially important within the frame corners. Using this model, it is shown that limited sway is reasonable to reduce thermal restraints and hence local stresses. In this regard, the concept of semi-rigid composite joints with a distinct amount of reinforcement has proven to be very rational in fire design.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-04-2020-0012
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Residual properties of normal-strength concrete subjected to fire and
           sustained elevated temperatures: A comparative study
    • Authors: Sachin V., N. Suresh
      Abstract: Concrete is a widely used construction material which can be prepared using locally available resources (aggregates, cement and water) by following relevant standard guidelines. The residual properties of concrete determined by heating in an electric furnace may not produce a similar effect of fire. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of a fire with that coming from the exposure of normal strength concrete to predetermined reference temperatures, for which two sets of specimens were heated in a fire furnace provided with gas burners and an electric furnace. The concrete cubes and cylinders were subjected to 200oC, 400oC, 600oC and 800oC temperature in a gas-controlled fire furnace and an electric furnace for 2 h. The physical properties and mechanical properties of concrete were determined after cooling the specimens in air. The quality of concrete specimens was determined using the ultrasonic pulse velocity test, and surface hardness of the heat-exposed cubes was recorded using the Schmidt rebound hammer. The fire-exposed specimens were found to have lower residual compressive strength, tensile strength and higher porosity/voids/internal cracks than the specimens heated in an electric furnace at the same temperature. Further, a good agreement with compressive strength and rebound numbers was observed for each of the two heating systems (flames coming from gas burners and electric furnace). Normal strength concrete specimens exposed to heat in an electric furnace will not give the same effect of fire having the same maximum temperature. Further, it is noticed that concrete subjected to elevated temperature is sensitive to heating modalities, be it the flames of a gas furnace or the radiation of an electric furnace.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-02-2020-0007
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Fire resistance of corroded high-strength structural concrete
    • Authors: Khaled Sobhan, Dronnadula V. Reddy, Fernando Martinez
      Abstract: The exposure of reinforced concrete structures such as high-rise residential buildings, bridges and piers to saline environments, including exposure to de-icing salts, increases their susceptibility to corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The exposure to fire can further deteriorate the structural integrity of corroded concrete structures. This combined effect of corrosion damage and fire exposure is not generally addressed in the structural concrete design codes. The synergistic combination of the effects of corrosion and fire forms the basis of this paper. Concrete beam specimens with different strengths were prepared, moist-cured and corroded with impressed current. Later, they were “crack-scored” for corrosion evaluation, after which half were exposed to fire in a gas kiln. The fire damage was evaluated by nondestructive testing using ultrasonic pulse velocity. Next, all specimens were tested for residual flexural strength. They were then autopsied, and the level of corrosion was determined based on mass loss of the reinforcement. For corroded specimens, the flexural capacity loss because of fire exposure increases as the compressive strength increases. In general, the higher the crack score, the higher the corresponding mass loss, unless some partial/segmental debonding of the reinforcement occurred. The degree of corrosion increases with decreasing compressive strength. The residual moment capacity, based on analytically determined capacities of uncorroded and nonfire-exposed beams, was significantly lower than those of uncorroded beams exposed to fire. The combined effects of corrosion and fire on the mechanical properties of structural concrete are relatively unknown, and no guidance is available in the existing design codes to address this issue. Accordingly, the findings of the paper are expected to be valuable to both researchers and design engineers and can be regarded as the initial investigation on this topic.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-25
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-10-2019-0033
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Lateral deformation behavior of eccentrically loaded slender RC columns
           with different levels of rotational end restraint at elevated temperatures
           
    • Authors: Khaled Ahmed Mahmoud
      Abstract: In literature, previous studies have focused on analyzing rienforced concrete (RC) columns with idealized end conditions when subjected to fire. In nature, full fixity or free rotation at column ends is not attained. Such ends may be considered partially restrained in rotation. This paper aims to shed a new light on the effect of different degrees of rotational restraint on the lateral deformation behavior of slender heated RC columns subjected to non-linear strain distributions produced by a time-dependent temperature history. To find the strain distribution on the cross section, an iterative technique is adopted using Newton–Raphson method. By introducing a reliable calculation procedure, the lateral deformational behavior is expressed using numerical and searching techniques. A methodology is presented to calculate the effective length factor for RC columns at elevated temperature. The results of the proposed model showed good agreement with available experimental test results. It was also found that the variation of rotational end restraint level has a considerable effect on the lateral deformation behavior of heated slender RC columns. In addition, the effectiveness and the validity of an analytical model should be verified by simultaneously validating the axial and lateral deformations. Moreover, the effective length factor for heated column is higher than that for the corresponding column at ambient temperature. This paper shows the impact of different boundary conditions on the behavior of heated slender RC columns. It suggests powerful techniques to determine the lateral deflection and the effective length factor at high temperatures.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-04-2020-0014
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Structural fire performance of wood-steel-wood bolted connections with and
           without perpendicular-to-wood grain reinforcement
    • Authors: Adam Roman Petrycki, Osama (Sam) Salem
      Abstract: In fire condition, the time to failure of a timber connection is mainly reliant on the wood charring rate, the strength of the residual wood section, and the limiting temperature of the steel connectors involved in the connection. The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the effects of loaded bolt end distance, number of bolt rows, and the existence of perpendicular-to-wood grain reinforcement on the structural fire behavior of semi-rigid glued-laminated timber (glulam) beam-to-column connections that used steel bolts and concealed steel plate connectors. In total, 16 beam-to-column connections, which were fabricated in wood-steel-wood bolted connection configurations, in eight large-scale sub-frame test assemblies were exposed to elevated temperatures that followed CAN/ULC-S101 standard time-temperature curve, while being subjected to monotonic loading. The beam-to-column connections of four of the eight test assemblies were reinforced perpendicular to the wood grain using self-tapping screws (STS). Fire tests were terminated upon achieving the failure criterion, which predominantly was dependent on the connection’s maximum allowed rotation. Experimental results revealed that increasing the number of bolt rows from two to three, each of two bolts, increased the connection’s time to failure by a greater time increment than that achieved by increasing the bolt end distance from four- to five-times the bolt diameter. Also, the use of STS reinforcement increased the connection’s time to failure by greater time increments than those achieved by increasing the number of bolt rows or the bolt end distance. The invaluable experimental data obtained from this study can be effectively used to provide insight and better understanding on how mass-timber glulam bolted connections can behave in fire condition. This can also help in further improving the existing design guidelines for mass-timber structures. Currently, beam-to-column wood connections are designed mainly as axially loaded connections with no guidelines available for determining the fire resistance of timber connections exerting any degree of moment-resisting capability.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-30
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-02-2019-0016
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2019)
       
  • Numerical and experimental studies on sustainable alkali activated
           concretes at elevated temperatures
    • Authors: Subhash Yaragal, Chethan Kumar B., Manoj Uddavolu Abhinav
      Abstract: To reduce environmental impact caused by excessive use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and to mitigate scarcity of base materials such as natural coarse aggregate (NCA), industrial by-products can be carefully used as alternatives to OPC and NCA, in production of concrete. This paper aims to describe the performance of using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), fly ash (FA) as a complete replacement to OPC and ferrochrome slag (FCS) as replacement to NCA in production of novel FCS based alkali activated slag/fly ash concretes (AASFC) and evaluate their performance at elevated temperatures. Two control factors with three levels each i.e. FA (0, 25 and 50 per cent by weight) and FCS (0, 50 and 100 per cent by volume) as a GGBS and NCA replacement, respectively, were adopted in AASFC mixtures. Further, AASFC mixture specimens were subjected to different levels of elevated temperature, i.e. 200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C. Compressive strength and residual compressive strength were considered as responses. Three different optimization techniques i.e. gray relational analysis, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution and Desirability function approach were used to optimize AASFC mixtures subjected to elevated temperatures. As FA replacement increases in FCS based AASFC mixtures, workability increases and compressive strength decreases. The introduction of FCS as replacement to NCA in AASFC mixture did not show any significant change in compressive strength under ambient condition. AASFC produced with 75 per cent GGBS, 25 per cent FA and 100 per cent FCS was found to have excellent elevated temperature enduring properties among all other AASFC mixtures studied. Although several studies are available on using GGBS, FA and FCS in production of OPC-based concretes, present study reports the performance of novel FCS based AASFC mixtures subjected to elevated temperatures. Further, GGBS, FA and FCS used in the present investigation significantly reduces CO2 emission and environmental degradation associated with OPC production and NCA extraction, respectively.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-20
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-02-2019-0014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2019)
       
  • Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
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