Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 139 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (131 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cityscape     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access  
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access  
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access  
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Construction Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Urban Technology and Sustainability     Open Access  
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access  
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nordic Concrete Research     Open Access  
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access  
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.446
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2040-2317 - ISSN (Online) 2040-2325
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Travelling fire in full scale experimental building subjected to open
           ventilation conditions

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      Authors: Ali Nadjai , Naveed Alam , Marion Charlier , Olivier Vassart , Xu Dai , Jean-Marc Franssen , Johan Sjostrom
      Abstract: In the frame of the European RFCS TRAFIR project, three large compartment fire tests involving steel structure were conducted by Ulster University, aiming at understanding in which conditions a travelling fire develops, as well as how it behaves and impacts the surrounding structure. During the experimental programme, the path and geometry of the travelling fire was studied and temperatures, heat fluxes and spread rates were measured. Influence of the travelling fire on the structural elements was also monitored during the travelling fire tests. This paper provides details related to the influence of travelling fires on a central structural steel column. The experimental data are presented in terms of the gas temperatures recorded in the test compartment near the column, as well as the temperatures recorded in the steel column at different levels. Because of the large data, only fire test one results are discussed in this paper.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2021-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Modelling concrete slabs subjected to localised fire action with OpenSees

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      Authors: Mhd Anwar Orabi , Jin Qiu , Liming Jiang , Asif Usmani
      Abstract: Reinforced concrete slabs in fire have been heavily studied over the last three decades. However, most experimental and numerical work focuses on long-duration uniform exposure to standard fire. Considerably less effort has been put into investigating the response to localised fires that result in planarly non-uniform temperature distribution in the exposed elements. In this paper, the OpenSees for Fire framework for modelling slabs under non-uniform fire exposure is presented, verified against numerical predictions by Abaqus and then validated against experimental tests. The thermal wrapper developed within OpenSees for Fire is then utilised to apply localised fire exposure to the validated slab models using the parameters of an experimentally observed localised fire. The effect of the smoke layer is also considered in this model and shown to significantly contribute to the thermal and thus thermo-mechanical response of slabs. Finally, the effect of localised fire heat release rate (HRR) and boundary conditions are studied. The analysis showed that boundary conditions are very important for the response of slabs subject to localised fire, and expansive strains may be accommodated as deflections without severely damaging the slab by considering the lateral restraint. This work demonstrates the capabilities of OpenSees for Fire in modelling structural behaviours subjected to non-uniform fire conditions and investigates the damage pattens of flat slabs exposed to localised fires. It is an advancing step towards understanding structural responses to realistic fires.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0033
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Behavior of hot-dip zinc-aluminum coated steel under elevated temperature
           in case of fire

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      Authors: Thomas Pinger , Martin Mensinger , Maria-Mirabela Firan
      Abstract: Based on the advantages of conventional hot-dip galvanizing made from quasi-pure zinc melts in the event of fire, this article aims to perform a series of tests to verify whether a similar effect can be achieved with zinc-aluminum coatings. The emissivity of galvanized surfaces, which were applied to steel specimens by the batch hot-dip galvanizing process, was experimentally determined under continuously increasing temperature load. In addition to a quasi-pure zinc melt serving as a reference, a zinc melt alloyed with 500 ppm aluminum and thin-film galvanized with a melt of zinc and 5% aluminum were used. For the latter, variants of post-treatment measures in terms of a passivation and sealing of the galvanizing were also investigated. The results show that lower emissivity can be achieved at higher temperatures by adding aluminum to the zinc melt and thereby into the zinc coating. The design values required for the structural fire design were proposed, and an exemplary calculation of the temperature development in the case of fire was carried out based on the values. The result of this calculation indicates that the savings potential becomes apparent, when using zinc-aluminum coatings. The presented novel tests describe the behavior of zinc-aluminum coatings under the influence of elevated temperatures and their positive effect on the emissivity of steel components galvanized by this method. The results provide valuable insights and information on the performance in the event of fire and the associated potential savings for steel construction.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-02-2022-0005
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Proposal of steel stress-strain relationships and simple analytical models
           of beams considering strain-rate effects at elevated temperatures

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      Authors: Fuminobu Ozaki , Takumi Umemura
      Abstract: In this study, engineering stress-strain relationships considering an effect of strain rate on steel materials at elevated temperatures were formulated and a simplified analytical model using a two-dimensional beam element to analytically examine the effect of strain rate on the load-bearing capacity and collapse temperature was proposed. The stress-strain relationships taking into account temperature, strain, and strain rate were established based on the past coupon test results with strain rate as the test parameter. Furthermore, an elasto-plastic analysis using a two-dimensional beam element, which considered the effect on strain rate, was conducted for both transient- and steady-state conditions. The analytical results agreed relatively well with the test results, which used small steel beam specimens with a rectangular cross-section under various heating rates (transient-state condition) and deformation rates (steady-state condition). It was found that the bending strength and collapse temperature obtained from the parametric analyses agreed relatively well with those evaluated using the effective strength obtained from the coupon tests with strain equal to 0.01 or 0.02 under the fast strain rates. The effect of stress degradation, including the stress-strain relationships at elevated temperature, was mitigated by considering the effect of strain rate on the analytical model. This is an important point to consider when considering the effect of strain rate on steel structural analysis at elevated temperatures to maintain analytical stability unaccompanied by the stress degradation.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2022-0001
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Some recent developments and testing strategies relating to the passive
           fire protection of concrete using intumescent coatings: a review

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      Authors: Matt Ghiji , Paul Joseph , Maurice Guerrieri
      Abstract: In the present article, the authors have conducted a review on some of the recent developments given in the literature pertaining to the passive protection of concrete structures using intumescent coatings. Here, the main thrust is placed on the spalling phenomenon of concrete elements when exposed to elevated temperatures and fires. In this context, it has been long established that prolonged thermal insult on concrete members will lead to egress of water, both physically bound as well as those present as water of hydration within the concrete matrix, in the form of steam through microchannels and associated pathways of least resistance, often resulting in the flaking of the surface of the structure. The latter process can ultimately lead to the exposure of the ferrous-based reenforcement elements, for instance, to higher temperatures, thus inducing melting. This, in turn, can result in substantial loss of strength and load-bearing capacity of the structural element that is already undergoing disintegration of its base matrix owing to heat/fire. Even though spalling of concrete structures has long been recognized as a serious problem that can often lead to catastrophic failure of infrastructures, such as buildings, bridges and tunnels, the utility of intumescent coating as a mitigation strategy is relatively new and has not been explored to its fullest possible extent. Therefore, in the latter parts of the review, the authors have endeavored to discuss the different types of intumescent coatings, their modes of actions and, in particular, their wider applicability in terms of protecting concrete elements from detrimental effects of severe or explosive spalling. Given that spalling of concrete components is still a very serious issue that can result in loss of lives and destruction of critical infrastructures, there is an urgent need to formulate better mitigating strategies, through novel means and methods. The use of the intumescent coating in this context appears to be a promising way forward but is one that seems to be little explored so far. Therefore, a more systematic investigation is highly warranted in this area, especially, as the authors envisage a greater activity in the building and commissioning of more infrastructures worldwide incommensurate with augmented economic activities during the post-COVID recovery period. The authors have conducted a review on some of the recent developments given in the literature pertaining to the passive protection of concrete structures using intumescent coatings. The authors have also included the results from some recent tests carried out at the facilities using a newly commissioned state-of-the-art furnace.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-11-2021-0069
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Behaviour of thin flush end-plate connections in a 3D bare steel frame
           under fire loading: experimental study

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      Authors: Seyed Vahid Khonsari , Shahin Nejati , Mohammadreza Rahdan , Mahdi Ahmadi
      Abstract: The paper aims to report a fire test conducted on a three-dimensional frame in order to investigate the behaviour of bare steel flush end-plate connections with relatively low thickness at elevated temperatures. A half-scale model was fabricated and exposed to modified (scaled) ISO 834 heating curve using a semi-open furnace. The maximum temperature inside the furnace reached 1,026 °C. The rotations of connections are reported and compared with those of a previous study on an exactly the same model with thick end-plates. Various modes of failure such as local buckling of the beams flanges and lateral-torsional buckling of beams were observed during the test. Finally, the structure collapsed after 29 min of heating due to the fracture of weld between one of the beams and one of its attached end-plates whilst the other beam had undergone a maximum deflection of 35 cm (≈ 1/6 span length). Other observed failure modes included bolt fracture, bolt thread stripping and large inelastic deformation of the end-plates. Although the adoption of thin end-plates increased the rotational capacity of the connections, it did not improve the robustness of the structure under fire conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-08-2021-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Tension stiffening model for the finite element analysis of composite
           floor systems exposed to fire

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      Authors: Jason Martinez , Ann Jeffers
      Abstract: A methodology for producing an elevated-temperature tension stiffening model is presented. The energy-based stress–strain model of plain concrete developed by Bažant and Oh (1983) was extended to the elevated-temperature domain by developing an analytical formulation for the temperature-dependence of the fracture energy Gf. Then, an elevated-temperature tension stiffening model was developed based on the modification of the proposed elevated-temperature tension softening model. The proposed tension stiffening model can be used to predict the response of composite floor slabs exposed to fire with great accuracy, provided that the global parameters TS and Kres are adequately calibrated against global structural response data. In a finite element analysis of reinforced concrete, a tension stiffening model is required as input for concrete to account for actions such as bond slip and tension stiffening. However, an elevated-temperature tension stiffening model does not exist in the research literature. An approach for developing an elevated-temperature tension stiffening model is presented.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-10-2021-0065
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Behavior of RC flat plate structure subjected to compartment fires

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      Authors: Khadejah Alameen Abouleiwun , Hazem M.F. Elbakry , Muhammad Ahmed Diab , S.F. El-Fitiany
      Abstract: In this study, the behavior of a multi-story flat plate structure during fire exposure is investigated using numerical simulations conducted with using ABAQUS software. A three-dimensional finite element model is then carried out on the RC flat slab structure exposed to standard ISO-834 fire at different location arrangements. The model examines mid-span deflection, shear demand on the columns, bending moment and the membrane action of the floor slab. The latter plays a main role to increase the capability and ductility of the slab at longer fire exposure to compensate the reduction in the flexural capacity. Also, shear demand in columns becomes bigger in cases of more than one surrounding slab exposed to fire at the same time. This work focuses on the influence of the horizontal force on columns due to thermal expansion of slab which should be taken into account in the design of multistory multi-bay building considering it the same as the resulted horizontal force from the wind and seismic effect, the traveling fire and the restraint effect.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-03-2021-0012
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Residual properties of alkali-activated slag concrete exposed to elevated
           temperatures

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      Authors: Virendra Kumar , Rajesh Kumar Paswan
      Abstract: This paper attempted to study the alkali-activated (AA) binder consisting of 94% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and 6% of blended powder of alkali metal hydroxide and metal sulfate, which acted as an activator. Several concrete specimens (cubes, cylinders and prisms), which were casted using AA binders, were further tested for mechanical properties after exposure to elevated temperatures of 200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C. Additionally, to understand the structural behavior in uniaxial compressive load, reinforced concrete short columns were cast, cured and tested at ambient temperature as well as after exposure to 300 °C, 600 °C and 900 °C, to know the residual strength after exposure to elevated temperature. The findings for the residual strength of alkali-activated slag binder concrete (AASBC) indicated a substantial agreement with the results obtained for the residual strength of Portland slag cement (PSC) concrete, thereby showing the effectiveness of binder when used as a replacement of cement. The study clearly indicates that the binder developed is an effective approach for the 100% replacement of cement in the concrete.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0021
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of the fire performance of unprotected composite beams with
           fin-plate joints

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      Authors: Naoya Yotsumoto , Takeo Hirashima , Koji Toyoda
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the fire performance of composite beams when considering the hogging moment resistance of the fin-plate beam-to-girder joints including the effect of continuity of reinforcements. Experiments on composite beams with fin-plate joints protected only at the beam ends are conducted. The test parameter is the specification of reinforcement, which affects the rotational restraint of the beam ends. In addition, a simple method for predicting the failure time of the beam using an evaluation model based on the bending moment resistance of the beam considering the hogging moment resistance of the fin-plate joint and the reinforcement is also presented. The test results indicate that the failure time of the beam is extended by the hogging moment resistance of the joints. This is particularly noticeable when using a reinforcing bar with a large plastic deformation capability. The predicted failure times based on the evaluation method corresponded well with the test results. Recent studies have proposed large deformation analysis methods using FEM that can be used for fire-resistant design of beams including joints, but these cannot always be applicable in practice due to the cost and its complexity. Our method can consider the hogging moment resistance of the joint and the temperature distribution in the axial direction using a simple method without requirement of FEM.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Emissivity of hot-dip galvanized surfaces in future development of EN
           1993-1-2

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      Authors: Batuhan Der , Sylvie Raszková , František Wald , Gisèle Bihina , Christian Gaigl , Vasile Rus , Mikko Malaska
      Abstract: This study aims to propose a new design value, based on experimental and numerical studies, for surface emissivity of zinc hot-dip galvanized members exposed to fire. The paper sums up experiments, used specimens and also shows results. Four experiments were performed in a horizontal furnace and one test in a fire compartment of the experimental building. Several tests were carried out for determination of the surface emissivity of galvanized steel structures in fire. The experimental and numerical studies were used for preparation of new generation of the structural steel fire standard Eurocode EN 1993-1-2:2025. Hot-dip galvanizing is one of the most widely used processes for corrosion protection of steel products. The new design value for surface emissivity of zinc hot-dip galvanized members exposed to fire is determined using experimental results as 0.35. The value is proposed for next generation of EN 1993-1-2:2025. If hot-dip galvanization additionally can contribute beneficially to the fire resistance of unprotected steel members, it would be a huge economic advantage. Experimental studies in the past years have indicated the influence of hot-dip galvanizing on the heating of steel members. This study suggests 50% reduction of the surface emissivity of a carbon steel member. This amendment will be incorporated in future versions of Eurocodes 3 and 4 and has already been implemented in some fire design tools for steel members in order to consider the beneficial contribution of hot-dip galvanized for fire-resistance requirements of less than 60 min.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-11-2021-0070
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Thermo-mechanical behavior of Glulam beam-to-girder assemblies with steel
           doweled connections before, during and after fire

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      Authors: Milad Shabanian , Nicole Leo Braxtan
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the thermo-mechanical behavior of intermediate-size glued-laminated beam-to-girder assemblies connected with T-shaped slotted-in steel doweled connections at ambient temperature (AT), after and during non-standard fire exposure. AT tests were performed using a universal testing machine (UTM) to evaluate the load-carrying capacity and failure modes of the assembly at room temperature. Post-fire-performance (PFP) tests were conducted to study the impact of 30-min and 60-min partial exposure to a non-standard fire on the residual strength of the assemblies. The assemblies were subject to fire in a custom-designed frame, then cooled and loaded to failure in the UTM. A fire-performance test was conducted to investigate the fire-resistance during non-standard fire exposure by simultaneously applying fire and mechanical load with the custom frame. At AT, embedment failure of the dowels followed by brittle splitting failure were found to be the dominant failure modes in the beams. In the PFP tests, embedment failure and plastic bending of the dowels were the only observed failure modes. The residual strength of the assembly was reduced by 23.7% after 30-min and 47.8% after 60-min of fire exposure. Ductile embedment failure of the timber in contact with the dowels was the only failure mode observed during the fire-performance test, with the maximum rate of displacement at 57 min into the fire. Data are presented for full-contact (no gap) connections in Glulam assemblies. PFP results are first to be published.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-04-2021-0018
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of mechanical properties and post-fire cured strength recovery
           of recycled aggregate concrete

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      Authors: N. Suresh , Vadiraj Rao , B.S. Akshay
      Abstract: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the suitability of post-fire curing for normal and Recycled Aggregate Concretes (RAC) with and without fibres. The study includes the testing of RAC specimens, i.e. 150 mm cubes and cylinders with 300 mm length and 150 mm diameter with hybrid fibres (0.15% polypropylene fibres + 0.35% steel fibres) along with fly ash. The specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures between 400 to 700°C with 100°C intervals for 2 h of duration and the post-fire exposed samples were further subjected to water curing for a period of 7 days. The compressive strength, split tensile strength and Rebound Hammer Number (RHN) were measured at room temperature, after exposure to elevated temperatures and post-fire curing. The result shows that the compressive strength reduces by a maximum of 61.25% for 700°C and maximum retain in strength, i.e. 71.2% (in comparison to specimens kept at room temperature) is observed for 600°C post-fire cured specimens. The split tensile strength reduces by more than half for 500°C and above temperatures, whereas 400°C specimens exhibits a significant regain in strength after post-fire curing. To validate the results of compressive strength, the Rebound Hammer test has been conducted. The RHN value decreases by 41.3% for 700°C specimens and the effectiveness of post-fire curing is observed to be considerable up to 500°C. The conclusions from the study can be used in assessing the extent of damage and to check the suitability of post-fire curing in further continuing the utilisation of a fire damaged structure. Utilisation of secondary materials like recycled aggregates and fly ash can be made in the production of concrete. Specimens with fibres performed better when compared to specimens without fibres and post-fire curing is found to be effective up to 500°C.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-10-2021-0064
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Finite element analysis of lightweight concrete-filled LSF walls exposed
           to realistic design fire

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      Authors: Irindu Upasiri , Chaminda Konthesingha , Anura Nanayakkara , Keerthan Poologanathan , Gatheeshgar Perampalam , Dilini Perera
      Abstract: Light-Gauge Steel Frame (LSF) structures are popular in building construction due to their lightweight, easy erecting and constructability characteristics. However, due to steel lipped channel sections negative fire performance, cavity insulation materials are utilized in the LSF configuration to enhance its fire performance. The applicability of lightweight concrete filling as cavity insulation in LSF and its effect on the fire performance of LSF are investigated under realistic design fire exposure, and results are compared with standard fire exposure. A Finite Element model (FEM) was developed to simulate the fire performance of Light Gauge Steel Frame (LSF) walls exposed to realistic design fires. The model was developed utilising Abaqus subroutine to incorporate temperature-dependent properties of the material based on the heating and cooling phases of the realistic design fire temperature. The developed model was validated with the available experimental results and incorporated into a parametric study to evaluate the fire performance of conventional LSF walls compared to LSF walls with lightweight concrete filling under standard and realistic fire exposures. Novel FEM was developed incorporating temperature and phase (heating and cooling) dependent material properties in simulating the fire performance of structures exposed to realistic design fires. The validated FEM was utilised in the parametric study, and results exhibited that the LSF walls with lightweight concrete have shown better fire performance under insulation and load-bearing criteria in Eurocode parametric fire exposure. Foamed Concrete (FC) of 1,000 kg/m3 density showed best fire performance among lightweight concrete filling, followed by FC of 650 kg/m3 and Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) 600 kg/m3. The developed FEM is capable of investigating the insulation and load-bearing fire ratings of LSF walls. However, with the availability of the elevated temperature mechanical properties of the LSF wall, materials developed model could be further extended to simulate the complete fire behaviour. LSF structures are popular in building construction due to their lightweight, easy erecting and constructability characteristics. However, due to steel-lipped channel sections negative fire performance, cavity insulation materials are utilised in the LSF configuration to enhance its fire performance. The lightweight concrete filling in LSF is a novel idea that could be practically implemented in the construction, which would enhance both fire performance and the mechanical performance of LSF walls. Limited studies have investigated the fire performance of structural elements exposed to realistic design fires. Numerical models developed in those studies have considered a similar approach as models developed to simulate standard fire exposure. However, due to the heating phase and the cooling phase of the realistic design fires, the numerical model should incorporate both temperature and phase (heating and cooling phase) dependent properties, which was incorporated in this study and validated with the experimental results. Further lightweight concrete filling in LSF is a novel technique in which fire performance was investigated in this study.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-10-2021-0066
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Fire resistance of partially encased composite columns subjected to
           eccentric loading

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      Authors: Abdelkadir Fellouh , Abdelkader Bougara , Paulo Piloto , Nourredine Benlakehal
      Abstract: Investigate the fire performance of eccentrically loaded concrete partially encased column (PEC), using the advanced calculation method (ANSYS 18.2, 2017) and the simple calculation method in Annex G of Eurocode 4 (EN 1994-1-2, 2005). This work examines the influence of a range of parameters on fire behaviour of the composite column including: eccentricity loading, slenderness, reinforcement, fire rating and fire scenario. In this study, ISO-834 (ISO834-1, 1999) was used as fire source. Currently, different methods of analysis used to assess the thermal behaviour of composite column exposed to fire. Analytical method named simplified calculation methods defined in European standard and numerical simulations named advanced calculation models are treated in this paper. The load-bearing capacity of the composite column becomes very weak in the presence of the fire accident and eccentric loading, this recommends to avoid as much as possible eccentric loading during the design of construction building. The reinforcement has a slight influence on the temperature evolution; moreover, the reinforcement has a great contribution on the load capacity, especially in combined compression and bending. When only the two concrete sides are exposed to fire, the partially encased composite column presents a high load-bearing capacity value. The use of a three-dimensional numerical model (ANSYS) allowed to describe easily the thermal behaviour of PEC columns under eccentric loading with the regard to the analytical method, which is based on three complex steps. In this study, the presence of the load eccentricity has found to have more effect on the load-bearing capacity than the slenderness of the composite column. Introducing a load eccentricity on the top of the column may have the same a reducing effect on the load-bearing capacity as the fire.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-09-2021-0057
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Behavior of thermo-mechanically treated rebar exposed to elevated
           temperatures

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      Authors: Bishwajeet Choubey , Virendra Kumar , Sekhar Chandra Dutta , Saurav Kumar Saikia
      Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to mathematically model and predict the characteristics of thermo-mechanically treated (TMT) rebar when subjected to elevated temperatures. Data were collected from a few selected studies for developing the constitutive relations. Using the exposed temperature and the duration of heating as independent variables, the empirical relations were developed for determining the changes in mechanical properties of TMT rebars at elevated temperatures. Recrystallization of TMT rebar crystals took place around 500 °C, which led to a decrease in the dislocation density along with the increase of large-sized grains, resulting in the degradation of strength. Up to a temperature range of 500 °C, the normalized fracture strength was higher, while the normalized fracture strain is not so high. This indicated a failure of brittle nature. This is an original work done by others as a study to theoretically predict the mechanical behavior of TMT rebars when exposed to elevated temperature. The TMT bars showed brittleness characteristics up to 500 °C and showed ductility characteristics after that on account of its recrystallization and extensive tempering of the outer martensitic rim around that temperature.The comparison between the super ductile (SD) TMT and the regular TMT exhibit shows that the SD-TMT bars were about 1.5 times more ductile than the normal ones.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0026
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Fire performance of hybrid mass timber beam-end connections with
           perpendicular-to-wood grain reinforcement

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      Authors: Oluwamuyiwa Okunrounmu , Osama (Sam) Salem , George Hadjisophocleous
      Abstract: The fire resistance of timber structures is heavily dependent on the fire behaviour of the connections between its structural elements. The experimental study presented in this paper aimed to investigate the fire performance of glued-laminated timber beam connections reinforced perpendicular-to-wood grain with self-tapping screws (STS). Two full-size fire experiments were conducted on glulam beam-end connections loaded in flexure bending. Two connection configurations, each utilizing four steel bolts arranged in two different patterns, were reinforced perpendicular to wood grain using STS. The bolt heads and nuts and the steel plate top and bottom edges were fire protected using wood plugs and strips, respectively. Each connection configuration was loaded to 100% of the ultimate design load of the weakest unreinforced configuration. The test assemblies were exposed to elevated temperatures that followed the CAN/ULC-S101 standard fire time–temperature curve. The experimental results show that the influence of the STS was significant as it prevented the occurrence of wood splitting and row shear-out and as a result, increased the fire resistance time of the connections. The time to failure of both connection configurations exceeded the minimum fire resistance rating specified as 45 min for combustible construction in applicable building codes. The experimental data show the effectiveness of a simple fire protection system (i.e. wood plugs and strips) along with the utilization of STS on the rotational behaviour, charring rate, fire resistance time and failure mode of the proposed hybrid mass timber beam-end connection configurations.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2021-0036
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Understanding the effect of recycled concrete aggregate and cementitious
           materials on concrete's fire resistance

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      Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Abed , Eva Lubloy
      Abstract: Fire can severely affect concrete structures and with knowledge of the properties of materials, the damage can be assessed. Aggregate, cement matrix and their interaction are the most important components that affect concrete behaviour at high temperatures. The effect of incorporating recycled concrete aggregate or cementitious materials, namely, cement type and pulverized fly ash, are reviewed to provide a better understanding of their involvement in fire resistance. More investigation research is needed to understand the fire resistance of such sustainable concrete that was already constructed. The present study illustrates the effect of using recycled concrete aggregate and cementitious materials on the fire resistance of concrete. To do so, a literature review was conducted and relevant data were collected and presented in a simple form. The author's selected research findings, which are related to the presents study, are also presented and discussed. Recycled concrete aggregate enhances the concrete behaviour at high temperatures when it substitutes the natural aggregate by reasonable substitution (more than 25–30%). It also almost eliminates the possibility of spalling. Moreover, utilizing both supplementary cementitious materials with recycled concrete aggregate can improve the fire resistance of concrete. The incorporation of pulverized fly ash and slag in Portland cement or blended cement can generally keep the mechanical properties of concrete at a higher level after heating to a high temperature. Recycled concrete aggregate enhances the concrete behaviour at high temperatures when it substitutes the natural aggregate by reasonable substitution (more than 25–30%). It also almost eliminates the possibility of spalling. Moreover, utilizing both supplementary cementitious materials with recycled concrete aggregate can improve the fire resistance of concrete. The incorporation of pulverized fly ash and slag in Portland cement or blended cement can generally keep the mechanical properties of concrete at a higher level after heating to a high temperature.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-09-2021-0056
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Experimental and analytical investigation of using externally bonded,
           hybrid, fiber-reinforced polymers to repair and strengthen heated, damaged
           RC beams in flexure

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      Authors: Yousef Al Rjoub , Ala Obaidat , Ahmed Ashteyat , Khalid Alshboul
      Abstract: This study aims to conduct an experimental study and finite element model (FEM) to investigate the flexural behavior of heat-damaged beams strengthened/repaired by hybrid fiber-reinforced polymers (HFRP). Two groups of beams of (150 × 250 × 1,200) mm were cast, strengthened and repaired using different configurations of HFRP and tested under four-point loadings. The first group was kept at room temperature, while the second group was exposed to a temperature of 400°C. It was found that using multiple layers of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) enhanced the strength more than a single layer. Also, the order of two layers of FRP showed no effect on flexural behavior of beams. Using a three-layer scheme (attaching the GFRP first and followed by two layers of CFRP) exhibited increase in ultimate load more than the scheme attached by CFRP first. Furthermore, the scheme HGC (heated beam repaired with glass and carbon, in sequence) allowed to achieve residual flexural capacity of specimen exposed to 400°C. Typical flexural failure was observed in control and heat-damaged beams, whereas the strengthened/repaired beams failed by cover separation and FRP debonding, however, specimen repaired with two layers of GFRP failed by FRP rupture. The FEM results showed good agreement with experimental results. Few researchers have studied the effects of HFRP on strengthening and repair of heated, damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams. This paper investigates, both experimentally and analytically, the performance of externally strengthened and repaired RC beams, in flexure, with different FRP configurations of CFRP and GFRP.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-09-2021-0059
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Tensile and shear strength for a self-drilling screw and transition of
           failure-modes and shear-strengths for self-drilling screwed connections at
           elevated-temperatures

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      Authors: Fuminobu Ozaki , Ying Liu , Kai Ye
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to clarify both tensile and shear strength for self-drilling screws, which are manufactured from high-strength, martensitic-stainless and austenitic stainless-steel bars, and the load-bearing capacity of single overlapped screwed connections using steel sheets and self-drilling screws at elevated temperatures. Tensile/shear loading tests for the self-drilling screw were conducted to obtain basic information on the tensile and shear strengths at elevated temperatures and examine the relationships between both. Shear loading tests for the screwed connections at elevated temperatures were conducted to examine the shear strength and transition of failure modes depending on the test temperature. The tensile and shear strengths as well as the reduction factors at the elevated temperature for each steel grade of the self-drilling screw were quantified. Furthermore, either screw shear or sheet bearing failure mode depending on the test temperature was observed for the screwed connection. The transition of the failure modes for the screwed connection could be explained using the calculation formulae for the shear strengths at elevated temperatures, which were proposed in this study.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-10-2021-0063
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Bending and flexural-buckling strength of steel members considering
           strain-rate-effects at elevated temperatures

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      Authors: Fuminobu Ozaki , Takumi Umemura
      Abstract: In this study, the bending strength, flexural buckling strength and collapse temperature of small steel specimens with rectangular cross-sections were examined by steady and transient state tests with various heating and deformation rates. The engineering stress and strain relationships for Japan industrial standard (JIS) SN400 B mild steels at elevated temperatures were obtained by coupon tests under three strain rates. A bending test using a simple supported small beam specimen was conducted to examine the effects of the deformation rates on the centre deflection under steady-state conditions and the heating rates under transient state conditions. Flexural buckling tests using the same cross-section specimen as that used in the bending test were conducted under steady-state and transient-state conditions. It was clarified that the bending strength and collapse temperature are evaluated by the full plastic moment using the effective strength when the strain is equal to 0.01 or 0.02 under fast strain rates (0.03 and 0.07 min–1). In contrast, the flexural buckling strength and collapse temperature are approximately evaluated by the buckling strength using the 0.002 offset yield strength under a slow strain rate (0.003 min–1). Regarding both bending and flexural buckling strengths and collapse temperatures of steel members subjected to fire, the relationships among effects of steel strain rate for coupon test results, heating and deformation rates for the heated steel members were minutely investigated by the steady and transient-state tests at elevated temperatures.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-04-2021-0019
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Improving the robustness of steel frame structures under localised fire
           conditions

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      Authors: Riza Suwondo , Lee Cunningham , Martin Gillie , Made Suangga , Irpan Hidayat
      Abstract: The robustness of building structures in a fire has recently drawn wide attention. This study presents the progressive collapse analysis of steel frame building structures under localised fire. The main objective of this study is to propose methods to enhance the structural collapse resistance of such structures in fire. A modelling method was developed and validated against both experimental and analytical studies. Then, a series of robustness analyses were performed to investigate the interaction among the members and the pattern of load distribution within the structures. These analyses show that lateral resistance and load redistribution have a vital role in the robustness of the building. Thus, two approaches have been adopted to enhance the robustness of the focused steel frame during a fire. It is found that increased size of floor beams and vertical bracing systems are effective measures in preventing whole structure collapse. The larger beam section is able to prevent catenary action so that the load in the failed columns can safely transfer to the adjacent columns without buckling. On the other hand, the bracing system improves the lateral resistance that can accommodate the lateral force when catenary action occurs in the beam. Previous studies have focused on the collapse mechanism of steel frame structures. However, the parameters affecting the structural robustness in a fire have not yet been explored. To address this gap, this study adopted numerical modelling to undertake parametric studies to identify effective methods to improve the robustness of such structures under fire conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-07-2021-0046
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Study on the residual performance of RC beams exposed to processed
           temperatures and fire

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      Authors: Sachin Vijaya Kumar , N. Suresh
      Abstract: The Reinforced Concrete(RC) elements are known to perform well during exposure to elevated temperatures. Hence, RC elements are widely used to resist the extreme heat developing from accidental fires and other industrial processes. In both of the scenarios, the RC element is exposed to elevated temperatures. However, the primary differences between the fire and processed temperatures are the rate of temperature increase, mode of exposure and exposure durations. In order to determine the effect of two heating modalities, RC beams were exposed to processed temperatures with slow heating rates and fire with fast heating rates. In the present study, RC beam specimens were exposed to 200 °C, to 800 °C temperature at 200 °C intervals for 2 h' duration by adopting two heating modes; Fire and processed temperatures. An electrical furnace with low-temperature increment and a fire furnace with standard time-temperature increment is adapted to expose the RC elements to elevated temperatures. It is observed from test results that, the reduction in load-carrying capacity, first crack load, and thermal crack widths of RC beams exposed to 200 °C, and 600 °C temperature at fire is significantly high from the RC beams exposed to the processed temperature having the same maximum temperature. As the exposure temperature increases to 800 °C, the performance of RC beams at all heating modes becomes approximately equal. In this work, residual performance, and failure modes of RC beams exposed to elevated temperatures were achieved through two different heating modes are presented.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-08-2021-0051
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Assessment of a fire-damaged concrete overpass: the Verona bus crash case
           study

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Roberto Felicetti
      Abstract: This study aims to develop an assessment strategy for fire damaged infrastructures based on the implementation of quick diagnostic techniques and consistent interpretation procedures, so to determine the residual safety margin and any need for repair works. In this perspective, several tailored non-destructive test (NDT) methods have been developed in the past two decades, providing immediate results, with no need for time-consuming laboratory analyses. Moreover, matching their indications with the calculated effects of a tentative fire scenario allows harmonizing distinct pieces of evidence in the coherent physical framework of fire dynamics and heat transfer. This approach was followed in the investigations on a concrete overpass in Verona (Italy) after a coach violently impacted one supporting pillar and caught fire in 2017. Technical specifications of the vehicle made it possible to bound the acceptable ranges for fire load and maximum rate of heat release, while surveillance video footage indicated the duration of the burning stage. Some established NDT methods (evaluation of discolouration, de-hydroxylation and rebar hardness) were implemented, together with advanced ultrasonic tests based on pulse refraction and pulse-echo tomography. The results clearly showed the extension of the most damaged area at the intrados of the box girders and validated the maximum heating depth, as predicted by numerical analysis of the heat transient ensuing from the localized fire model.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-02
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2021-0039
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Ductile connection to improve the fire performance of bare-steel and
           composite frames

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      Authors: Yu Liu , Shan-Shan Huang , Ian Burgess
      Abstract: In order to improve the robustness of bare-steel and composite structures in fire, a novel axially and rotationally ductile connection has been proposed in this paper. The component-based models of the bare-steel ductile connection and composite ductile connection have been proposed and incorporated into the software Vulcan to facilitate global frame analysis for performance-based structural fire engineering design. These component-based models are validated against detailed Abaqus FE models and experiments. A series of 2-D bare-steel frame models and 3-D composite frame models with ductile connections, idealised rigid and pinned connections, have been created using Vulcan to compare the fire performance of ductile connection with other connection types in bare-steel and composite structures. The comparison results show that the proposed ductile connection can provide excellent ductility to accommodate the axial deformation of connected beam under fire conditions, thus reducing the axial forces generated in the connection and potentially preventing the premature brittle failure of the connection. Compared with conventional connection types, the proposed ductile connection exhibits considerable deformability, and can potentially enhance the robustness of structures in fire.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-12-06
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Fire resistance of stainless steel slender elliptical hollow section
           beam-columns

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      Authors: Flávio Alexandre Matias Arrais , Nuno Lopes , Paulo Vila Real
      Abstract: Stainless steel has different advantages when compared to conventional carbon steel. The corrosion resistance and aesthetic appearance are the most known; however, its better behaviour under elevated temperatures can also be important in buildings design. In spite of the initial cost, stainless-steel application as a structural material has been increasing. Elliptical hollow sections integrate the architectural attributes of the circular hollow sections and the structural advantages of the rectangular hollow sections (RHSs). Hence, the application of stainless-steel material combined with elliptical hollow profiles stands as an interesting design option. The purpose of the paper is to better understand the resistance of stainless-steel-beam columns in case of fire The research presents a numerical study on the behaviour of stainless-steel members with slender elliptical hollow section (EHS) subjected to axial compression and bending about the strong axis at elevated temperatures. A parametric numerical study is presented here considering with and without out-of-plane buckling different stainless-steel grades, cross-section and member slenderness, bending moment diagrams and elevated temperatures. The tested design methodologies proved to be inadequate for the EHS members being in some situations too conservative. The safety and accuracy of Eurocode 3 (EC3) design methodology and of a recent design proposal developed for I-sections and cold-formed RHSs are analysed applying material and geometric non-linear analysis considering imperfections with the finite element software SAFIR.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2021-0035
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Improvement of fire door design using experimental and numerical modelling
           investigations

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      Authors: Mohamed A. Khalifa , Mohamed A. Aziz , Mohamed Hamza , Saber Abdo , Osama A. Gaheen
      Abstract: Fire door should withstand a high temperature without deforming. In the current paper, the challenges of improving the behaviour of the conventional fire door were described using various internal stiffeners in pair swinging-type fire door. The temperature distribution on the outside door surface was measured with distributed eight thermocouples. Subsequently the internal side was cooled with pressurized water hose jet stream of 4 bar. The transient simulation for the thermal and structure analysis was conducted using finite element modelling (FEM) with ANSYS 19. The selected cross sections during numerical simulation were double S, double C and hat omega stiffeners applied to 2.2 m and 3 m door length. During the FEM analysis, the maximum deformations were 7.2028, 5.4299, 5.023 cm for double S, double C and hat omega stiffeners for 2.2 m door length and 6.57, 4.26, 2.1094 cm for double S, double C and hat omega stiffeners for 3 m door length. Finally, hat omega gives more than three times reduction in the deformation of door compared to double S stiffeners which provided a reference data to the manufacturers. The research limitation included the limited number of fire door tests due to the high cost of single test, and the research implication was to achieve an optimal study in fire door design. Achieving the optimum design for the internal door stiffeners where the hat omega stiffener gives minimum door deformation compared to the other stiffeners was considered the practical implication. The work included two experimental fire door tests according to the standard fire test (ANSI/UL 10C – Positive Pressure of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies) for a door of 2.2 m length with double S stiffeners and a door of 3 m length with hat omega stiffeners, which achieved minimum deformation. The behavior and mechanical response of door leaf were improved through using internal hat omega stiffeners under fire testing. This study was achieved using FEM in ANSYS 19 for six cases of different lengths and stiffeners for fire doors. The simulation model showed a very close agreement with the experimental results with an error of 0.651% for double S and 1.888% for hat omega.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-07-2021-0048
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Fire buckling curves for torsionally sensitive steel members subjected to
           axial compression

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Luca Possidente , Nicola Tondini , Jean-Marc Battini
      Abstract: Buckling should be carefully considered in steel assemblies with members subjected to compressive stresses, such as bracing systems and truss structures, in which angles and built-up steel sections are widely employed. These type of steel members are affected by torsional and flexural-torsional buckling, but the European (EN 1993-1-2) and the American (AISC 360-16) design norms do not explicitly treat these phenomena in fire situation. In this work, improved buckling curves based on the EN 1993-1-2 were extended by exploiting a previous work of the authors. Moreover, new buckling curves of AISC 360-16 were proposed. The buckling curves provided in the norms and the proposed ones were compared with the results of numerical investigation. Compressed angles, tee and cruciform steel members at elevated temperature were studied. More than 41,000 GMNIA analyses were performed on profiles with different lengths with sections of class 1 to 3, and they were subjected to five uniform temperature distributions (400–800 C) and with three steel grades (S235, S275, S355). It was observed that the actual buckling curves provide unconservative or overconservative predictions for various range of slenderness of practical interest. The proposed curves allow for safer and more accurate predictions, as confirmed by statistical investigation. This paper provides new design buckling curves for torsional and flexural-torsional buckling at elevated temperature since there is a lack of studies in the field and the design standards do not appropriately consider these phenomena.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2021-0034
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Effects of faults in the application of fire retardants in correlation
           with the efficiency of fire retardant materials on fire performance

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      Authors: Eva Lubloy , David Istvan Enczel , Lajos Gábor Takács , Zsolt Cimer , András Biró
      Abstract: Fire protection regulations are difficult to comply with in the case of wooden structures because of the fact that wood is a combustible material. The fire protection of wood can be solved with coatings or by the application of flame retardants. The standard of MSZ EN 1995‐1‐2 currently does not allow the consideration of fire retardants in case of scaling the fire load. In spite of the aforementioned, today there are many types of retardants on the market that are reliable and allow us to achieve a better fire protection classification. The question is how sensitive a wood preservative is to a construction fault, or what would be the result of the erroneously applied fire retardant to the fire protection characteristics of timber used in constructions. During the research, five different fire retardants were tested on three types of wood and their behaviour was monitored under controlled laboratory circumstances. When selecting the wood, it was important to take the wood species that are most commonly used in the construction industry, and their density should be as different as possible. During the tests, the wood preservative was applied incorrectly, modelling the following cases: applying less or more wood preservatives, and creating small and large faults.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0031
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Shear resistance of sandwich panel connection at elevated temperature

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      Authors: Kamila Cábová , Marsel Garifullin , Ashkan Shoushtarian Mofrad , František Wald , Kristo Mela , Yvonne Ciupack
      Abstract: Sandwich construction has developed and has become an integral part of lightweight construction. In the recent projects, it has been shown that by using sandwich panels as stabilizing members, a considerable amount of savings of steel can be achieved for structural members at ambient temperature. These stabilizing effects may also help to achieve similar savings in case of fire. The response of a sandwich single panel as well as the behaviour of the whole structure at ambient temperature and in case of fire is influenced by joints between the sandwich panels and the sub-structure. The fastenings used to fix the sandwich panels to a sub-structure may be loaded by shear forces caused by self-weight, live loads or diaphragm action. Therefore, an experimental investigation was conducted to investigate the shear behaviour of sandwich panel joints in fire. This paper summarized briefly the experimental results, numerical simulations and analytical models on the shear behaviour of sandwich panel joints at ambient and elevated temperatures. The work is limited to studied types of screws and sandwich panels which are generally used in current sandwich construction. These stabilizing effects in sandwich construction help to achieve savings in case of fire. Sandwich construction has developed and has become an integral part of lightweight construction. In the recent projects, it has been shown that by using sandwich panels as stabilizing members, a considerable amount of savings of steel can be achieved for structural members at ambient temperature. These stabilizing effects help to achieve similar savings in case of fire. This paper summarized briefly the experimental results, numerical simulations and analytical models on the shear behaviour of sandwich panel joints at ambient and elevated temperatures, which were not published yet.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-03-2021-0013
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Experimental study on fire resistance of a full-scale composite floor
           assembly in a two-story steel framed building

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      Authors: Lisa Choe , Selvarajah Ramesh , Xu Dai , Matthew Hoehler , Matthew Bundy
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to report the first of four planned fire experiments on the 9.1 × 6.1 m steel composite floor assembly as part of the two-story steel framed building constructed at the National Fire Research Laboratory. The fire experiment was aimed to quantify the fire resistance and behavior of full-scale steel–concrete composite floor systems commonly built in the USA. The test floor assembly, designed and constructed for the 2-h fire resistance rating, was tested to failure under a natural gas fueled compartment fire and simultaneously applied mechanical loads. Although the protected steel beams and girders achieved matching or superior performance compared to the prescribed limits of temperatures and displacements used in standard fire testing, the composite slab developed a central breach approximately at a half of the specified rating period. A minimum area of the shrinkage reinforcement (60 mm2/m) currently permitted in the US construction practice may be insufficient to maintain structural integrity of a full-scale composite floor system under the 2-h standard fire exposure. This work was the first-of-kind fire experiment conducted in the USA to study the full system-level structural performance of a composite floor system subjected to compartment fire using natural gas as fuel to mimic a standard fire environment.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2021-0030
      Issue No: Vol. 13 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Journal of Structural Fire Engineering

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