Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Protective Structures
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.841
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2041-4196 - ISSN (Online) 2041-420X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1151 journals]
  • A note on the cavitation phenomenon in metallic plates perforated by
           sharp-nosed rigid projectiles
    • Authors: Zvi Rosenberg, Yaniv Vayig, Alon Malka-Markovitz
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      We explore the perforation process of metallic plates impacted by rigid sharp-nosed projectiles at high velocities. In particular, we are looking at the diameters of the penetration hole in the plates through a series of 2D numerical simulations, in order to check for the occurrence of cavitation in finite-thickness plates. This phenomenon has not been observed by previous workers and we were looking for its effect on the perforation process. Our simulations show that for every projectile/plate pair there is a certain impact velocity which marks the onset of cavitation. These threshold velocities depend on the normalized thickness of the plates, as well as on their effective strength. Our simulations are supported by the results from perforation tests on plates made of a low strength lead-antimony alloy. The main conclusion from our work is that analytical models for plate perforation should take into account the cavitation phenomenon, especially for high velocity impacts.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2021-04-20T11:05:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20414196211010825
  • Experimental and numerical investigation on destructive effect of gas
           pipeline buried in silty clay under surface explosion
    • Authors: Qichen Tang, Nan Jiang, Yingkang Yao, Chuanbo Zhou, Tingyao Wu
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      Identifying the damage effects of buried multiple-operating-pressure gas pipelines subjected to various magnitude blasting load is a prerequisite for pipeline safety assessment. In this study, the dynamic response and damage effect are assessed by a combination of both field experiments and numerical simulation. It is indicated that the error between the numerical calculation and the field measured data is small and the reliability of the model is high. The dangerous section of the whole pipeline lies directly below the explosion source. The peak particle velocity (PPV) and the peak particle effective stress (PES) on the explosion-prone side of the section are the largest. Moreover, the PPV and PES increase with the increase of the working pressure of the pipeline. Results show that the empty pipe with no working pressure is the safest state among various pipe working state. There is a certain functional relationship among the explosive charge on the ground surface, working pressure, and PES of the pipeline.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2021-04-19T09:33:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/20414196211009236
  • Predicting specific impulse distributions for spherical explosives in the
           extreme near-field using a Gaussian function
    • Authors: Jordan J Pannell, George Panoutsos, Sam B Cooke, Dan J Pope, Sam E Rigby
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      Accurate quantification of the blast load arising from detonation of a high explosive has applications in transport security, infrastructure assessment and defence. In order to design efficient and safe protective systems in such aggressive environments, it is of critical importance to understand the magnitude and distribution of loading on a structural component located close to an explosive charge. In particular, peak specific impulse is the primary parameter that governs structural deformation under short-duration loading. Within this so-called extreme near-field region, existing semi-empirical methods are known to be inaccurate, and high-fidelity numerical schemes are generally hampered by a lack of available experimental validation data. As such, the blast protection community is not currently equipped with a satisfactory fast-running tool for load prediction in the near-field. In this article, a validated computational model is used to develop a suite of numerical near-field blast load distributions, which are shown to follow a similar normalised shape. This forms the basis of the data-driven predictive model developed herein: a Gaussian function is fit to the normalised loading distributions, and a power law is used to calculate the magnitude of the curve according to established scaling laws. The predictive method is rigorously assessed against the existing numerical dataset, and is validated against new test models and available experimental data. High levels of agreement are demonstrated throughout, with typical variations of
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T04:40:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419621993492
  • Penetration of an optimal depleted uranium liner of a shaped charge: A
           numerical simulation method
    • Authors: Rongzheng Xu, Li Chen, Jinhua Zhang, Hengbo Xiang, Qin Fang
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      Depleted uranium (DU) has surprising physical properties such as a high density, high hardness, and high toughness. A numerical method was developed in AUTODYN to study the penetration performance of a shaped charge with a liner made of DU with 0.75% titanium. By comparing different parameters and results from different models, the strength model suitable for DU was determined. According to available experimental data, the geometric strains in the strength models for DU and the steel target were calibrated. The characteristics of the DU liner, employed in a finished shaped charge instead of a copper liner, were optimized by tuning different parameters, and the performance of this optimal liner was verified through relevant tests. Moreover, in agreement with the optimized computational model and structural studies, a novel structure for the shaped charge was proposed that aimed to achieve a penetration depth of eight charge diameters. Different penetration depths were obtained by changing specific parameters, and the influence of standoff on the penetration depth was also studied. By evaluating the best penetration performance, the optimal structure for the shaped charge was finally determined. These results can have a great impact on future experimental tests and engineering applications of DU.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T06:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620988552
  • A finite element analysis engineering solution to short riveted
           connections under dynamic loadings
    • Authors: Aaron Thomas Hill, Eric Williamson
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The research presented in this manuscript focuses on the development of an LS-DYNA finite element model to predict the dynamic shear strength of short riveted lap-spliced specimens. Using data collected from experimental testing at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), a finite element model was developed to replicate the behavior of A502 Grade short riveted connections under quasi-static loading. Subsequent analyses used published Cowper-Symonds constitutive model coefficients to replicate the behavior of these connections under dynamic loading. Computed results were then compared with available test data from ERDC. Given the challenges involved in creating physical models with riveted connections and the abundance of historical bridges constructed with rivets, the developed finite element analysis engineering solution can serve as a critical tool for researchers interested in predicting the response of short riveted connections to dynamic loading and those interested in developing strategies to mitigate against this loading.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T06:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419621990676
  • Risk evaluation of ballistic penetration by small caliber ammunition of
           live-fire shoot house facilities with comparison to numerical and
           experimental results
    • Authors: Brad Gregory Davis, Jacob Thompson, William Morningstar, Ean McCool, Vishnu Peri, F. Todd Davidson
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The development of advanced small caliber weapon systems has resulted in rounds with more material penetration capabilities. The increased capabilities may mean that existing live-fire facilities will no longer be adequate for the training and certification of military and law enforcement personnel. Constraints on training in many live-fire shoot house facilities are already in place, with some allowing only single round impact during training. With little understanding of the probability of perforation, or failure, of existing containment systems, this study evaluates risk by studying the single round impact of small caliber ammunition against live-fire shoot house containment systems constructed from AR500 steel panels with two-inch ballistic rubber covering. An analytical and numerical study was conducted using an existing model for steel penetration developed by Alekseevskii-Tate and the EPIC finite element code. A modified form of the advancing cavity model for the ballistic resistance of the target material was used to account for the relatively unconfined material resulting from the studied impacts. These results are then compared to experimental tests conducted by Goodman for rounds of various small calibers impacting live-fire facility containment systems. Projectile and target characteristics were then modeled as continuous random variables, and Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using the validated analytical model to estimate the probability of a single round impact perforating the live-fire facility containment system. An importance sampling scheme was used to reduce the variance of the solution and provide a more accurate estimate of the probability of failure. The Alekseevskii-Tate model was found to provide accurate estimates of the depth of penetration when compared to experimental and numerical results at ordnance velocities and an estimate of the probability of failure is on the order of 1x10-5. This study provides useful tools for the analysis of existing live-fire facilities against future and existing ammunition, and for the design of new facilities. When coupled with Monte Carlo simulation techniques, a risk-based approach to certify live-fire facilities for use with any variety of small arms ammunition can be applied.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2021-01-30T09:07:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620988553
  • Impact damage protection mechanisms for elastomer-coated concrete
    • Authors: Chanel Fallon, Graham J McShane
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      Cost-efficient strategies for protecting structural elements against the effects of explosive detonations are of interest for vulnerable infrastructure. Dynamic loading due to both blast pressures and impact from fragments are of concern. This investigation focuses on the protection of concrete structural elements against impact damage. A recent experimental study by the authors demonstrated that an elastomer coating can provide a significant impact mitigating effect when applied to the impacted face of a concrete substrate. Preliminary numerical results have indicated that the elastomer serves to alter the details of damage initiation in the concrete, though there remains a limited understanding of the protective effects at play. In this work, a numerical investigation is performed to determine the mechanisms of impact damage initiation exhibited by a concrete circular cylinder of diameter, 100 mm and height, 100 mm when impacted by a 0.1 kg circular cylindrical (i.e. blunt) projectile, travelling at velocities in the range 5–150 m s−1. The influence of applying a 5 mm elastomer coating on these damage mechanisms is assessed. At the lowest impact velocities, the concrete remains undamaged, though the sub-surface stress state is influenced by the polymer coating. At higher impact velocities, two distinct damage initiation mechanisms are observed. Damage Mechanism 1 is characterised by immediate, severe concrete damage initiating under the indenter corner. Damage Mechanism 2 is characterised by more diffuse, sub-surface damage. Adding a polymer coating serves to shift damage initiation from Damage Mechanism 1–2, delaying the onset of severe concrete damage. Simplified 1D and 2D numerical models are employed to interrogate how the elastomer achieves this effect. Two protective effects are identified: (i) a temporal effect causing a reduction in the magnitude of peak acceleration and an increase in contact duration between projectile and target and (ii) a spatial effect where the stress concentration under the indenter corner is removed.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T05:16:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620984811
  • Strong-axis response of steel I-sections subjected to close-in detonations
    • Authors: Hezi Y Grisaro, Michael V Seica, Jeffrey A Packer, Wei Li
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The analysis of structural members subjected to close-in detonations involves a complicated dynamic scenario. Since the charge is very close to the structural member, the reflected pressure distribution on the member surface is highly non-uniform. In addition, the level of damage to the structural member may be high because of the large magnitude of the load. Due to these phenomena, the response of a structural member to close-in detonation cannot be accurately modelled by relatively simple methods like single-degree of freedom models, and more complicated models are required. Such models need to include numerical simulation of the detonation process, which produces a non-uniform pressure environment, allowing the pressure to reflect and flow around the member section. The local damage and flow around the section are especially of interest in I-shaped, or wide-flange-section members. Herein, the response of such sections is modelled by numerical simulations using a novel technique, which overcomes the difficulty of computation time, and is validated through various calculations. The model is used to perform a parametric study to investigate the response of I-sections subjected to close-in detonations, in terms of local damage and global behaviour, with scaled distances of 0.15–0.29 m/kg1/3 and loading causing flexure about the strong axis. Various aspects that affect the performance are studied, such as: the effect of scaled distance, the addition of welded stiffening plates between the flanges and web, the effect of boundary conditions and the effect of charge shape. Resulting local damage and residual deformations are assessed for the cases studied.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-12-29T10:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620984487
  • Multi-performance blast pressure-duration curves of laminated glass panes
    • Authors: Mohammadreza Eslami, Khalid M Mosalam, Venkatesh Kodur, Shalva Marjanishvili, Brian Katz, Hussam N Mahmoud
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The current design procedure for blast resistant glass panes is based on dynamic analysis of idealized SDOF models under simplified triangular impulse loads or code-specified pressure-duration (pressure-impulse) curves. In both cases, the main objective is to prevent failure of the pane with no explicit consideration of other limit states to reach higher performance levels. In this study, multi-performance pressure-duration curves of Laminated Glass (LG) panes are estimated by accurate pre-validated Finite Element (FE) models. Multiple performance criteria including initial cracking, PVB-50% (maximum polyvinyl butyral, i.e. PVB, interlayer strain of 50%), PVB-100% (maximum PVB interlayer strain of 100%), and ultimate failure of the pane are considered and pressure-duration curves are estimated for each of these performance levels. Ultimate failure of the pane can be either due to rupture of the PVB interlayer or pull-out of the pane from its frame. Multi-performance pressure-duration curves are obtained for 18 different LG panes with three different layups, two widths, and three aspect ratios. According to the obtained results, the thickness of the glass layers has more pronounced contribution to the blast resistance of the panes in all limit states compared with the PVB thickness. Moreover, the ultimate failure mode of the LG panes with thicker PVB interlayer is observed to be typically pull-out of the pane rather than PVB rupture. Therefore, these panes require frames with deeper bites to develop their full blast resistance. Finally, the blast performance of the LG panes are compared with that of Thermally Tempered Glass (TTG) panes to shed more light on the superior blast resistance of LG panes.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-12-02T09:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620968838
  • Assessment of confinement’s influence on a concrete target’s ability
           to approximate semi-infinite perforation performance
    • Authors: Jared L Brown, Isaac L Howard, Andreas O Frank, M. Jason Roth
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The ability to accurately evaluate impact penetration resistance of a structural element in an experimental setting often requires the experimental impact specimen configuration to be as close as possible to a structural element in a fielded protective design scheme. This includes the target’s capability to estimate the semi-infinite response of a structural element such as a wall where inertial confinement is provided by undamaged material surrounding the area damaged by impact. Artificially simulating this confinement in an experimental target can take several forms, including use of a circumferential steel ring as a confining medium. Experimental data gathered from impact tests were utilized to create a representative numerical simulation of a confined target design. This simulation evaluated artificial and inertial confinement on concrete perforation by varying target to projectile diameters with and without artificial confinement. Perforation performance was found to be unaffected by confinement type when the target diameter to projectile diameter ratio was 16. Semi-infinite surface approximation was found to occur when the target diameter to projectile diameter ratio was 64 despite the confinement type at higher impact velocities; however, this ratio could be reduced while maintaining semi-infinite performance for lower velocity impacts.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-12-01T07:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620977519
  • Failure analysis of steel open dam against an extreme boulder debris flow
    • Authors: Toshiyuki Horiguchi, Hiroshi Kokuryo, Nobutaka Ishikawa
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a failure analysis for a steel open-type Sabo dam (hereafter, steel open dam) against an extreme boulder debris flow load (hereafter, level II load) by a two-step analysis. The first step analysis is to estimate the level II load against the rigid wall by using the revised distinct element method (DEM). In the second step, the failure mechanism of a steel open dam is examined by using a dynamic elastic plastic analysis, in which the level II load-time relations obtained by the first analysis are multiplied by a reduction factor and then used. For the second step, the effects of the flange joint and dent deformation of the connection between column and beam are considered. Finally, a simple entire uniform load onto the steel open dam is proposed as a level II load model for the safety assessment.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-11-21T09:57:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620970566
  • TNT equivalency analysis of specific impulse distribution from close-in
    • Authors: Hezi Y Grisaro, Idan E Edri, Samuel E Rigby
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      Detonation of a high explosive close to a structural component results in a blast load that is highly localized and nonuninform in nature. Prediction of structural response and damage due to such loads requires a detailed understanding of both the magnitude and distribution of the load, which in turn are a function of the properties and dimensions of the structure, the standoff from the charge to the structure, and the composition of the explosive. It is common to express an explosive as an equivalent mass of TNT to facilitate the use of existing and well-established semi-empirical methods. This requires calculation of a TNT equivalency factor (EF), that is, the mass ratio between the equivalent mass of TNT and the explosive mass in question, such that a chosen blast parameter will be the same for the same set of input conditions aside from explosive type. In this paper, we derive EF for three common explosives: C4, COMP-B, and ANFO, using an equivalent upper bound kinetic energy approach. A series of numerical simulations are performed, and the resultant magnitudes and distributions of specific impulse are used to derive the theoretical upper bound kinetic energy that would be imparted to a flexible target. Based on the equivalent mass of TNT of each explosive, which is required to impart the same kinetic energy for a given target size and standoff distance as of TNT, the EF is calculated. It is shown that in the near-field, the EFs are non-constant and are dependent on both standoff and target size. The results in the current study are presented in a scaled form and can be used for any practical combination of charge mass, distance from the charge to the target, target size, thickness, and density.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-11-13T05:52:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620972423
  • Numerical prediction of damage mechanisms of E-Glass/epoxy composite
           material against ballistic impact of 7.62 MS projectile
    • Authors: Venkata Ramudu Bodepati, Jayarami Reddy C, Madhu Vemuri
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The fibre reinforced polymer matrix composite materials have acquired more credibility over other materials like metals and ceramics due to their high specific strength. Numerical simulations of ballistic impact of 7.62 mild steel projectile on various thicknesses of plain woven E-Glass/epoxy composite material were performed. Residual velocity and ballistic limit of the composite material were determined numerically and the results are compared with that of experiments published elsewhere. The numerical and experimental results are in good agreement. The numerical results are also compared with Recht-Ipson (R-I) and Gellert et al analytical models and are found to be in good correlation. Various failure mechanisms such as two stage damage mechanism namely dishing in target materials less than 10mm and indentation followed by dishing in target materials greater than 10 mm, delamination, and fibre and matrix failure modes of the composite material were studied and compared with the analytical models and experimental results. The wave propagation mechanisms and the damage phenomena are also studied and correlated.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-11-12T05:32:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620967023
  • Prediction of blast loading in an internal environment using artificial
           neural networks
    • Authors: Adam A Dennis, Jordan J Pannell, Danny J Smyl, Sam E Rigby
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      Explosive loading in a confined internal environment is highly complex and is driven by nonlinear physical processes associated with reflection and coalescence of multiple shock fronts. Prediction of this loading is not currently feasible using simple tools, and instead specialist computational software or practical testing is required, which are impractical for situations with a wide range of input variables. There is a need to develop a tool which balances the accuracy of experiments or physics-based numerical schemes with the simplicity and low computational cost of an engineering-level predictive approach. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are formed of a collection of neurons that process information via a series of connections. When fully trained, ANNs are capable of replicating and generalising multi-parameter, high-complexity problems and are able to generate new predictions for unseen problems (within the bounds of the training variables). This article presents the development and rigorous testing of an ANN to predict blast loading in a confined internal environment. The ANN was trained using validated numerical modelling data, and key parameters relating to formulation of the training data and network structure were critically analysed in order to maximise the predictive capability of the network. The developed network was generally able to predict specific impulses to within 10% of the numerical data: 90% of specific impulses in the unseen testing data, and between 81% and 87% of specific impulses for data from four additional unseen test models, were predicted to this accuracy. The network was highly capable of generalising in areas adjacent to reflecting surfaces and as those close to ambient outflow boundaries. It is shown that ANNs are highly suited to modelling blast loading in a confined internal environment, with significant improvements in accuracy achievable if a robust, well distributed training dataset is used with a network structure that is tailored to the problem being solved.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-11-09T06:37:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620970570
  • Evaluating the resistance of metal reinforced multi-layer textile
           structure against penetration of sharp objects
    • Authors: Forough Amirshirzad, Fatemeh Mousazadegan, Nazanin Ezazshahabi
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      One of the common applications of textile protective structures is making barriers against penetration of sharp objects. Multilayer fabrics can absorb energy and are a proper candidate to be used in body armors. In this study, a three-layer textile structure which is reinforced by metal threads has been designed and produced. Metal reinforced layer was woven through a particular weaving system. Force and energy of penetration in each layer and also the three-layer textile structure was measured. The test results revealed that the layer resistance against penetration of sharp objects varied depending on the strucure of each layer. The metal reinforced layer had the highest penetration force and energy. In the three-layer textile structure, the resistance behavior of each layer was observed separately and stepwise. Thus, the force peaks in the three-layer textile structure were related to the peak forces in each layer, and the maximum penetration force of three-layer structure was similar to penetration force of metal-reinforced layer. When putting three layers on each other, the penetration energy has increased, and the designed multi-layer textile structure has performed efficiently in absorbing the penetration energy of sharp objects. Due to the stepwise resistance of three-layered textile structure, its obtained penetration energy, was divided into two energy values of external layer and both middle and inner layers. Thus, accumulation of penetration energy of single external, middle and inner layers was in good agreement with penetration energy of three-layer textile structure.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-10-31T07:11:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620968843
  • Evaluation of punching shear design criteria to prevent progressive
           collapse of RC flat slabs
    • Authors: David Z Yankelevsky, Yuri S Karinski, Alex Brodsky, Vladimir R Feldgun
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      This study focuses on a RC building with flat slabs that were designed according to current standards. A scenario of a slab with failed connections that is detached from its supporting columns and is falling downward is considered, and the impact results with the slab underneath are assessed. The suitability of the standards design criteria to provide safe design against impact loading is evaluated. It was found that larger span slabs experience heavier damage. Falling from a floor height and from a quarter floor height are analyzed and the damage results of these impacts are examined. At the lower impact velocity, the concrete slab surrounding the column undergoes major damage and shear deformations; In the case of a relatively short span slab, the rebars undergo large plastic deformations and almost reach the ultimate strain, such that a slightly higher impact velocity would cause rebars fracture and total failure of the slab-column connection. In the case of high impact velocity, the concrete in the slab around the column is fully crashed and the longitudinal and the bent up rebars are ruptured. The yield of the rebars occurs within a few milliseconds. During this extremely short time the impacted slab hardly starts developing its downward displacement. The impacted slab responds like a rigid body with severe damage concentration at the slab-column connection region. Different parameters affecting the slabs dynamic response are examined, and new insight is gained on the complex impact response of flat RC slabs. This study finds that the current design standards that are based on static loading considerations do not provide resilience to flat slab connections that are subjected to impact loading and therefore cannot prevent a progressive collapse scenario.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-10-16T09:26:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620964221
  • Blast resistant behaviour of tunnels in sedimentary rocks
    • Authors: Mohammad Zaid, Md Rehan Sadique
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The tunnels are being constructed for the faster movement of goods and services from different locations. Therefore, Underground Urban Space (UUS) has evolved as an integral part of metro cities. Critical structures like tunnels have to be designed resistant to the blast due to possible threats and attacks. In the present paper, the efforts are made to analyse and understand the response of rock tunnel for an internal blast loading. The numerical analysis based on the finite element method has been carried out for a 35 m long rock tunnel in a rock mass of longitudinal cross-section 30 m × 30 m. The elastoplastic behaviour of the sedimentary rocks, that is, Sandstone, Mudstone and Silty Sandstone has been incorporated by using a Mohr-Coulomb constitutive material model. The plastic behaviour of the concrete tunnel lining has been incorporated by using concrete damage plasticity model. Moreover, for the Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Jones-Wilkens-Lee (JWL) material model has been considered. Analysis has been performed through the Coupled-Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) approach, which incorporates the advantages of both Eulerian and Lagrangian modelling. The present study focuses on the analysis of the tunnels constructed in three different sedimentary rocks, that is, Sandstone, Silty Sandstone and Mudstone. It has been concluded that Mudstone rock is more susceptible to failure due to internal blast load. However, Sandstone rocks were found to be relatively higher blast resistant, hence, may be considered as safer rocks for the construction when compared to other rocks of the present study.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T02:19:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620951211
  • Numerical modeling of confined brick masonry structures with parametric
           analysis and energy absorption calculation
    • Authors: H Asfandyar Ahmed, Khan Shahzada
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this paper is to propose a new modeling methodology for numerical analysis of full-scale confined brick masonry structures. Two modeling strategies are used within a single structure, where the in-plane walls are modeled using “simplified micro-modeling” approach and out-of-plane walls are modeled using “macro-modeling” approach. The lateral load capacity is associated with the in-plane shear resistance of masonry elements, therefore more detailed analysis is required for in-plane walls to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the damage mechanism and load transfer. The investigation of the in-plane shear behavior of confined brick masonry structures is of significant importance. Additionally, the proposed hybrid model is validated by comparing the results of experimental studies of confined brick masonry structure. A parametric study is then conducted to investigate the effect of brick and mortar properties on the structural response metrics (e.g. base shear coefficient, effective stiffness, response modification factor, the three performance levels (i.e. Immediate Occupancy, Life Safety and Collapse Prevention limits) and the energy absorption properties). It is observed that these structural response metrics, changed considerably by varying the material properties. Apart from that, the damage behavior and damage pattern are also assessed for the better understanding of effect of these parameters on the response of the structure. The proposed hybrid-modeling approach gives sufficient accuracy in predicting the lateral load behavior as well as the damage mechanism of confined brick masonry structure, subjected to lateral loading.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-08-10T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620947730
  • Stress propagation and debonding effects in impedance-graded
           multi-metallic systems under impact loading
    • Authors: PLN Fernando, Damith Mohotti, Alex Remennikov, PJ Hazell, H Wang, Ali Amin
      First page: 3
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the performance of an impedance-graded multi-metallic system. Material combinations of steel–titanium, steel–aluminium and steel–titanium–aluminium are compared against a monolithic steel configuration. The experiments were carried out using a single-stage gas gun, where the target specimens consisted of these material configurations. The targets were subjected to the impact of an aluminium flyer at a velocity of 180 m/s, where elastic waves were expected to propagate through the target. The free surface velocity of the final material in the target was measured and these readings were used to quantify the stresses in the materials. These stress results were compared with the output from two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical models and theoretical equations. The findings of this study indicated that a target configuration with gradual impedance reduction could minimize the magnitudes of both compressive and tensile stresses in the materials, where the latter is critical towards preventing debonding in a multi-material system.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-05-12T10:37:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620917709
  • Peak overpressure and impulse due to diffraction over a cylinder and/or
           multi-reflection of a shock wave in structural design- Part I
    • Authors: Andreas Hahn, Martin Mensinger, Marcus Rutner
      First page: 22
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The design and planning of structural components, such as columns, to resist blast loads is a complex task. Often standard free-field blast loads, specified in design codes or other literature, are used for the analysis of the object. These loads are then further increased or decreased depending on the topology of the surrounding geometry (Mach-Stem), the shape of the impacted object itself, and blast wave reflection. However, most of these research works focus purely on the assessment of the structural components itself, ignoring a complex fluid mechanics phenomenon such as diffraction, which is of particular interest when circular columns are standing next to each other or placed in front of a façade. The article addresses three main topics. First, the article answers the question whether the area behind the column is protected, meaning constituting a shadowed area. We present findings that the close area behind a column is subjected to higher pressure and impulse values as there would be without the column. Hence, the incident pressure sees significant pressure buildup due to diffraction. This pressure buildup is quantified using pressure increase factors and presented together with the accompanying impulse. Second, this pressure buildup is of relevance for realistic design of a façade behind the column, which is not covered in current design codes at all. We discuss relevant parameters in the design process. Third, directly coupled with the assessment of the pressure buildup behind the column due to diffraction is the assessment of pressure and impulse in the area behind the column due to multi-wave reflection at a façade, leading to a significant pressure and impulse scale-up, which might be relevant for design of a column and/or a façade. This article identifies gaps in understanding diffraction and subsequent multi-reflection of blast wave within a structural design framework and provides insights on how to establish safe design accounting for these effects.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T06:06:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620918883
  • Response mechanisms of reinforced concrete panels to the combined effect
           of close-in blast and fragments: An integrated experimental and numerical
    • Authors: Paolo Del Linz, Tat Ching Fung, Chi King Lee, Werner Riedel
      First page: 49
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      The effect of cased explosives on reinforced concrete components is important for the design of protective structures, since the interaction between the fragments and blast waves can modify or even amplify the damage caused. This work deals with the development of finite element analysis techniques to simulate the combined loading and to understand this interaction. In this work, an experiment conducted with a cased explosive and further tests from the literature were used together to develop and stepwise validate finite element analysis models of the different loading phases. The casing fragment velocities and spatial distribution were derived from explosive expansion simulations of the hull using the smooth particle hydrodynamics method together with a momentum conserving penalty contact. The blast loading applied on the concrete plate was based on established empirical formulae, acting at the same times as the fragments. Comparing the final damage with the experimental records revealed good agreement for most damage patterns. The model was used to identify the different damage evolution stages, such as shock-induced shear plug formation and subsequent structural dynamic bending with the associated damage. In addition, differential model variants with fragment and blast loading in isolation were simulated to resolve the response and damage of each loading component. The blast load caused predominantly bending deformations and damage, while the fragments caused similar cratering as seen in the combined case. However, the final combined damage was larger than that caused by each phenomenon. In the given situation, the fragments created most damage, but the established modelling approach opens the perspective to study these effects also for other ratios of explosive to casing weight and scaled distances, where the contributions might differ. Establishing a valid modelling approach is thus an important step towards more insight into the interaction of these complex loading types and damage effects.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T05:11:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620923129
  • High strain rate and low temperature effects on the compressive behaviour
           of concrete
    • Authors: Thomas J MacLean, Alan Lloyd
      First page: 73
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      Temperature and strain rate are important factors when considering the mechanical properties of engineering materials, as they can greatly influence the material behaviour. The research presented here is an experimental investigation to determine the effects of low temperatures and high strain rates on the compressive behaviour of concrete. The primary purpose of the research is the development of experimental stress–strain relationships under these conditions, as this is a largely unexplored research topic. Thirty-five 101.6 mm × 203.2 mm concrete cylinders were tested in uniaxial compression at the University of New Brunswick. The specimens were loaded either under static conditions or dynamically with an average strain rate of approximately 1 s−1, while being exposed to temperatures from 20°C to −70°C to simulate extreme climatic temperature and those attainable within industrial storage facilities. The compression strain of the specimens was obtained using digital image correlation. The mechanical properties studied were the compressive strength, strain associated with the peak stress and general stress–strain behaviour due to the increased strain rate and temperature variations.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-06-24T06:31:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620927418
  • Experimental–theoretical investigation for damage assessment of a
           reinforced concrete slab under consecutive explosions based on
           single-degree-of-freedom model
    • Authors: Seung-Hun Sung, Hun Ji, Jinwung Chong
      First page: 95
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      This study performed damage assessment of a reinforced concrete slab subjected to consecutive explosions. To this end, the resistance functions were updated to account for the permanent displacement calculated in the previous step to capture the response of the reinforced concrete slab of the current explosion. In other words, the permanent deformation should be basically evaluated according to the prior explosion. Next, the revised resistance function should be calculated according to damage level. Third, the maximum dynamic responses should be estimated based on the modified single-degree-of-freedom model. Finally, cumulative damages can be evaluated based on the sum of the permanent deformation and the maximum dynamic responses. In order to confirm a feasibility of the proposed single-degree-of-freedom model, a comparative study with the finite element analysis results is carried out under the identical consecutive explosions. Prior to performing the comparative study, the computational model of the target structure is calibrated based on small-scale experimental data to carry out more reliable finite element analysis.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T02:17:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620938066
  • The penetration of limestone targets by rigid projectiles: Revisited
    • Authors: Zvi Rosenberg, Yaniv Vayig, Alon Malka-Markovitz, Roman Kositski
      First page: 110
      Abstract: International Journal of Protective Structures, Ahead of Print.
      We reanalyze the results from a set of terminal ballistics tests in which large limestone targets were impacted by similarly shaped rigid projectiles having different sizes. Our first goal is to show that the data in terms of penetration depths as a function of impact velocity can be accounted for by a model in which the limestone’s resistance to penetration is constant throughout the penetration process. It turns out that the actual values of this penetration resistance, as derived from the data, decrease with the projectile’s size. This is a clear manifestation of a scaling issue in the terminal ballistics of the limestone rock. In order to account for this issue we assume that it is closely related to the size effect in the compressive strengths of rock specimens. Finally, we offer a simple procedure by which one can define a surrogate material model for the targets in numerical simulations, in order to predict the penetration depths in limestone, and possibly other rock targets, under both normal and oblique impacts.
      Citation: International Journal of Protective Structures
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T02:44:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2041419620942260
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