Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.653
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 3 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0969-9988 - ISSN (Online) 1365-232X
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • BDM–MDM integrated solution concept for scheduling
           information-driven projects
    • Authors: J. Uma Maheswari, Purva Mujumdar, S.P. Sreenivas Padala, Abhishek Gwaskoti
      Abstract: Scheduling in information-driven design phase of construction projects is challenging due to multiple entity types (teams, components, deliverables, activities or parameters) and their dependencies/linkages. Established techniques such as dependency structure matrix (DSM), beeline diagramming method (BDM), multiple domain matrix (MDM), etc. have been independently utilized in past to model information dependencies/linkages and associated iteration. However, there has not been a holistic solution yet for scheduling multiple entity types and their relationships. Hence, an integrated solution needs to be developed that schedules information-driven projects accurately. A case study data collection approach is utilized. With data from two projects, i.e. hostel design and highway design, a BDM–MDM integrated solution was developed and applied to the same. Feedback from experts was obtained for refinements. The proposed solution is efficient for scheduling multiple entity types and their information dependencies/linkages. The proposed integrated solution enables the project participants to schedule information-driven projects systematically. Application to two distinct design cases emphasizes that the concept is generic and can be applied to any information-driven project with multiple entity types. The BDM–MDM integrated solution concept is investigated for scheduling multiple entity types in any information-driven projects. This study also explored the terminologies such as multiple entity types and information-driven scheduling.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0484
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Dynamic evaluation of thermal comfort scenarios in a Colombian large-scale
           social housing project
    • Authors: Alvaro Garay, Angie Ruiz, Jose Guevara
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze the technical, environmental, economic and thermal comfort impacts of implementing passive measures and heating systems in Ciudad Verde, a large-scale social housing project located at the periphery of Bogota, Colombia. A system dynamics (SD) model is proposed to evaluate scenarios through counterfactual experiments, including technical, environmental and economic components. Model inputs are obtained from building energy simulation models and data collected from official reports, public policy documents and construction records. Results suggest that the use of heating systems is the best choice to achieve thermal comfort conditions throughout the day. However, both the capital expenditures and CO2 emissions associated with such system make their adoption very difficult. In line with that, the use of heating systems in combination with passive measures stands out as a viable solution since their costs are affordable and their use contributes to reducing CO2 emissions. The proposed model recreates the dynamics underlying social housing construction processes, the adoption of heating systems and passive measures in low-income dwellings and their corresponding impact on CO2 emissions and indoor thermal comfort conditions. The model can be employed as a support tool in the formulation of social housing policies associated with thermal comfort specifications. In this way, the model represents a first step toward incorporating thermal-related variables into the decision-making processes related to social housing planning and development.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-05-04
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0684
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Green project management from employees' perspective in Hong Kong's
           engineering and construction sectors
    • Authors: Wai Ming To, K.H. Lam
      Abstract: The study investigates employees’ perceptions of green project management in Hong Kong's engineering and construction sectors. Green project management attributes were identified and categorized in terms of organization and process aspects based on a literature review. A questionnaire was developed to collect responses from employees working in Hong Kong's engineering and construction sectors. Respondents perceived “using Design for Environment approach,” “training employees about green project management” and “recycling the used or excessive materials/components” as the most important attributes. Generally, females gave higher importance ratings than males to most attributes. Respondents who had higher education qualifications or held senior positions perceived green project management attributes as more important than their counterparts with lower education qualifications or in lower positions. Green project management was found to have four distinct factors: “Management Commitment,” “Green Technologies and Processes,” “Green Partnerships” and “External Communication.” The study is one of the first empirical works on green project management in Hong Kong's engineering and construction sectors. It demonstrates that green project management should be characterized as a multidimensional concept.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-05-04
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0838
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Establishing the synergy between the perceptions of construction
           professionals and the phases of value management
    • Authors: Mujahed Thneibat, Motasem Thneibat, Bader Al-Tamimi
      Abstract: This study aims to lay the groundwork for the potential application of value management (VM) in construction projects. This paper presents a critical review on the status of VM in a developing country and highlights the role of perceptions on critical success factors (CSFs) for the phases of VM studies, as the participants in a VM study should consider CSFs tailored to the local context. A series of interviews and a questionnaire were conducted to understand the drivers, perceptions, barriers, and CSFs of VM in the Jordanian construction industry. Although descriptive statistics were used to analyze the status of VM, a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was adopted to highlight the interrelationships between perceptions and the CSFs of the three phases of VM (i.e. pre-workshop, workshop, and implementation). The descriptive analysis revealed conflicting viewpoints for perceptions and drivers. Most practitioners acknowledged little awareness of VM phases, and the SEM results indicated that perceptions of VM, in terms of its capacity in improving the scope and objectives of the project, and reducing overall costs, most strongly influenced the CSFs of the implementation phase in terms of support and clear plan for implementation, and had the least influence on the pre-workshop phase. Further, the perceptions had a moderate effect on the CSFs of the workshop phase and it tended to be positive, highlighting the importance of function analysis in this phase. This is the first study to reveal the status of VM in Jordan in terms of adoption, drivers, perceptions, barriers and CSFs; no prior studies have investigated how perceptions can affect the CSFs of each phase of VM and the endorsement of VM by the construction industry. The contributions of this study include linking the perceptions of construction professionals with the CSFs of VM.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-05-04
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2020-0987
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploring the structure and emerging trends of construction health
           management: a bibliometric review and content analysis
    • Authors: Huakang Liang, Xiaoxiao Shi
      Abstract: The demanding nature of construction industry poses serious health risks to construction workers. In recent years, construction health management (CHM) has gained much attention to ensure a healthier and safer workplace. However, there is still lack of a systematic review to bring together the disaggregated studies and determine the development status of this research field. As essential for addressing health issues in construction industry, a bibliometric and content-based review on of previous CHM studies would be presented in this paper. In total, 753 journal articles published in Web of Science core collection from 1990 to 2020 were examined using a systematic review. Bibliometric analysis concentrated on the analysis of publication and citation pattern of CHM research while content analysis was employed to identify main health hazards, levels of analysis and topical focuses. The results indicated that the USA was the leading country in this research domain. Five health hazards together with 17 research topics at different levels of analysis were classified to allow researchers to track the structure and temporal evolution of the research field. Finally, three emerging trends and a set of research agenda were proposed to guide future research directions. It is the first to highlight the issues of occupational health management from the perspective of construction workers. It contributes to the field of construction health management by clarifying the knowledge structure, emerging trends and future research directions. It offers valuable guidance and in-depth understanding to researchers, practitioners and policymakers to further promote construction workers' health performance.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-01-2021-0080
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • COVID-19: main challenges during construction stage
    • Authors: Francisco Sierra
      Abstract: This paper reviews the current literature on the major challenges faced by building contractors in the UK due to COVID-19 to create an evaluation framework. A PRISMA scoping review systematically maps the information published and establishes the potential challenges, as a precursor to a literature review that synthesises the data available to establish an initial COVID-19 evaluation framework to build a rationale for a future series of studies. The research identified these seven challenges: health and safety on-site, economic cost, possible legal exposures, manpower availability, instability of the supply chain and subcontractors, and the uncertainty related to the constant and unpredictable evolution of the pandemic. The magnitude of each challenge was also found to differ depending on the size of the contractor, the rigor of local regulations and the sector where the contractor works. This research contributes to increasing understanding on the subject and provides an initial assessment framework, based on these seven parameters, so that contractors can analyse their weaknesses and plan specific priorities so that their companies can remain competitive, minimising the impact of COVID-19 and possible future waves. This research is timely and relevant as it produces the first academic review on how COVID-19 has affected contractors and the construction stage. This document gives a holistic view of the new scenario created by COVID-19 and creates a self-assessment system for contractors to test their resistance to COVID-19.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0719
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Knowledge discovery of correlations between unsafe behaviors within
           construction accidents
    • Authors: Shengyu Guo, Yujia Zhao, Yuqiu Luoren, Kongzheng Liang, Bing Tang
      Abstract: Knowledge discovery related to unsafe behaviors promotes the performance of accident prevention in construction. Although numerous studies on accident causation models have discussed the correlations of unsafe behaviors with various factors (e.g., unsafe conditions), limited research explores correlations between unsafe behaviors within accidents. The purpose of this paper is mining strong association rules of unsafe behaviors from historical accidents to clarify this kind of tacit knowledge. A case study was adopted as the research approach, in which accident records from building and urban railway construction in China were selected as data resources. The groups of unsafe behaviors extracted from accident records were expressed by the definitions of unsafe behaviors from safety regulations and operating procedures. Frequent Pattern (FP)-Growth algorithm was used for association rule mining, and the critical correlations between unsafe behaviors were represented by the effective strong rules. The findings identify and distinguish correlations between unsafe behaviors within construction accidents. In building construction, workers and managers should pay attention to preventing unsafe behaviors related to personal protective equipment and machines and equipment. In urban railway construction, workers should especially avoid unsafe behaviors of inadequately dealing with environmental factors. Tacit knowledge is transferred to explicit knowledge as the critical correlations between unsafe behaviors within accidents are determined by the effective strong rules. Additionally, the findings provide practice guidance for safety management, to collaboratively control unsafe behaviors with strong correlations. This study contributes to the body of safety knowledge in construction and provides a further understanding of how construction accidents are caused by multiple unsafe behaviors.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0745
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Stability and accuracy of deterministic project duration forecasting
           methods in earned value management
    • Authors: Alexis Barrientos-Orellana, Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez, Daniel Mora-Melia, Maria Carmen González-Cruz, Mario Vanhoucke
      Abstract: Earned Value Management (EVM) is a project monitoring and control technique that enables the forecasting of a project's duration. Many EVM metrics and project duration forecasting methods have been proposed. However, very few studies have compared their accuracy and stability. This paper presents an exhaustive stability and accuracy analysis of 27 deterministic EVM project duration forecasting methods. Stability is measured via Pearson's, Spearman's and Kendall's correlation coefficients while accuracy is measured by Mean Squared and Mean Absolute Percentage Errors. These parameters are determined at ten percentile intervals to track a given project's progress across 4,100 artificial project networks with varied topologies. Findings support that stability and accuracy are inversely correlated for most forecasting methods, and also suggest that both significantly worsen as project networks become increasingly parallel. However, the AT + PD-ESmin forecasting method stands out as being the most accurate and reliable. Implications of this study will allow construction project managers to resort to the simplest, most accurate and most stable EVM metrics when forecasting project duration. They will also be able to anticipate how the project topology (i.e., the network of activity predecessors) and the stage of project progress can condition their accuracy and stability. Unlike previous research comparing EVM forecasting methods, this one includes all deterministic methods (classical and recent alike) and measures their performance in accordance with several parameters. Activity durations and costs are also modelled akin to those of construction projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2020-1045
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Predicting delays in prefabricated projects: SD-BP neural network to
           define effects of risk disruption
    • Authors: Ying Zhao, Wei Chen, Mehrdad Arashpour, Zhuzhang Yang, Chengxin Shao, Chao Li
      Abstract: Prefabricated construction is often hindered by scheduling delays. This paper aims to propose a schedule delay prediction model system, which can provide the key information for controlling the delay effects of risk-related factors on scheduling in prefabricated construction. This paper combines SD (System Dynamics) and BP (Back Propagation) neural network to predict risk related delays. The SD-based prediction model focuses on dynamically presenting the interrelated impacts of risk events and activities along with workflow. While BP neural network model is proposed to evaluate the delay effect for a single risk event disrupting a single job, which is the necessary input parameter of SD-based model. The established model system is validated through a structural test, an extreme condition test, a sensitivity test, and an error test, and shows an excellent performance on aspect of reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, 5 scenarios of case application during 3 different projects located in separate cities prove the prediction model system can be applied in a wide range. This paper contributes to academic research on combination of SD and BP neural network at the operational level prediction, and a practical prediction tool supporting managers to take decision-making in a timely manner against delays.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2020-1050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Response of contractor behavior to hierarchical governance: effects on the
           performance of mega-projects
    • Authors: Hang Yin, Dan Wang, Yilin Yin, Henry Liu, Binchao Deng
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the impacts of formal and informal hierarchical governances (HGs) on the performance of mega-projects and the mediating role of contractor behavior (i.e. perfunctory and consummate behaviors) in these relationships. A total of 375 valid data entries from managers representing 375 mega-projects were analyzed through path analysis. Both formal and informal HGs exert positive effects on the performance of mega-projects. While formal HG positively affects contractor perfunctory behavior and contractor consummate behavior, informal HG affects contractor perfunctory behavior only. Contractor behavior mediates the relationship between formal HG and project performance. The impacts of potential moderators (e.g. institutional arrangement and complexity) on the relationship between HG and contractor behavior have not been considered in this study. This study is useful for owners to enhance formal HG to improve contractor perfunctory and consummate behaviors, which in turn can enhance the performance of mega-projects. This study expands the knowledge of mega-project performance management from the perspective of HG. It also contributes to the literature of contractor behavior within the context of mega-projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-01-2020-0073
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Investigating the influence of information complexity on construction
           quality: a systems thinking approach
    • Authors: Faizan Naveed, Khurram Iqbal Ahmad Khan
      Abstract: This paper investigates the causative relation between information complexity and construction quality. The objectives are to identify the challenges faced in the communication of information and data on construction projects and determine how these barriers influence quality performance of a project. Limitations in the literature on information seeking, coupled with the utilization of Theory of Motivated Information Management as a response led to the development of research problem statement. Through comprehensive review of literature published between the years 2005–2019, the paper first identified barriers of information communication in the industry and key performance indicators of construction quality, followed by content analyses to rank and screen out the least important variables. This paved the way for quantitative and qualitative analyses through 180 structured questionnaires and 11 expert opinion sessions that respectively led to the use of systems thinking approach to establish causality. The study finds ineffective communication, unclear details, changes in contract, information delays, unpleasant relationships between stakeholders and project complexity as the most critical factors causing information complexity in a construction project. These factors cause a reduction in quality performance of a project through increased rework and decreased implementation of total quality management. The study will assist project managers to diagnose quality-related issues in their projects, trace them back to the challenges and barriers of information communication and then make policy/strategic interventions to reduce such issues through improved information flow. Majority of the studies in this field of work have identified the effects of ineffective information flow on overall project performance, but very few have focused specifically on the quality of construction projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0311
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Comparative study of academic research on project management in Iran and
           the World with text mining approach and TF–IDF method
    • Authors: Hossein Toosi, Mohammad Amin Ghaaderi, Zahra Shokrani
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare the trend of academic project management research in Iran and the World in five-year periods with a text mining approach and TF–IDF method. The research population consists of 1205 theses presented between 2000 and 2019 in Iranian universities. The central library website of the mentioned universities was used for data collection, and the text mining approach with the TF–IDF method was used for data analysis. The remarkable results of this study include: Concrete structures are the most frequent among structural systems, Risk Management is the most frequent among PMBOK Knowledge Areas, Design-build (DB) system is the most frequent among Project Delivery Systems, Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) is the most frequent among DB Project Delivery Systems, Financial Management is the most frequent among specialized construction knowledge areas, Soft Skills is the most frequent among Global Trends, Contracting Companies is the most frequent among Project Parties, Construction Projects is the most frequent among Project Areas, Power Plant and Refinery is the most frequent among Project Subjects, Optimization is the most frequent among Problem-Solving Approaches, Fuzzy Logic is the most frequent among Novel Algorithms and Motivation is the most frequent among Soft Skills. The innovative aspect of this research is that for the first time, text mining has been used to analyze academic research on project and construction management, and also for the first time, academic research on construction industry in Iran has been compared with global research.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0325
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The main issue working with migrant construction labor: a case study in
           Thailand
    • Authors: Nutchapongpol Kongchasing, Gritsada Sua-iam
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study and prioritize the problems impacted on construction work together migrant laborers, by using the Delphi technique. The case study is construction work in Bangkok and metropolitan zones, Thailand. The framework of the perceived issues caused by working with migrant construction labors especially migrant construction laborers from neighboring countries were identified from literature reviews. The issue list was sent to 162 experts seeking for their opinions. Subsequently, a questionnaire was created from 58 items of suitable issue lists according to expert's opinions. The questionnaires were then submitted to 147 respondents from construction contractor companies. Their responses were calculated and prioritized by means of the Delphi technique The polling data showed its constancy on the second round of survey. There were 34 out of 58 items passed consensus criteria. The issue “Foreman obtained incompetent or inadequate trained migrant labors when relocate them from/to other site or job” ranked 1st in priority ranking with the average score of 4.56. Subproblems were appropriately prioritized according to their mean scores. The results of this research were expected to facilitate construction operators in making appropriate decisions and primary solution concerning main issue factors in working with migrant labors, in order to help even more increasing competition efficiency in Thai construction industries. The research provides a list of main issue occurred in the case study. These outcomes are also expected to provide important information for other case studies on the issue working with migrant construction labor.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0376
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evaluation of postural-assist exoskeleton for manual material handling
    • Authors: Omobolanle Ogunseiju, Johnson Olayiwola, Abiola Akanmu, Oluwole Alfred Olatunji
      Abstract: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders constitute a severe problem in the construction industry. Workers' lower backs are often affected by heavy or repetitive lifting and prolonged awkward postures. Exoskeletal interventions are effective for tasks involving manual lifting and repetitive movements. This study aims to examine the potential of a postural-assist exoskeleton (a passive exoskeleton) for manual material handling tasks. From an experimental observation of participants, the effects of postural-assist exoskeleton on tasks and workers were measured. Associated benefits of the exoskeleton were assessed through task performance, range of motion and discomfort. Findings suggest that the exoskeleton influenced discomfort significantly, however range of motion decreased with lifting tasks. The reduced back flexion and increased hip flexion were also indicatives of the participants' responsiveness to the feedback from the exoskeleton. In addition, task completion time increased by 20%, and participants' back pain did not reduce. The work tasks were performed in a controlled laboratory environment and only wearable inertia measurement units (IMUs) were used to assess the risk exposures of the body parts. This study opens a practical pathway to human-exoskeleton integration, artificial regeneration or enablement of impaired workforce and a window toward a new order of productivity scaling. Results from this study provide preliminary insights to designers and innovators on the influence of postural assist exoskeleton on construction work. Project stakeholders can be informed of the suitability of the postural assist exoskeletons for manual material handling tasks. Little has been reported on the benefits and impact of exoskeletons on tasks' physical demands and construction workers' performance. This study adds value to the existing literature, in particular by providing insights into the effectiveness and consequences of the postural-assist exoskeleton for manual material handling tasks.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0491
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Impact of organizational decentralization degree on job satisfaction and
           job performance: a hierarchical linear model analysis for construction
           projects
    • Authors: Jun Sun, Cynthia Changxin Wang, Zhiling Yang, Tianshu Yu, Jintao Li, Xiaoqian Xiong
      Abstract: Modern construction projects are increasingly complex and rely heavily on multi-discipline collaboration, and this leads to a more and more decentralized project-based structure widely adopted in the construction industry. While job satisfaction (JS) and job performance (JP) have been heavily studied previously, few considered the impact of organizational structure and none investigated the relationship between the organizational decentralization degree with JS and JP. This research aims to fill this research gap and investigate the impacts of organizational decentralization degree on JS and JP and facilitate a better project management practice for large-scale construction projects. This research firstly establishes four hypotheses based on the literature review on general project-based organizations, then the hypotheses are tested by a survey covering 25 large complex construction projects in China. A hierarchical linear model analysis was carried out to analyze the survey data and to study the relationships between organizational decentralization degree, job satisfaction and job performance. Analysis results show that projects' employees' JS and JP are positively correlated with the construction project organizations' decentralization degree, respectively. The decentralization degree has a higher impact on JS than on JP. Employees' JP is positively correlated with their JS, and a higher decentralization degree leads to a more significant positive impact that JS puts on JP. The findings are new evidence of how construction organization structure and its decentralization degree can affect project employees' JS and JP. This research provides valuable guidance for the industry's management practice and is particularly important for large, complex and highly decentralized construction projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0503
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Actionable strategy framework for digital transformation in AECO industry
    • Authors: Sanjay Bhattacharya, K.S. Momaya
      Abstract: The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) holds the potential to improve capabilities- and technology-based innovation, which will enable breakout for architectural, engineering, construction and operation and maintenance (AECO) companies, for international competitiveness. Though the top management of such companies is convinced on the utility of the applications, they are unsure on the strategy of implementing the same. The objective of this research is to suggest a strategy framework for digital transformation of the AECO value chain. The nascent level of research on 4IR in construction necessitated the adoption of the integrative review methodology for the study. Extensive literature review of research on strategy and 4IR has been utilized to establish the validity of the first two pillars, namely “a strategy of simple rules in a complex environment; and deployment of dynamic capabilities.” The validation of a construct for the third pillar of “confluence of change and continuity forces” has been achieved via hypothesis testing of data obtained through a questionnaire survey. The present study has integrated three diverse ideas of strategy, named as the pillars, to facilitate sustainable digital transformation. Within the third pillar, top three continuity forces which offer resistance to change are organization culture, existing delivery processes and networks, and existing standard operating procedures. On the other hand, the leading drivers of change are needs of competitiveness; global industry trends and the advent of new technologies/innovations. This provides a practical approach to operationalize digital transformation of the AECO at an organization level. The validation relied on opinion and perspectives of a sample frame in the Indian context, which was its limitation. This paper suggests a strategy framework of three pillars to help address specific strategy dilemmas during implementation of digital transformation of particular organizations in AECO. The study contributes to both theory and practice by helping leaders of AECO companies, associations, policymakers and the academia to strategize transformations successfully.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0587
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Application of machine learning in predicting construction project profit
           in Ghana using Support Vector Regression Algorithm (SVRA)
    • Authors: Emmanuel Adinyira, Emmanuel Akoi-Gyebi Adjei, Kofi Agyekum, Frank Desmond Kofi Fugar
      Abstract: Knowledge of the effect of various cash-flow factors on expected project profit is important to effectively manage productivity on construction projects. This study was conducted to develop and test the sensitivity of a Machine Learning Support Vector Regression Algorithm (SVRA) to predict construction project profit in Ghana. The study relied on data from 150 institutional projects executed within the past five years (2014–2018) in developing the model. Eighty percent (80%) of the data from the 150 projects was used at hyperparameter selection and final training phases of the model development and the remaining 20% for model testing. Using MATLAB for Support Vector Regression, the parameters available for tuning were the epsilon values, the kernel scale, the box constraint and standardisations. The sensitivity index was computed to determine the degree to which the independent variables impact the dependent variable. The developed model's predictions perfectly fitted the data and explained all the variability of the response data around its mean. Average predictive accuracy of 73.66% was achieved with all the variables on the different projects in validation. The developed SVR model was sensitive to labour and loan. The developed SVRA combines variation, defective works and labour with other financial constraints, which have been the variables used in previous studies. It will aid contractors in predicting profit on completion at commencement and also provide information on the effect of changes to cash-flow factors on profit.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0618
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Structural model for the relationships between age-friendly communities
           and quality of life of older adults in Hefei, China
    • Authors: Jingyu Yu, Guixia Ma, Wenxuan Ding, Jiangfeng Mao, Jingfeng Wang
      Abstract: China is experiencing tremendous changes of rapid urbanization and aging society. The development of age-friendly communities (AFCs) has been encouraged for improving health and well-being of older adults. Hence, this study aimed to deepen the understanding of AFCs in China and to investigate the integrated relationships between AFCs and the quality of life (QoL) of older adults, using a large-scale questionnaire survey. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Hefei, China, to investigate the complicated relationships between the components of AFCs and the QoL of older adults. Ultimately, 1,383 valid questionnaires were collected from senior respondents aged more than 60 years. Several statistical methods, including reliability analysis, correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), were adopted to develop an integrated model for AFC components and the QoL of older adults. Six AFC components and four older adults' QoL factors were identified. The SEM results revealed integrated relationships between specific AFC components and the QoL of older adults: (1) physical QoL was affected by outdoor spaces, public transportation, housing and community and health services; (2) psychological QoL was predicted by most of the AFC components except community and health services; and (3) environmental QoL and social QoL were both influenced by outdoor spaces, communication and information and community and health services. In order to enhance the QoL of older adults, it is suggested that outdoor spaces need to be enlarged by fully using the facilities and playgrounds of middle schools and renovating the older buildings. The locations of public transportation stations are recommended to be revised to be within a 5-minute walking distance of senior residents. Improvements to the social environment of AFCs, by increasing the coverage of medical services and creating multiple approaches to recreational activities, are encouraged. These findings have empirical significance for urban planners and policy-makers in regard to identifying major components of AFCs and understanding the effect of those components on the QoL of older adults.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0647
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Drivers and barriers of virtual reality adoption in UK AEC industry
    • Authors: Abdulmalik Abubakar Badamasi, Komal Raj Aryal, Usman Umar Makarfi, Mansir Dodo
      Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) offers unique features of a three-dimensional (3D) model during early design stages in the virtual environment with immersive functions. Although the potential of VR is to increase the effectiveness and productivity of the project phases from initial concept design to detailed design preparation. VR adoption in the United Kingdom (UK) Architectural Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector is slow compared to other sectors. This research focuses on ascertaining the drivers and barriers of VR in construction projects in the UK. The study adopts an online survey design. It uses Bristol Online Survey (BOS) to create a structured questionnaire that is used to assess UK construction professionals using a convenience sampling technique. Therefore, researcher uses descriptive and inferential technique for data analysis and presentation based on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to analyze the questionnaire. The research findings revealed the most significant barriers to VR adoption in UK construction industry were lack of skills/expertise and cultural change. Hence, the main drivers of VR adoption as rated by the professionals in the UK construction industry are improved safety, improved quality and improved productivity. The identification and assessment of the drivers and barriers to VR adoption could advance VR adoption among construction professionals and other stakeholders of the UK AEC sector. This could also be extended to developing countries, given the status of VR as being in the developing stage. This study provides valuable insights to construction professionals and stakeholders to plan actions that could enhance the drivers and mitigate the barriers of VR. This study's main contribution is to group and classify various drivers and barriers into easily understood categories, in order to potentiate the drivers and reduce the barriers effectively. The groupings could be used as benchmarks in similar studies in developing countries.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0685
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Women CEOs and firm performance in the construction industry: evidence
           from Spain
    • Authors: Carmen María Hernández-Nicolás, Juan Francisco Martín-Ugedo, Antonio Minguez-Vera
      Abstract: The construction industry has traditionally been a male-dominated economic sector. Barely 10% of managers are women. On the other hand, this sector is considered an engine of the economy. For these reasons, it is important to examine the influence of women CEOs on financial variables of firms in the construction industry. The empirical study is carried out using a sample from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System record (“Sistema de Análisis de Balances Ibérico”, SABI). The sample includes 8,492 Spanish companies from the construction sector. The methodology employed is a three-stage least squares (3SLS) analysis. This methodology controls for the endogeneity of explanatory variables. It is employed in accordance with the peculiar characteristics of the sample, which includes data for only one year. The results show that firms with a woman CEO have a lower level of debt, whatever the terms of the maturity of the debt are. In contrast to most previous evidence, firms managed by women are found to be less profitable. The paper gives evidence of the influence of the CEO's gender on the performance (return and risk) of a firm. It provides original empirical evidence for the male-dominated construction sector. An extensive search identified no literature in which the researchers had focused on the construction industry.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0701
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Thermal comfort practices for precast concrete building construction
           projects: towards BIM and IOT integration
    • Authors: Zul-Atfi Bin Ismail
      Abstract: Improper evaluation and information mismanagement concerning thermal comfort appears to negatively affect occupants' satisfaction and building energy consumption in precast concrete (PC) building contexts. Predictive models are particularly problematic in PC building construction projects where natural ventilation levels do not coincide with occupants' thermal comfort and thermal sensation specifications. A systematic literature review is undertaken to explore the viability and benefits of a new ICT-based approach for meeting social and environmental objectives. Sophisticated thermal comfort system solutions are essential for optimising thermal comfort and saving energy in PC building construction projects. It is imperative that designers and manufacturers are kept up-to-date with the possibilities and potentials associated with new and nascent technologies so that building projects can meet key sustainability criteria.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0767
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Environmental impact assessments during construction stage at different
           geographic levels – a cradle-to-gate analysis of using sustainable
           concrete materials
    • Authors: Malindu Sandanayake, Ramya Kumanayake, Achini Peiris
      Abstract: The main objective of the study is to present a systematic process that can assess, compare and benchmark different geographical levels environmental impacts of using sustainable materials at construction stage. Current study presents a methodological framework to evaluate environmental impacts at the construction stage of using sustainable materials through a cradle-to-gate process based quantitative LCA study. Scenario analyses and an optimisation analysis using Monte-Carlo simulation are conducted to investigate the influence of external factors on environmental impacts at different geographical regions. Materials account for 98% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) record significant non-GHG emissions. Particulate matter (PM10) emissions are significant from transportation and equipment. High significance of global warming potential (GWP) (38.98%) and photochemical oxidation formation potential (POFP) (34.49%) at global level and eutrophication potential (EP) (52.83%) and human toxicity potential (HTP) (25.30%) impacts at local level were observed. Shortest transportation distance reduces 14.91% PM10 and 4.69% nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions. Inventory variations have major influence on POFP impact at global level. Local level impacts are not significantly affected by inventory variations. Optimisation analysis indicated, high fly ash in concrete increase local level carbon emissions, if OPC concrete transportation distance is less than 23.7 km. Use of case-specific information for validation may lack generalisation. However, methodology can be used for future sustainable decision making over using sustainable materials in construction. The study estimate environmental impacts at different geographical levels when sustainable materials are used for construction.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0846
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Metrics development and modelling the mixed reality and digital twin
           adoption in the context of Industry 4.0
    • Authors: Samad M.E. Sepasgozar, Mohsen Ghobadi, Sara Shirowzhan, David J. Edwards, Elham Delzendeh
      Abstract: This paper aims to examine the current technology acceptance model (TAM) in the field of mixed reality and digital twin (MRDT) and identify key factors affecting users' intentions to use MRDT. The factors are used as a set of key metrics for proposing a predictive model for virtual, augmented and mixed reality (MR) acceptance by users. This model is called the extended TAM for MRDT adoption in the architecture, engineering, construction and operations (AECO) industry. An interpretivist philosophical lens was adopted to conduct an inductive systematic and bibliographical analysis of secondary data contained within published journal articles that focused upon MRDT acceptance modelling. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach to meta-analysis were adopted to ensure all key investigations were included in the final database set. Quantity indicators such as path coefficients, factor ranking, Cronbach’s alpha (a) and chi-square (b) test, coupled with content analysis, were used for examining the database constructed. The database included journal papers from 2010 to 2020. The extant literature revealed that the most commonly used constructs of the MRDT–TAM included: subjective norm; social influence; perceived ease of use (PEOU); perceived security; perceived enjoyment; satisfaction; perceived usefulness (PU); attitude; and behavioural intention (BI). Using these identified constructs, the general extended TAM for MRDT in the AECO industry is developed. Other important factors such as “perceived immersion” could be added to the obtained model. The decision to utilise a new technology is difficult and high risk in the construction project context, due to the complexity of MRDT technologies and dynamic construction environment. The outcome of the decision may affect employee performance, project productivity and on-site safety. The extended acceptance model offers a set of factors that assist managers or practitioners in making effective decisions for utilising any type of MRDT technology. Several constraints are apparent due to the limited investigation of MRDT evaluation matrices and empirical studies. For example, the research only covers technologies which have been reported in the literature, relating to virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), MR, DT and sensors, so newer technologies may not be included. Moreover, the review process could span a longer time period and thus embrace a fuller spectrum of technology development in these different areas. The research provides a theoretical model for measuring and evaluating MRDT acceptance at the individual level in the AECO context and signposts future research related to MRDT adoption in the AECO industry, as well as providing managerial guidance for progressive AECO professionals who seek to expand their use of MRDT in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). A set of key factors affecting MRDT acceptance is identified which will help innovators to improve their technology to achieve a wider acceptance.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0880
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Determining a reasonable concession period for risky transportation BOT
           projects with government subsidies based on cumulative prospect theory
    • Authors: Jian Guo, Junlin Chen, Yujie Xie
      Abstract: This paper explores the impact of both government subsidies and decision makers' loss-averse behavior on the determination of transportation build-operate-transfer (BOT) concession periods based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). The prospect value of a transportation project under traffic risk can be formulated according to the value function for gains and losses and the decision weight for gains and losses. As an extra income for investors, government subsidy is designed for highly risky aspects of BOT transportation projects: uncertain initial traffic volumes and fluctuating growth rates. A decision-making model determining the concession period of a transportation BOT project is proposed by using the Monte-Carlo simulation method based on CPT, and the effects of risky behaviors of private investors on concession period decision making are analyzed. A subsidy method related to the internal rate-of-return (IRR) corresponding to a specific initial traffic volume and growth rate is proposed. The case of an actual BOT highway project is examined to illustrate how the method proposed can be used to determine the concession period of a transportation BOT project considering decision makers' loss-averse behavior and government subsidy. Contingency analysis is discussed to cope with possible misestimating of key factors such as initial traffic volume and cost coefficients. Sensitivity analysis is employed to investigate the impact of CPT parameters on the concession period decisions. An actual BOT case which failed to attract private capital is introduced to show the practical application. The results are then interpreted to conclude this paper. Based on comparisons drawn between a concession period decision-making model considering the psychological behaviors of decision makers and a model not considering them, the authors conclude that the concession period based on CPT is distinctly different from that of the loss-neutral model. The concession period based on CPT is longer than the loss-neutral concession period. That is, loss-averse private investors tend to ask for long concession periods to make up for losses they will face in the future. Government subsidies serve as extra income for investors, allowing appointed profits to be secured sooner. For the benefit side of contingency variables, the normal state of initial traffic volume, average annual traffic growth rate and bias degree and the government subsidy need to be paid close attention during the project life span. For the cost side of contingency variables, the annual operating cost variable has a significant impact on the length of predicted concession period, while the large-scale cost variable has minor impact. With an actual BOT highway project, the determination of transportation BOT concession periods based on the psychological behaviors of decision makers is analyzed in this paper. As the psychological behaviors of decision makers heavily impact the decision-making process, the authors analyze their impacts on concession period decision making. Government subsidy is specifically designed for various states of initial traffic volume and fluctuating growth rates to cope with corresponding high risks and mitigate private investors' loss-averse behaviors. Contingency analysis and sensitivity analysis are discussed as the estimated values of parameters may not be authentic in actual situations.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2019-0612
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Developing project evaluation models for smart sustainable practices
           implementation in construction projects: a comparative study between
           Nigeria and Hong Kong
    • Authors: Timothy O. Olawumi, Daniel W.M. Chan
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the key facilitating factors for smart sustainable practices (SSP) and develop a project evaluation model (PEM) for SSP implementation in Nigeria and Hong Kong. SSP is coined from the integration of digital technologies such as Building Information Modelling (BIM) to facilitate sustainability practices. The study employed a quantitative research design approach using empirical questionnaire surveys to solicit the opinions of 69 and 97 construction practitioners in Nigeria and Hong Kong. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to identify the potential survey respondents. The fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique was used to develop the PEMs. The findings revealed that adequate technical expertise of the SSP processes is critical in enhancing its implementation in Hong Kong and Nigeria; as well as the provision of training programs for specialists in smart and sustainable initiatives. Meanwhile, the study's findings advocated that for an SSP-enabled construction project, its project performance is mainly influenced by the client's satisfaction level and the early involvement of the project teams. The study's results are limited to the Nigeria and Hong Kong construction industries. Construction stakeholders such as the clients, developers, contractors can utilize the PEMs to determine and track SSP initiatives implementation in building projects in a reliable and practical way. No tool has been developed for evaluating SSP initiatives at the project level in the construction industry. Using case studies of Hong Kong and Nigeria, PEM indices were developed to measure and track SSP implementation in construction projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2020-0906
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploring a comprehensive knowledge map for promoting safety management
           research in the construction industry
    • Authors: Liang Wang, Yiming Cheng
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to map the safety management research of construction industry by scientometric analysis, which can predict important highlights and future research directions of safety management research in the construction industry. As an important issue in the construction industry, safety management issues have been researched from different perspectives. Although previous studies make knowledge contributions to the safety management research of construction industry, there are still huge obstacles to distinguish the comprehensive knowledge map of safety management research in the construction industry. This study applies three scientometric analysis methods, collaboration network analysis, co-occurrence network analysis and cocitation network analysis, to the safety management research of construction industry. 5,406 articles were retrieved from the core collection database of the Web of Science. CiteSpace was used for constructing a comprehensive analysis framework to analyze and visualize the safety management research of construction industry. According to integrating the analysis results, a knowledge map for the safety management research of construction industry can be constructed. The analysis results revealed the academic communities, key research topics and knowledge body of safety management research in the construction industry. The evolution paths of safety management research in the construction industry were divided into three development stages: “construction safety management”, “multi-objective safety management” and “comprehensive safety management”. Five research directions were predicted on the future safety management research of construction industry, including (1) comprehensive assessment indicators system; (2) intelligent safety management; (3) cross-organization collaboration of safety management; (4) multilevel safety behavior perception and (5) comparative analysis of safety climate. The findings can reveal the overall status of safety management research in the construction industry and represent a high-quality knowledge body of safety management research in the construction industry that accurately reflects the comprehensive knowledge map on the safety management research of construction industry. The findings also predict important highlights and future research directions of safety management research in the construction industry, which will help researchers in the safety management research of construction industry for future collaboration and work.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2020-0984
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Dynamic capabilities for digitalisation in the AECO sector – a
           scientometric review
    • Authors: Douglas Aghimien, Clinton Ohis Aigbavboa, Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke, David Edwards, Wellington Didibhuku Thwala, Chris J. Roberts
      Abstract: A scientometric review of extant literature is conducted to define and delineate upon the enabling dynamic capabilities required to engender the digitalisation of organisations operating in the architecture, engineering, construction and operations (AECO) sector. A secondary aim sought to provide direction for future studies and theories to be tested in this novel field of investigation as well as stimulate wider polemic debate amongst industry stakeholders. An interpretivist philosophical stance and inductive approach was undertaken in this study, using a grounded theory strategy. Secondary data used was sourced from the Scopus journal database using specific related keywords. VOSviewer was used to prepare co-occurrence maps based on the bibliographic data gathered. AECO organisations that seek digitalisation must possess the capability to sense and seize opportunities and threats within the business environment and reconfigure their business processes to best meet their market demand. This can be achieved by improving on attributes relating to industrial management and strategic planning, organisational learning, enterprise resource management and innovative information technology. Future studies should target novel areas such as AECO organisations' ambidexterity and service innovation. This is the first study to explore the dynamic capabilities of AECO organisations in relation to digitalisation adoption. Therefore, the research serves as a robust theoretical background for signposting AECO organisations who seek to transition to digital solutions in the fourth industrial revolution.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2020-1012
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The impact of natural ventilation on airborne biocontaminants: a study on
           COVID-19 dispersion in an open office
    • Authors: Günsu Merin Abbas, Ipek Gursel Dino
      Abstract: Biocontaminants represent higher risks to occupants' health in shared spaces. Natural ventilation is an effective strategy against indoor air biocontamination. However, the relationship between natural ventilation and indoor air contamination requires an in-depth investigation of the behavior of airborne infectious diseases, particularly concerning the contaminant's viral and aerodynamic characteristics. This research investigates the effectiveness of natural ventilation in preventing infection risks for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) through indoor air contamination of a free-running, naturally-ventilated room (where no space conditioning is used) that contains a person having COVID-19 through building-related parameters. This research adopts a case study strategy involving a simulation-based approach. A simulation pipeline is implemented through a number of design scenarios for an open office. The simulation pipeline performs integrated contamination analysis, coupling a parametric 3D design environment, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and energy simulations. The results of the implemented pipeline for COVID-19 are evaluated for building and environment-related parameters. Study metrics are identified as indoor air contamination levels, discharge period and the time of infection. According to the simulation results, higher indoor air temperatures help to reduce the infection risk. Free-running spring and fall seasons can pose higher infection risk as compared to summer. Higher opening-to-wall ratios have higher potential to reduce infection risk. Adjacent window configuration has an advantage over opposite window configuration. As a design strategy, increasing opening-to-wall ratio has a higher impact on reducing the infection risk as compared to changing the opening configuration from opposite to adjacent. However, each building setup is a unique case that requires a systematic investigation to reliably understand the complex airflow and contaminant dispersion behavior. Metrics, strategies and actions to minimize indoor contamination risks should be addressed in future building standards. The simulation pipeline developed in this study has the potential to support decision-making during the adaptation of existing buildings to pandemic conditions and the design of new buildings. The addressed need of investigation is especially crucial for the COVID-19 that is contagious and hazardous in shared indoors due to its aerodynamic behavior, faster transmission rates and high viral replicability. This research contributes to the current literature by presenting the simulation-based results for COVID-19 as investigated through building-related and environment-related parameters against contaminant concentration levels, the discharge period and the time of infection. Accordingly, this research presents results to provide a basis for a broader understanding of the correlation between the built environment and the aerodynamic behavior of COVID-19.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2020-1047
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The mediating role of job stress on the relationship between job
           satisfaction facets and turnover intention of the construction
           professionals
    • Authors: Tharindu C. Dodanwala, Djoen San Santoso
      Abstract: The present study examines the mediating role of job stress on the relationship between job satisfaction facets and turnover intention of the construction project professionals in Sri Lanka. Data were gathered from a cross-sectional survey of 274 project-level employees of 10 construction organizations in Sri Lanka. A path analytical model is developed to assess the research hypotheses. Results support the mediation model of job stress, in which satisfaction with supervision and job security directly contributed to a reduction in stress levels, which in turn lessened the turnover intention. Full mediation is observed from supervision, and partial mediation is observed from job security. Satisfaction with pay and co-workers directly predicted a decline in turnover intention. Contrary to the authors’ expectations, the authors could not find any significant effect from promotion to job stress and promotion to turnover intention. The results further illustrated that demographic variables, i.e. gender, age and organization tenure play a role in determining employees’ stress levels. In identifying how job satisfaction facets, job stress and turnover intention are linked together, the present study added the mediating role of job stress to the previous empirical research on the relationship between job satisfaction facets and turnover intention.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2020-1048
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Investigating major challenges for industry 4.0 adoption among
           construction companies
    • Authors: Sevilay Demirkesen, Algan Tezel
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the challenges hindering the adoption of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) among construction companies. The construction industry needs innovative technologies due to its complex and dynamic nature. In this respect, the latest trends such as digitalization, building information modeling (BIM), Internet of things (IoT) are of utmost importance in terms of fostering the change in managing projects and encouraging industry practitioners to adopt the change for better performance. This paper focuses on I4.0adoption among construction companies. In this respect, a questionnaire was designed and administered to construction professionals to reveal the challenges in I4.0 adoption among construction firms. The respondents were requested to fill in the questionnaire on the I4.0 efforts of their companies. The questionnaire was intended to collect the perceptions of industry practitioners working at large construction companies. Based on these, the challenges listed were ranked based on their relative importance and success indices. Finally, the Mann–Whitney U test was conducted to test whether statistically significant responses exist among groups of respondents (i.e. young and old companies, large and small, high and low revenue and main area of expertise). The results of the study indicated that resistance to change, unclear benefits and gains and cost of implementation are the major important challenges in terms of I4.0 adoption in construction projects. On the other hand, the data analysis implied that the majority of construction organizations successfully deal with the problems arising from lack of standardization, legal and contractual issues and cost of implementing in terms of promoting I4.0 adoption. The study is expected to guide construction practitioners in terms of benefitting from I4.0 applications and deliver projects with better outcomes. This study might be used as a guide for the companies aiming to start their I4.0 transformation knowing the challenges and develop strategies for how to handle them. A concrete plan would help them achieve greater performance and benefit from the I4.0 implementation at the maximum level. Finally, the study implies that construction firms shall prepare action plans for handling each challenge listed and monitor their performance based on the planned and actual data of their projects. This study investigates the major challenges of I4.0 among construction companies. This is one of the important studies, which puts I4.0 focus forefront of the construction industry with a clear identification of challenges that construction organizations have to address to transform their organizations into construction 4.0. The study has the potential to guide both industry practitioners and researchers to develop awareness for the benefits of using the latest technology and fostering innovation. This is expected to create value for construction clients in terms of achieving the product with serious gains such as time and cost.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2020-1059
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Machine learning-aided cost prediction and optimization in construction
           operations
    • Authors: Virok Sharma, Mohd Zaki, Kumar Neeraj Jha, N. M. Anoop Krishnan
      Abstract: This paper aims to use a data-driven approach towards optimizing construction operations. To this extent, it presents a machine learning (ML)-aided optimization approach, wherein the construction cost is predicted as a function of time, resources and environmental impact, which is further used as a surrogate model for cost optimization. Taking a dataset from literature, the paper has applied various ML algorithms, namely, simple and regularized linear regression, random forest, gradient boosted trees, neural network and Gaussian process regression (GPR) to predict the construction cost as a function of time, resources and environmental impact. Further, the trained models were used to optimize the construction cost applying single-objective (with and without constraints) and multi-objective optimizations, employing Bayesian optimization, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm. The results presented in the paper demonstrate that the ensemble methods, such as gradient boosted trees, exhibit the best performance for construction cost prediction. Further, it shows that multi-objective optimization can be used to develop a Pareto front for two competing variables, such as cost and environmental impact, which directly allows a practitioner to make a rational decision. Note that the sequential nature of events which dictates the scheduling is not considered in the present work. This aspect could be incorporated in the future to develop a robust scheme that can optimize the scheduling dynamically. The paper demonstrates that a ML approach coupled with optimization could enable the development of an efficient and economic strategy to plan the construction operations.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0778
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Prioritizing the effective strategies for construction and demolition
           waste management using fuzzy IDOCRIW and WASPAS methods
    • Authors: Maryam Eghbali-Zarch, Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Kazem Dehghan-Sanej, Amin Kaboli
      Abstract: The construction industry is a key driver of economic growth. However, the adverse impacts of construction and demolition waste (CDW) resulted from the active construction projects on the economy, environment, public health and social life necessitates an appropriate control and management of this waste stream. Developing and promoting the construction and demolition waste management (CDWM) hierarchy program at the strategic level is essential. This study aims to propose a hybrid decision model that hybridizes the Integrated Determination of Objective Criteria Weights (IDOCRIW) and weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) under a fuzzy environment. The proposed method ranks the potential strategic alternatives by the sustainable development criteria to improve the performance of CDWM. As indicated in the results, the fuzzy approach in the decision-making process enables the transformation of linguistic variables into fuzzy numbers that show uncertainty and ambiguity in real-world systems. Moreover, the close correlation between the final ranking of the proposed methodology and the average priority order of the strategic alternatives obtained by five different multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods implies the validity of the model performance. This proposed model is an appropriate tool to effectively decide on the development of CDWM from a strategic point of view. It aims to establish an MCDM framework for the evaluation of effective strategies for CDWM according to the indices of sustainable development. Implementing proper operational plans and conducting research in CDWM has the highest priority, and enacting new and more stringent laws, rules and regulations against the production of CDW has secondary priority. This study contributes to the field by optimizing the CDWM by applying the top-priority strategies resulted from the proposed fuzzy hybrid MCDM methodology by the decision-makers or policy-makers to reach the best managerial strategic plan. In the proposed methodology, the IDOCRIW technique is utilized and updated with the triangular fuzzy numbers for the first time in the literature to derive the weights of sustainable development criteria. The fuzzy WASPAS method is utilized for evaluation and providing a final ranking of the strategic alternatives.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0617
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Transformation paths and influencing factors of tacit knowledge into
           explicit knowledge in real estate companies: a qualitative study
    • Authors: Guodong Ni, Ziyao Zhang, Zhenmin Yuan, Haitao Huang, Na Xu, Yongliang Deng
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to figure out the paths about transformation of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, i.e. tacit knowledge explicating (TKE) in real estate companies, and determine the influencing factors of TKE in Chinese real estate companies to enable enterprises make better use of their knowledge resources. The study adopted an exploratory design method using thematic analysis and grounded theory, and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data. The interviewees consisted of employees in different positions, who come from Chinese real estate companies with different ranking ranges and different knowledge management levels. Data collection was divided into two rounds for the identification of transformation paths and influencing factors. This study has shown that 11 paths about TKE divided into solidified organization process and construction of organizational infrastructure go into effect within the real estate companies. Factors influencing TKE in real estate companies concern three main categories: organizational distal factors, contextual proximal factors and individual factors, including 21 subordinates in total. Furthermore, correlation between TKE paths and influencing factors is established. Research results may lack generalizability due to the method adopted. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to verify the outcomes of this research. This research provides a new idea and solutions for the tacit knowledge management in real estate companies. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to systematically identify paths and the influencing factors of TKE in real estate companies, contribute to the incipient but growing understanding of achievement of “tacit to explicit” and enrich the corporate tacit knowledge management literature.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0677
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Trade decomposition of CO emissions of global construction industries
    • Authors: Qun Gao, Bin Liu, Jide Sun, Chunlu Liu, Youquan Xu
      Abstract: This paper aims to clarify the CO2 emissions of global construction industries under the consideration of different patterns of international trade and thus to draw a comprehensive picture for understanding the international paths of CO2 transfer to global construction industries. This research inventories the CO2 emissions induced by the final demand of 15 economies for construction products and explores the CO2 intensities of these economies based on a multi-regional input–output model. This paper further decomposes CO2 emissions into four components based on different patterns of international trade to estimate the roles of four patterns of international trade in shaping the environmental pressures from global construction industries. The results indicate that the CO2 intensities of the construction industries in Russia, India and China were higher than those in other economies, and the CO2 intensities of global construction industries experienced a decline over the years 2000–2014. The decomposition analysis demonstrates that domestic and foreign CO2 emissions accounted for 42.67 and 54.23%, respectively, of the CO2 emissions of the construction industries in the 15 economies during the period 2000–2007. Although the major part of the CO2 emissions of the construction industries come from domestic production systems, the final demand for construction products in the 15 economies caused substantial emissions in other economies. Further decomposition by upstream industrial production source indicates that 58.65% of domestic emissions and 66.53% of foreign emissions can be traced back to the electricity industry. Although the major patterns of CO2 emissions of the construction industry have been identified in this paper, the difficulty of understanding the relationship between upstream production industries or countries and the construction industry deserves more attention in the future research. Previous research on inventorying CO2 emissions has generally been limited to evaluating the impact of industrial consumption activities on national or global emission accounting, tending to ignore the effects of different international trade patterns on the change in industrial CO2 emissions. This research is the first attempt to account for and decompose the CO2 emissions of global construction industries under consideration of the effects of different patterns of international trade on environmental pressures. The decomposition and upstream industrial distributions of different patterns of CO2 emission provide a comprehensive picture for better understanding of the emission pattern and source of the CO2 emissions of global construction industries. The research outcomes reveal how the final demand of a country for construction products induces CO2 emissions in both domestic and foreign systems, thus providing basic information and references for policy adjustment and strategy design in relation to mitigation of climate change and sustainable development.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0703
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Total factor productivity growth and its decomposition in the Chinese
           construction industry since China's accession to the World Trade
           Organization
    • Authors: Yuhe Wang, Gui Ye, Chenli Zheng, Shilian Zhang
      Abstract: Since China's accession of the World Trade Organization (WTO), its construction industry has attained unprecedented growth. However, for the sources of this enormous growth, a controversy regarding the total factor productivity growth (TFPG) still remains in production practice and extant studies. In view of this, the purpose of this paper is to measure TFPG and to explore its sources in the industry post-WTO accession. This study presents an innovative source analysis of TFPG. Stochastic frontier approach is adopted to measure TFPG and to explore its sources by decomposing TFPG into technical progress (TP), technical efficiency change (TEC), allocative efficiency change (AEC) and scale efficiency change (SEC). Although China joined WTO in 2001, to provide an effective baseline, the study period is from 2000 to 2017. The empirical results reveal that TFPG presented an overall downward evolutionary trend, but it still maintained a high growth post-WTO accession. From the perspective of decomposition, TP was the main source of TFPG. Furthermore, as a neglected source, interaction effects among TP, TEC, AEC and SEC have been demonstrated to have a significant influence on the cumulative TFPG. To make the results be reliable, the authors discuss the empirical findings mainly by revealing the reasons behind the evolutions of TFPG and its sources. Based on these revealed reasons, government and policy makers can further refine and summarize some more detailed and targeted policy implications to improve TFPG. By providing many empirical evidences to solve the aforesaid TFPG controversy, this paper, therefore, enriches the body of knowledge on growth theories, especially at the level of industrial economics.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0741
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A measurement model of project control systems success for engineering and
           construction projects case study: contractor companies in Saudi's
           petroleum and chemical industry
    • Authors: Sahar Jawad, Ann Ledwith
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to presents a new modeling approach that provides a measurement tool for evaluating the effectiveness of Project Control Systems (PCS) and the improvement of the project control capability as a part of an organization's project management processes. This study used a project management maturity approach to develop a measurement model of PCS success. The key elements in this model have been identified using the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method to analyze data from a case study involving contractor companies in Saudi's petroleum and chemical industry. The results identified six critical elements for PCS success: (1) Change Management, (2) Earned Value, (3) Baselined Plan, (4) Resource Loaded, (5) Progress Method and (6) Governance Program. In addition, Project Forecasting and Corrective Action Verification were identified as the main areas where clients and contractors need to focus for the effective deployment of a PCS. The results of this study were used to create a PCS Maturity Model (PCSMM) and a PCS Success Index (PCSSI). The value of this index can help project managers to identify the maturity level of their PCS and improvement areas that lead to enhanced project performance. This research presents an alternative maturity model for PCS assessment that provides a practical tool to identify areas for improving the critical elements of PCS success. The study draws a clear distinction between overall project success and the success of the PCS.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2020-0924
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Sustainable architecture and earthquake resilience of vernacular Zegalli
           houses in northern Iran
    • Authors: Mona Zaryoun, Mahmood Hosseini, Kaveh Soleymani
      Abstract: The main purpose of this study is revival of vernacular architecture of Zegalli houses, which can be beneficial in several aspects of sustainable architecture, and therefore, its reuse in contemporary architecture can be strongly recommended. Zegalli houses, in northern Iran, are almost-entirely wooden vernacular houses, which beside to having several aspects of sustainable architecture, have shown good resistance against past earthquakes. Their relatively good seismic performance is mainly because of their specific timber foundation, which creates a kind of rocking/rolling isolation, as well as their light weight and diagonally braced stiff walls. In this paper, first the architectural features of Zegalli houses, particularly energy efficiency, sustainability and eco-friendliness are described. Then, their structural system, focusing more on their foundation, is discussed. Finally, a simplified model of the house, developed in a powerful finite element analysis program, is introduced, and sample results of a series of time history analyses (THA), employing three-component accelerograms of three selected earthquakes, are presented. Results of THA show that the rocking/rolling behavior of foundation timbers in various levels significantly reduces seismic response of the house, leading to its stability against earthquakes with peak ground acceleration up to 0.25 g. Regarding the architectural and structural merits of Zegalli houses, they can be considered as sustainable vernacular architecture, and therefore, architects and civil and structural engineers are encouraged to reconsider the use of these houses, with some modifications, in future developments. 3D dynamics analysis of Shikilli foundations of Zegalli houses is done for the first time in this study.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0362
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Tri-optimization of building shape and envelope properties using Taguchi
           and constraint limit method
    • Authors: Yaolin Lin, Wei Yang
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a tri-optimization approach to optimize design solutions regarding the building shape and envelope properties considering their implications on thermal comfort, visual comfort and building energy consumption (EN). The optimization approach has been applied to obtain the optimal design solutions in five typical cities across all climatic regions of China. The method comprises a tri-optimization process with nine main steps to optimize the three objectives (thermal comfort, visual comfort and building EN). The design variables considered are four types of building shape (pyramid, rectangular, cylindrical and dome shape) and different envelope properties (insulation thickness [INS] of external walls/roof, window type [WT] and window-to-envelop surface area ratio [WESR]). The optimization is performed by using the Taguchi and constraint limit method. The results show that the optimal design solutions for all climatic regions favor cylindrical shape and triple-layer low-E glazing window. The highest insulation level of 150 mm is preferred in three climatic regions, and the INS of 90 mm is preferred in the other two climate regions. In total, 10% WESR is preferred in all climatic regions, except the mild region. When the constraint limit of lighting intensity requirement by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is applied, the rectangular shape building is the optimal solution for those with 10% WESR. The method proposed in the paper is innovative in that it optimizes three different objectives simultaneously in building design with better accuracy and calculation speed. Building designers can easily follow the proposed design guide in their practice which effectively bridges the gap between theory and practice. The optimal design solutions can provide a more comfortable living environment and yet less EN, which can help achieve the sustainability requirement of green buildings. The solutions presented in the paper can serve as a useful guide for practical building designers which creates economic and commercial impact. In addition, the theory and practical examples of the study can be used by building regulators to improve the energy-efficient building design standard in China. The research is the first attempt that adopts tri-optimization approach to generate the optimal solutions for building shape and envelope design. The tri-optimization approach can be used by building designers to generate satisfactory design solutions from the architectural viewpoint and meanwhile to find combinations of the building shape and envelope properties that lead to design solutions with optimal building performance.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0327
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Collaboration in BIM-based construction networks: a qualitative model of
           influential factors
    • Authors: Mehran Oraee, M. Reza Hosseini, David Edwards, Eleni Papadonikolaki
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a modified model for collaboration in BIM-based construction networks (BbCNs). Though BIM is increasingly adopted and implemented across the construction industry, the problems associated with the lack of collaboration among teams in BbCNs remain a major hindrance to reaping the full potential of BIM. Previous studies have been conceptual in nature. This paper, therefore, attempts to modify and validate existing conceptual models that describe collaboration in BbCNs. To modify the conceptual model for collaboration in BbCNs, qualitative data through semi-structured interviews with BIM experts in the industry were collected and analysed using qualitative methods including the use of NVivo software. The proposed model includes influential factors and their sub-factors to collaboration in BbCNs, as well as considering their indicators. Findings reveal that several overlooked concepts, particularly unfavourable BIM contractual arrangements, act as the root causes of the unwillingness of team members in BbCNs to engage in collaborative efforts. The study's findings must be viewed in light of several limitations. First, the interviewees in this study were based in Australia hence their perceptions of BIM collaboration are reflective of the sociotechnical setting of BIM-enabled projects in this country. Also, the findings are based on the perception of experts in the field, rather than analysis of performance measures or quantitative assessment of associations among collaboration outcomes and various factors. This, however, provides the field with fertile grounds for future research. The study benefits researchers by shifting the collaboration discourse in BIM-enabled projects from technology-related issues to the people and contractual-related domains. Moreover, the developed qualitative model provides industry professionals with a point of reference to improve collaboration on BIM-enabled projects. The study benefits researchers by shifting the collaboration discourse in BIM-enabled projects from technology-related issues to the people and contractual-related domains. Moreover, the developed qualitative model provides industry professionals with a point of reference to improve collaboration on BIM-enabled projects. Arguments provided in this study highlight the necessity of considering the contractual arrangement of BIM-related projects and foster the willingness of team members to collaborate. This can be addressed using clear and comprehensive BIM execution plans and clearly explaining the role of BIM managers in the process.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-07
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0865
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploring the benefits and trade-offs of design standardization in capital
           projects
    • Authors: Jin Ouk Choi, Binit Kumar Shrestha, Young Hoon Kwak, Jennifer Shane
      Abstract: Facility design standardization strategy has considerable advantages, highlighted by its widespread and consistent use in the shipbuilding and manufacturing industries. However, capital projects have failed to realize these benefits. The primary rationale behind this problem is the lack of proper understanding of design standardization, more specifically the benefits and equally importantly, the trade-offs of design standardization in capital projects. Therefore, this study highlights 13 benefits and six trade-offs of standardization in connection to design standardization, along with specific examples. To achieve the study objectives, the researchers identified the most impactful benefits and trade-offs in terms of economic impact by surveying prominent players in the industry. Furthermore, the researchers examined 43 actual case projects (a case study) executed with the standardization strategy to evaluate the industry's status in terms of the levels of advantage achievement and disadvantage incurrence. The results of this survey show that design once, reuse multiple times and design and procurement in advance are the most impactful benefits. Similarly, susceptible to changes in the market conditions is one of the top trade-offs that can be incurred in capital projects when implementing standardization. The results also highlight that design once, reuse multiple times is one of the most achieved benefits in standardized capital projects today, while cost of establishing the design standard is the most incurred trade-off. This study provides important insight into how standardization strategy can be advantageous while also enriching the literature about pitfalls expected from standardization. Moreover, this study's results will help the industrial sector achieve higher levels of design standardization by providing a better understanding of the benefits and trade-offs of design standardization.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0661
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Challenges of BIM implementation in GCC construction industry
    • Authors: Tariq Umar
      Abstract: In some regions including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region where construction is one of the main industries, the implementation of BIM is still at a slow rate. This article attempts to know the current situation of BIM and explore the challenges in the BIM implementation in the GCC construction industry. A mixed research approach that includes a systematic literature review and a survey questionnaire was adopted to achieve the aim of this research. For the systematic review, four main databases were search considering a period of 2010–2019 to identify the main challenges in the BIM implementation. A total of 39 different challenges from 47 documents were classified into four main categories. A structured questionnaire developed on these challenges was sent to 206 selected from the top construction organizations from all over the GCC region. A total of 39 different challenges from 47 documents were classified into four main categories. The respondents for the questionnaire were selected from the top construction organization from all over the GCC region. A large number of the respondents (69.79%) reported that their organizations are planning for BIM implementation in their future projects. The results show that top challenges fall under the main categories of “Organization”, “Technical”, “Government and Legal” and “Environment”. While the paper provides an overview of BIM in a global context, however, the dynamics and maturity of the construction industry in different regions are quite different from each other. Since the data collected in this research is from the GCC region, the results are more relevant to the GCC region. The finding of this research identifies the main challenges which GCC construction is facing in the implementation of BIM. The finding will, therefore, be useful for the key stakeholders to develop strategies to overcome these challenges and pave the road to take the advantages of BIM implementation in construction. The BIM implementation in the GCC construction industry will not only improve the performance of the industry but will also open the doors for new opportunities and employment. The BIM implementation in construction will help the region to achieve Goal 9 (industrial innovation and improved infrastructure) of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The results of this study help to understand the overall situation including the challenges in the BIM implementation in the GCC construction industry. This study will be helpful for all the stakeholders to develop strategies for the effective implementation of BIM in the GCC construction industry.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2019-0608
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Using existing site surveillance cameras to automatically measure the
           installation speed in prefabricated timber construction
    • Authors: Alireza Ahmadian Fard Fini, Mojtaba Maghrebi, Perry John Forsythe, Travis Steven Waller
      Abstract: Measuring onsite productivity has been a substance of debate in the construction industry, mainly due to concerns about accuracy, repeatability and unbiasedness. Such characteristics are central to demonstrate construction speed that can be achieved through adopting new prefabricated systems. Existing productivity measurement methods, however, cannot cost-effectively provide solid and replicable evidence of prefabrication benefits. This research proposes a low-cost automated method for measuring onsite installation productivity of prefabricated systems. Firstly, the captured ultra-wide footages are undistorted by extracting the curvature contours and performing a developed meta-heuristic algorithm to straighten these contours. Then a preprocessing algorithm is developed that could automatically detect and remove the noises caused by vibrations and movements. Because this study aims to accurately measure the productivity the noise free images are double checked in a specific time window to make sure that even a tiny error, which have not been detected in the previous steps, will not been amplified through the process. In the next step, the existing side view provided by the camera is converted to a top view by using a spatial transformation method. Finally, the processed images are compared with the site drawings in order to detect the construction process over time and report the measured productivity. The developed algorithms perform nearly real-time productivity computations through exact matching of actual installation process and digital design layout. The accuracy and noninterpretive use of the proposed method is demonstrated in construction of a multistorey cross-laminated timber building. This study uses footages of an already installed surveillance camera where the camera's features are unknown and then image processing algorithms are deployed to retrieve accurate installation quantities and cycle times. The algorithms are almost generalized and versatile to be adjusted to measure installation productivity of other prefabricated building systems.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2020-0281
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The situational and individual determinants of entrepreneurship in the
           construction industry
    • Authors: Martin Loosemore, Andrew McCallum
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the situational and individual factors which motivate entrepreneurs to start a business in the construction industry. Semi-structured interviews are undertaken with twenty-five entrepreneurs in the Australian construction industry. Findings highlight the importance of eight recurring “situational” themes leading to the decision to start a business in the construction industry: life experiences; family background; roles models; education; previous employment; construction industry experience - especially at an early age; cultural factors and serendipity. Findings also reveal six recurring “individual” themes: individual agency; need for achievement; work–life balance; desire for independence, frustration avoidance and strategic instrumentality. The findings indicate that mainstream theories of entrepreneurship may underplay the importance of intergenerational traditions and cultural and informal institutional knowledge in the construction industry. The research is limited to interviews undertaken in the Australian construction industry. The findings have important implications for research, policy and educational practice. For researchers they highlight the potential value of social identity and new institutional theories as novel conceptual lenses in future construction entrepreneurship research. They also raise new methodological questions regarding the use of ethnographic methods which are relatively rare in construction research. This research also has important implications for educators in informing novel pedagogies for delivering entrepreneurial education which engages students in experiential learning. The findings also inform innovation policy to enable more entrepreneurship in what is seen widely as a low-innovation industry. There is widespread agreement about the importance of entrepreneurship as a driver of increased productivity, income, employment, ecological health and social equality and mobility in society. This is especially important to minority groups such as refugees and Indigenous people who employ entrepreneurship to circumvent the many barriers they face in gaining traditional employment in the construction industry. Drawing on both psychological and sociological schools of thought in entrepreneurship theory, this paper answers calls for more qualitative and industry-specific entrepreneurship research. It contributes new insights to both mainstream and construction entrepreneurship research by contributing new insights by highlighting situational and individual factors which motivate entrepreneurs to start a business in construction.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2019-0521
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Bioclimatic architecture and its energy-saving potentials: a review and
           future directions
    • Authors: Emmanuel Imuetinyan Aghimien, Danny Hin Wa Li, Ernest Kin-Wai Tsang
      Abstract: This paper reviews extant studies on bioclimatic architecture with a view of revealing the focus areas of past studies and mapping out future research directions useful in achieving building energy efficiency. A mixed-method systematic review that integrates quantitative and qualitative analysis was adopted. The bibliographic data were extracted from the Scopus database, and a scientometric analysis was conducted to analyse the data quantitatively. Qualitative content analysis is then presented, which provided a basis for mapping out trends and gaps in current knowledge. It is observed that there has been a rise in the number of studies on bioclimatic architecture over the last two decades. Past studies have focused on sustainability, building performance simulation, building climatology and energy use, solar energy applications and passive cooling. Artificial intelligence, algorithm coupling and acoustic comfort were some of the emerging areas discovered in this study. The study reveals research gaps that researchers can investigate. The information provided can help the building industry stakeholders in decision-making. It serves as a guideline for maximising the potential benefits of adopting bioclimatic designs in the building industry. Furthermore, it provides references that aid policy formulation for government agencies and corporate organisations. The study fills the literature gap caused by the need for a holistic literature review that relates bioclimatic architecture and its energy efficiency implications. It is also the first study on bioclimatic architecture that adopts a mix of scientometric and qualitative analysis for analysing past studies on bioclimatic architecture.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2020-0928
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Administrative risks challenging the adoption of smart contracts in
           construction projects
    • Authors: Asli Pelin Gurgun, Kerim Koc
      Abstract: As a remedy to usually voluminous, complicated and not easily readable construction contracts, smart contracts can be considered as an effective and alternative solution. However, the construction industry is merely known as a frontrunner for fast adoption of recent technological advancements. Numerous administrative risks challenge construction companies to implement smart contracts. To highlight this issue, this study aims to assess the administrative risks of smart contract adoption in construction projects. A literature survey is conducted to specify administrative risks of smart contracts followed by a pilot study to ensure that the framework is suitable to the research question. The criteria weights are calculated through the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process method, followed by a sensitivity analysis based on degree of fuzziness, which supports the robustness of the developed hierarchy and stability of the results. Then, a focus group discussion (FGD) is performed to discuss the mitigation strategies for the top-level risks in each risk category. The final framework consists of 27 sub-criteria, which are categorized under five main criteria, namely, contractual, cultural, managerial, planning and relational. The findings show that (1) regulation change, (2) lack of a driving force, (3) works not accounted in planning, (4) shortcomings of current legal arrangements and (5) lack of dispute resolution mechanism are the top five risks challenging the adoption of smart contracts in construction projects. Risk mitigation strategies based on FGD show that improvements for the semi-automated smart contract drafting are considered more practicable compared to full automation. The literature is limited in terms of the adoption of smart contracts, while the topic is receiving more attention recently. To support easy prevalence of smart contracts, this study attempts the most challenging aspects of smart contract adoption.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0678
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • An intelligent simulation-based framework for automated planning of
           concrete construction works
    • Authors: Sina Mohammadi, Mehdi Tavakolan, Banafsheh Zahraie
      Abstract: This paper proposes an innovative intelligent simulation-based construction planning framework that introduces a new approach to simulation-based construction planning. In this approach, the authors developed an ontological inference engine as an integrated part of a constraint-based simulation system that configures the construction processes, defines activities and manages resources considering a variety of requirements and constraints during the simulation. It allows for the incorporation of the latest project information and a deep level of construction planning knowledge in the planning. The construction planning knowledge is represented by an ontology and several semantic rules. Also, the proposed framework uses the project building information model (BIM) to extract information regarding the construction product and the relations between elements. The extracted information is then converted to an ontological format to be useable by the framework. The authors implemented the framework in a case study project and tested its usefulness and capabilities. It successfully generated the construction processes, activities and required resources based on the construction product, available resources and the planning rules. It also allowed for a variety of analyses regarding different construction strategies and resource planning. Moreover, 4D BIM models that provide a very good understanding of the construction plan can be automatically generated using the proposed framework. The active integration between BIM, discrete-event simulation (DES) and ontological knowledge base and inference engine defines a new class of construction simulation with expandable applications.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2020-0971
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Total quality management (TQM) implementation in the Nigerian construction
           industry
    • Authors: Samuel Ikechukwu Egwunatum, Anthony Chukwunedum Anumudu, Emmanuel Chidiebere Eze, Imoleayo Abraham Awodele
      Abstract: Lack of strict compliance to the principles of total quality management (TQM) by construction organizations has brought about poor quality of the finished building projects. This has been blamed for the incessant structural failure reported in Nigeria. This study appraised TQM implementation in the Nigerian construction industry, with a view to mitigating structural failure rate of construction projects. To achieve this aim, the study aims to assess the practice level of TQM and the factors hindering TQM implementation on construction projects. The study utilized a well-structured questionnaire and convenient sampling method in the gathering and sampling of data among construction professionals in Imo state, Nigeria. Data analyses were done using, frequency, percentage, mean analytics and Pareto analysis. The study revealed that major practice of TQM principles with respect to structural failure rate are purchasing: ensuring the procurement of materials of the specified quality standard, ensuring the use of a quality improvement construction process of the organization, site management responsibility: this entails ensuring quality supervision by the project management leadership and monitoring and control of quality during the construction to guarantee firm observance quality standards. Also, the major factors hindering TQM implementation on construction projects are: inadequacy of the necessary machineries, equipment, tools and facilities for the effective execution of work on construction site; breakdown in communication and information exchange between the management and supervisory teams on site; poor attitudes and strategies toward maintenance of equipment, tools and machines; and absence of prompt salary and incentive payment. It was recommended that construction firms must require the suppliers of construction materials to strictly comply with quality specification evidence in quality certification of delivered materials to mitigate structural failure. This study appraised TQM implementation in the construction industry of Nigeria, with emphasis on Imo state. The study underscores the practice level of TQM and the key factors hindering TQM implementation on construction projects. Following the localized geographical limitation of the study area, a similar research in other part/states of Nigeria or even in other developing countries of African is necessary. The practices level of TQM and the factors hindering TQM implementation were identified. This will be useful in guiding construction firms, other industry's key stakeholders and regulatory agencies in bringing about a sustainable quality management system for improve profit and value maximization and avoiding incessant structural failure. This is one of the few studies that have assessed the practice level of TQM and the factors hindering TQM implementation on construction projects in Nigeria. This study took place in Imo state with records of periodic structural failure and building collapse.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0639
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Management control structures and performance implications in
           international construction joint ventures: critical survey and conceptual
           framework
    • Authors: Mershack Opoku Tetteh, Albert P.C. Chan, Ernest Effah Ameyaw, Amos Darko, Sitsofe Kwame Yevu, Emmanuel B. Boateng
      Abstract: Management control is needed in international joint ventures (IJVs) for successful management and performance. While IJV management control and performance concept has been widely explored, in the construction sector, the core understanding of the design of the two concepts is still lacking. This has resulted in the neglect of important questions and directions for research and practice improvement. This study aims to conduct a critical survey of prior studies addressing the conceptualization of management control and performance in IJVs and to propose a framework for studying the performance implications of management control in international construction joint ventures (ICJVs). Using Scopus database and search terms, a systematic desktop search was conducted to retrieve empirically related peer-reviewed papers for this study. Drawing on the transaction cost, institutional and relational logic, the first inclusive hypothetical model for studying the relationship between different dimensions of management control mechanism and multiple performance criteria in ICJVs is presented. The model proposes a measurement method for both the management control and performance and explains how they can be established in ICJVs. The proposed framework provides a methodology to understand the dynamics of management control and performance implications in ICJV. Specifically, uncovering the critical paths will assist ICJV frontliners to approach management control in a more holistic and systematic way to promote achievement of ICJV goals. The study gives a firm ground to the construction industry, which is accurate and educational for related fields concentrating on several other forms of cooperative relationships.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-26
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0579
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Identifying high-frequency–low-severity construction safety risks: an
           empirical study based on official supervision reports in Shanghai
    • Authors: Guangbin Wang, Muyang Liu, Dongping Cao, Dan Tan
      Abstract: Few of the established risk identification methods refer to low-severity yet high-frequency safety risks data that may lead to several safety risks being ignored, thus reducing the potential of learning from a considerable number of cases. The purpose of this study is to explore a new valid method based on preaccident safety supervision data to identify these minor construction safety risks during routine construction operations. A total of 329 official construction safety supervision reports containing 5,159 safety problem records from Shanghai between 2016 and 2018 served as raw material for in-depth analysis. Given the characteristics of the data collected, text mining integrated with natural language processing was applied to review the supervision reports and group safety risks automatically. This study clarifies the way in which the supervision data should be employed to analyze high-frequency–low-severity safety risks. From these data, seven unsafe-act-related and nine unsafe-condition-related risks are identified. Regarding unsafe-act-related risks, inappropriate human behaviors could usually occur in personnel management, contract management, expense management, material management and acceptance work. For unsafe-condition-related risks, hoisting, scaffolding and reinforcement works are the main generators of onsite safety hazards during construction operations. The study includes implications for project managers and supervisors to facilitate more effective proactive risk management by paying more attention to collecting and employing the supervision data established in each routine inspection. Whereas previous research focused on analyzing severe accidents, this study seeks to identify the high-frequency–low-severity construction safety risks using the preaccident supervision data. The findings could provide a new thought and research direction for construction safety risk management.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0581
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Project control and forecast assessment of building projects in Pakistan
           using earned value management
    • Authors: Hafiz Zahoor, Rashid Mehmood Khan, Ahsan Nawaz, Muhammad Ayaz, Ahsen Maqsoom
      Abstract: Earned Value Management (EVM) is widely used as a project performance measurement and forecasting technique. Nonetheless, it has not been fully explored in Pakistani construction industry; where conventional progress reporting methodology (CPRM) is being followed having certain confines. It reports only the financial progress of a project, expresses feeble association between the duration and cost of activities, and forecasts flawed schedule and completion cost. This research implements EVM on under-construction building projects in Pakistan, and compares its upshots with the projects' actual records and with the outcomes of CPRM. To assess the implementation of EVM on building projects, a set of specific criteria was established. Work Breakdown Structure, Organization Breakdown Structure and Control Points were established. The study has compared the EVM metrics with CPRM outcomes on three under-study building projects, and has deliberated on their mutual differences as well as their relationship with actual cost and schedule performance. Monthly figures of actual spending and completed activities were periodically recorded and compared with planned values for status indication. The graphs were generated to observe the correlation between the results of EVM and CPRM. The data was then extrapolated to forecast the schedule and cost values at completion. The study discovered that trends of EVM in quantifying the project's cost and schedule performance were strongly correlated and were closer to the actual progress. It has also verified the EVM's soundness in forecasting the cost and schedule, required for project's completion. Contrarily, CPRM metrics could not precisely visualize the current and future, cost and schedule performance. The case study concludes that EVM's incorporation in progress reporting regime can revolutionize the assessment procedures in Pakistan by rightly indicating the project's current status as well as visualizing the future performance. The study's methodology can also be extrapolated in other countries having similar work environment and economic conditions.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2020-0989
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Window geometry impact on a room's wind comfort
    • Authors: Reza Fallahtafti, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad
      Abstract: Natural ventilation is an environmentally friendly effective way of improving thermal comfort and the quality of indoor conditions if applied properly. This study aims to investigate the physical mechanism of the air movement and also the influence of building geometry in a cross-ventilated room through a parametric study of window geometrical characteristics using computational fluid dynamics. Momentum and continuity equations are solved by the control volume method using a commercially available software. Standard k−ɛ turbulence model is employed to simulate the incompressible airflow and SIMPLE algorithm to solve the conservation equations. Mean air velocity magnitude is measured at three different surfaces of different heights, and the effect of incoming wind velocity inside the building is studied. The research concluded that window hood and sill projections reduce indoor wind velocity magnitude, play a major role in incoming wind direction and thus have a crucial impact on wind circulation and indoor air quality. The paper has evaluated redesigning of a both practical and ornamental architectural element named Palekaneh, which is found in many historical buildings in several hot places in the world. Its optimal design could increase indoor natural ventilation quality and decrease a space's cooling load. Therefore, a new passive cooling architectural element could be re-introduced to the regions previously enjoying such ornaments. This is economically efficient because it eventually saves a considerable amount of energy in the long run and is socially important because of the revitalization of architectural identity. The role of a building envelope's physical features, although being studied for solar absorption and daylight availability, has rarely been investigated for natural ventilation, especially in a small scale, thus making the paper novel in this regard. This provides a guideline for designers to assess the impact of their design on redirecting wind-induced natural ventilation the very early stages of design.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-24
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-01-2020-0075
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Government efforts and roadmaps for building information modeling
           implementation: lessons from Singapore, the UK and the US
    • Authors: Rui Jiang, Chengke Wu, Xiang Lei, Ammar Shemery, Keith D. Hampson, Peng Wu
      Abstract: The government plays a critical role in driving building information modeling (BIM) implementation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the government efforts for driving BIM implementation in three benchmark countries, namely, Singapore, the UK and the US, so as to develop appropriate roadmaps for increasing BIM implementations in other countries. This study performs a review on the government efforts and roles in BIM implementation in three benchmark countries, namely, Singapore, the UK and the US. Through cross comparison with existing literature, it is found that Singapore and the UK adopt a government-driven approach and a phase-by-phase development pattern is observed. The first phase focuses on the building sector to rapidly increase the use of BIM and the government generally plays the role of an initiator. In the second phase, BIM is expanded to other implementation areas, e.g. smart city. The importance of the initiator role decreases and more attention is paid to supporting roles such as researcher, educator and regulator. In contrast, an industry-driven approach is adopted in the US. The main role of the government is that of a regulator, with research institutions actively supporting the BIM implementation. General roadmaps of the two mandating approaches are presented. The results can provide a useful reference for countries and regions that intend to develop roadmaps to increase their BIM maturity level and enhance readiness to accept and implement BIM. This study is one of the first studies that investigate the step-by-step roadmaps for implementing BIM from the perspective of changing government roles.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-24
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2019-0438
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploring the relationship between failure factors and stakeholder
           coordination performance in high-rise building projects: empirical study
           in the finishing phase
    • Authors: Sy Tien Do, Viet Thanh Nguyen, Chau Ngoc Dang
      Abstract: This study aims to discover the impact of failure factors on stakeholder coordination performance (SCP) in the finishing phase of high-rise building projects. Firstly, this study identifies potential failure factors affecting coordination performance as well as criteria for measuring SCP in the finishing phase of high-rise building projects. Afterwards, a survey questionnaire is designed to collect data from high-rise building projects in Vietnam. Using the factor analysis method, the study discovers the failure constructs. A structural equation model is then built to uncover the relationships between failure constructs and SCP. The study identified four failure constructs which could significantly affect SCP, namely traditional adversarial relationship (TAR), incompetent parties (IP), poor project planning and organization (PPO) and delays of parties toward construction works (DP). The developed model indicated that TAR, PPO and IP significantly affected stakeholders' coordination performance in the finishing phase of high-rise building projects. The results of the study fill the gap in knowledge by discovering the causal relationships between failure constructs and SCP in high-rise building projects. The results might provide an initial guideline for stakeholders during the finishing phase of high-rise building projects to enhance their coordination performance.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-23
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0744
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Multidimensional behavioral responses to the implementation of BIM in
           construction projects: an empirical study in China
    • Authors: Dongping Cao, Shiting Shao, Bin Huang, Guangbin Wang
      Abstract: Despite its great potential to improve the sustainability of architectural, engineering, construction and facility management activities, the implementation of building information modeling (BIM) in many projects has failed to achieve expected benefits due to negative behavioral responses such as user resistance. This paper aims to characterize the complexity of end user's behavioral responses to BIM implementation in construction projects using a multidimensional perspective and examines how these responses are impacted by different levels of contextual factors. By integrating technology acceptance, resistance and adoption literature, this paper theoretically proposes a research model to characterize the associations between different dimensions of behavioral responses and different levels of contextual factors. The model is then empirically tested with survey and interview data collected from BIM-based construction projects in China. The empirical results not only validate the two-dimensional view of the behavioral responses (i.e. the dimension of support/resistance that ranges from aggressive resistance to enthusiastic support, and the dimension of actual use that ranges from non-use to high use) but also provide evidence for the prevalence of ambivalent responses such as supporting but lowly using and resisting but highly using. The empirical results also provide evidence that different levels of contextual factors generally play different roles in shaping the behavioral responses. Specifically, the dimension of support/resistance is more substantially impacted by the team-level factor while the dimension of actual use of BIM is more significantly associated with the project-level factor. While previous research on BIM adoption or implementation behaviors has primarily focused on investigating users' response from single-dimension perspectives such as acceptance or non-acceptance, this study represents an exploratory effort of using a two-dimensional view to characterize the complexity and ambivalence of end users' behavioral responses to the implementation of innovative technologies such as BIM in construction projects. This study also contributes to deepened understandings of how these different dimensions of behavioral responses are intricately shaped by different levels (i.e. individual-, team- and project-levels) of contextual factors in construction projects which are characterized as temporary and inter-organizational.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0735
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Project buffer sizing and dynamic buffer consumption algorithm in power
           generation construction
    • Authors: Shakib Zohrehvandi, Mohammad Khalilzadeh, Maghsoud Amiri, Shahram Shadrokh
      Abstract: The aim of this research is to propose a buffer sizing and buffer controlling algorithm (BSCA) as a heuristic algorithm for calculating project buffer and feeding buffers as well as dynamic controlling of buffer consumption in different phases of a wind power plant project in order to achieve a more realistic project duration. The BSCA algorithm has two main phases of planning and buffer sizing and construction and buffer consumption. Project buffer and feeding buffers are determined in the planning and buffer sizing phase, and their consumption is controlled in the construction and buffer consumption phase. The heuristic algorithm was coded and run in MATLAB software. The sensitivity analysis was conducted to show the BSCA influence on project implementation. Then, to evaluate the BSCA algorithm, inputs from this project were run through several algorithms recently presented by researchers. Finally, the data of 20 projects previously accomplished by the company were applied to compare the proposed algorithm. The results show that BSCA heuristic algorithm outperformed the other algorithms as it shortened the projects' durations. The average project completion time using the BSCA algorithm was reduced by about 15% compared to the previous average project completion time. The proposed BSCA algorithm determines both the project buffer and feeding buffers and simultaneously controls their consumption in a dynamic way.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0605
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Barriers to employment for refugees seeking work in the Australian
           construction industry: an exploratory study
    • Authors: Martin Loosemore, Suhair Z. Alkilani, Ahmed W.A. Hammad
      Abstract: In Australia, as in many other countries, refugees are over-represented in the ranks of the unemployed, under-employed and precariously employed and often become frustrated in their attempts to secure work. Despite the construction industry being a major potential source of employment for refugees, there has been a surprising lack of research into their experiences of securing work in the industry. Addressing this gap and also the general lack of voice for refugees in construction research, the aim of this paper is to explore the barriers refugees face in securing employment in the construction industry. This paper reports a survey of refugees who have worked or attempted to seek work in the Australian construction industry. Results show that the main barriers to securing employment in construction are: lack of local work experience; employer discrimination; employer failure to recognise previous qualifications, skills and experience and employers not understanding the challenges they face. Government employment agencies and systems are also perceived to be of limited value and overly complex, in contrast to the activities of not-for-profit support agencies. While the research is limited to Australia, the findings contribute an important and missing refugee dimension to the emerging body of research on construction social procurement. They also contribute unique sector-specific insights into the broader debate about refugee resettlement and employment. Further research is needed in other national contexts. Recommendations are made to address the barriers to employment identified including: initiatives to provide refugees with work experience in the industry; education to break-down negative stereotypes of refugees among employers; greater support for not-for-profits supporting refugees and reform of government and employment agency systems and procedures. By enhancing understanding of the barriers to employment for refugees in construction and proposing solutions to reduce those barriers, this research contributes new insights into a growing global challenge of how we better integrate growing numbers of refugees into harmonious and prosperous societies. The findings are important in facilitating the smoother integration of refugees into society. Beyond the moral imperative, there are significant social, cultural and economic benefits which successful refugee integration brings to host countries and industries like construction which in many countries are now being required to employ refugees in their workforce as a condition of public sector contracts.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0664
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The interplay between financial rules, trust and power in strategic
           partnerships in the construction industry

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Jelle Koolwijk, Clarine van Oel, Mirjam Bel
      Abstract: To explore how and why the social structures of strategic partnerships are shaped by actors and how these interrelate with a team's interpersonal relationships over time. Grasping the complexity of this interplay is essential if we want to comprehend what actually goes on in these partnerships and understand why actors often disengage from them. In three cases, 14 in-depth interviews were held with knowledgeable actors about important events and activities that influenced the relationships between partners. Interview data were triangulated with journals kept by the lead author, who participated as an engaged scholar in the three cases. Because this study took an interdisciplinary approach, new insights could evolve from the multi-level analysis. Trust has a moderating effect on the relation between open-book accounting and the degree of control a dominant party wants to exercise. When the level of control is raised, this can signal distrust to the other partners, which can harm the relationship. When partners feel more dependent on each other's capabilities to reach their long-term goals, the parties seem to be less likely to put the blame on one of the partners in the case of undesirable events. Managers should be aware of their power position and acknowledge the effects of power on their relationships. If long-term and close collaboration does not emerge in their partnership, it may be due to how they use their power position. Thanks to the interdisciplinary approach, this is the first study that shows the significance of trust and power in maintaining strategic partnerships in the construction industry, and how trust can affect the financial rules of actors.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0713
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Using issue logs to improve construction project performance
    • Authors: Amirali Shalwani, Brian Lines
      Abstract: The Project Management Body of Knowledge recommends the use of issue logs as a best practice to minimize the potential project cost and schedule growth. Although the broader topic of project control has been widely studied in the construction literature, the specific application of issue logs has remained relatively understudied. This study aims to analyze the extent and consistency with which construction teams utilize issue logs and the corresponding project performance outcomes. A dataset of 5,635 individual issues was gathered from the final issue logs of 881 small building projects delivered via the design–bid–build method. Differences between groups were determined using the Kruskal–Wallis H test with post hoc testing via the Mann–Whitney U test with pairwise comparison. The results showed that, on average, project teams who used issue logs to a greater extent achieved a 3.1 to 4.3% reduction in cost growth and a 5.3 to 12.3% reduction in schedule growth. This result shows that issue logs can be used to improve construction project performance in the areas of cost and schedule. This result provides a contribution to practitioners, wherein project teams should be encouraged to establish their issue management practices early in the project schedule to encourage greater issue log usage for the remainder of the project.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2020-1089
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Developing a framework for evaluating construction project safety levels
           and optimal cost allocation to safety influential factors
    • Authors: Amir Bahador Ketabi, Gholamreza Heravi
      Abstract: This study aimed to explain how a framework could be developed for (1) the preliminary estimation of project safety level (PSL) in current projects, (2) the estimation of the maximum possible PSL using limited financial resources and (3) the estimation of the minimum financial resources required for reaching a specific PSL. The data of 95 steel structural building projects were collected via a questionnaire to evaluate the proposed framework for the Iranian construction industry. Based on unofficial local construction statistics and literature reviews, six safety influential factors (SIFs) were selected to which a cost could be assigned. The costs associated with various levels were also determined for each SIF through literature reviews and expert interviews. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model was developed as a predictive model to determine PSL for future projects based on the data of previous projects. Moreover, linear programming (LP) was applied to take modeling constraints and project conditions into account. The results demonstrated the impacts of all the factors on PSL and the model's potential for the preliminary estimation of PSL using SIFs. The results also indicated that a higher PSL could be achieved by optimizing the allocation of financial resources to each SIF. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by developing a step-by-step framework to identify an optimal safety cost allocation (OSCA) to achieve the maximum possible PSL using a limited safety budget and considering the data of similar projects. The main objective was to promote project safety, decrease construction site injuries and fatalities and help local construction industries exploit potential financial advantages.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-17
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0536
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • ANP model for evaluating the performance of adaptive façade systems in
           complex commercial buildings

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Ibrahim Yitmen, Amjad Al-Musaed, Fikri Yücelgazi
      Abstract: Decisions taken during the early design of adaptive façades involving kinetic, active and responsive envelope for complex commercial buildings have a substantial effect on inclusive building functioning and the comfort level of inhabitants. This study aims to present the application of an analytic network process (ANP) model indicating the order of priority for high performance criteria that must be taken into account in the assessment of the performance of adaptive façade systems for complex commercial buildings. The nominal group technique (NGT) stimulating and refining group judgments are used to find and categorize relevant high performance attributes of the adaptive façade systems and their relative pair-wise significance scores. An ANP model is applied to prioritize these high performance objectives and criteria for the adaptive façade systems. Embodied energy and CO2 emission, sustainability, energy saving, daylight and operation maintenance were as the most likely and crucial high performance criteria. The criteria and the weights presented in this study could be used as guidelines for evaluating the performance of adaptive façade systems for commercial buildings in planning and design phases. This research primarily provides the required actions and evaluations for design managers in accomplishing a high performance adaptive façade system, with the support of an ANP method. Before beginning the adaptive façade system of a building design process, the design manager must determine the significance of each of these attributes as high performance primacies will affect the results all through the entire design process. In this research, a relatively innovative, systematic and practical approach is proposed to sustain the decision-making procedure for evaluation of the high performance criteria of adaptive façade systems in complex commercial buildings.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-17
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0559
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Thermal performance assessment of cool roofs on supermarkets through case
           analysis in 13 cities
    • Authors: Juan Carlos Ríos-Fernández
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the use of cool roof technology to avoid unnecessary energy consumption in supermarkets. This will allow to reduce and even cancel the heat absorbed by the roofs, transferring it to the buildings and thus, creating more sustainable cities. Thirteen real supermarkets with cool roofs were analysed in Australia, Canada, the USA and Spain. An analysis of so many supermarkets located in different parts of the world with different climatic zones has allowed an inductive analysis, obtaining real data of energy consumption associated with the air conditioning installations for a year with and without implementing the cool roof technology. The paper provides insights on how the use of cool roof managed to reduce the need for energy for heating, ventilating and air conditioning by between 3.5 and 38%. Additionally, this technology reduces the annual generation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per square meter of supermarket up to 2.7 kgCO2/m2. It could be an economical technology to apply in new and old buildings with a period of average economic recovery of four years. Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may be generalisable. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test proposals in construction with other uses. The paper includes economic and environmental implications for the development of cool roof technology and smooths the way for its implementation to increase energy efficiency in commercial buildings. This paper is an innovative contribution to the application of cool roof technology as a source of energy savings in commercial construction through the analysis of supermarkets located in different countries with different climate zones. This will help other researchers to advance in this field and facilitate the implementation of the technology.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-17
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2020-0919
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A framework for addressing construction labour turnover in New Zealand
    • Authors: Olabode Adekunle Ayodele, Yan Chang-Richards, Vicente A. González
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify critical factors that affect labour turnover in the New Zealand construction sector and develop a framework for addressing this issue. A mixed-method approach was adopted. A questionnaire survey combined with interviews was used to capture the personal experiences and views of 157 construction workers regarding labour turnover. The statistical analysis revealed that level of pay, employment relationships, employee welfare, opportunities for career development, commuting distance to work and domestic relationships were the top five factors considered as primary determinants leading to the turnover decisions of most of those surveyed. Factor analysis further categorised the critical factors in three categories, namely, (1) nature of the job, (2) employee satisfaction and (3) employer commitment to staff retention and development. While high labour turnover rates take a toll on many construction businesses, the findings from this research will hopefully provide guidance on areas of improvement to create a sustainable construction workforce at both organisational and sectoral levels. Although the study is New Zealand-focused, it increases understanding of the factors affecting labour turnover in the construction sector, and the framework developed will provide construction organisations with directions in workforce retention and development to reduce the effects of labour turnover on organisational performance.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0358
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Factors influencing transaction costs of prefabricated housing projects in
           China: developers' perspective

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Hongjuan Wu, Queena K. Qian, Ad Straub, Henk J. Visscher
      Abstract: The recent promotion of prefabricated housing (PH) in China has resulted in a prosperous period for its implementation. However, transaction costs (TCs) cause low economic efficiency to stakeholders and hinder the further promotion of PH. No relevant study has yet been made to investigate the TCs and their causes in the PH field. This paper identifies critical TCs and explores the influencing factors from the developers' perspective. Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey were used to collect data about TCs and influencing factors. The most influential factors are identified with their impacts on particular TCs, yielded from correlation analysis and logistic regression. From the developers' perspective in China's PH market, this study identified that the most concerning sources of TCs are: hidden costs arising from disputes, extra workloads from design changes, learning costs, intensive communication and coordination in assembly and unexpected information costs in decision-making. The use of an ordered logistic regression approach indicates that the four most influential factors are: qualification of the general contractor, mandatory local policies, owner type and competitiveness of the developer. To reduce the TCs, experiencing learning and ensuring the design scheme's complicity are recommended to save information searching and exchanging costs. The implications for the PH developers are for them to: (1) professionalize their own organization and (2) procure high-qualified general contractors. For the policymakers, this means they should improve the clarity of the mandatory local policies for PH step-by-step. By applying the TCs economic theory, this study explores factors that influence TCs in the PH industry. It sheds light on the influencing mechanism behind the TCs in the context of prefabricated housing.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0506
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Imprecise abstract argumentation as a support for forensic engineering
    • Authors: Franck Taillandier, Cédric Baudrit, Claudio Carvajal, Benjamin Delhomme, Bruno Beullac
      Abstract: Civil engineering structures are regularly confronted with failures that can lead to catastrophic consequences. It is important, after a failure, to be able to identify the origin and the sequence of factors that led to it. This failure analysis by experts, called forensic engineering investigation, generally leads to the drafting of an expert report. These reports do not inform on the processes that guided the experts to a conclusion and the uncertainties involved. This paper aims to propose a new methodological approach to formalize the opinions of experts in forensic engineering. The research consists in combining abstract argumentation with the theory of imprecise probabilities to take into account epistemic and stochastic uncertainties to support forensic engineering investigation. A model and a tool to support forensic analysis are presented. An application on the collapse of the Brumadinho dam highlights the interest of the chosen approach. This work is the first use of the abstract argument framework in civil engineering, and so in forensic engineering. Furthermore, it provides an innovative model based on imprecise probability for AAF.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0714
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Factors-driven comparison between BIM-based and traditional 2D quantity
           takeoff in construction cost estimation
    • Authors: Abdul Wahab, Jun Wang
      Abstract: Quantity Takeoff (QTO) is an integral part of the decision-making process. Currently, QTO is mostly done using manual or 2D method, and practitioners are considering the use of BIM quantity takeoff as an effective alternative to the traditional 2D software takeoff. However, the existing literature does not have adequate studies to confirm that the use of BIM-based QTO is better than the 2D method. Therefore, this paper aims to expand and improve the existing literature into a more detailed analysis of each element to investigate that BIM is indeed a better option of the two QTO methods. A total of 19 factors in four broad categories, i.e. timely decision making, accuracy, collaboration, and level of details were identified to draw a significant comparison between the two procedures, i.e. BIM-based quantity takeoff and traditional 2D takeoff. Surveys and case study are used to collect data for analysis to achieve the research goals. The questionnaire survey showed that using BIM for the QTO process has significant benefits in achieving higher productivity on takeoff, accuracy, clarity and collaboration among the team members. The case study results also showed improvement in BIM-based QTO by achieving higher accuracy and productivity. Understanding the difference between the two QTO processes is a challenging task; therefore, this paper contributes to drawing a comparison line between the two processes by introducing the factors that affect the QTO process.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0823
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Time-cost optimization in repetitive project scheduling with limited
           resources
    • Authors: Xin Zou, Lihui Zhang, Qian Zhang
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop a time-cost optimization model to schedule repetitive projects while considering limited resource availability. The model is based on the constraint programming (CP) framework; it integrates multiple scheduling characteristics of repetitive activities such as continuous or fragmented execution, atypical activities and coexistence of different modes in an activity. To improve project performance while avoiding inefficient hiring and firing conditions, the strategy of bidirectional acceleration is presented and implemented, which requires keeping regular changes in the execution modes between successive subactivities in the same activity. Two case studies involving a real residential building construction project and a hotel refurbishing project are used to demonstrate the application of the proposed model based on four different scenarios. The results show that (1) the CP model has great advantages in terms of solving speed and solution quality than its equivalent mathematical model, (2) higher project performance can be obtained compared to using previously developed models and (3) the model can be easily replicated or even modified to enable multicrew implementation. The original contribution of this research is presenting a novel CP-based repetitive scheduling optimization model to solve the multimode resource-constrained time-cost tradeoff problem of repetitive projects. The model has the capability of minimizing the project total cost that is composed of direct costs, indirect costs, early completion incentives and late completion penalties.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0843
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Understanding the effects of social media use on construction project
           performance: a project manager's perspective
    • Authors: Guofeng Ma, Shan Jiang, Ding Wang
      Abstract: Although social media has been increasingly applied and valued in the construction industry, there has been little evidence revealing the influence mechanism of social media use in the construction context. In this way, this paper aims to explore how different purposes of social media use affect project performance from a project manager's perspective. Drawing on the mechanism–outcome–performance framework, this paper developed a research model to figure out the mechanism through which work-oriented and socialization-oriented social media use influences construction project performance. The empirical data were collected from a survey of 249 construction project managers, and the structural equation modeling technique was applied to test the proposed model. Results indicate that both work-oriented and socialization-oriented social media use promote knowledge acquisition and project social capital, which both further positively impact the project performance. Additionally, the negative moderating role of information overload is identified on the relationship between social media use and knowledge acquisition. This study fulfills the need for an in-depth investigation of social media use on construction project performance, contributing to the project management and social media literature. Furthermore, this study provides recommendations for project managers to advance social media applications in the construction domain.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2020-1014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A deployment framework for BIM localization
    • Authors: Jing Wang, Weisheng Lu
      Abstract: Over the past two decades, building information modeling (BIM) has been promoted as one of the most disruptive innovations across the global architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) community. Nevertheless, despite its widely propagated benefits, BIM adoption in various localities is not progressing excitingly. BIM as an innovation developed from a presumed, general context may not fit well with the specific regulatory, social and cultural settings of a locality. This study aims to tackle the lukewarm local BIM adoption by developing a deployment framework for BIM localization. Drawing upon the diffusion of innovation (DoI) theory, a longitudinal case study is designed and conducted by engaging closely with a top cost consultancy company in Hong Kong for forty-one months. The findings refuted the “one-size-fits-for-all” view to use a standardized BIM for international users. Rather, an organization needs to undergo a series of localization works to integrate global BIM in its specific local context. The deployment framework outlines the BIM dimensions (i.e. technology, process and protocol) and the mechanisms (i.e. configuration, coupling and reinterpretation) of BIM localization that go through the three “A”s (i.e. analysis, adaption and assimilation) process under a firm's network and contextual factors. This study improves our understanding of sluggish BIM adoption by attributing it to the gap between general BIM development and the local, unique BIM use context. Proposing the deployment framework, the study also offers a handy tool for prospective executives to localize BIM and harness its power in their respective organizations and localities.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0747
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploring the relations between the physiological factors and the
           likelihood of accidents on construction sites
    • Authors: Gökhan Kazar, Semra Comu
      Abstract: Construction work involves high-risk activities and requires intense focus and physical exertion. Accordingly, working conditions at construction sites contribute to physical fatigue and mental stress in workers, which is the primary cause of accidents. This study aims to examine the relation between construction accidents and physiological variables, indicative of physical fatigue and mental stress. Four different real-time physiological values of the construction workers were measured including blood sugar level (BSL), electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate (HR) and skin temperature (ST). The data were collected from 21 different workers during the summer and winter seasons. Both seasonal and hourly correlation analyses were performed between the construction accidents and the four physiological variables gathered. The analysis results demonstrate that BSL values of the workers are correlated inversely with construction accidents taking place before lunch break. In addition, except BSL a significant seasonal association between the physiological variables and construction accidents was found. It is disclosed that variations in physiological risk factors at certain working periods pose a high risk for construction workers. Therefore, efficient work-cycle rests can be arranged to provide frequent but short breaks for workers to overcome such issues. Besides, an early warning system could be introduced to monitor the real-time physiological values of the workers.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2020-0958
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A review on the interactions of robotic systems and lean principles in
           offsite construction
    • Authors: Sara Gusmao Brissi, Oscar Wong Chong, Luciana Debs, Jiansong Zhang
      Abstract: The purpose is two-fold: (1) to explore the interactions of robotic systems and lean construction in the context of offsite construction (OC) that were addressed in the literature published between 2008 and 2019 and (2) to identify the gaps in such interactions while discussing how addressing those gaps can benefit not only OC but the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry as a whole. First, a systematic literature review (SLR) identified journal papers addressing the interactions of automation and lean in OC. Then, the researchers focused the analysis on the under-researched subtopic of robotic systems. The focused analysis includes discussing the interactions identified in the SLR through a matrix of interactions and utilizing literature beyond the previously identified articles for future research directions on robotic systems and lean construction in OC. The study found 35 journal papers that addressed automation and lean in the context of OC. Most of the identified literature focused on interactions of BIM and lean construction, while only nine focused on the interactions of robotic systems and lean construction. Identified literature related to robotic systems mainly addressed robots and automated equipment. Additional interactions were identified in the realm of wearable devices, unmanned aerial vehicles/automated guided vehicles and digital fabrication/computer numerical control (CNC) machines. This is one of the first studies dedicated to exploring the interactions of robotic systems and lean construction in OC. Also, it proposes a categorization for construction automation and a matrix of interactions between construction automation and lean construction.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0809
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The contribution of project management offices to addressing complexities
           in principal construction contracting
    • Authors: Mahmoud Ershadi, Marcus Jefferies, Peter Rex Davis, Mohammad Mojtahedi
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to identify major project management (PM) complexities in principal construction contracting; and second, to study the contribution of project management offices (PMOs) to addressing such complexities. A two-stage research design was adopted through a structured literature review (SLR) and a qualitative survey study. The two-stage study resulted in mapping out the contribution of 10 functional areas to 15 complexity factors that were retrieved from the literature and categorized using the TOE (technical, organizational and environmental) framework. Six outcomes including (1) facilitated processes, (2) improved decisions, (3) improved coordination, (4) enhanced alignment, (5) addressed uncertainties and (6) integrated oversight were identified that describe how PMOs can contribute to tackling complexities. Similar to other qualitative studies, this study has some limitations in terms of the replicability of results. Regarding the exploratory nature of this study to explain the contribution of PMO to complexity, further quantitative surveys can be conducted using a larger sample to statistically examine the significance of proposed relations between capabilities and complexity factors. This study provides an understanding of the contribution of PMOs to tackling ever-increasing complexities embedded in construction contracting. The authors suggest requirements to be considered by professionals toward overcoming such complexities. Although prior studies have separately investigated PMO functions and PM complexities, this study explores the link between these two spheres to discuss one important application of PMO in this context.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2020-0244
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The motivation of operatives in small construction firms towards health
           and safety – A conceptual framework
    • Authors: Sunan Babar Khan, David G. Proverbs, Hong Xiao
      Abstract: Health and safety in small construction firms is often neglected by owners leading to poor health and safety performance and unacceptably high fatality and injury rates. A body of knowledge has established significant links between the motivational behaviours of operatives towards health and safety. Motivation is also considered as a key tool for improving operative productivity as when operatives experience safe worksites, they can carry out their work in a more productive manner. The purpose of this research is to develop a framework to examine the motivational factors that affect operative health and safety in small construction firms. A critical review and synthesis of the body of knowledge incorporating motivational theory, health and safety literature and the factors which characterise small firms, is used to develop the framework. Key components of the framework include the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic components, appropriate health and safety policies and procedures, the type of work environment, the operatives (i.e. attitude, experience and training) as well as the presence of appropriate management and supervision. The study revealed that operatives in small firms are less likely to be extrinsically motivated due to the absence of training, management commitment, policies and the wider working environment Failure of motivational support can result in increased danger and risk in exposing operatives to injury in the small firm environment. In this context, the damage caused to operative's health and safety in small construction firms is dependent mainly on the extrinsic factors. The framework provides a basis for improving our understanding of how to motivate operatives to act safely and will help to improve the health and safety performance of small firms. It is therefore vital to emphasise enhancement efforts on these extrinsic strategies in the small firms' environment especially in the initial stages of the project (or activity), so that the health and safety of operatives in small firms can be improved. This study proposes a contribution in developing an understanding of the motivational factors and their influence on the health and safety of operatives in small construction firms. The study revealed that operatives in small firms are less likely to be extrinsically motivated and have only intrinsically motivated elements in their workplace. The study proposes an indirect link between the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect motivation.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0399
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Toward an understanding of BPR perception in the construction industry:
           the employee attitude toward job enlargement and enrichment in Saudi
           Arabia
    • Authors: Laith Hadidi, Ahmad Abzakh
      Abstract: Business process reengineering (BPR) is a management improvement tool that entails radical changes to organizations' core processes, culture and legacy systems. Although BPR initiatives are favored by many mangers, employees on the other hand, perceive BPR as a potential threat to lose their jobs. This research aims to enhance the employee perception toward BPR implementation in the construction industry as BPR asks for job enlargement (number of different tasks) and enrichment (degree of responsibility) and doesn’t target the workforce downsizing by itself. The research is conducted in Saudi Arabia by involving experienced construction industry practitioners in a survey questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to gain an insightful perception toward BPR constituents. BPR asks for job enlargement (number of different tasks) and enrichment (degree of responsibility). The survey questionnaire is verified from the literature related to BPR and pilot study through experienced construction practitioners. The experts validated the findings. The findings of this research reveal a general positive acceptance toward BPR constituents in construction industry. Jobs enrichment and enlargement should be approached: by integrating IT with business functions (especially communication); developing flexible management systems; and encouraging and empowering employees to generate value through their jobs with more delegated authority. The work is one of the few studies to address the concept of Business Process Reengineering in the construction industry. We explore two research questions as detailed in the submission (BPR perception in the construction industry, and how to have a successful BPR by job enlargement and enrichment. The methods can be extended to other industries and in different parts in the world.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0514
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • How does the embeddedness of relational behaviours in contractual
           relations influence inter-organisational trust in construction
           projects'
    • Authors: Yangbing Zhang, Yousong Wang, Hongjiang Yao
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the relationship between the embeddedness of relational behaviours in contractual relations and the development of inter-organisational trust between contracting parties in construction projects. A questionnaire survey was undertaken to collect data from 310 experienced project practitioners. Hierarchical regression and curvilinear regression were mainly used to test the hypotheses. The results validated the role of relational behaviours in boosting trust expectation, with the contractual context dampening the positive effect only slightly. However, the impact of the embedded relational behaviours on trust intention was found contingent on the equality of outcome: relational behaviours make an impact on trust intention opposite to what the equality of outcome makes; the combination of relational behaviours and the equality of outcome finally has a positive impact on trust intention. As such, the relational behaviours embedded in contractual relations would help reduce particular distrust or improve trust when the outcome is perceived equal. The conclusions are derived from the Chinese cultural background and may apply to a certain geographical scope. The nonprobability sampling method also limits the generalization of some conclusions. Besides, the results may present the contractor's view better than the owner's view. This research would help the practitioners to find a balance between relational behaviours and contractual behaviours in managing inter-organisational relationship. It would also supply effective ways for contracting parties to reduce particular distrust or cultivate particular trust in construction projects. Previous studies have investigated the unique impact of relational behaviours and contractual behaviours on trust. However, few of them have checked how the mixture of both kinds of behaviours influences trust. This paper contributes to this knowledge by investigating how the embeddedness of relational behaviours in contractual relations influences the trust between contracting parties.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0557
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A hybrid method for optimizing selective disassembly sequence planning in
           adaptive reuse of buildings
    • Authors: Mehran Mahmoudi Motahar, Seyed Hossein Hosseini Nourzad
      Abstract: A successful adaptive reuse process relies heavily on the strong performance of disassembly sequence planning (DSP), yet the studies in the field are limited to sequential disassembly planning (SDP). Since in sequential disassembly, one component or subassembly is removed with only one manipulator at a time, it can be a relatively inefficient and lengthy process for large or complex assemblies and cannot fully utilize the DSP benefits for adaptive reuse of buildings. This study aims to present a new hybrid method for the single-target selective DSP that supports both sequential and parallel approaches. This study uses asynchronous parallel selective disassembly planning (aPDP) method, one of the newest and most effective parallel approaches in the manufacturing industry, to develop a parallel approach toward DSP in adaptive reuse of buildings. In the proposed method, three objectives (i.e. disassembly sequence time, cost and environmental impacts) are optimized using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The proposed method can generate feasible sequential solutions for multi-objective DSP problems as the sequence disassembly planning for buildings (SDPB) method, and parallel solutions lead to 17.6–23.4% time reduction for understudy examples. Moreover, in disassembly planning problems with more complex relations, the parallel approach generates more effective and time-efficient sequences. This study introduces the parallel approach for the first time in this field. In addition, it supports both sequential and parallel approaches as a novel strategy that enables the decision-makers to select the optimum approach (i.e. either the parallel or the sequential approach) for DSP. Moreover, a metaheuristic method (i.e. NSGA-II) is adopted as the optimization tool with robust results in the field in which those heuristic methods have only been employed in the past.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2020-1023
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Application of a bottom-up approach to estimate economic impacts of
           building maintenance projects: cladding rectification program in Australia
           
    • Authors: Pauline Teo, Akvan Gajanayake, Sajani Jayasuriya, Ali Izaddoost, Treshani Perera, Nader Naderpajouh, Peter S.P. Wong
      Abstract: This paper critically reviews economic impact assessment methods adopted in construction-related projects, to develop and present a novel bottom-up approach suitable to estimate regional economic impacts of building maintenance projects. A thorough literature review of economic impact assessment in construction projects is carried out to identify the most relevant approach to estimate wider economic impacts of building maintenance projects. Based on these findings, a model based on the bottom-up approach to estimate wider economic impacts is developed. The applicability and face validity of the developed model is demonstrated through a case of cladding replacement program in Australia. The literature review revealed that bottom-up models are better suited for estimating regional economic impacts of maintenance projects, given the challenges of obtaining micro-level economic data in the maintenance sector. In relation to the total economic impacts (direct and indirect), the results show that for every $1 of government spending on similar projects the Gross State Product would increase by $1.34. In terms of employment impact, over 70% of the direct economic value addition is driven by the increase in labour, where close to 3 FTE jobs will be required for each $1 million of spending on cladding replacement projects. This paper presents a model to estimate the wider economic impacts of building maintenance projects, which is typically overlooked in the construction management field. The proposed model is developed to incorporate the variability of different building maintenance projects so that the economic impact resulting from these projects could be estimated more accurately. This model can be used by local government decision-makers to justify and prioritise maintenance projects in a similar manner to new construction projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0802
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Scientometric analysis of BIM adoption by SMEs in the architecture,
           construction and engineering sector
    • Authors: Choeu Tshepisho Makabate, Innocent Musonda, Chioma Sylvia Okoro, Nicholas Chileshe
      Abstract: Building information modelling (BIM) has had a significant impact on the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector in the past several years. However, not much is published concerning small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) adopting BIM in the construction industry. To address this knowledge gap, a complete and in-depth literature review of the adoption of BIM by SMEs in the AEC sector is conducted in this study. The paper also provides a comprehensive review of the mainstream studies of adoption of BIM in the AEC organisations. Based on a five-stage literature review, 54 articles on the adoption of BIM by SMEs from the period 2009 to 2019 were critically analysed from the following three perspectives: (1) the number of articles produced; (2) the research focus and (3) the author's contributions. The techniques of the visualisation of similarities (VOSviewer) software were used to analyse the citation networks of the 54 articles as identified. From the analysis, it was established that the number of studies on BIM adoption by SMEs in the reviewed journals has not been increasing and not many articles are available. The finding makes the argument that BIM adoption by SMEs is not a focus point but rather the adoption and implementation of BIM is generalised in the AEC sector. In addition, the results revealed that most of the published articles come from the United Kingdom (UK). However, this finding is hardly surprising due to the requirements in the UK, which have made the adoption of BIM mandatory on all publicly funded projects and are at level 2 BIM. The other highly ranked countries by origins of studies on the adoption of BIM by SMEs were found to be Australia and the United States of America (USA), all of which are developed nations or economies. Some key BIM in SME research trends (adoption, enforcement, benefits, strategies, skills gap, awareness, education and training, and technology) were identified and evaluated. The results presented in this journal are only applicable to SMEs in the AEC sector. As a result of little available literature on the adoption of BIM in developing countries, the articles have been drawn from developed countries. The dataset was mainly extracted from the Scopus database for the analysis. An accomplished series content analysis of the implementation and adoption of BIM by SMEs from international construction journals were reported. The study makes significant and emergent contribution by building on the foundation of BIM research in SMEs as well as providing a reference point for the interpretation of findings, as well as directions for future research.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-02-2020-0139
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Empirical investigation of factors that enhance development of technology
           in design process improvement in architecture education: analyses of
           students' views
    • Authors: Elnaz Imani, Maziar Asefi
      Abstract: Technology development quality in architectural design is affected by the quality of the process and factors used to develop it. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors for effective enhancement (EE) of technologies in design process improvement (DPI). Major databases have been explored to identify a list of factors affecting technology development in DPI because of the main elements of architecture design education. Then, a survey-based empirical study has been done in two high-rank architecture schools (one in a developing country and one in a developed country), during the years 2015–2018. Data have been collected from analyzing the design process, design reviews, design team viewpoints, researchers' observations and organizations' features about the development of production, conceptualization and communication technologies in DPI initiatives. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been utilized to provide deep contextual data. Comparative analysis of the groups showed that high levels of EE of technologies lead to high levels of DPI, and these are because of the positive performance of conceptualization, communication and production technologies. Comparing two groups, the category of design process and the factors related to the design stages of ask, imagine and improve approved to be the right factors to use technologies in more effective ways. Efficiency in collecting information and doing research, efficiency in developing solutions, efficiency in communicating results, team processes and organization communications have been rated top most effective factors based upon overall categories.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0148
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Equity gap in construction contracting: identification and ramifications
    • Authors: Liuying Zhu, Sai On Cheung
      Abstract: This study conceptualizes the equity gap (EG) in construction contracting and examines its impact on project performance. The identification of EG was first summarized from a literature review. A conceptual framework that included EG elements of information, risks, expected return and power asymmetry was then proposed. A study of the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge supported the existence of EG. The framework was further refined by incorporation of 21 EG identifications. To examine the reliability of the framework, data were collected from 106 senior project professionals to evaluate the extent to which EG identification occurred in their projects. A Partial Least Square–Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM hereafter) analysis was conducted on the collected data. The proposed framework was deemed statistically significant. Furthermore, no significant differences were detected between the developer and contractor. The concepts of asset and process specificities suggested that the unaddressed EG may be met with retaliatory behaviors, such as noncooperation, procrastination, opportunism and withdrawal, as the physical works proceed. These behaviors may also hamper project performance. To address the EG ex post, it is suggested that relational incentives to balance the power differential be set, reallocation of risks and return and enhancing task programmability for ease of monitoring and performance evaluation. This study investigates the downside of the EG between the contracting parties. The proposed EG framework informs the project management of critical EG elements and possible methods to narrow the gap ex post. Practical suggestions are also provided to manage construction contracts in general and in the use of incentive schemes to address EG.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0725
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Forecasting trading volume in local housing markets through a time-series
           model and a deep learning algorithm
    • Authors: Changro Lee, Keith Key-Ho Park
      Abstract: It is important to forecast local trading volumes as well as global trading volumes because the real estate market is always characterized as a localized market. The house trading volume at the local level is forecast through appropriate models to enhance the predictive accuracy. Four representative housing submarkets in South Korea are selected, and their trading volumes are forecast. A well-established time-series model and a deep learning algorithm are employed: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and the recurrent neural network (RNN), respectively. The trading volumes in adjacent areas are utilized as covariates, and an ensemble prediction is applied additionally to improve the model performance. The results indicate no significant difference in prediction performance between the ARIMA model and the RNN, which can be attributed to the insufficient amount of data used. It is discovered that the spillover effects of trading volumes across the study areas can be exploited to improve the predictive accuracy, and that the diversity of the predicted values from the candidate models can be used to increase the forecasting accuracy further. Whereas property prices have been investigated extensively, the discussion on forecasting trading activity of properties is limited in the literature. The results of this study are expected to promote more interest in adopting a local perspective and using a diversity of predicted values when forecasting house trading volumes.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2020-0850
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effectiveness of interactive virtual reality for furniture, fixture
           and equipment design communication: an empirical study
    • Authors: Abhinesh Prabhakaran, Abdul-Majeed Mahamadu, Lamine Mahdjoubi, Patrick Manu, Che Khairil Izam Che Ibrahim, Clinton Ohis Aigbavboa
      Abstract: This study aims to propose a novel approach to developing an interactive and immersive virtual environment for design communication in the furniture, fixture and equipment (FFE) sector. The study further investigates its effectiveness in enhancing the design communication and coordination between the stakeholder. Quasi-experimental research was adopted involving 12 FFE professionals, designers and end-users in single-group pre-test-post-test design. The tests were performed primarily to ascertain the impact of the application of interactive virtual reality on delivering furniture design selection and coordination tasks. Further interviews were used to elicit participants' views on the functionality and usefulness of the proposed approach. The findings indicate that an interactive immersive virtual FFE environment: enhances the productivity of the design team through a collaborative virtual workspace offering a synchronised networked design testing and review platform; reduces the time required for the stakeholders to comprehend the design options and test those; enhances the design communication and quality of the design and encourages the collaborative culture in the industry; improves the design satisfaction of the stakeholders; and finally, requires significantly less time for design decision-making when compared to traditional methods. Future studies should incorporate space planning concepts and explore non-experimental methodologies in a real-life FFE project setup. The proposed approach provides opportunities for enhanced interpretation of design intent in FFE as well as efficiency in design selection and coordination tasks when compared with conventional two-dimensional methods of communication. This study proposes a step change in the way furniture design is communicated and coordinated through an immersive virtual experience. Previous studies have not addressed the issue of impact on design coordination instead focussed on marketing and sales.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2020-0235
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Offsite construction in the Australian low-rise residential buildings
           application levels and procurement options
    • Authors: Tong Lin, Sainan Lyu, Rebecca Jing Yang, Linda Tivendale
      Abstract: Prefabricated housing has become a boom industry across the world; however, the uptake of offsite construction (OSC) approaches in Australian low-rise buildings is rather low compared with high-rise buildings in other countries. This study aims to investigate and analyse the adoption of different levels of OSC approaches and the selection of different procurement options in Australian low-rise residential buildings. The research objectives were pursued through a mixed research method. An empirical questionnaire survey was carried out with 35 professionals in the Australian building and construction industry. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 interviewees and analysed using thematic analysis method in NVivo software. The research results found that the most suitable OSC level for Australian low-rise buildings is components-based prefabrication and identified the barriers to OSC uptake for each OSC level. The study also showed that the best option of procuring prefabricated products is from Australian manufacturers, followed by Australian suppliers/dealers and overseas manufacturers. Panelised prefabrication and components-based prefabrication are ranked as the most suitable OSC approaches for Australian manufacturers. Modular prefabrication is regarded as the most suitable for overseas manufacturer, while components-based prefabrication is the most suitable for Australian suppliers/dealers. The selection of various OSC approaches and different procurement options in the low-rise residential buildings are scarcely explored topic, and thus, this study provides knowledge of interest for both researchers and practitioners.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0583
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The climate of innovation in the UAE and its construction industry
    • Authors: Mohammed Dulaimi
      Abstract: The ability to develop new products and services has motivated the government of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to enter the global race for excellence and surprise the world with its iconic construction innovations. The key challenge for the UAE is how to encourage and enable organizations, public and private, to embrace innovation as the norm and create a positive environment for innovation. In this context, this study was carried out with the aim of examining the factors that can create innovation–conducive climate in construction and the measures that can be used to assess such a climate. The paper reports research effort to develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesizes relationships amongst different constructs that make up the climate for innovation in UAE organizations, construction and non-construction. In verifying the conceptual model and testing the validity of the hypotheses, a quantitative study was conducted based on data collected via questionnaire survey. A total of 101 respondents participated in the study, majority of whom were employed in private international firms, semi-public firms and private local firms. The findings showed that, overall, the climate of innovation in the UAE organizations is moderately strong where construction firms performed slightly better than non-construction firms in demonstrating an innovation–conducive atmosphere. In this context, the results found a need for senior management to provide tangible support in terms of providing more resources for the skill base to develop further and seek better ways of developing creative solutions. The main conclusion provided evidence that leadership has positively influenced the climate for innovation and as a result delivered an improved business performance. The research developed a new conceptual model and the constructs that can be used to understand the climate for innovation and assist researchers in examining the complex dynamics of innovation in the local construction industry.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0492
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Development of risk assessment tool using damaging energy and
           argumentation theory for evaluating construction occupational safety and
           health risks
    • Authors: Nor Haslinda Abas, Nick Blismas, Helen Lingard
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a risk assessment model to assess the occupational safety and health (OSH) risks presented by different construction approaches, namely traditional and industrialised building system (IBS). The development process applies the concept of argumentation theory, which helps construction designers integrate the management of OSH risk into the design process. In addition, an energy damage model is used as an underpinning framework for developing the model. Development of the model was achieved through two phases. Phase I involved collection of data on the activities involved in the construction process and their associated OSH risks, derived from five different case studies, field observation and interviews. Knowledge of design aspects that have the potential to impact on OSH was obtained from document analysis. Using the knowledge obtained in phase I, a model was developed in the form of argument trees (Phase II), which represent a reasoning template with regard to options available to designers when they make judgements about aspects of their designs. Inferences from these aspects eventually determined the magnitude of the damaging energies for every activity involved. Finally, the model was validated by panels of experts, and revisions and amendments were made to the model accordingly. The risk assessment model development revealed that the concept of argumentation theory and energy damage model is suitable to represent design safety risk knowledge and effectively address the designer's role in making decisions in their designs and further illuminate the level of OSH risk their designs pose. The developed model provides best-practice reasoning support for construction designers, which help them to understand the impact of their designs decisions on worker's safety and health, and thereby assist them to further mitigate the risk to an acceptable level. This study departs from the existing tool in that the model was developed based upon the combination of argumentation theory and energy damage model. The significance of the model is discussed.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-03
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0486
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Understanding the components and magnitude of the cost of quality in
           building construction
    • Authors: Sahil Garg, Sudhir Misra
      Abstract: Though the components and concepts of cost of quality (COQ) are well understood in the domain of manufacturing, only limited data are available from the construction industry for various reasons. The present study seeks to establish a relationship between project defect score (pds), representing the quality of construction in the project, and the COQ in the building construction industry. The study also seeks to estimate the contributions of the various components to the overall COQ in the construction industry, along with their distribution and interrelationships among themselves. A framework for estimating COQ was developed, and the data regarding prevention, appraisal and failure cost were collected from 122 projects. Various mathematical and statistical tools like Pearson's correlation, multiple linear regression (MLR) and curve fitting have been used for data analysis. The prevention–appraisal–failure (PAF) model was found to be appropriate to estimate COQ, and the prevention, appraisal, conformance cost (CC) and failure cost were found to vary between 0.19 and 8%, 0.05 and 5%, 0.3 and 10% and 0.01 and 5%, respectively, whereas the overall COQ varied from 3.5 to 10.01% of the project cost. The correlations between various components of COQ were found to be significant. MLR suggested that appraisal cost is more impactful in reducing failure cost than prevention cost. Using curve fitting, the cubic model appropriately represented all interrelationships. The optimal overall COQ was found to be 3.86%, and the reasons for low COQ have been explored. The study evaluates the applicability of available models for COQ calculations for the construction industry and presents a framework to estimate its components. The study also explores the interrelationship between the various components of COQ and presents a generalized relationship between COQ and the pds.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-03
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0642
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • What's wrong with the public participation of urban regeneration project
           in China: a study from multiple stakeholders' perspectives
    • Authors: Bingsheng Liu, Xin Lu, Xuan Hu, Ling Li, Yan Li
      Abstract: Measuring the performance of public participation is conducive to improving participation systems. However, such measurement, particularly in urban regeneration projects, is difficult because of the complex indicators and multiple stakeholders involved. The purpose of this paper is to measure the public participation level in urban regeneration projects in China. This study adopts a perception difference-based method to measure the public participation level in urban regeneration projects in China. Specifically, an indicator system consisting of 12 indicators from three categories was first purposed. A perception difference-based method that integrates ANOVA test and Tukey test were then developed. The method was validated using five represented projects, and the results are interpreted based on a proposed measurement matrix. Regardless of the type of indicator, the perception of the government aligns with the perception of private sector professions, however, deviates from the perception of citizens. By taking the mean score and the significance level among stakeholders of perception as two dimensions, different patterns of issues in the current participation practice in urban regeneration are manifested. Theoretically, the proposed indicator system and perception difference-based method combined to provide a holistic view of public participation, which is verified to provide a better measurement. Practically, the authors’ methodology helps in revealing issues in current participation practice and further leading to designing coping strategies. Nonetheless, the proposed method requires further validation in participation practices in China and other countries. By considering the perception mean and the significance level as two dimensions, a public participation measurement matrix is proposed. The performance in different indicators are classified into four stages accordingly, namely idling, starting, running-in and accelerating.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0175
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Understanding the influence of safety climate and productivity pressure on
           non-helmet use behavior at construction sites: a case study
    • Authors: Xiaoying Li, Heng Li, Martin Skitmore, Fan Wang
      Abstract: Neglecting to wear a safety helmet can result in serious injuries at construction sites, but the cause of such unsafe behavior has not been fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a means of systematically understanding on the causes of non-helmet use behaviors at construction sites. This paper utilizes the system dynamics (SD) modeling to portray the construction system works at project, management and individual levels to understand the relative importance of safety climate and productivity pressures. A real-time helmet use behavior tracking system (the Eye on Project (EOP)) is developed to provide an objective record of helmet use practices. Using the data collected from the EOP, the proposed SD model can be calibrated to simulate the influence of safety climate and productivity pressures on the non-helmet use behaviors of construction workers. The data collected from 91 responses through the questionnaire survey were utilized to develop the SD model, which consists of two balancing loops and two reinforced loops. The mean absolute percentage error is further used to evaluate the model. The results show that a positive safety climate significantly reduced the rate of non-helmet use behavior. This study divided the primary contributors of non-helmet use behavior into three levels for the SD model development. The SD model can be used to develop policies for mitigating helmet misuse, which in turn improves the safety performance of construction sites.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0626
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Challenges and enabling features of small and medium infrastructure
           public–private partnerships (P3s): a case study of the US P3
           infrastructure market
    • Authors: Yunping Liang, Baabak Ashuri
      Abstract: In classical perspective, projects under a certain size are not feasible for P3. However, there is an emerging trend on using P3 to deliver projects which are frequently at small- to medium- size to meet ever-increasingly complex social needs, including enhancing lifecycle performance of existing facilities, designing and building for resilience and sustainability, ensuring cost effectiveness of public spending and fostering innovation. In contrast with the increasing implementation, small and medium P3s, especially those in the United States, receive little attention in existing studies. This study aims at answering the question: in the context of US, what features of those small- to medium- sized P3s with success records enable the selection of P3 as delivery method. By critically reviewing the literature, this study synthesizes and discusses the challenges in classical perspective. The authors use a framework drawn from the transaction cost to propose two types of enabling features that could contribute to the success of small and medium P3s. The proposed enabling features are supported by case study of twelve identified small- to medium- sized P3s which have reached financial closure as of 2018 in the United States. The results show how the identified enabling opportunities have been used in these cases to enhance the viability of the P3 model in the infrastructure market. The two types of features are high tolerance enabler explained by the expectations on indirect and non-monetary compensations, and cost reduction enablers including: (1) being in the sectors with well-established traditions on using private investments; (2) having developers with expertise on infrastructure finance; (3) being in the jurisdictions with favorable legislative environment and (4) having less-uncertain future project revenue. This study, for the first time, critically examines the enabling features of the P3 model for delivering small and medium infrastructure projects in the United States. This research sheds light on the credibility and viability of small- to medium- sized P3 and increases the confidence in policy makers to promote this model.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0720
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Automated BIM schedule generation approach for solving time–cost
           trade-off problems
    • Authors: Mohamed ElMenshawy, Mohamed Marzouk
      Abstract: Nowadays, building information modeling (BIM) represents an evolution in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industries with its various applications. BIM is capable to store huge amounts of information related to buildings which can be leveraged in several areas such as quantity takeoff, scheduling, sustainability and facility management. The main objective of this research is to establish a model for automated schedule generation using BIM and to solve the time–cost trade-off problem (TCTP) resulting from the various scenarios offered to the user. A model is developed to use the quantities exported from a BIM platform, then generate construction activities, calculate the duration of each activity and finally the logic/sequence is applied in order to link the activities together. Then, multiobjective optimization is performed using nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) in order to provide the most feasible solutions considering project duration and cost. The researchers opted NSGA-II because it is one of the well-known and credible algorithms that have been used in many applications, and its performances were tested in several comparative studies. The proposed model is capable to select the near-optimum scenario for the project and export it to Primavera software. A case study is worked to demonstrate the use of the proposed model and illustrate its main features. The proposed model can provide a simple and user-friendly model for automated schedule generation of construction projects. In addition, opportunities related to the interface between an automated schedule generation model and Primavera software are enabled as Primavera is one of the most popular and common schedule software solutions in the construction industry. Furthermore, it allows importing data from MS Excel, which is used to store activities data in the different scenarios. In addition, there are numerous solutions, each one corresponds to a certain duration and cost according to the performance factor which often reflects the number of crews assigned to the activity and/or construction method.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0652
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Productivity estimation of cutter suction dredger operation through data
           mining and learning from real-time big data
    • Authors: Jiake Fu, Huijing Tian, Lingguang Song, Mingchao Li, Shuo Bai, Qiubing Ren
      Abstract: This paper presents a new approach of productivity estimation of cutter suction dredger operation through data mining and learning from real-time big data. The paper used big data, data mining and machine learning techniques to extract features of cutter suction dredgers (CSD) for predicting its productivity. ElasticNet-SVR (Elastic Net-Support Vector Machine) method is used to filter the original monitoring data. Along with the actual working conditions of CSD, 15 features were selected. Then, a box plot was used to clean the corresponding data by filtering out outliers. Finally, four algorithms, namely SVR (Support Vector Regression), XGBoost (Extreme Gradient Boosting), LSTM (Long-Short Term Memory Network) and BP (Back Propagation) Neural Network, were used for modeling and testing. The paper provided a comprehensive forecasting framework for productivity estimation including feature selection, data processing and model evaluation. The optimal coefficient of determination (R2) of four algorithms were all above 80.0%, indicating that the features selected were representative. Finally, the BP neural network model coupled with the SVR model was selected as the final model. Machine-learning algorithm incorporating domain expert judgments was used to select predictive features. The final optimal coefficient of determination (R2) of the coupled model of BP neural network and SVR is 87.6%, indicating that the method proposed in this paper is effective for CSD productivity estimation.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0357
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Improving materials logistics plan in road construction projects using
           discrete event simulation
    • Authors: Amin Alvanchi, Farshid Baniassadi, Mahdi Shahsavari, Hamed Kashani
      Abstract: Motivated by the high cost of material movements in road construction projects, past studies have used analytical methods to optimize materials logistics plans. A key shortcoming of these methods is their inability to capture the uncertain, dynamic and complex characteristics of the road construction material logistics. Failure to incorporate these characteristics can lead to sub-optimal results. The purpose of this study is to propose the use of discrete event simulation (DES) to address the existing shortfall. Despite the powerful capabilities of DES models in capturing the operational complexities of construction projects, they have not been previously utilized to optimize the material logistics of road construction projects. The proposed DES-based method in this research captures the operational details of material logistics and uses a heuristic approach to overcome the combinatorial problem of numerous choices. The method was applied to a 63.5 km real-world road construction project case to demonstrate its capabilities. Six different material types from 28 material sources were used in the case. Approximately 1.5% of the material logistics costs were saved by following the proposed method and choosing appropriate material sources. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by leveraging the capabilities of DES and presenting a novel method for improving the materials logistics plan of road construction projects. The proposed method provides practitioners with the basis for capturing the key operational details that were overlooked in the past. The proposed method can be adopted in road construction projects to reduce the overall material procurement cost.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2018-0317
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Contribution of procurement capacity of public agencies to attainment of
           procurement objectives in infrastructure procurement
    • Authors: Patrick Manu, Richard Ohene Asiedu, Abdul-Majeed Mahamadu, Paul Olaniyi Olomolaiye, Colin Booth, Emmanuel Manu, Saheed Ajayi, Kofi Agyekum
      Abstract: Effective procurement of infrastructure is linked to the attainment of the sustainable development goals set by the United Nations. While the capacity of organisations is generally thought to be related to organisational performance, there is a lack of empirical insights concerning the contribution of procurement capacity of public organisations towards the attainment of procurement objectives in infrastructure procurement. Thus, it is unclear which aspects of the capacity of public procurement organisations contribute the most to the attainment of procurement objectives in the procurement of infrastructure. This research sought to address this gap. The research used a survey of public procurement professionals which yielded 590 responses. Exploratory factor analysis of 23 organisational capacity items revealed three components of organisational procurement capacity: “management of the procurement process”; “human and physical resources”; and “financial resources and management”. Multiple regression modelling of the relationship between the components and the attainment of 12 procurement objectives further reveals that there is a significant positive relationship between the three components and all the objectives. However, “management of the procurement process” emerged as the greatest contributor to the attainment of seven objectives, whereas “human and physical resources”, and “financial resources and management” were the greatest contributor to the attainment of one objective and four objectives, respectively. The study provides strong empirical justification for investment in the development of procurement capacity of public agencies involved in procurement of infrastructure. Furthermore, procurement capacity development of specific capacity components can be prioritised based on the relative contribution of capacity components to the attainment of desired procurement objectives. This should be useful to government policymakers as well as multilateral organisations that fund infrastructure and procurement reforms in various countries.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-22
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0375
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A thermal performance study of four communities in Ghana's savannah region
    • Authors: Christian Koranteng, Barbara Simons, Frederick Wireko Manu
      Abstract: Many countries the world over continue to grapple with issues of thermal discomfort both within and without – a condition that has arisen due to incessant urbanization, climate change, among others. The current study focussed on assessing the level of thermal stress both in and outdoors towards finding measures to reduce overheating in spaces within the Savannah climatic region of Ghana through a four-stage approach. A four-stage approach has been used for the study; thus, a thermal comfort analysis based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), overheating assessment, a subjective thermal responses/evaluation of residents and a simulation effort to improve comfort. There was an indication of “moderate cold stress to slight cold stress” on the coolest day (28th December). On the warmest day (12th April), however, the indoor environment had exceedance and severity of overheating of at least 56% and 38-degree hours. The acceptable comfort range and comfort temperatures of occupants of buildings in the study area have been determined to be 25.5–33 °C by the thermal sensation survey. Meanwhile, the simulation showed that a 200% increase in thermal mass, exterior wall insulation and roof extension and insulation has the potential to generate a reduction of 18% in overheated hours. The paper unearths the flagrant disregard for thermal comfort in an attempt of “copying blindly” architecture from Southern Ghana by the affluent within the Savannah Region. Again, data provided prove that indeed human activities have worsened the plight of inhabitants through materials as well as construction methods.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0572
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Research on the rework risk core tasks in prefabricated construction in
           China
    • Authors: Kaicheng Shen, Xiaodong Li, Xinying Cao, Zhang Zhihui
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to assess the process of prefabricated construction (PC) and analyze the impacts of rework risk to identify the core tasks for which the rework risk has severe impacts. The methods consist of a literature review, expert interviews, a questionnaire survey and a rework risk function. The expert interviews and questionnaire survey were administered to experts in the entire process of PC from the dimensions of rework frequency, rework cost and rework time. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the data. The rework risk function was based on the loss expectancy method. There are 13 core tasks that have higher impacts than the average level. The core tasks in the design stage account for 100% of the tasks in the stage, those in the manufacturing stage account for 20% and those in the construction stage account for 23.1%. Compared with the other stages, the design stage is characterized by significantly more frequent rework, higher rework costs and longer rework time. The manufacturing stage is characterized by significantly higher rework costs than the construction stage. The manufacturing stage and construction stage are co-reliant, and both are impacted by the design stage. The findings provide stakeholders with a clear understanding of the core tasks of the PC process and represent a method for identifying core tasks. Stakeholders can learn from this to focus on the core tasks to reduce rework risk and manage the process with the priority of PC rework management based on the following order: design > manufacturing > construction. The approach is suitable for core task identification in other areas. This research provides insight into rework risk management and provides a novel analysis method for rework risk and PC management from the perspective of the construction process. The findings are valuable for supporting stakeholders in making effective construction plans to reduce the impacts of rework risk in PC and provide a reference for future research on process optimization.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0521
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Identifying impact of variables in deep learning models on bankruptcy
           prediction of construction contractors
    • Authors: Youjin Jang, Inbae Jeong, Yong K. Cho
      Abstract: The study seeks to identify the impact of variables in a deep learning-based bankruptcy prediction model, which has achieved superior performance to other prediction models but cannot easily interpret hidden processes. This study developed three LSTM-RNN–based models that predicted the probability of bankruptcy before 1, 2 and 3 years using financial, the construction market and macroeconomic variables as input variables. Then, the impacts of the input variables that affected prediction accuracy in each model were identified by using Shapley value and compared among the three models. This study also investigated the prediction accuracy using variants of input variables grouped sequentially by high-impact ranking. The results showed that the prediction accuracies were largely impacted by “housing starts” in all models. As the prediction period increased, the effects of macroeconomic variables on prediction accuracy increased, whereas the impact of “return on assets” on prediction accuracy decreased. It also found that the “current ratio” and “debt ratio” significantly influenced the prediction accuracies in all models. Also, the results revealed that similar prediction accuracies could be achieved using only 8, 10, and 10 variables out of a total of 18 variables for the 1-, 2-, and 3-year prediction models, respectively. This study provides a Shapley value-based approach to identify how each input variable in a deep-learning bankruptcy prediction model. The findings of this study can not only assist in obtaining better insights into the underlying concept of bankruptcy but also use to select variables by removing those identified as less significant.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0386
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Increasing production efficiency through the reduction of transportation
           activities and time using 4D BIM simulations
    • Authors: Cristina Toca Pérez, Dayana Bastos Costa
      Abstract: This paper proposes to apply the lean philosophy principle of minimizing or eliminating non-value adding activities combined with 4D building information modeling (BIM) simulations to reduce transportation waste in construction production processes. This study adopts design science research (DSR) because of its prescriptive character to produce innovative constructions (artifacts) to solve real-world problems. The artifact proposed is a set of constructs for evaluating the utility of 4D BIM simulations for transportation waste reduction. The authors performed two learning cycles using empirical studies in projects A, B and C. The construction process of cast-in-place (CIP) reinforcement concrete (RC) was selected to demonstrate and evaluate 4D BIM's utility. The empirical studies focused on understanding the current transportation waste, collecting actual performance data during job site visits and demonstrating the usage of 4D BIM. In the first cycle, 4D BIM successfully allowed users to understand the CIP-RC process's transportation activities, which were modeled. In the second cycle, 4D BIM enabled better decision-making processes concerning the definitions of strategies for placing reusable formworks for CIP concrete walls by planning transportation activities. In Cycle 2, three different scenarios were simulated to identify the most suitable formwork assembly planning, and the results were compared to the real situations identified during the job site visits. The scenario chosen demonstrated that the 4D BIM simulation yielded an 18.75% cycle time reduction. In addition, the simulation contributed to a decrease in transportation waste that was previously identified. The original contribution of this paper is the use of 4D BIM simulation for managing non-value adding activities to reduce transportation waste. The utility of 4D BIM for the reduction of those conflicts considered three constructs: (1) the capacity to improve transportation activity efficiency, (2) the capacity to improve construction production efficiency and (3) the capacity to reduce transportation waste consequences.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-02-2020-0132
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A mixed method for measuring incompatibilities between manufacturing
           approaches and off-site construction
    • Authors: Jianing Luo, Hong Zhang, William Sher
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to measure incompatibilities between the manufacturing approaches (MA) used by the manufacturing industries, and those used for the off-site construction (OSC) of buildings. The aim is to explore which of these approaches could be integrated into OSC in a precise manner as viewed by architects as well as how this might occur. An empirical research and empirical cycle (EC) was adopted as a methodological framework to measure incompatibilities. A combination of quantitative and qualitative mixed methods was explored through a literature-based case study of prefabricated houses and cars, nine real-life projects built by the second author's research team and the first-named author's practical experiences of leading these projects, based on a logic framework derived from the authors’ reflections of their architectural practices. The findings quantitatively present the incompatibilities between cars (automobile bodies) and prefabricated houses. Design-related aspects have the most potential for integration (42.3% increment). The key lessons were identified as specific design philosophies and related guidelines for architects. The findings are limited to single types of products (cars) and buildings (prefabricated houses) in particular regions. The key lessons just present a preliminary evaluation of the application of the design philosophies and related guidelines in nine real-life projects to comply with word limit constraints. This study could help architects and other practitioners to locate and target and alleviated incompatibilities between MA and OSC. It could also precisely identify integration shortcomings to optimize decision-making as well as technical pathways for possible and effective breakthroughs. This study provides fundamental research as a starting point for further discussion and development. A series of additional in-depth investigations combined with case studies are planned for the future. These could provide alternative study approaches to develop more appropriate architectural design methodologies and more streamlined processes. The research contributes an alternative architectural perspective when measuring incompatibilities between MA and OSC. The results highlight the implications of precise measurement and provide guidance for architects. These facilitate the effective and successful integration of MA into OSC of buildings and promote the uptake of lean construction (LC) in OSC.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2019-0358
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Positioning construction workers' vocational training of Guangdong in the
           global political-economic spectrum of skill formation
    • Authors: Wei Pan, Le Chen, Wenting Zhan
      Abstract: This paper explores the vocational training of construction workers in Guangdong Province of China and identifies its position in the global political-economic spectrum of skill formation. The paper reviews construction vocational education and training (VET) of major political economies to develop a theoretical framework that guides an in-depth case study of Guangdong. Document analysis, field trip observations, meetings and semi-structured interviews were combined to explore the political-economic environment, political stakeholders and quality assurance mechanisms of industrial training in Guangdong's construction sector. The findings were compared with construction VET of other economies reported in the literature. Construction training in Guangdong is deeply rooted in the local history and culture, under strong dominance of the state, while continually evolves to respond to the fluid market and therefore can be conceptualised as “market-in-state”. The political stakeholders are embedded within the state to ensure that skills policies are implemented in-line with industry policies. The differences between the training of Guangdong and its foreign counterparts are attributed to their divergent political-economic models. As the case study was undertaken only with Guangdong, the generalisability of its findings can be improved through future research within a broader context of multiple provinces of China through both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Plausible foreign VET approaches are likely adaptable to the Chinese context only when conducive political-economic environment could be enabled. The findings are useful for developing countries to learn from the VET experience of industrialised economies. Construction workers' training in Guangdong can be improved by strengthening labour regulation at lower subcontracting levels and ensuring the presence of industrial associations and unions for collective training supervision. The paper contributes to the field of construction engineering and management with a theoretical framework that guides empirical studies on the influence of the political-economic environment upon the ways political stakeholders develop and participate in construction VET. The exploration based on this framework revealed the position of the vocational training of construction workers in Guangdong in the global political-economic spectrum of skill formation.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2021-01-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2019-0641
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Critical capabilities of improving supply chain resilience in
           industrialized construction in Hong Kong
    • Authors: E.M.A.C. Ekanayake, Geoffrey Shen, Mohan M. Kumaraswamy
      Abstract: Industrialized construction (IC) has accelerated the technological advancements of construction supply chains (SCs) in Hong Kong (HK). However, the usually fragmented IC SCs often lead to friction and turbulence that retard their performance. Streamlining these workflows call for resilient SCs that can proactively overcome various vulnerabilities and avoid disruptions. Having identified supply chain capabilities (SCC) as essential precursors to supply chain resilience (SCR), this paper reports on a vital segment of a study on SCC for IC in HK that focused here on critical SCC (CSCC). Specifically, this paper aims at identifying and probing the CSCC for improving SCR in IC in HK. After drawing on the plentiful relevant literature, an empirical study using a questionnaire survey and interviews was conducted following the multi-stage methodological framework of this study. Relevant significance analysis of the collected data enabled the selection of CSCC. Next, factor analysis facilitated grouping them under nine underlying components. The results reveal 41 CSCC pertinent to achieve resilient SCs in IC in HK under critical capability components of resourcefulness, flexibility, capacity, adaptability, efficiency, financial strength, visibility, anticipation and dispersion. It is expected that industry practitioners would benefit from prior knowledge of CSCC and their levels of criticalities, so as to prioritize integrating them suitably into SC processes, to develop value-enhanced-resilient SCs. Further, these findings lay the foundations for developing a powerful evaluation model to assess, then improve, SCR in IC in HK by mapping the identified CSCC with relevant critical vulnerabilities, based on study outcomes.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-31
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0295
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • BIM framework for the specification of information requirements in
           energy-related projects
    • Authors: Luís Sanhudo, João Poças Martins, Nuno M.M. Ramos, Ricardo M.S.F. Almeida, Ana Rocha, Débora Pinto, Eva Barreira, M. Lurdes Simões
      Abstract: This paper aims to further the discussion on Building Information Modelling (BIM) legal requirements, providing a framework with key energy parameters capable of supporting the Appointing Party in the definition of the Exchange Information Requirements (EIR) for a BIM project appointment. The EIR is described in ISO-19650–1:2018 as a fundamental step in the information delivery cycle. A literature review on the topic of BIM energy analysis was completed to identify current knowledge gaps and support the need for the proposed framework. Afterwards, the framework was established based on the review findings and the authors’ domain knowledge. The applicability of the proposed framework was assessed through a case study, where several energy simulations were performed in three different design stages of the same BIM model. This study identified a lack of standards and legislation capable of supporting the Appointing Party in the definition of energy-related BIM requirements. To this end, a new framework is proposed to mediate existing practices, linking prior knowledge with BIM’s new reality. The study showcases the applicability of the framework, identifying that the performance of different energy studies involves distinct Level of Development (LOD) requirements, which in turn have an impact on the modelling time and cost. A BIM framework for the specification of information requirements in energy-related projects was developed to support the Appointing Party. The framework presents appropriate parameters for energy analysis in each design stage, as well as the suitable LOD for the BIM model.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0488
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Environmental impacts cost assessment model of residential building using
           an artificial neural network
    • Authors: Amneh Hamida, Abdulsalam Alsudairi, Khalid Alshaibani, Othman Alshamrani
      Abstract: Buildings are major contributors to greenhouse gases (GHG) along the various stages of the building life cycle. A range of tools have been utilised for estimating building energy use and environmental impacts; these are time-consuming and require massive data that are not necessarily available during early design stages. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an Environmental Impacts Cost Assessment Model (EICAM) that quantifies both energy and environmental costs for residential buildings. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed to develop the EICAM. The model consists of six input parameters, including wall type, roof type, glazing type, window to wall ratio (WWR), shading device and building orientation. In addition, the model calculates four measures: annual energy cost, operational carbon over 20 years, envelope embodied carbon and total carbon per square metre. The ANN architecture is 6:13:4:4, where the conjugate gradient algorithm was applied to train the model and minimise the mean squared error (MSE). Furthermore, regression analysis for the ANN prediction for each output was performed. The MSE was minimised to 0.016 while training the model. Also, the correlation between each ANN output and the actual output was very strong, with an R2 value for each output of almost 0.998. Moreover, validation was conducted for each output, with the error percentages calculated at 0.26%, 0.25%, 0.03% and 0.27% for the annual energy cost, operational carbon, envelope materials embodied carbon and total carbon per square metre, respectively. Accordingly, the EICAM contributes to enhancing design decision-making concerning energy consumption and carbon emissions in the early design stages. This study provides theoretical implications to the domain of building environmental impact assessment through illustrating a systematic approach for developing an energy-based prediction model that generates four environmental-oriented outputs, namely energy cost, operational energy carbon, envelope embodied carbon, and total carbon. The model developed has practical implications for the architectural/engineering (A/E) industries by providing a useful tool to easily predict environmental impact costs during the early design phase. This would enable designers in Saudi Arabia to make effective design decisions that would increase sustainability in the building life cycle. By providing a holistic predictive model entitled EICAM, this study endeavours to bridge the gap between energy costs and environmental impacts in a predictive model for Saudi residential units. The novelty of this model is that it is an alternative tool that quantifies both energy cost, as well as building’s environmental impact, in one model by using a machine learning approach. Besides, EICAM predicts its outcomes more quickly than conventional tools such as DesignBuilder and is reliable for predicting accurate environmental impact costs during early design stages.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0450
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Assessment of preconstruction factors in sustainable project management
           performance
    • Authors: Khalid Naji, Murat Gunduz, Fatema Salat
      Abstract: The construction sector has a global reach, and construction professionals worldwide often encounter challenges in delivering a project on time and within the assigned budget. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the preproject factors that most affect the performance of construction projects. A literature review was conducted to identify these factors from previous research, after which a questionnaire was developed and distributed to construction industry professionals worldwide. The response data were collected and analyzed using several methods, including Cronbach’s alpha, Relative Importance Index (RII), Kruskal–Wallis test, and Spearman’s and Pearson correlations. The results highlight four categories of significance, namely design, stakeholder, engineering, and procurement, with 31 factors being assigned to these categories. The relationships between each factor based on the categories established in the survey are then presented. With the help of data analysis, focusing on these significant preproject factors will help management teams to evaluate and improve the preconstruction process to achieve a higher project success rate. This study differs from other studies in the literature by gathering all relevant preconstruction success factors by an extensive literature review. Finally, highly ranked factors are studied in detail for a better understanding of the impact of preconstruction factors on project performance. This study is supported by powerful tests such as Kruskal–Wallis test and Spearman’s correlation to study the perception of different groups on preconstruction factors. Furthermore, the data analysis will help in identifying and avoiding the failure part of the previous projects and will improve the planning and/or forecasting of the new projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0333
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Influence of social media use at work on construction managers' work
           performance: the knowledge seeker's perspective
    • Authors: Jianyao Jia, Guofeng Ma, Shan Jiang, Ming Wu, Zhijiang Wu
      Abstract: Although social media use at work has made great impact on employee work performance, little is known about the effect of social media use at work on construction employees, especially construction managers. In this way, the purpose of this study aims to investigate the impact of social media use at work on construction managers' work performance based on the enabler-process-intermediate outcome-performance framework. This study adopts the knowledge seeker's perspective to empirically investigate the mechanism through which social media use at work impacts construction managers' work performance. Questionnaire survey was conducted with 210 construction managers to test the research model proposed in this study. A component-based structural equation modeling technique was employed to analyze the data. Results show that social media use at work positively influences knowledge acquisition both internally and externally, and knowledge acquisition promotes task self-efficacy and creativity, which in turn improve construction managers' work performance. In addition, the interaction of task self-efficacy and creativity is found to negatively influence work performance. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding about the impact of social media use at work on construction managers' work performance. This research also provides informative insights for practitioners on how to improve work performance.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0705
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • A holistic review of research studies on financial risk management in
           public–private partnership projects
    • Authors: Isaac Akomea-Frimpong, Xiaohua Jin, Robert Osei-Kyei
      Abstract: Globally, the management of financial risks has gained much attention in the public–private partnerships (PPP) market in recent years. Existing studies rank financial risks among the topmost risk factors that determine the success or failure of a PPP project. As essential for managing financial risks, a systematic review of previous studies on financial risk management of PPP from 1995 to 2019 (inclusive of both years) has been presented in this paper. The paper undertakes a systematic analysis of 49 relevant and available studies on financial risk management of PPP projects. From the results, high-interest charges, increased construction costs and increased market risks are some of the key financial risks hampering the success of PPP projects. Techniques used to assess financial risks include Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and Net Present Value (NPV). Financial risks control adopted by project managers include minimum revenue guarantee and real option pricing. Extremely limited studies on financial risk management in PPP projects in developing economies was revealed. Project managers in developing financial risk management models may use the outcome of this paper to improve the financial success of PPP projects. Holistically, researchers will be guided to investigate and heighten the pertinent issues on financial risk management of PPP projects in academia. The results provide a rare guide to project managers in controlling financial risks of PPP projects which is an unexplored topic. It is also the first paper to highlight the issues of financial risk management in PPP projects research.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-02-2020-0103
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Investigating stewardship behavior in megaprojects: An exploratory
           analysis
    • Authors: Tianyu Ma, Zhuofu Wang, Miroslaw Jan Skibniewski, Jiyong Ding, Ge Wang, Qinghua He
      Abstract: This research aims to analyzes how megaproject top managers engaged in stewardship behaviors. Studying megaprojects from the micro-foundations rooted in individual action and interaction, this research examines the gaps between literature and top managers' positive behavior to challenge the current theoretical underpinnings of megaproject governance research and practice. An extensive literature review was performed in the initial phase. Then, a case study of South-to-North Water Diversion project was conducted based on following this project and on access to its top executives. Data was collected from multiple sources and analyzed by Nvivo (version 12). Further analysis was then carried out in two stages to identify megaproject stewardship behavior and related governance patterns. Results show that stewardship behavior is prevalently existing and is possibly to be identified through psychological, situational, relational dimensions. Also, 16 factors have been found to describe the precise nature of megaproject stewardship behavior. Further explorative findings were discussed from three perspectives: possible theoretical development, self-actualization motivation and temporalities of megaprojects. Building upon the ideas on how to extend steward theory towards project field, this research conducts a first exploration of stewardship behavior in megaprojects. This study contributes to complement the research into top-level organizational behavior in megaprojects, and it provides helpful implications for how to govern top managers in the following megaprojects with the cooperative spirit that can be valued by megaproject stakeholders.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-22
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0479
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Developing a construction business model transformation canvas
    • Authors: Priyadarshini Das, Srinath Perera, Sepani Senaratne, Robert Osei-Kyei
      Abstract: Industry 4.0 is driving an incremental shift in paradigms for the construction industry. Current research in the built environment is limited to exploring the exponential technological prowess of Industry 4.0 with very little work on its implications to the construction business model, strategy and competitive advantage. There arises a challenge for researchers to understand how appropriate technologies can be assembled to assist in achieving the goals of construction businesses. The overarching aim of this research is to develop a construction Business Model Transformation Canvas (BMTC) to map the transformation of construction enterprises in Industry 4.0. The research was carried out by conducting an expert forum with academics from nine universities across Australia and New Zealand. The study employed purposive sampling, and the academics were selected in a strategic manner in order to provide data that are relevant to the research. The research identifies that technology-based partnerships supporting strategy and capability building, platforms enabling enterprises to conceive, design, manufacture and assemble buildings and competition with stakeholders having superior capabilities not in building but in other areas of business are fundamental to Industry 4.0 transformation. The results present state-of-the-art development of business model research in construction that intends to support the strategic planning of construction enterprises in Industry 4.0. This research is the first and only research that uses a business model canvas (BMC) for strategy-reformulation in incumbent construction enterprises to maintain a competitive advantage in Industry 4.0. Merits of the construction BMTC lie in its holistic approach, visual representation and simplicity.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-22
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-09-2020-0712
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Maintenance management of heritage buildings in Iraq
    • Authors: Afrah Mohammed Hasan Kashkool, Saba Sami Al Ali
      Abstract: Heritage buildings, as any other buildings are subject to decay and deterioration. This issue increases significantly when a country undergoes complicated circumstances of unrest, as is the case in Iraq. The purpose of this study is to rethink the maintenance approach to heritage buildings in Iraq from a systematic management standpoint. It proposes the development of a management system through the functions of proper planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The study aims to scrutinize the weak areas of performance in the investigated work process in Iraq and provide suggestions to address them. The paper opted for an exploratory study, using interviews with responsible people in Iraqi heritage buildings administration to investigate the procedures applied on maintenance work for the heritage buildings. Besides, maintenance reports were reviewed and three case studies of buildings recently assigned for maintenance were visited and examined to identify the current course of actions at work and to uncover the points of weakness and strength. The researchers identified a kind of unreal planning in the maintenance process, which appeared to be a manifestation of corrective maintenance (CM) rather than a preventive one. Such an aspect was highlighted due to several causes, among which most important were as follow (1) the lack of sufficient allocated budgets and (2) the shortage of hand labor and building technicians in this field, including professionals with an architectural training background, who could make practical choices to heritage maintenance thus preventing improper solutions that would harm the authenticity of the asset. Such factors could be mitigated if a good maintenance management system is to be adopted. A proposed system is hereby suggested, upgrading the current guideline and laws by the specialized authorities in addition to recommending the application of digital documentation. This paper fulfills an identified need to study how maintenance management system can be applied for heritage buildings
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0157
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Critical supply chain vulnerabilities affecting supply chain resilience of
           industrialized construction in Hong Kong
    • Authors: E.M.A.C. Ekanayake, Geoffrey Qiping Shen, Mohan Kumaraswamy, Emmanuel Kingsford Owusu
      Abstract: Industrialized construction (IC) has been recognized as a game-changing approach in Hong Kong (HK). However, the increasing risks of disruptions in IC supply chains (SCs) raise SC vulnerability levels, prompting attention to developing supply chain resilience (SCR). Since SCR is only attainable through overcoming critical supply chain vulnerabilities (CSCV) with enhanced SC capabilities, this study first aimed to determine the most CSCV of ICSCs by addressing this current research gap and practical need. Drawing on SCV factors identified from a precursor literature review, an empirical study of IC in HK was conducted using a questionnaire survey and interviews with industry experts. Focussed significance analysis of the data collected through questionnaire survey enabled the selection of 26 CSCV as appropriate to IC. Next, factor analysis was conducted, enabling the grouping of these CSCV under five components. The results were verified and reinforced by interview findings. The results revealed 26 CSCV pertinent to resilient ICSCs in HK with five underlying components: economic, technological, procedural, organizational and production-based vulnerabilities. Loss of skilled labour is the most critical vulnerability, whereas organizational SCV is the most critical component identified. Findings of this study would motivate IC project professionals to appreciate and address the CSCV in the context of five components and thereby develop adequate specific capabilities to successfully withstand these CSCV. This should trigger future studies to map CSCV with appropriate capabilities in developing an envisaged powerful assessment model for evaluating the SCR in IC in HK.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-14
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0438
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Evaluating the economic and social benefits of multiutility tunnels with
           an agent-based simulation approach
    • Authors: Chengke Wu, Peng Wu, Rui Jiang, Jun Wang, Xiangyu Wang, Ming Wan
      Abstract: Multiutility tunnel (MUT) has been recognised as a more sustainable method to place underground utilities than the traditional directly buried (DB) method. However, the implementation of MUT is hindered because of high initial construction costs and the difficulty to demonstrate its benefits, especially social benefits that are hard to be quantified. To address the limitation, this paper aims to quantify and compare both economic costs and traveller loss (i.e. an important part of social costs) of the MUT and DB method. An agent-based model (ABM) is developed, which considers attributes and actions of vehicles, interactions between vehicles and interactions between vehicles and the road network. The ABM is used to estimate traveller loss by comparing traveller time when the MUT and DB method is adopted, respectively. The traveller loss is combined with economic costs to estimate and compare the LCC of the MUT and DB method. To verify the ABM-based approach, it is implemented in an MUT project in Shanghai, China. Results of the study indicate: (1) When the DB method is adopted, periodic E&Rs cause severe traffic congestion and substantial traveller loss. (2) When traveller loss is not included in the LCC estimation, the DB method has a lower LCC in most scenarios. (3) When traveller loss is included, the relative LCC of MUT and the time it takes to cover the LCC of the MUT and DB method is largely reduced. Thus, when social costs are considered, MUT will bring more benefits than the DB method. Previous studies on comparing the MUT and DB method focus on investigating economic costs, while other costs, e.g. social costs, are not well addressed quantitatively. Besides, current studies of traveller loss estimation lack consideration of factors such as unique attributes, actions and interactions of vehicles and the network. Hence, this paper applies an ABM-based approach to involve these factors and produce more reliable estimation of traveller loss than existing approaches. Moreover, by integrating traveller loss into LCC analysis, this paper helps to understand the benefits of MUT thus assisting decision-making in selecting utilities placement methods.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-11
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2019-0399
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • A model utilizing the artificial neural network in cost estimation of
           construction projects in Jordan
    • Authors: Dareen Ryied Al-Tawal, Mazen Arafah, Ghaleb Jalil Sweis
      Abstract: Cost estimation is one of the most significant steps in construction planning, which must be undertaken in the preliminary stages of any project; it is required for all projects to establish the project's budget. Confidence in these initial estimates is low, primarily due to the limited availability of suitable data, which leads the construction projects to frequently end up over budget. This paper investigated the efficacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) methodologies in overcoming cost estimation problems in the early phases of the building design process. Cost and design data from 104 projects constructed over the past five years in Jordan were used to develop, train and test ANN models. At the detailed design stage, 53 design factors were utilized to develop the first ANN model; then the factors were reduced to 41 and were utilized to develop the second predictive model at the schematic design stage. Finally, 27 design factors available at the concept design stage were utilized for the third ANN model. The models achieved average cost estimation accuracy of 98, 98 and 97% in the detailed, schematic and concept design stages, respectively. This paper formulated the aims and objectives to be applicable only in Jordan using historical data of building projects. The ANN approach introduced as a management tool is expected to provide the stakeholders in the engineering business with an indispensable tool for predicting the cost with limited data at the early stages of construction projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0402
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Walkability evaluation of building circulation based on user preference
    • Authors: Meiqing Fu, Rui Liu, Carol K.H. Hon
      Abstract: Building circulation has an important impact on human comfort of buildings and is one of the critical factors in building design. A quantitative walkability evaluation of building circulation can benefit both building design and operation. However, indoor walkability of building circulation is determined not only by objective path features but also by subjective user preference. How to incorporate the preference from a large group of users into the design process is still a challenging issue. This study proposes a participatory framework of indoor path walkability evaluation based on user preference. Hierarchical indicators are developed to objectively measure indoor path features. Furthermore, group decision-making theory is adopted to aggregate individual user preference into user common preference for determining the relative indicator weights. Finally, integrated walkability scores (IWSs) are calculated to evaluate indoor path walkability quantitatively. A total of three case scenarios demonstrate that the proposed evaluation framework provides an efficient way for designers and owners to measure user preference quantitatively, analyze building circulations based on user preference and compare the walkability of different building design schemes. The developed methods provide an efficient way for designers and owners to measure user preference quantitatively, analyze building circulations based on user preference and compare the walkability of different building design schemes. This study develops a comprehensive and quantitative walkability evaluation approach that considers both objective path features and subjective user preference derived from user characteristics and walking purposes, which provides an effective way to incorporate user feedback into the building design process and operation.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-09
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0398
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Optimizing construction and demolition waste transportation for
           sustainable construction projects
    • Authors: Nehal Elshaboury, Mohamed Marzouk
      Abstract: There have been numerous efforts to tackle the problem of accumulated construction and demolition wastes worldwide. In this regard, this study develops a model for identifying the optimum fleet required for waste transportation. The proposed model is validated through a case study from the construction sector in New Cairo, Egypt. Various fleet combinations are assessed against the time, cost, energy and emissions generated from waste transportation. Genetic algorithm optimization is performed to select the near-optimum solutions. Complex proportional assessment and operational competitiveness rating analysis decision-making techniques are applied to rank Pareto frontier solutions. These rankings are aggregated using an ensemble approach based on the half-quadratic theory. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is implemented to determine the most sensitive attribute. The results reveal that the optimum fleet required for construction and demolition wastes (CDW) transportation consists of one wheel loader of bucket capacity 2.5 cubic meters and nine trucks of capacity 22 cubic meters. Furthermore, consensus index and trust level of 0.999 are obtained for the final ranking. This indicates that there is a high level of agreement between the rankings. Moreover, the most sensitive criterion (i.e. energy) is identified using a sensitivity analysis. This study proposes an efficient and effective construction and demolition waste transportation strategy that will lead to economic gains and protect the environment. It aims to select the optimum fleet required for waste transportation based on economic, social and environmental aspects. The usefulness of this study is establishing a consensual decision through the aggregation of conflicting decision makers' preferences in waste transportation and management.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-09
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0636
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Barriers to the development of prefabricated buildings in China: a news
           coverage analysis
    • Authors: Zhen Li, Shaowen Zhang, Qingfeng Meng, Xin Hu
      Abstract: The Chinese construction industry is experiencing a rapid growth these days. Due to the requirements of energy conservation, emission reduction and construction waste management, the development of prefabricated buildings (PBs) has attracted much attention in the Chinese construction industry. However, the development of PBs are still in their infancy in China, which have been negatively impacted by many obstacles. It is of great significance to clarify and analyze these obstacles for the purpose of promoting the development of PBs in China. Due to the wideness and complex features of obstacles, the existing literature exploring the research topic lacks comprehensiveness. The purpose of this paper is to systematically identify and discuss the obstacles that hinder the development of PBs in China. This paper adopts the method of news report analysis based on the news reports retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and nine major portals in China. The Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) method of content analysis was used to rank the obstacles according to their importance. A total of 79 obstacles to the development of PBs in China are identified, and the 79 obstacles are divided into 8 dimensions. Among the Top 20 obstacles, the government dimension accounted for the highest number of 5, the market and consumer dimension and development organization dimension were 4, Manufacturing Enterprise of Prefabricated Components (PCs) dimension, construction organization dimension and design organization dimension were 2, logistics enterprise dimension was 1, and industry association dimension was 0. Among them, the biggest obstacle is the high transportation costs. First, data collection may not be very comprehensive. Second, this paper is only based on the obstacles in the development of PBs in China, and the universality of the management conclusions needs to be further strengthened. The research results help the stakeholders in the Chinese PBs industry to better understand the barriers hindering the industry development in a systemic way, which will help propose appropriate strategies to address these barriers. This paper clarifies the obstacles of China's PBs and makes an analysis, which is of great value to the development of China's PBs.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-08
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0195
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Reimaging stakeholder analysis in project management: network theory and
           fuzzy logic applications
    • Authors: Seyed Ashkan Zarghami, Jantanee Dumrak
      Abstract: The methods presently used for project stakeholder analysis have typically followed two distinct patterns: (1) a project-centric approach that places a project at the center, and subsequently, concentrates on dyadic relationships between the project and its stakeholders; (2) a network theory-based approach that emphasizes on the interconnections within the network of project stakeholders. The main contention of this study is built upon the premise that neither the sole analysis of dyadic relationships between a project and its stakeholders nor the stand-alone use of the network theory methods is adequate for reliable analysis of stakeholders. This article proposes a model that bases the salience of stakeholders on their relationships with the project as well as on their interdependencies in the project. In doing so, this work explores the potential of a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) to provide a comprehensive picture of stakeholder analysis. Using a real-world biodiversity project, this paper analyses the project stakeholders based on their possession of various attributes as well as the extent to which each individual stakeholder influences the entire connected network of all stakeholders. A salient feature of the proposed FIS model is its ability to provide a high capacity for analyzing the results. The model is able to generate the input–output relationship surface view for stakeholder analysis. Further, unlike the traditional project stakeholder analysis methods that are linear, the proposed model is strongly nonlinear. This implies that change in the input variables of the fuzzy-based model is not expected to lead to a proportional change in the model output. Two practical implications can be drawn from the presented stakeholder analysis model. First, confronted with mounting pressure to understand the stakeholder environment and to effectively manage stakeholders, project managers need to establish a sound stakeholder management strategy. The stakeholder analysis model developed herein casts a wider net for the critical ranking of stakeholders in a project, thereby providing a more accurate prioritization of the stakeholders. Second, while stakeholders independently require managerial attention, understanding the effect of competing and cooperative stakeholder interactions are unarguably of great importance. The presented model prompts the project managers to recognize not only the influence of key stakeholders on the project but also the interactions of multiple stakeholders within the stakeholder network. The proposed stakeholder analysis model possesses several desirable features. First, it is not constrained to capturing only stakeholder attributes discussed in the example project provided in this study. The model is flexible and adaptable to all business and management contexts. Second, the stakeholder mapping in the model is not a function of a sole attribute but rather a cumulative effect of multiple stakeholder attributes. In fact, the power of the suggested model lies in its ability to incorporate the three aspects of stakeholder theory into a single model. Third, the presented model builds a quantitative and qualitative picture of the stakeholder salience. The suggested FIS model is capable of processing both qualitative perception of stakeholder attributes and quantitative analysis of the network of stakeholder interactions. This allows for a more comprehensive and synergistic utilization of model inputs.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-08
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0391
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • An estimation model of construction project segmentation for optimum
           project pricing
    • Authors: Fang-Jye Shiue, Hsin-Yun Lee, Meng-Cong Zheng, Akhmad F.K. Khitam, Sintayehu Assefa
      Abstract: For large projects, project segmentation and planning the size of contract packages in construction bids is a complex and critical issue. Due to the nature of construction projects, which frequently have large budgets, long durations and many activities with complex procedures, project segmentation involves complicated decision-making. To fill this gap, this study aims to develop an integrated model for planning project segmentation. The proposed model integrates a simulation and multiple attribute decision-making method. The simulation is used to evaluate the bidding outcome of various project segmentations. The owner can then determine the bid-price behavior of contractors in response to varying work package sizes. The multiple attribute decision-making method is used to select the optimal segmentation solution from the simulated scenarios. The proposed model is applied to a large road preservation project in Indonesia and incorporates bid participants and market conditions. The model provides seven scenarios for segmentation. The range of scenarios captures increasing competitiveness in the construction with the average bid price becoming gradually more beneficial for the owner. The model also utilizes a multiple attribute decision-making method to select the optimum scenario for the owner. This study presents an applicable model for project segmentation that is useful for both project owners and contractors. By utilizing the proposed model, a project owner can segment a large project into smaller contract packages to create improved project pricing.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2020-0596
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Applications of drones for safety inspection in the Gulf Cooperation
           Council construction
    • Authors: Tariq Umar
      Abstract: construction industry in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member countries is at the peak as the region is in the stage of developing its infrastructures. Apart from some positive sign of this boost, several other issues have also been developed in the region. One of such issues is the safety of workers at the construction sites. This article, based on a variety of applications of drones in other industrial sectors, considers the use of drones for construction safety improvement in the GCC countries. This article aimed to investigate the safety-related applications of drones considering technical features and barriers and enablers for safety-related tasks. A mixed research approach using both qualitative and quantitative methods was adopted to achieve the aims and objectives of this research. Data were collected through a systematic literature review, semistructured interviews and using a structured questionnaire. A total of 37 relevant research items and 10 interviews were held with construction safety professionals, and 92 responses collected from the safety managers through a structured questionnaire was used to derive the conclusion of this research. The collected data were processed and analyzed using the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) program. Descriptive analyses were carried out in which means and importance factors were calculated. 25.92% of participants confirmed that they or their company had used the drone in different activates. The most common application of drones reported by the respondents was photography for marketing purposes followed by surveying application and quality inspections. The camera movability was the top-rated technical feature required for safety-related inspections. Similarly, “Working near the corner or edge of unprotected opening” was the top-rated application of drone for safety-related tasks. The safety concerns of using drones at job sites were rated as the most important barrier by the participants. Technical challenges associated with the use of drones for safety improvement was rated as the second most important barrier by the participants. Although, the research presented in this article is based on the GCC construction industry, however, since the data collected through systematic review and semistructured interviews are not a regional base, therefore the finding of this research could also be useful in other regions. Further research however, needs to be conducted to reduce the implications of the barriers identified in this paper so that the drone can be effectively used for safety improvement in construction not only in the GCC region but also in other countries. Once the GCC construction industry will be able to overcome the challenges associated with the application of drones in safety improvement, the safety managers will be able to monitor the site more effectively which could be helpful to improve the safety performance of the construction organization. Improved safety performance in not only in the greater interest of the construction organizations as they can reduce the costs associated with poor safety but can also avoid the delay caused by construction accidents. Similarly, improved safety performance reduces the accidents at construction sites, and thus reduces injuries and disabilities caused by such accidents, making the construction workers a useful part of the society. The application of drones in safety-related tasks is one of the key solutions that can lead us to improved safety performance. Although, the use of drone technology has revolutionized a number of industrial sectors due to its variety of applications, the application in construction particularly in the GCC region is still very limited. As noted in the results of this research, only 21 participants (25.92%) expressed that they or their company had used the drone in different activates. This means that the industry is not getting the full advantage of the available drone technology. The results of this research will enable construction industry stakeholders to know the challenges associated with the application of drones for safety improvement and to develop strategies to overcome these challenges.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0369
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • An integrated BIM-based approach for cost estimation in construction
           projects
    • Authors: Abdulwahed Fazeli, Mohammad Saleh Dashti, Farzad Jalaei, Mostafa Khanzadi
      Abstract: Analyzing different scenarios at the design stage of construction projects has always been a challenging task. One of the main parameters that helps owners in making better decisions in designing their buildings is to look after the cost perspective on different design scenarios. Thus, this study aims to propose a semi-automated BIM-based cost estimation approach that enables practitioners to estimate the cost of projects based on different design scenarios by an accurate and agile system. This study proposes an integrated framework, through which the cost estimation standard of Iran (FehrestBaha) is linked to the materials quantity take-offs (QTO) from BIM models. The performance of the system is based on connecting the classification standards of UniFormat and MasterFormat to the cost estimation standard of FehrestBaha. A BIM-based extension in the Revit environment is developed to automate the cost estimation process. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed approach in cost estimation, it is implemented to estimate the cost of the architectural discipline in a real construction project. The results indicate that the proposed BIM-based approach estimated the cost of the architectural discipline with an acceptable level of accuracy. The proposed approach could be used by practitioners to have an agile and accurate BIM-based cost estimation of different scenarios during design process. The semi-automated system considerably reduces the time of cost estimation in comparison to the traditional manual approaches, particularly in complex structures. Owners are able to easily trace changes in project cost according to any changes in components and materials of the BIM model. Furthermore, the proposed approach provides a practical roadmap for BIM-based cost estimation based on cost estimation standards in different countries. Unlike the traditional manual cost estimation approaches, the proposed BIM-based approach is not highly dependent on the knowledge of experienced estimators, which therefore facilitates its implementation. Furthermore, automating both QTO process and the required calculations in this approach increases the accuracy of cost estimation while decreasing the probability of human errors or omission occurrence.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-01-2020-0027
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Dynamic Bayesian network modelling for predicting adaptability of time
           performance during time influencing factors disruptions in construction
           enterprise
    • Authors: Okechukwu Nwadigo, Nicola Naismith Naismith, Ali Ghaffarianhoseini, Amirhosein Ghaffarian Hoseini, John Tookey
      Abstract: A construction project is complex and requires dynamic modelling of a range of factors that deters time performance because of uncertainty and varying operating conditions. In construction project systems, the system components are the interconnected stages, which are time-dependent. Within the project stages are the activities which are the subsystems of the system components, causing a challenge to the analysis of the complex system. The relationship of construction project time management (CTM) with the construction project time influencing factors (CTFs) and the adaptability of the time-varying system is a key part of project effectiveness. This study explores the relationship between CTM and CTF, including the potentials to add dynamical changes on every project stage. This study proposed a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model to examine the relationship between CTM and CTF. The model investigates the time performance of a construction project that enhances decision-making. First, the paper establishes a model of probabilistic reasoning and directed acrylic graph (DAG). Second, the study tests the dynamic impact (IM) of CTM-CTF on the project stages over a specific time, including the adaptability of time performance during disruptive CTF events. In demonstrating the effectiveness of the model, the authors selected one-organisation-single-location road-improvement project as the case study. Next, the confirmation of the model internal validity relied on conditional probabilities and the project knowledge experts' selected from the case company. The study produced structural dependencies of CTM and CTF with probability observations at each stage. A predictive time performance analysis of the model at different scenarios evaluates the adaptability of CTM during CTF uncertain events. The case demonstration of the model application shows that CTFs have effects on CTM strategy, creating the observations to help time performance restorations after disruptions. Although the case company experts' panel confirms the internal validity of the results for managing time, the model used conditional probability table (CPT) and project state values from a project contract. A project-wide application then will require multi-case data and data-mining process for generating the CPTs. The study developed a method for evaluating both quantitative and qualitative relationships between CTM and CTF, besides the knowledge to enhance CTM practice and research. In construction, the project team can use model observations to implement time performance restorations after a predictive or reactive disruption, which enhances decision-making. The model used qualitative and qualitative data of a complex system to generate results, bounded by a range of probability distributions for CTM-CTF interconnections during time performance disruptions and restorations. The research explores the approach that can complement the mental CTM-CTF modeling of the project team. The CTM-CTF relationship model developed in this research is fundamental knowledge for future research, besides the valuable insight into CTF influence on CTM.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0371
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Holistic green BIM: a scientometrics and mixed review
    • Authors: Zahra Abdulhadi Shukra, Ying Zhou
      Abstract: Despite the construction industry's significant impact on high energy use and a growing carbon footprint, technologies like Green BIM help to optimize natural resources, reduce pollution, use sustainable space and work on human comfort and health. But the trend in a holistic approach is minimal. Thus, the paper aimed to systematically investigate Green BIM research and implementation trends using a mixed-method and also show the prospects of holistic Green BIM implementation. First, we conducted a Scientometrics analysis on the topic using the Scopus database for the time interval of (2013–present). Secondly, the Qualitative Content Review method asserted the Scientometrics analysis result. Lastly, exploratory research was done on secondary data to compare the AEC industry trend for a comprehensive view. The merged findings confirmed the partial implementation of Green BIM and of which 43% of research focused only on energy analysis. Despite the potential of BIM and the interrelationship among green building parameters, the result showed other aspects of green building and sustainable design parameters as green material selection, sustainable site, waste management and water-use efficiency not comprised. The authors propose a new conceptual framework for integrating green building parameters, BIM tools and green building assessment tools in a life cycle of a project that adds into the sustainability of the Architectural, Engineering and Construction sector. The study would help to provoke researchers, software developers and practitioners for further innovative effort in holistic Green BIM implementation.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0377
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Implementing a HBIM approach to manage the translocation of heritage
           buildings
    • Authors: David Heesom, Paul Boden, Anthony Hatfield, Aneuris De Los Santos Melo, Farida Czarska-Chukwurah
      Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to present a study which exploited synergies between the fields of Heritage BIM, conservation and building translocation to develop a new approach to support a digitally enabled translocation process. The translocation (or relocation) of buildings or structures is a niche area of the construction sector and much of the significant work in this field has focused on the relocation of heritage buildings. However, hitherto there was a paucity of work between translocation and the process and technology of BIM. The study employed a constructive research approach to analyse the phenomenon of heritage translocation. As part of this approach, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with professionals engaged in heritage translocation projects within the UK, and this was supported by a multi-faceted review of literature within the cross cutting themes of translocation and HBIM. Building on the results, a BIM-enabled process was implemented to support the translocation of a 19th-century timber framed building in the UK. Following analysis of results of semi-structured interviews and supported by findings from prevailing literature in the field of translocation and HBIM, a HBIM for Translocation Conceptual Framework (TransHBIM) was developed. Building on the key constructs of the framework, a HBIM-based workflow was implemented to develop a digitally enabled translocation process, which provided a new approach to managing and documenting heritage translocation where disassembly and reconstruction are utilised. The workflow provided a more effective way of documenting individual elements of the building within a digital environment opening up potential for new simulation of the entire process. Current approaches to translocation involve traditional/manual methods of recording the building and cataloguing the key heritage elements for all aspects of the process. This new approach implements BIM technologies and processes along with the use of barcode or RFID tags to create a digital bridge between the physical elements of the building and the BIM database. This provides more accurate recording of the heritage and also opens up opportunities to support the process with additional digital simulation techniques enhancing the efficiency of the entire process.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0405
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Factors affecting the intrusiveness and selection of real-site data
           collection methods in hot and humid climates: critical review
    • Authors: Ammar Moohialdin, Fiona Lamari, Marc Miska, Bambang Trigunarsyah
      Abstract: Hot and humid climates (HHCs) are potential environmental hazards that directly affect construction workers' health and safety (HS) and negatively impact workers' productivity. Extensive research efforts have addressed the effects of HHCs. However, these efforts have been inconsistent in their approach for selecting factors influencing workers in such conditions. There are also increasing concerns about the drop-off in research interest to follow through intrusive and non-real-time measurements. This review aims to identify the major research gaps in measurements applied in previous research with careful attention paid to the factors that influence the intrusiveness and selection of the applied data collection methods. This research integrates a manual subjective discussion with a thematic analysis of Leximancer software and an elaborating chronological, geographical and methodological review that yielded 701 articles and 76 peer-reviewed most related articles. The literature included the physiological parameters as influencing factors and useful indicators for HHC effects and identified site activity intensity as the most influencing work-related factor. In total, three main gaps were identified: (1) the role of substantial individual and work-related factors; (2) managerial interventions and the application of the right time against the right symptoms, sample size and measurement intervals and (3) applied methods of data collection; particularly, the intrusiveness of the utilised sensors. The focus of researchers and practitioners should be in applying nonintrusive, innovative and real-time methods that can provide crew-level measurements. In particular, methods that can represent the actual effects of allocated tasks are aligned with real-time weather measurements, so proactive HHC-related preventions can be enforced on time. This review contributes to the field of construction workers' safety in HHCs and enables researchers and practitioners to identify the most influential individual and work-related factors in HHCs. This review also proposes a framework for future research with suggestions to cover the highlighted research gaps and contributes to a critical research area in the construction industry.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2019-0583
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Assessment of the cybersecurity vulnerability of construction networks
    • Authors: Bharadwaj R.K. Mantha, Borja García de Soto
      Abstract: The aim of this study is o examine the advantages and disadvantages of different existing scoring systems in the cybersecurity domain and their applicability to the AEC industry and to systematically apply a scoring system to determine scores for some of the most significant construction participants. This study proposes a methodology that uses the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) to calculate scores and the likelihood of occurrence based on communication frequencies to ultimately determine risk categories for different paths in a construction network. As a proof of concept, the proposed methodology is implemented in a construction network from a real project found in the literature. Results show that the proposed methodology could provide valuable information to assist project participants to assess the overall cybersecurity vulnerability of construction and assist during the vulnerability-management processes. For example, a project owner can use this information to get a better understanding of what to do to limit its vulnerability, which will lead to the overall improvement of the security of the construction network. It has to be noted that the scoring systems, the scores and categories adopted in the study need not necessarily be an exact representation of all the construction participants or networks. Therefore, caution should be exercised to avoid generalizing the results of this study. The proposed methodology can provide valuable information and assist project participants to assess the overall cyber-vulnerability of construction projects and support the vulnerability-management processes. For example, a project owner can use this approach to get a better understanding of what to do to limit its cyber-vulnerability exposure, which will ultimately lead to the overall improvement of the construction network's security. This study will also help raise more awareness about the cybersecurity implications of the digitalization and automation of the AEC industry among practitioners and construction researchers. Given the amount of digitized services and tools used in the AEC industry, cybersecurity is increasingly becoming critical for society in general. In some cases, (e.g. critical infrastructure) incidents could have significant economic and societal or public safety implications. Therefore, proper consideration and action from the AEC research community and industry are needed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure and assess the cybersecurity of individual participants and the construction network as a whole by using the Common Vulnerability Scoring System.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0400
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Forming a driving index for implementing public-private partnership
           projects in emerging economy: Ethiopian perception
    • Authors: Miliete Negash Gebremeskel, Soo Yong Kim, Le Dinh Thuc, Minh V. Nguyen
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify driving factors and a quantitative model for implementing public-private partnership (PPP) projects in Ethiopia as a case study in emerging economies. A review of the literature and semi-structured interviews were carried out to identify driving factors affecting the implementation of PPP projects in the Ethiopian context. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey within three months, with 59 validated responses; mean score technique and factor analysis were conducted. The fuzzy synthetic evaluation (FSE) method was applied to develop a driving index (DI) for implementing infrastructure PPP projects. Finally, a comparative analysis of top-five drivers was conducted between four emerging economies. Mean values show that all driving variables are important. Through factor analysis, 22 identified driving variables were grouped into six factors, namely, benefit for public and private sectors, attention of private sector, social development, cost reduction, management ability of public sector and ability of private sector. The FSE method constructs a DI and shows that benefit for public and private sectors is the most crucial factor for PPP implementation in the context of Ethiopia. Apart from this, most driving forces for adopting PPP projects in these countries related to financial problems. This study is one of the first integrate driving factors for PPP implementation. The index provides the decision-makers with a comprehensive tool to assess the needs of PPP implementation.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0459
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Application of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for sustainable pavement
           performance management in Qatar
    • Authors: Okan Sirin, Murat Gunduz, Mohammed E. Shamiyeh
      Abstract: Pavement is one of the main elements of the roads network. It is extremely essential to study and understand the factors affecting its performance and highlight the most important ones for decision-makers and pavement experts to consider during the design, construction and maintenance stages. The purpose of this paper was to identify the factors affecting pavement performance and rank them according to their importance using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for decision-makers and pavement experts to consider during the design, construction and maintenance stages. A survey was developed considering 29 factors found in the literature that affect pavement performance. The survey was sent to pavement professionals in Qatar to rate their perception of factors affecting pavement performance to enhance roads' sustainability. 205 responses were collected and analyzed using AHP. The findings indicate that the factor “unconsidered heavy vehicles volume” is the most critical factor that affects pavement performance. The second most critical factor affecting the pavement performance is the “low asphalt content” due to escalating binder aging, reducing fatigue life of the pavement and decreasing the durability of roads. The third and fourth factors are “poor mechanical and thermal properties” and “unexpected high traffic volume,” respectively. These two factors are strongly attached to the first and second factors since the traffic volume affects the pavement performance less but similar to the heavy vehicles and a mix with poor mechanical and thermal properties is related indirectly to the asphalt content in the mix. The research provides help for decision-makers in the construction industry to improve the performance of pavements using a multi-criteria decision-making tool. This paper's outcome would help the pavement management professionals in the construction industry to improve pavement performance and management, increase the pavement's life cycle and reduce maintenance costs.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-02-2020-0136
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Assessing and allocating the financial viability risk factors in
           public-private partnership wastewater treatment plant projects
    • Authors: Amr Metwally El-Kholy, Ahmed Yousry Akal
      Abstract: This research investigates the financial viability risk factors that threaten the private investor's economic scheme in the public private partnership (PPP) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) projects in Egypt. The aims of this study are to: (1) illustrate and cluster the financial viability risk factors in accordance with the PPP WWTP projects' nature, (2) assess the risk factors' criticality degrees according to their severity and frequency levels of the financial viability, and (3) pinpoint the suited allocation of the financial viability risk factors between the public and private parties. Relying on the previous analysts' endeavors, the questionnaire method, the fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach and the hypothetical normal distribution curve model; the severity, frequency, criticality and allocation preference of 32 financial viability risk factors were assessed from 12 Egyptian PPP experts. The data analysis yielded that foreign exchange risk, currency risk/inflation, license risk, construction cost-overrun and late site handover are the key factors in arising the financial viability risk issue in the PPP WWTP projects. Considering the discussion of these key risks, the study summarized that the financial viability's key risk factors are notably be affected by the economic, political and administrative circumstances of the host county. Additionally, the inflation lesion was found to be the core reason of most of the key risk factors. This research originality stems from its contribution to address the gab in the PPP risk assessment literature of the concessionaire's financial viability in the WWTP projects in a country of developing economy as Egypt. This, first, enriches the scholarly based knowledge of the PPP projects' risk analysts of the developing countries. Accordingly, it moves the current PPP risk assessment research further to deeply apprehend these markets' risks. Second, it equips the policymakers in the public and private sectors of such projects with a map that clarifies their assigned risk factors and the responsibilities that each party should bear to generate a mutual stable investment environment for achieving their aims successfully. This, indeed, paves the way for more private investments to be involved in the developing markets' PPP projects with a profitable satisfactory level for the private concessionaire. In the same vein, more WWTP projects, which are highly needed for the public sector and its people, are executed.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0373
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Developing effective 4IR leadership framework for construction
           organisations
    • Authors: Kehinde Alade, Abimbola Olukemi Windapo
      Abstract: Globally, the business organisations are experiencing a transformation due to the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). The need for an effective 4IR leadership has placed new demands on organisations to develop and select leaders to effectively lead the organisations in the 4IR era. Hence, it becomes important to understand the attributes for an effective 4IR leadership. This study examines the relationships between leadership styles, leadership traits, leadership intelligence and effective 4IR leadership to empirically validate the effective 4IR leadership framework that was conceptualised. The hypothesised relationships from the framework were tested using a survey of 416 senior construction executives across the nine provinces of South Africa. To achieve the study objectives, an online survey was sent to construction firms across the nine provinces of South Africa. “Construction”, for the purpose of this study comprised building and civil engineering firms listed on the construction industry development board (cidb) register of contractors in South Africa. The target group was the upper echelon executives, i.e. Chairman, CEOs, managing directors and chief operating officers, and the survey was directed to contact e-mail of the study samples. The professional service providers (architects, consultants and surveyors) were not part of the survey sample. The database of the organisational leaders was obtained from the cidb. The online survey was created on the 23rd of August 2019 and closed on the 23rd of April 2020, thereby making the duration of the survey eight months. The total number of respondents at the time of closure of the survey was four hundred and sixteen (416). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis of the results. This study validates the effective 4IR leadership framework as proposed by Alade and Windapo (2019) by empirically examining relationships between leadership styles, leadership traits, leadership intelligence and effective 4IR leadership. The findings from this study have shown that effective 4IR leadership is positively associated with leadership styles, leadership traits and leadership intelligence. Hence, an effective 4IR leader must spread the knowledge and understanding of the 4IR opportunities and threats in the organisations. The leader must ensure that the executives in the construction organisation become change conversant and ensure that the employees acquire 4IR skills. Multiple leadership intelligence is essential to effective 4IR leadership. These multiple intelligence are the ability to adapt knowledge and skills to different situations, ability to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously, a high level of understanding, ability to process and analyse information and ability to utilise knowledge from many disciplinary boundaries. This study is focused on construction business organisations in South Africa. As such, similar studies on 4IR leadership effectiveness can be carried out in other countries and across other organisations. Future studies should also consider using a case study approach specifically focused on organisations with high implementations of 4IR technologies. Interacting with the leaders of such organisations and their employees will give a broader perspective in understanding the reasons of their effectiveness. The leadership of construction organisations must partner with the academia, industry players and team members in their efforts to implement 4IR in their organisations. Also, the existence of a positive association between leadership traits and effective 4IR leadership implies that to ensure a 4IR-driven work process in construction organisations, the leadership must embrace disruption and quickly respond to change. Further, it can be concluded from the findings of this study that appropriate leadership styles are required for effective 4IR leadership. The appropriate leadership style for effective 4IR leadership requires the leadership of construction organisations to delegate some of the 4IR function. The 4IR function must be performed based on the challenges that are associated with 4IR. The positive correlation between leadership intelligence and leadership styles makes it possible to conclude that the competencies of leadership of construction organisations in a 4IR-driven change depend on the level of leadership intelligence of the executives of construction organisations. It is evident that 4IR will change the business environment; hence, leadership intelligence is required to adapt construction organisations to the change dynamics. This study has provided information on what 4IR leadership entails in construction organisations. The study has contributed a framework for ensuring effective and smooth flow 4IR implementation in construction organisations through a purposeful leadership that combines leadership styles, leadership traits and leadership intelligence. This research will be useful to government agencies and board members of construction organisations, in appointing leaders to see the construction industry and organisations perform better in the 4IR era. Young individuals who are also aspiring to take on leadership role in the industry will benefit from this study. This study is a new and original research that seeks to investigate the need for an effective 4IR leadership in construction business organisations. Construction as an industry is usually criticised for her slow response to change. Since leadership is required to drive the change agenda, this study examines the relationships between leadership styles, leadership traits, leadership intelligence and effective 4IR leadership to empirically validate the effective 4IR leadership framework that was conceptualised.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0576
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Prediction of multiproject resource conflict risk via an artificial neural
           network
    • Authors: Libiao Bai, Zhiguo Wang, Hailing Wang, Ning Huang, Huijing Shi
      Abstract: Inadequate balancing of resources often results in resource conflict in the multiproject management process. Past research has focused on how to allocate a small amount of resources optimally but has scarcely explored how to foresee multiproject resource conflict risk in advance. The purpose of this study is to address this knowledge gap by developing a model to predict multiproject resource conflict risk. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to transform subjective judgments into quantitative information, based on which an evaluation index system for multiproject resource conflict risk that focuses on the interdependence of multiple project resources is proposed. An artificial neural network (ANN) model combined with this system is proposed to predict the comprehensive risk score that can describe the severity of risk. Accurately predicting multiproject resource conflict risks in advance can reduce the risk to the organization and increase the probability of achieving the project objectives. The ANN model developed in this paper by the authors can capture the essential components of the underlying nonlinear relevance and is capable of predicting risk appropriately. The authors explored the prediction of the risks associated with multiproject resource conflicts, which is important for improving the success rate of projects but has received limited attention in the past. The authors established an evaluation index system for these risks considering the interdependence among project resources to describe the underlying factors that contribute to resource conflict risks. The authors proposed an effective model to forecast the risk of multiproject resource conflicts using an ANN. The model can effectively predict complex phenomena with complicated and highly nonlinear performance functions and solve problems with many random variables.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-20
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0201
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Government equity investment, effective communication and public private
           partnership (PPP) performance: evidence from China
    • Authors: Zhen Hu, Qianmeng Li, Tingting Liu, Lu Wang, Zhe Cheng
      Abstract: Public private partnership (PPP) has gained increasing popularity around the globe. Whether the government needs to participate in the PPP special purpose vehicle (SPV) as an equity coinvestor is a critical issue in PPP development. This research aims to examine the influence of government equity investment on PPP performance by taking public-private communication as an intermediate variable. A questionnaire survey was adopted as the main research method. PPP practitioners with extensive experiences from both the public and private sectors were targeted respondents. The survey results were subsequently analyzed using statistical data analysis method. Based on the results from the questionnaire survey, this research indicates an inverted U-shaped relationship between the ratio of government equity and performance in PPP projects. In addition, communication plays a mediating role between government equity investment and PPP project performance. This research explicates the relationship between the equity structure in a PPP SPV and the project performance. It provides important guidance and reference for PPP practitioners to structure the SPV and associated financial and commercial arrangements. It also offers valuable insights into the development of PPP policy, especially regarding the structuring of PPP models in China and elsewhere.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-13
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-02-2020-0138
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • An optimum multiple outcomes sharing model with multiple risk-averse
           agents
    • Authors: S. Mahdi Hosseinian, Elham Farahpour, David G. Carmichael
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose an optimum form of incentive contracts with multiple outcomes and multiple agents. Utility theory and principal-agent theory provide the underlying basis for this paper. A sample of 60 practitioners from public organizations and private companies participated in an exercise to validate the proposed model. The paper shows that, in outcome sharing contracts, the contributions of agents toward outcomes are positively related, while agent effort costs, outcome uncertainty, outcome correlation and agent level of risk aversion are negatively related. The paper further demonstrates that outcome sharing is positively associated with the level of effort selected by the agents. Outcome sharing models might be used in construction contracts to encourage the agent to act in the interests of the principal. However, few studies have looked at contracts with multiple outcomes and multiple agents. This paper contributes to the current practice of contract management through simplifying the complex nature of multiple incentive contracts and providing theoretical guidance for multi arrangements.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-12
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0194
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Conceptualizing a win–win scenario in public–private partnerships:
           evidence from a systematic literature review
    • Authors: Bridget Tawiah Badu Eshun, Albert P.C. Chan, Robert Osei-Kyei
      Abstract: Achieving the win–win goal in public–private partnership (PPP) has gained much research interest in recent times. These studies have addressed the achievement of win–win from various perspectives. An integration of the constructs from these various perspectives improves approach to attaining win–win throughout the entire project delivery. This study, therefore, becomes the first systematic review to analyse PPP studies towards identifying win–win constructs and then integrates findings into a conceptual model. This study adopted a four-staged systematic review method. This includes concept development, papers retrieval, selection of relevant papers and qualitative analysis. Thematic analysis was used at the qualitative analysis stage for the identification and categorization of constructs and finally, systems thinking was adopted in integrating the findings into a conceptual mode The achievement of win–win between government and private investors is of much desire hence a more conscious approach towards it is ideal. A total of 40 constructs were identified and were later categorised into six components. Some constructs identified include optimal assessment and fair allocation of project risks, reasonable concessions period, flexible contracting, equal and active participation and co-ordination of public and private actors and strategic negotiation. This paper provides an improved definition of win–win scenario in PPP infrastructure project delivery. Furthermore, the novel approach of integrating win–win constructs into a systemic conceptual model is very relevant to PPP body of knowledge and practice. The study concludes with plausible research directions to further improve the achievement of win–win in PPP.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-10
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0533
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Requirement management in a life cycle perspective based on ISO 19650-1
           and CoClass as the new classification system in Sweden
    • Authors: Seyedhabibollah Sadrinooshabadi, Afshin Taheri, Ibrahim Yitmen, Rogier Jongeling
      Abstract: Each building project demands an integrated method for information and requirement management in its life cycle. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the major obstacles in integrated life cycle information management and recognize the potentials of CoClass as the new Swedish digital classification system to tackle them throughout asset life cycle. The industry viewpoint toward the current status of asset information management considering ISO 19650-1 principles and the existing obstacles and the industry practitioners' ideas regarding CoClass capabilities and applicability were captured and analyzed. A total of 13 semistructured interviews were conducted with the AECO industry professionals to have an understanding of information requirement management. Then the results were analyzed qualitatively, using the NVivo 12 software. Different attributes of a component (heating panel) in a meeting room according to CoClass and data deviations throughout the asset life cycle were elaborated. This study reveals some obstacles in information management process in seven categories in relation to: (1) the need to employ information exchange platforms as common data environments (CDEs) by all actors from early stages; (2) the communication issues caused by lack of utilizing common languages; (3) the costly and time-consuming implementation process; (4) the misunderstandings in terms of data communication between service providers and owners; (5) the definition and fulfillment of information requirements as well as keeping track of data deviations throughout asset life cycle; (6) the information update difficulty; and (7) the need for training practitioners dealing with new systems such as CoClass. The research explores the major obstacles in information requirement management concerning the practical implementation of the new Swedish classification system, CoClass, supporting the asset life cycle.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-09
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0203
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Testing a social-psychological model of public acceptance towards highway
           infrastructure projects: a case study from China
    • Authors: Yujia Ge, Caiyun Cui, Chunqing Zhang, Yongjian Ke, Yong Liu
      Abstract: To test a social-psychological model of public acceptance of highway infrastructure projects in the Chinese architecture/engineering/construction industry. Through a comprehensive literature review, we established a social-psychological model of public acceptance related to benefit perception, risk perception and public trust. We empirically validated our model by using structural equation model analysis based on a questionnaire survey in the S35 Yongjin Highway Infrastructure Project in Yunnan Province, China. Benefit, trust and risk perception had a significant influence on local residents' public acceptance of highway infrastructure projects; benefit perception and trust perception had a greater influence than risk perception. Public acceptance among local male residents over the age of 35 or those with higher education levels was more likely to be determined by the relative dominance of risk and benefit perceived. This study contributes empirical evidence to the theoretical literature related to locally unwanted land use (LULU) siting and stakeholders in the field of project management from the public perspective. This study also suggests valuable practical implications to authorities, project managers and the public in decision-making and risk communication. Although previous studies addressed factors affecting public acceptance towards potentially hazardous facilities, understanding of the implications of these social-psychological factors and their effects are still far from sufficient. This study bridges this gap by exploring the determinants of public acceptance towards highway infrastructure projects based on a selected case in China.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-06
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0183
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Sustainability perceptions of home modification service providers for
           older Australians
    • Authors: Xin Hu
      Abstract: The majority of older Australians prefer living in their own home. Home modifications support older adults' ageing-in-place through mitigating environmental hazards of their home, and there is an increased interest in modifying older adults' residential environment in sustainable ways. However, an in-depth understanding of sustainability perceptions of home modification service providers (HMSPs) is lacking in Australia. Thus, the study aims to address this research gap. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to identify sustainability perceptions through analyzing the retrieved home modification business information from the selected HMSPs' official websites. The results of qualitative content analysis were further analyzed by using independent-samples t-test and chi-square contingency table analysis to investigate the relationships between HMSP type and sustainability. In total, 54 sustainability perceptions were identified, with the crucial ones being safe living environment, independent living and service diversity. Overall, there are no significant differences in sustainability perceptions between charitable and non-charitable HMSPs. Nevertheless, charitable HMSPs place more importance on social sustainability in comparison with non-charitable HMSPs. The study results facilitate understanding about HMSPs' sustainability perceptions and sustainable home modifications in the ageing society, which facilities theory advancement and industry practice in the home modification area.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-05
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2019-0681
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Exploring a body of knowledge for promoting the sustainable transition to
           prefabricated construction
    • Authors: Ting Luo, Xiaolong Xue, Yongtao Tan, Yuna Wang, Yuanxin Zhang
      Abstract: This paper aimed to introduce a systematic body of knowledge via a scientometric review, guiding the sustainable transition from conventional construction to prefabricated construction. The construction industry currently faces a challenge to balance sustainable development and the construction of new buildings. In this context, one of the most recent debates is prefabricated construction. As an emerging construction approach, although existing knowledge makes contributions to the implementation of prefabricated construction, there is a lack of a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the critical knowledge themes and gaps. This study uses the scientometric analysis to review the state-of-the-art knowledge of prefabricated construction. It retrieved data from the Web of Science core collection database. CiteSpace software was used to conduct the analysis and visualization; three analysis methods identify the knowledge hotspots, knowledge domains and knowledge topics. Finally, according to integrating the hidden connections among results, a body of knowledge for prefabricated construction application can be inferred. The results show that 120 knowledge hotspots, five critical knowledge domains and five prominent knowledge topics are vital for promoting implementation of prefabricated construction. Based on the afore analysis, a body of knowledge for prefabricated construction that can systematically cover a broad knowledge of prefabricated construction-related research and activities are integrated and proposed in this paper. Body of knowledge systematically covers a broad knowledge of prefabricated construction applications and is vital to guide researchers and practitioners to conduct related research and activities, thereby promoting the sustainable transition to prefabricated construction implementation.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0154
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Exploring the linkages between project managers' mindset behaviour and
           project leadership style in the Ghanaian construction industry
    • Authors: De-Graft Owusu-Manu, Caleb Debrah, Lydia Amissah, David J. Edwards, Nicholas Chileshe
      Abstract: Leadership encapsulates a process of influencing others to understand what needs to be done and how it can be done. The related area of mindset behaviour which moderates leadership styles adopted in various industries has hitherto received scant academic attention in a construction context. This paper thus explores the linkages between project manager's mindset behaviour and project leadership style in the construction industry. Literature reviewed provides the basis for a questionnaire data collection instrument developed to gather primary data from construction professionals in the Ghanaian construction industry (GCI). A quantitative research strategy was then adopted using the Relative Importance Index (RII) to determine the level of significance of the leadership and mindset archetypes. A Pearson's correlation test was run to ascertain whether the mindset behaviour of project managers has a significant impact upon the type of leadership style. The study's results indicate that democratic, transformational and situational leadership styles were prevalent leadership styles in the GCI. The analysis also revealed that project managers favoured the “growth mindset”. Furthermore this style had a moderate positive relationship with democratic and transformational leadership styles. Conversely, a fixed mindset had a low positive relationship with autocratic and situational leadership styles but a low negative relationship with transformational leadership style. This research provides sufficient data for project managers to identify the type of mindset to nurture (the growth mindset is recommended) and the effective leadership style to be employed. This study engenders wider discussion on mindset behaviour and project leadership style in developing countries. Moreover, the findings present policymakers and practitioners with the leadership styles to promote and develop (democratic, transformational and situational) and mindset behaviour (growth mindset) to ensure project success in Ghana and other developing countries. This research represents the first comprehensive study appraising the linkages between project managers’ mindset behaviour and project leadership style in the construction industry. Empirical data presented bridge the identified knowledge gap that exists on the lack of theoretical understanding of the influence that project managers' mindset has on leadership styles in the GCI.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0149
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Model validation of factors limiting the use of prefabricated construction
           systems in Turkey
    • Authors: Gulden Gumusburun Ayalp, Ilhami Ay
      Abstract: Prefabricated construction technology enables relatively faster and easier construction of building structures at a lower project cost, providing improved quality control with minimal material waste. Despite the advantages of prefabricated construction systems, they are not extensively used in Turkey because of specific yet largely undefined challenges. Therefore, the purpose of this study aims to determine the factors currently affecting the extensive use of prefabricated construction systems in Turkey. The reasons for such systems not being used extensively in Turkey were examined using responses to a questionnaire distributed amongst architects working at design firms, prefabricated-building manufacturers and contractors. The obtained survey data were statistically analysed using the SPSS 22 and LISREL 8.7 software to rank the severity of the identified challenges and determine the most critical factors. Eight critical factors groups affecting the use of prefabricated construction systems and their associated factors were identified according the responses provided by the participants. Potential solutions and recommendations were proposed based on these factor groups that are expected facilitate the implementation of prefabricated construction systems in Turkey. Little previous research has provided insight into the specific factors limiting the use of prefabricated construction systems. This study accordingly approaches the subject considering all phases of prefabricated construction systems and presents a structural model of the factors obtained by a confirmatory factor analysis for application to expand the use of prefabricated construction systems.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2020-0248
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • An evolutionary game analysis of user-pay public–private partnership
           projects
    • Authors: Danrong Song, Jinbo Song, Hehui Yuan, Yu Fan
      Abstract: With the growing demand for infrastructure and public services in recent years, PPP-UP have attracted a great deal of attention. However, while the user focuses on the payment for use and the private sector is concerned with its return on investment, the public sector pays more attention to the efficient utilization of public funds. In order to analyze the willingness of each stakeholder to join PPP-UP, an evolutionary game model involving the three parties is constructed. An evolutionary game model is established that considers the users and the public and private sectors in user-pay public-private-partnership projects (PPP-UP). Eight scenarios of equilibriums and the game's evolutionary stable strategies are analyzed, and the corresponding stability conditions are then obtained. A situation where all three players are willing to cooperate in theory is also examined. The key influencing parameters that affect cooperation behaviors are further discussed. First, the results illustrate that by properly adjusting the influencing factors, the cooperation status among the three parties can be changed along with certain evolutionary trends. Second, it is hard to modify unsatisfactory evolutionary stability by small changes in both the price compensation of and the construction and operation compensation. Third, it is necessary to involve the users in the decision-making process in PPP-UP and take their demands regarding benefits and payments into account. In this paper, we focus on PPP-UP to research interactions among the public and private sectors and the users. Based on the analysis of the evolutionary game, to facilitate the successful implementation and development of a project, several conditions are needed to ensure tripartite cooperation. Several recommendations are then proposed for decision-makers in PPP-UP.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0460
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Can joint-contract functions promote PPP project sustainability
           performance' A moderated mediation model
    • Authors: Mengyuan Cheng, Guoliang Liu, Yongshun Xu
      Abstract: The role of conventional contracts in achieving sustainability goals in public–private partnership (PPP) projects has been questioned. From the multifunctional perspective of contract theory, joint-contract functions that combine contractual control, coordination and adaptation may be a potential approach for improving PPP project sustainability performance. This research intends to investigate the link between the joint-contract functions and PPP project sustainability performance, and their underlying mechanism, by analyzing the mediating role of relationship quality and moderating roles of environmental uncertainty and behavioral uncertainty. Based on 170 valid survey data collected from the Chinese PPP professionals, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was adopted to test the hypothesis. The results reveal that joint-contract functions are positively associated with the PPP project sustainability performance. This relationship is strengthened by environmental and behavioral uncertainty. Moreover, the relationship between the joint-contract functions and PPP project sustainability performance is mediated by relationship quality. This research extends contract governance theory and sustainability research in PPP projects. The research implications are as follows: (1) joint-contract functions are a second-order construct consisting of three first-order dimensions: control, coordination and adaptation and are positively associated with PPP project sustainability performance; (2) joint-contract functions enhance the sustainable benefits of PPP projects during environmental uncertainty and behavioral uncertainty; (3) informal relationships are a critical bridge connecting formal institutions with the sustainability performance of PPP projects. In general, these findings guide project participants who aim to achieve sustainable outcomes in PPP projects. (1) Project participants should consider the process of contract design and sign contracts that focus on joint-contract functions. (2) Project participants should investigate the degree of uncertainty of a PPP project before designing contracts, and design the contracts with corresponding complexity. (3) Project participants should work to enhance PPP sustainable benefits by improving the relationship between partners, such as encouraging mutual trust and joint problem-solving. This research verifies the relationship between joint-contract functions and PPP project sustainability performance, and the boundary and intermediary conditions between them.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-27
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0419
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Time-cost-quality-environmental impact trade-off resource-constrained
           project scheduling problem with DEA approach
    • Authors: Sayyid Ali Banihashemi, Mohammad Khalilzadeh
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate project activities' efficiency in different execution modes for the optimization of time–cost-quality and environmental impacts trade-off problem. This paper presents a parallel Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method for evaluation of project activities with different execution modes to select the best execution mode and find a trade-off between objectives. Also, according to the nature of the project activities, outputs are categorized into desirable (quality) and undesirable (time, cost and environmental impacts) and analyzed based on the DEA model. In order to rank efficient execution modes, the ideal and anti-ideal virtual units method is used. The proposed model is implemented on a real case of a rural water supply construction project to demonstrate its validity. The findings show that the use of the efficient execution mode in each activity leads to an optimal trade-off between the four project objectives (time, cost, quality and environmental impacts). This study help project managers and practitioners with choosing the most efficient execution modes of project activities taking time–cost-quality-environmental impacts into account. In this paper, in addition to time and cost optimization of construction projects, quality factors and environmental impacts are considered. Further to the authors' knowledge, there is no method for evaluating project activities' efficiency. The efficiency of different activity modes is also evaluated for the first time to select the most efficient modes. This research can assist project managers with choosing the most appropriate execution modes for the activities to ultimately accomplish the project with the lowest time, cost and environmental impacts along with the highest quality.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0350
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Adoption and implementation of building information modelling (BIM) in
           
    • Authors: Abdullahi B. Saka, Daniel W.M. Chan
      Abstract: Despite the SMEs representing a large percentage of firms in the construction industry, there has been an under-representation of SMEs’ perspective in BIM research studies. This paper aims to systematically review the few extant studies with a view of synthesizing the findings. Hermeneutic philosophy using the interpretivist epistemology approach with a touch of metasynthesis was adopted to critically review and analyse extant studies published over the last decade. The findings revealed a scarcity of BIM studies in SMEs, the status of adoption, identified barriers, benefits and drivers. A conceptual model was then developed based on the literature review and theoretical lenses of innovation diffusion model, technology–organization–environment framework and institutional theory. The paper presents pertinent propositions to drive BIM in the SMEs. This paper holistically reviews extant BIM studies from the perspective of SMEs that are the backbone of the construction industry. It synthesizes extant studies and sets scenes for further studies.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2019-0332
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Modified accident causation model for highway construction accidents
           (ACM-HC)
    • Authors: Ruipeng Tong, Hui Zhao, Na Zhang, Hongwei Li, Xiaolong Wang, Hongqing Yang
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to establish a modified accident causation model for highway construction accidents (ACM-HC) and describe the establishment process of the ACM-HC. Based on the 2–4 Model, a framework of the ACM-HC was constructed, and the accident causal factors (CF) were extracted from four aspects of human, material, environment and management. In addition, association rule mining (ARM) was introduced to analyze accident investigation reports to obtain the interrelationships between the factors. Based on the framework, factors and ARM results, the ACM-HC was established. Finally, the ACM-HC was verified with a tunnel collapse accident. Both the external and internal causes of contractor cause accidents. The flaws of safety management of other stakeholders are external causes. In terms of the internal causes, there are four stages: direct causes, indirect causes, radical causes and root causes. More specifically, the direct causes refer to the unsafe acts and the unsafe conditions; ineffective safety supervision and poor individual factors of frontline workers constitute the indirect causes; the radical causes lie in the flaws of construction procedures and technical schemes; the root causes are related to the poor individual factors of decision makers and managers. The ACM-HC expresses the causes, sequence and mechanism of highway construction accidents in a visual way. In addition, this study describes a process of using a qualitative–quantitative hybrid approach to establish a modified ACM, which provides a different perspective for the establishment of an ACM.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0530
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • The impacts of ethical climate on knowledge contribution loafing among
           designers in engineering design firms: mediated effect of knowledge
           leadership
    • Authors: Lianying Zhang, Hui Sun
      Abstract: Knowledge contribution loafing as one of the major obstacles to knowledge sharing among designers in engineering design firms impedes better achievement of engineering design. The purpose of this paper is to examine different types of ethical climate impacts on knowledge contribution loafing among designers through the mediating effect of knowledge leadership. By adopting a quantitative research design, data were collected using a survey questionnaire from 352 designers in engineering design firms. The data were analyzed using the partial-least squares structural equation modeling approach to test hypotheses. Ethical climate is an important factor to affect knowledge contribution loafing among designers, and three types of ethical climate (self-interest, social responsibility and law/professional codes) have different degrees of influence on knowledge contribution loafing. In addition, knowledge leadership can alleviate knowledge contribution loafing, and it is a mediator between ethical climate and knowledge contribution loafing. Engineering design firms should cultivate and strengthen the role of social responsibility, law/professional codes and knowledge leadership and reduce the influence of self-interest to mitigate the negative of knowledge contribution loafing among designers. By identifying ethical climate as a novel influence factor for knowledge contribution loafing, this research further highlights the role of different types of ethical climate in an engineering design context. Moreover, it delves deeply into the issue around different types of ethical climate affect knowledge contribution loafing among designers through the role of knowledge leadership. This broadens the understanding of how ethical climate affects knowledge contribution loafing among designers in the engineering design organizations and enriches knowledge management literatures in engineering design industry.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-09
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2019-0389
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • A qualitative approach to investigate emergency preparedness state for the
           built environment in the UAE
    • Authors: Hamdan Rashid Alteneiji, Vian Ahmed, Sara Saboor
      Abstract: Emergency preparedness (EP) is one of the crucial phases of the disaster management cycle for the built environment. The body of knowledge, therefore, reports on different preparedness standards adopted by developed countries such as the United Kingdom (UK), the United States of America (USA), Canada, Japan and Australia. Other countries, however, such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (in the absence of its preparedness framework), have long adapted the UK preparedness standards. This has called for this study to investigate the state of EP practices in the UAE to identify the limitations and challenges it has been facing during its preparedness phase when adopting the UK preparedness standards. Qualitative methods of data collection and documentation with the content analysis were adopted to identify the barriers faced by the preparedness phase of emergency management (EM) in the UAE. A Pilot study was therefore conducted to validate eight key elements of the EP phase identified from the literature. The state of EP phase and the extent to which the eight key elements of EP elements were practiced and the barriers in their implementation in the UAE were explored through interviews at federal (National Crisis and Emergency Management Authority) and local levels (local team of crisis and emergency management). The study identified eight key elements of the EP phase and the associated barriers related to their implementation in the UAE. The barriers were ranked based on their severity by interviewing experts at both federal and local levels. This paper addresses the need to investigate the state of the EP phase, its key elements and the barriers faced during its implementation in the UAE. Due to the absence of any EP frameworks or systems in the UAE, this paper aims to validate the EP elements identified by adopting a qualitative approach.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0296
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Optimising social procurement policy outcomes through cross-sector
           collaboration in the Australian construction industry
    • Authors: Martin Loosemore, George Denny-Smith, Jo Barraket, Robyn Keast, Daniel Chamberlain, Kristy Muir, Abigail Powell, Dave Higgon, Jo Osborne
      Abstract: Social procurement policies are an emerging policy instrument being used by governments around the world to leverage infrastructure and construction spending to address intractable social problems in the communities they represent. The relational nature of social procurement policies requires construction firms to develop new collaborative partnerships with organisations from the government, not-for-profit and community sectors. The aim of this paper is to address the paucity of research into the risks and opportunities of entering into these new cross-sector partnerships from the perspectives of the stakeholders involved and how this affects collaborative potential and social value outcomes for intended beneficiaries. This case study research is based on a unique collaborative intermediary called Connectivity Centre created by an international contractor to coordinate its social procurement strategies. The findings draw on a thematic analysis of qualitative data from focus groups with 35 stakeholders from the construction, government, not-for-profit, social enterprise, education and employment sectors. Findings indicate that potentially enormous opportunities which social procurement offers are being undermined by stakeholder nervousness about policy design, stability and implementation, poor risk management, information asymmetries, perverse incentives, candidate supply constraints, scepticism, traditional recruitment practices and industry capacity constraints. While these risks can be mitigated through collaborative initiatives like Connectivity Centres, this depends on new “relational” skills, knowledge and competencies which do not currently exist in construction. In conclusion, when social procurement policy requirements are excessive and imposed top-down, with little understanding of the construction industry's compliance capacity, intended social outcomes of these policies are unlikely to be achieved. This research draws on theories of cross-sector collaboration developed in the realm of public sector management to address the lack of research into how the new cross-sector partnerships encouraged by emerging social procurement policies work in the construction industry. Contributing to the emerging literature on cross-sector collaboration, the findings expose the many challenges of working in cross-sector partnerships in highly transitionary project-based environments like construction.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2020-0221
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • A cartography of delay risks in the Australian construction industry:
           impact, correlations and timing
    • Authors: Hossein Derakhshanfar, J. Jorge Ochoa, Konstantinos Kirytopoulos, Wolfgang Mayer, Craig Langston
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to identify the most impactful delay risks in Australian construction projects, including the associations amongst those risks as well as the project phases in which they are most likely present. The correlation between project and organisational characteristics with the impact of delay risks was also studied. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data from 118 delayed construction projects in Australia. Data were analysed to rank the most impactful delay risks, their correlation to project and organisational characteristics and project phases where those risks are likely to emerge. Association rule learning was used to capture associations between the delay risks. The top five most impactful delay risks in Australia were changes by the owner, slow decisions by the owner, preparation and approval of design drawings, underestimation of project complexity and unrealistic duration imposed to the project, respectively. There is a set of delay risks that are mutually associated with project complexity. In addition, while delay risks associated with resources most likely arise in the execution phase, stakeholder and process-related risks are more smoothly distributed along all the project phases. This research for the first time investigated the impact of delay risks, associations amongst them and project phases in which they are likely to happen in the Australian context. Also, this research for the first time sheds light on the project phases for the individual project delay risks which aids the project managers to understand where to focus on during each phase of the project.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2020-0230
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Integrating a rich picture diagram and causal loop diagram to model
           stakeholder engagement in building refurbishment projects
    • Authors: Yuri Seki, Monty Sutrisna, Ayokunle Olubunmi Olanipekun
      Abstract: The more contemporary views on managing projects recommend stakeholder engagement as an important part of the process. Challenges have been reported when attempting to involve project stakeholders in a construction project due to the complexity of the processes. In projects such as refurbishment projects, the efforts to incorporate end users' needs and preferences into spatial environmental functions increase the complexity of stakeholder engagement during the journey of the project. This paper presents a unique technique used to integrate different tools within the system enquiry methodology in modelling the project stakeholder engagement process for refurbishment projects. Aiming to address the problem, system dynamics (SD) has been selected as the most suitable method for modelling the dynamic behaviour of this complex system over time. A tool known as a rich picture diagram (RPD) is proposed as the precursor of the development of a causal loop diagram (CLD) to facilitate a more holistic abstraction for applicable solutions. An example of a single case study involving the refurbishment of a higher education building project is presented to explain the analysis undertaken in the process of developing the CLD that models the dynamic behaviour within end-user stakeholder engagement. This paper demonstrates the complementarity capabilities of the soft and hard systems of enquiry in modelling stakeholder's dynamics within the refurbishment construction contexts. The RPD soft system tool was found useful to congregate diverse stakeholder expressions and experiences of a complex system in a holistic manner. Subsequently, the development of the CLD was fully guided by the information and relationship captured and presented in the RPD to yield a representative system model. Furthermore, this paper also reports the dynamics of the actors, situations, events and their inter-relationship found in the presented refurbishment project. This paper enriches the techniques within the system enquiry methodology by integrating hard and soft system tools for dynamic process modelling purposes. This is particularly achieved by utilizing the RPD as the precursor of SD that provides a useful way for researchers and stakeholders to fully understand the dynamics and develop robust systemic interventions to optimize end-user stakeholder engagement during the journey of refurbishment projects, particularly of higher education buildings.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0342
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • A risk-oriented tender evaluation system for construction projects in
           Malaysia
    • Authors: Mohd Razali Ismail, Ming Sun, Graeme Bowles
      Abstract: This paper presents results of an empirical investigation involving private construction clients in Malaysia, which seeks to establish appropriate tender evaluation criteria and weightings for a risk-oriented tender evaluation system. At the initial stage of this study, a list of significant risks is identified and gathered through literature review. These risks are then mapped onto tender evaluation criteria. Following this, the identified risks and their mappings are validated through a questionnaire survey to determine appropriate criteria for tender evaluation. Weightings for the selected evaluation criteria are established through an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) group decision-making (GDM) method. In practice, different lists of criteria, covering tender's technical capability and financial performance, are often used by different client organisations. However, there is a paucity of research behind the selection of these criteria and the weighting being attributed to different criteria. This study provides an important and a valuable insight into the actual criteria used during tender evaluation practice based on an analysis of documentary evidence. Both current practice and existing tender evaluation studies failed to address the risk element adequately. There is a lack of an explicit link between evaluation criteria and project risks. This study fills this knowledge gap by identifying tender evaluation criteria through reviewing criteria used in practice and examining their links to risk factors.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2018-0225
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Identifying critical factors influencing the safety of Chinese subway
           construction projects
    • Authors: Shang Zhang, Riza Yosia Sunindijo, Martin Loosemore, Shejiang Wang, Yajun Gu, Hongfei Li
      Abstract: The image of the construction industry in China, as in many other countries, is tarnished by its poor safety record. With the rapid development of subway systems in Chinese urban areas, construction workers are being exposed to new risks which are poorly understood and managed. Subway construction projects are large scale and scattered over many construction sites, and involve numerous stakeholders and sophisticated technologies in challenging underground environments. Accident rates are high and have significant economic and social consequences for the firms and people involved. Addressing the gap in research about the safety risk in these projects, the purpose of this paper is to advance understanding of the factors influencing the safety of Chinese subway construction projects with the overall objective of reducing accident rates. A survey was conducted with 399 subway construction professionals across five stakeholder groups. Follow-up interviews were also conducted with five experienced experts in safety management on subway projects to validate the results. It was found that the eight most critical factors perceived by stakeholders to influence safety risks on Chinese subway projects are: project management team; contractor-related factors; site underground environment; safety protection during the use of machines; safety management investment; site construction monitoring and measurement; hazard identification and communication; and use of machines in all stages. This indicates that in allocating limited project resources to improve the safety of subway projects, managers should focus on: developing safety knowledge and positive attitudes in leadership teams; formulating effective risk management systems to identify, assess, mitigate, measure and monitor safety risks on site; improving communications with stakeholders about these risks and effectively managing plant, equipment and machinery. This research contributes a new multi-stakeholder perspective to the lack of safety research in Chinese subway construction projects. The research findings provide important new insights for policymakers and managers in improving safety outcomes on these major projects, producing potentially significant social and economic benefits for society and the construction industry.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0525
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Preventing or encouraging illegal activities by construction firms:
           effects of top management team compensation and aspiration-performance
           discrepancies
    • Authors: Ran Wang, Chia-Jung Lee, Shu-Chien Hsu, Jieh-Haur Chen
      Abstract: Corporate illegal activities may result in fatal injuries and economic losses and have been widely reported in the construction industry. This study is to investigate the relationship between top management team (TMT) compensation and corporate illegal activities with the moderating effects of aspiration–performance discrepancies. Using a multi-year sample of Chinese construction firms from 2011 to 2017, this paper employed a hierarchical logit regression model with fixed effects. This study indicates that TMT compensation is positively related to the likelihood of corporate illegal activities. It also finds performance higher than aspirations would lower the probability of illegal activities while performance lower than aspirations also decreases the occurrence of illegal behaviors. Finally, the positive relationship between TMT compensation and illegal activities is strengthened by aspiration–performance discrepancies. It recommended the design of executive compensation may need to be reconsidered. Next, companies need to carefully monitor top management team, especially when performance is lower than the desired level. Finally, debt-to-equity ratio deserves more attention for Chinese construction firms in suppressing illegal activities. Given the mixed effects of TMT compensation, this study confirms its positive impact on corporate illegal behaviors. Consistent with the behavioral theory of the firm, it unveils the direct and moderating effects of aspiration-performance discrepancies. The findings are beneficial for evaluating firms' performance and considering the prevention of corporate fraudulent activities.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2019-0440
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Work continuity constraints in repetitive project scheduling considering
           soft logic
    • Authors: Xin Zou, Guangchuan Wu, Qian Zhang
      Abstract: Repetitive projects play an important role in the construction industry. A crucial point in scheduling this type of project lies in enabling timely movement of crews from unit to unit so as to minimize the adverse effect of work interruptions on both time and cost. This paper aims to examine a repetitive scheduling problem with work continuity constraints, involving a tradeoff among project duration, work interruptions and total project cost (TPC). To enhance flexibility and practicability, multi-crew execution is considered and the logic relation between units is allowed to be changed arbitrarily. That is, soft logic is considered. This paper proposes a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming model with the capability of yielding the optimal tradeoff among three conflicting objectives. An efficient version of the e-constraint algorithm is customized to solve the model. This model is validated based on two case studies involving a small-scale and a practical-scale project, and the influence of using soft logic on project duration and total cost is analyzed via computational experiments. Using soft logic provides more flexibility in minimizing project duration, work interruptions and TPC, especial for non-typical projects with a high percentage of non-typical activities. The main limitation of the proposed model fails to consider the learning-forgetting phenomenon, which provides space for future research. This study assists practitioners in determining the “most preferred” schedule once additional information is provided. This paper presents a new soft logic-based mathematical programming model to schedule repetitive projects with the goal of optimizing three conflicting objectives simultaneously.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2019-0595
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • A decision support model for subcontractor selection using a hybrid
           approach of QFD and AHP-improved grey correlation analysis
    • Authors: Xiaobo Chen, Yanfeng Ding, Clark A. Cory, Yingwen Hu, Kuo-Jui Wu, Xiaoyi Feng
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose a subcontractor selection model to fully consider the impact of construction enterprise demands on subcontractor selection. The objectives are to understand the translating process of specific enterprise demands to the evaluating criteria and the weight calculation process. A three-stage model of subcontractor selection was designed based on quality function deployment (QFD), analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and improved grey correlation analysis (IGCA). In the proposed model, specific enterprise demands are translated by the QFD method, and the weights of the criteria are determined by the IGCA. The AHP is used to quantify the exporters' experience and construct the judgment matrix, which is used as inputting of the grey correlation analysis. The proposed model provides a feasible process for subcontractor selection by fully considering the actual requirements of the project. By combining the company requirements and project requirement to put forward the requirements of the target subcontractor, the selection process ensures that the selected subcontractor and the project have a higher “fit” Few researches on construction subcontractor selection have taken into account the “voice” of the company's stakeholders. Therefore, this paper designs a three-stage construction subcontractor selection model by introducing QFD to achieve the transmission of “voice” in the subcontractor selection process, so as to take full consideration of the project objectives and the needs of the company's stakeholders. Meanwhile, in order to decrease the subjective of weight calculation, this paper designs an AHP-IGCA allocation method to determine the weight of relevant indicators. By integrating the proposed weight calculation method and QFD method, the subcontractor selection results become more reasonable and objective.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2019-0715
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Validity and reliability of a wearable insole pressure system for
           measuring gait parameters to identify safety hazards in construction
    • Authors: Maxwell Fordjour Antwi-Afari, Heng Li, JoonOh Seo, Shahnawaz Anwer, Sitsofe Kwame Yevu, Zezhou Wu
      Abstract: Construction workers are frequently exposed to safety hazards on sites. Wearable sensing systems (e.g. wearable inertial measurement units (WIMUs), wearable insole pressure system (WIPS)) have been used to collect workers' gait patterns for distinguishing safety hazards. However, the performance of measuring WIPS-based gait parameters for identifying safety hazards as compared to a reference system (i.e. WIMUs) has not been studied. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of measuring WIPS-based gait parameters as compared to WIMU-based gait parameters for distinguishing safety hazards in construction. Five fall-risk events were conducted in a laboratory setting, and the performance of the proposed approach was assessed by calculating the mean difference (MD), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), root mean square error (RMSE) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of five gait parameters. Comparable results of MD, MAE, MAPE and RMSE were found between WIPS-based gait parameters and the reference system. Furthermore, all measured gait parameters had validity (ICC = 0.751) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.910) closer to 1, indicating a good performance of measuring WIPS-based gait parameters for distinguishing safety hazards. Overall, this study supports the relevance of developing a WIPS as a noninvasive wearable sensing system for identifying safety hazards on construction sites, thus highlighting the usefulness of its applications for construction safety research. This is the first study to examine the performance of a wearable insole pressure system for identifying safety hazards in construction.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-15
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0330
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Exploring critical influencing factors for the site selection failure of
           waste-to-energy projects in China caused by the “not in my back yard”
           effect
    • Authors: Xuhui Cong, Liang Wang, Li Ma, M. Skibnewski
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the critical influencing factors that lead to the site selection failure of waste-to-energy (WtE) projects in China under the influence of the “Not In My Back Yard” (NIMBY) effect, which can provide references to improve the decision-making process of similar projects in the future. The fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method was used to propose an analytical framework for exploring the critical influencing factors affecting the site selection failure of WtE projects. The causal relationship between different influencing factors is finally determined on the basis of the opinions of 12 experts from universities, government departments, consulting units, planning and design units, construction units and WtE enterprises. Results showed that six crucial factors resulted in the site selection failure of WtE projects from the NIMBY effect perspective: “Insufficient public participation,” “Near the place of residence,” “Nonstandard government decision-making processes,” “Low information disclosure,” “Destroys the surrounding environment,” and “Imperfect compensation scheme.” Results can determine the priorities and causal relationships among the various influencing factors. The decision-making optimization suggestions can provide reference for decision- makers, thereby possibly promoting the scientific and standardization of site selection decision process.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-10
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2019-0709
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • BIM-enabled construction innovation through collaboration: a mixed-methods
           systematic review
    • Authors: Hui Liu, Miroslaw J. Skibniewski, Qianqian Ju, Junjie Li, Hongbing Jiang
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the innovative capabilities of building information modeling (BIM) in construction projects. The objectives are to construct an inclusive conceptual framework of BIM-enabled construction innovation, identify the status and trends of innovation-related research in BIM publications, synthesize research pertaining to BIM-enabled construction innovation and discover core research requirements in the related body of knowledge. This study proposes a comprehensive theoretical framework, named innovation pyramid, comprising context, actor, artifact, process, structure and innovative task for exploring and analyzing the innovative capability of BIM in construction projects. Accordingly, mixed methods were used to perform a systematic review of research on the topic of BIM-enabled construction innovation. The findings reveal that BIM innovation-related articles have predominantly considered BIM as an innovation from a technological standpoint, while the innovative capabilities of BIM have remained under-researched with a fragmented research focus. Fertile grounds for research have emerged and call for research pertaining to entities of “structure” and “innovative task” as well as interaction, interrelations and mutually adjusting effect among the entities. The framework proposed may be useful for subsequent research design and for assisting project management practitioners in the use of BIM to achieve innovation more efficiently. This research provides an insight into the innovative capabilities of BIM based on the BIM–collaboration–construction innovation logic chain. It contributes to the body of knowledge by devising an inclusive conceptual framework of BIM-enabled construction innovation, synthesizing the state of the art and exposing the research needs in this area.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0181
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Reducing the social risks of transnational railway construction: a
           discussion on the formation mechanism of host country people's coping
           behaviors
    • Authors: Huaqiang Li, Yiting Zhong, Chunmei Fan
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the formation mechanism of the host country people's coping behavior regarding the construction of transnational railways to help engineering managers and decision makers improve their risk management and lead to sustainable transnational railway construction projects. This paper adopted the grounded theory methodology to analyze the news stories reported by “Belt and Road Portal” and “The New York Times” about eight transnational railways. They were China–Kyrgyzstan–Uzbekistan (Central Asia), Mecca-to-Medina (West Asia), Hungarian–Serbia (Europe), China–Nepal (South Asia), Bi-Oceanic (South America), Mombasa–Nairobi (Africa), China–Laos (Southeast Asia) and Panama railways (North America). The keywords for news search were the names of each railway. After eliminating the problem sentences with semantic repetition and ambiguity, 2,631 effective sentences were formed to screen the information and code. The process included open, axial and selective coding. It was concluded that the core structure of the formation mechanism was “situation,” “influence factor,” “cognition” and “coping behavior.” The country-of-origin image has served as an adjustment function in the analysis for the host country people. Governance strategies were suggested focusing on risk prevention, risk mitigation and risk response according to social risk management. The rise of transnational railway construction is encouraged by the process of globalization. But during the long construction period, the host country people's coping behavior would develop into social conflicts and mass incidents, becoming a significant obstacle to construction objectives. Thus, studying the formation mechanism of public coping behaviors can better take measures to prevent social risks. The contributions of this research are three aspects: first, a formation mechanism of the host country people's coping behavior based on grounded theory is presented. Second, the country-of-origin image is found to be a factor that cannot be ignored in a transnational context. The formation mechanism of public coping behaviors is improved compared to risk management in the domestic situation. Finally, the host country people pay more attention to the motivations of country-of-origin's controlling interests and their own emotions compared with internal stakeholders.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2020-0232
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Exploring influential factors leading to the poor performance of public
           construction project in Ethiopia using structural equation modelling
    • Authors: Benti Gadisa, Hong Zhou
      Abstract: It is well recognized that the construction industry is characterised by inefficient and ineffective service delivery due to various causative factors. Thus this study aims to examine the influential factors affecting public construction project performance in Ethiopia to improve the industry's service delivery. From the extensive literature reviewed, 58 potential factors affecting construction project performance have been compiled. Based on the evidence accumulated, the conceptual model of this paper has been developed. By using survey questionnaires, valuable data were collected from the construction industry professionals in Ethiopia; analysed and interpreted with the use of both SPSS and AMOS software. It is concluded that failure factors related to the “performance” of the contractor, the “capability” of the owner, the “project design-procurement process,” and project contract management can significantly contribute to the poor performance of public construction projects in Ethiopia. Ten key factors include inadequate contractor capacity, weak project site management and supervision, weak project management skills and capabilities of the owner, additional work orders, delayed payment, lack of comprehensive project plans between parties and incomplete project design, rising material prices, ineffective project schedules, and cost management, rising market prices and devaluation of the currency. The scope of this study confined to public projects in Ethiopia. It suggests that further research needs to consider public and private construction from a comprehensive perspective in the developing countries. It provides practitioners with information and guidance on the factors that affect the performance of construction projects. It provides inclusive evidence related to many factors that affect the performance of public construction projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2019-0689
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Optimizing the scheduling of crew deployments in repetitive construction
           projects under uncertainty
    • Authors: Abbas Hassan, Khaled El-Rayes, Mohamed Attalla
      Abstract: This paper presents the development of a novel model for optimizing the scheduling of crew deployments in repetitive construction projects while considering uncertainty in crew production rates. The model computations are performed in two modules: (1) simulation module that integrates Monte Carlo simulation and a resource-driven scheduling technique to calculate the earliest crew deployment dates for all activities that fully comply with crew work continuity while considering uncertainty; and (2) optimization module that utilizes genetic algorithms to search for and identify optimal crew deployment plans that provide optimal trade-offs between project duration and crew deployment plan cost. A real-life example of street renovation is analyzed to illustrate the use of the model and demonstrate its capabilities in optimizing the stochastic scheduling of crew deployments in repetitive construction projects. The original contribution of this research is creating a novel multiobjective stochastic scheduling optimization model for both serial and nonserial repetitive construction projects that is capable of identifying an optimal crew deployment plan that simultaneously minimizes project duration and crew deployment cost.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-27
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0304
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Development of a conceptual life cycle performance measurement system for
           build–operate–transfer (BOT) projects
    • Authors: Ozan Okudan, Cenk Budayan, Irem Dikmen
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop a new conceptual life cycle performance measurement system (PMS) based on stage level key performance indicators (KPIs) to measure the performance of build–operate–transfer (BOT) projects. This study uses a literature review to reveal the deficiencies of existing PMSs for public–private partnership (PPP) projects. Based on these deficiencies, four recommendations were proposed for developing a PMS. The validation of these recommendations was performed via focus group discussion sessions conducted with 12 experts. Then, a conceptual framework was developed based on the validated recommendations and the additional recommendations emerged during focus group discussions. Finally, the recommendations proposed by the focus group were tested by a questionnaire survey, the findings of the Friedman test and descriptive analysis validated these recommendations. Findings of the focus group discussion, Friedman test and descriptive analysis indicated that the PMS should have four crucial features to develop an efficient, effective and comprehensible PMS for the BOT project. Firstly, non-financial and financial KPIs should be integrated. Secondly, the PMS should be developed as a process-based system with stage level KPIs. The performance of the BOT projects should be monitored and reviewed continuously, however the most important KPIs should be used for continuous performance measurement to increase the applicability of the system and allocate the resources more efficiently. This survey was conducted on experts who have experience with BOT projects located in Turkey, therefore, judgments of experts might be affected by external factors specific to Turkey such as geopolitical situations, investment environment. However, due to the nature of BOT projects, the experience of experts can also be utilized at the international level. This is the first time a PMS has been developed to measure the performance of a BOT project. In addition, this system has unique features when compared with the PMS proposed in the literature. Especially, the stage level KPIs and continuous performance measurement with the most important KPIs throughout each stage has never been used. This research provides both public sector and private entities with an insight into effectively measure, control and manage their BOT infrastructure projects' performances throughout their life cycles.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-01-2020-0071
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Study on incentive and supervision mechanisms of technological innovation
           in megaprojects based on the principal-agent theory
    • Authors: Jiawei Liu, Guanghong Ma
      Abstract: The high uncertainty of technological innovation in megaprojects brings great challenges to the R&D institution and also acts as a trigger for moral hazard. The incentive and supervision are effective means to improve the performance of innovation. The purpose of this paper is to propose appropriate incentive and supervision mechanisms to reduce information asymmetry and improve the efficiency of incentives. Suggestions on technological innovation are put forward to megaprojects management. According to the principal-agent theory, the research develops incentive models under three states, i.e. information symmetry, information asymmetry and information asymmetry based on supervision mechanism. The Bayesian theory is employed to prove the effectiveness of the novel supervision method based on risk assessment. The results indicate that under the information asymmetry, the incentive intensity is positively correlated with the social benefits coefficient, and negatively correlated with the patent benefits coefficient. The R&D effort and the owner's incentive intensity decline with the increase of information asymmetry. The supervision of risks can effectively reduce the degree of information asymmetry, and the higher the uncertainty of innovations, the more significant the effect of supervision is. As the supervision intensity increases, the incentive intensity, the R&D effort and the innovation output will increase. In addition, the R&D institutions with high innovation capability, low unit cost of R&D and low risk-aversion are more willing to make efforts to innovate. This study fills the research gap on incentive and supervision of technological innovation in megaprojects. The externality of innovation benefits is considered in the model. The traditional incentive model is extended through the introduction of supervision. Furthermore, a novel supervision method based on risk assessment is proposed. The results validate the importance of risk management in technological innovation and provide a new insight for project management.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0163
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Optimized crew selection for scheduling of repetitive projects
    • Authors: Mohammadjavad Arabpour Roghabadi, Osama Moselhi
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify optimum crew formations at unit execution level of repetitive projects that minimize project duration, project cost, crew work interruptions and interruption costs, simultaneously. The model consists of four modules. The first module quantifies uncertainties associated with the crew productivity rate and quantity of work using the fuzzy set theory. The second module identifies feasible boundaries for activity relaxation. The third module computes direct cost, indirect cost and interruption costs, including idle crew cost as well as mobilization and demobilization costs. The fourth module identifies near-optimum crew formation using a newly developed multi-objective optimization model. The developed model was able to provide improvements of 0.2, 16.86 and 12.98% for minimization of project cost, crew work interruptions and interruption costs from US$1,505,960, 8.3 days and US$8,300, as recently reported in the literature, to US$1,502,979, 6.9 days and US$7,222, respectively, without impacting the optimized project duration. The novelty of this paper lies in its activity-relaxation free float that considers the effect of postponing early finish dates of repetitive activities on crew work interruptions. The introduced new float allows for calculating the required crew productivity rate that minimizes crew work interruptions without delaying successor activities and without impacting the optimized project duration. It safeguards against assignment of unnecessary costly resources.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-10-2019-0590
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • An immersive performative architectural design tool with daylighting
           simulations: a building information modeling-based approach
    • Authors: Sahin Akin, Oguzcan Ergun, Elif Surer, Ipek Gursel Dino
      Abstract: In performative architectural design, daylighting is a crucial design consideration; however, the evaluation of daylighting in the design process can be challenging. Immersive environments (IEs) can create a dynamic, multi-sensory, first-person view in computer-generated environments, and can improve designers' visual perception and awareness during performative design processes. This research addresses the need for interactive and integrated design tools for IEs toward better-performing architectural solutions in terms of daylighting illumination. In this context, building information modeling and performance simulations are identified as critical technologies to be integrated into performative architectural design. This research adopts a design science research (DSR) methodology involving an iterative process of development, validation and improvement of a novel and immersive tool, HoloArch, that supports design development during daylighting-informed design processes. HoloArch was implemented in a game engine during a spiral software development process. HoloArch allows users to interact with, visualize, modify and explore architectural models. The evaluation is performed in two workshops and a user study. A hybrid approach that combines qualitative and quantitative data collection was adopted for evaluation. Qualitative data analyses involve interviews, while quantitative data analyses involve both daylighting simulations and questionnaires (e.g. technology acceptance model (TAM), presence and system usability scale (SUS)). According to the questionnaire results, HoloArch had 92/100 for SUS, a mean value of 120.4 for presence questionnaire (PQ) and 9.4/10 for TAM. According to the simulation results, all participants improved the given building's daylighting performance using HoloArch. The interviews also indicated that HoloArch is an effective design tool in terms of augmented perception, continuous design processes, performative daylighting design and model interaction. However, challenges still remain regarding the complete integration of tools and simultaneous simulation visualization. The study concludes that IEs hold promising potentials where performative design actions at conceptual, spatial and architectural domains can take place interactively and simultaneously with immediate feedback. The research integrates building information modeling (BIM), performative daylighting simulations and IEs in an interactive environment for the identification of potentials and limitations in performative architectural design. Different from existing immersive tools for architecture, HoloArch offers a continuous bidirectional workflow between BIM tools and IEs.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2020-0562
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Unpacking the problems behind the limited green construction adoption:
           towards a theoretical model
    • Authors: Samuel Fiifi Hammond, Thayaparan Gajendran, David A. Savage, Kim Maund
      Abstract: Given the importance of green construction for reducing the negative environmental impact of the construction industry, and the numerous policies instituted by governments around the world to motivate building construction stakeholders, why is there still a limited level of adoption' Building on studies that have questioned the dominant framing of the limited adoption of green construction as an inefficient behaviour, this study proposes a theoretical model characterising the two problems in the decision-making process that boost the reluctance of building construction stakeholders to embrace green construction. A traditional literature review, combining deductive and inductive approaches was employed. The theoretical model consists of six conceptual variables as follows: social norms, personal dilemma, trust, loss aversion, self-interest and green construction adoption. The expected relationships between them are also provided. The theoretical model has not been empirically tested; however, it can be replicated or adapted for empirical investigation in any context. This study may help in identifying which factors must be given attention in policy-making in order to promote the adoption of green technologies and practices. Specifically, subjecting the theoretical model to empirical test will reveal the strongest paths that can be used to curtail the reluctance of the industry to embrace green construction. Contributes towards the current research agenda on the reasons for the low level of voluntary adoption of green construction. It also provides theoretical answers to the questions regarding the limited impact of the plentiful policy mechanisms instituted by governments around the world to promote green construction adoption.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2020-0410
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • A conceptual model of subcontractor development practices for LEED
           projects
    • Authors: Andrea Nana Ofori-Boadu, De-Graft Owusu-Manu, David John Edwards, Fafanyo Asiseh
      Abstract: This paper presents a conceptual model of effective subcontractor development practices to guide general contractors' development of a network of high-performing subcontractors (SCs) for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) projects. Drawing from supplier development theories and practices in the manufacturing sector, a mixed interpretivist and empirical methodology is adopted to examine the body of knowledge within literature for conceptual model development. A self-reporting survey questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale is used to assess 30 construction professionals' perceptions of the effectiveness of 37 SC development practices classified into five categories. Descriptive statistics, weighted means, and t-tests are used for data analysis. SC prequalification, commitment, incentives, evaluation and feedback practices can be effective in generating high-performing SCs. Practices that require more direct involvement and linkages between GC and SC are perceived to be less effective. Theoretical contributions include a framework to foster future research to advance knowledge and understanding to enhance the adoption of SC development practices in the construction sector. Implementation of ranked SC development practices can equip GCs with a network of high-performing SCs for improved competitive advantage and revenues. The proposed conceptual model expands discussions on the modification of supplier development theories and practices currently utilized in the manufacturing sector toward their application in the construction sector. This research differs from previous research, which primarily focused on the manufacturing sector.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-20
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-08-2019-0425
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • From green buildings to living buildings' Rating schemes and waste
           management practices in Australian educational buildings
    • Authors: Nilupa Udawatta, Jian Zuo, Keri Chiveralls, George Zillante
      Abstract: There is an increasing level of recognition of the pressing issues associated with climate change and resource depletion. As a result, it is well recognised that higher education institutions bear responsibilities to promote “sustainable development”. Many universities have adopted green building practices in the construction of their building infrastructure. A variety of Green Building Rating Tools (GBRTs) have been designed to facilitate green building developments. Thus, the aim of this research is to identify mechanisms to improve current GBRTs in terms of waste management (WM) practices by using green star accredited educational buildings in Australia. A qualitative approach was adopted in this study to achieve the research aim by conducting three case studies of educational buildings in South Australia. Thirty three interviews were carried out in a face-to-face, semi-structured manner and project documentations were reviewed. The participants were asked to provide their expert opinions on the GS initiative and its ability to minimise waste generation, the impact of the GS initiative on solid WM practices and problems associated with the implementation process of the GS initiative. Data was analysed using code-based content analysis using the NVivo software package. Tables and figures were used as the visualization technique to present an expedient understanding in a holistic manner. Findings showed that the Green Star (GS) initiative drives change in the way current practices are performed in the Australian construction industry. However, this study revealed that WM targets outlined in the GS initiative are not challenging enough. Thus, suggestions are provided in this research to improve the WM aspects of GS initiatives by looking beyond a focus on “sustainability” and “waste minimisation” towards a focus on regenerative environments. These findings are valuable for practitioners and policymakers seeking to improve WM practices and to address issues associated with climate change and resource depletion.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2019-0177
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Fair wage potential as a tool for social assessment in building projects
    • Authors: Paulo Cezar Vitorio Junior, Moacir Kripka
      Abstract: The fair wage potential (FWP) is a social assessment method that can serve as an important measure to estimate the related social impacts along a product's life cycle; however, it does not admit a direct relation to the functional unit. This research presents the weighted fair wage potential (WFWP) method that relates the functional unit to the FWP. It is a simplified method to connect the material inventory to social data. This study aims to develop an approach to assess and choose the best construction typology for buildings based on the social sustainability of workers involved in the sectors. The study is presented in phases. Phase 1 selected and identified two Brazilian house projects, which were considered for the following processes: extraction of raw materials, manufacture of building materials and housing construction. Phase 2 assembled the social life cycle inventories and executed them using the social life cycle assessment (SLCA). The inventory of materials followed the functional unit: “1.0 m² of the built housing”, and the social inventory observed data extracted from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). The study considered the stakeholder category “worker” and analysed the impact subcategory “fair salary”. The study also divided the social data into categories: worker gender, worker race/colour, worker union and worker formality to analyse the impact of subcategories: “equal opportunities/discrimination”, “freedom of association and collective bargaining” and “social benefits/social security”. Phase 3 compared the projects according to the results from the SLCA. The FWP considers the wage paid at supply chain sectors, and the WFWP relates the functional unit to the social data. The results proved that the wages paid by the construction supply chain are fair. However, there are differences between the FWP of male and female workers, white and non-white workers, unionised and non-unionised workers and formal and informal workers. The study of the actual Brazilian minimum wage indicated that the FWP is sensitive to the reference wage to which the analysed wages paid are related. Considering the WFWP, the constructive typology employed in Project B can generate increased positive social impacts than Project A. The proposed study provides excellent results, and it can be adapted to different data to assess the social conditions of other countries and sectors. There is not enough primary data available for the variables real wages and real working time; for this reason, these variables received secondary data. Another limitation is the data used for the year range, since Brazilian microdata do not include years before 2002 and years beyond 2015. The WFWP differs from the existing social sustainability studies because it relates the material information to social data; also, it defines the best option among the analysed alternatives, taking into consideration social sustainability, which enables the project design to go beyond technical aspects. The constructive typology and materials take into account the social sustainability of the construction supply chain, generating more sustainable projects and improving the circumstances of affected stakeholders.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-01-2020-0024
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Influence of cooperative period of municipal PPPs on transaction cost
           – a case study
    • Authors: Fangfang Liu, Yousong Wang, Hongyang Li, Xiaowei Zhou
      Abstract: The purpose of the study is to numerically investigate the relationship between the increase in transaction cost and prolongation of cooperative period acting as a nonmonetary incentive for municipal PPP projects. A model that combines real option theory and the concept of prospect theory is proposed in the study. Three municipal road PPP projects published by China Public Private Partnerships Center are selected as cases. The data of these cases are analyzed based on the model established. The prolongation of the cooperative period affects the increase in transaction cost, which gradually decreases when the prolonged cooperative period increases. Furthermore, the large-investment PPP projects own more transaction cost compared with less-investment projects. The decrease in transaction cost in the former is less than that in the latter. The increase in transaction cost is evidently alleviated in a project with less investment when the cooperative period is prolonged further. The study systematically analyzes the relationship among transaction cost economics, real option theory and prospect theory and proposes a theoretical flowchart of the effect of nonmonetary incentive on the transaction cost. A model to quantify the effect of nonmonetary incentive (i.e. prolongation of cooperative period) on the transaction cost is proposed for the first time. The results of the study verify that the nonmonetary incentive affects transaction cost.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2019-0286
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Prioritizing complexity using fuzzy DANP: case study of international
           development projects
    • Authors: Soo Yong Kim, Minh V. Nguyen, Tuyen T.N. Dao
      Abstract: This paper aims to propose a comprehensive framework for prioritizing complexity criteria. The framework was validated by applying in infrastructure international development (ID) project as a case study. A literature review highlighted the limitations of existing complexity prioritization methods. Then, a combination of the fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) was employed as a foundation to develop a three-stage complexity prioritization framework. Focus group discussion and questionnaire surveys were used to practically test the framework in the infrastructure ID projects. The three-stage complexity prioritization framework was validated to be reliable and feasible. The findings showed ability of consultants, scope uncertainties, site compensation and clearance, communication between stakeholders, administrative procedure and project duration were the most significant complexity criteria of ID projects in the Vietnamese context. The framework is a robust tool that enables the researchers to grasp the interaction of complexity criteria for complexity prioritization. Later studies can apply the proposed framework, with some minor revisions, to assess the interaction of criteria in other research topics in, and beyond, project complexity. Results of the case study suggest project stakeholders focusing on complex interactions among criteria to reduce project complexity. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a comprehensive complexity prioritization framework that grasps the interrelationship of complexity criteria. For stakeholders of ID projects, the findings provide insightful perspectives to understand complexity, which can help to enhance project performance.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-10
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2020-0265
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Revolutionising cost structure for integrated project delivery: a
           BIM-based solution
    • Authors: Faris Elghaish, Sepehr Abrishami, M. Reza Hosseini, Soliman Abu-Samra
      Abstract: The amalgamation of integrated project delivery (IPD) and building information modelling (BIM) is highly recommended for successful project delivery. However, IPD lacks an accurate cost estimation methodology at the “front-end” of projects, when little project information is available. This study aims to tackle this issue, through presenting analytical aspects, theoretical grounds and practical steps/procedures for integrating target value design (TVD), activity-based costing (ABC) and Monte Carlo simulation into the IPD cost structure, within a BIM-enabled platform. A critical review was conducted to study the status of cost estimation within IPD, as well as exploring methods and tools that can enhance the cost estimation process for IPD. Thereafter, a framework is developed to present the proposed methodology of cost estimation for IPD throughout its entire stages. A case project is used to validate the practicality of the developed solution through comparing the profit-at-risk percentage for each party, using both traditional cost estimation and the proposed solution. After applying the proposed IPD's cost estimation framework, on a real-life case project, the findings demonstrated significant deviations in the profit-at-risk value for various work packages of the project (approximately 100% of the finishing package and 22% of openings package). By providing a precise allocation of overhead costs, the solution can be used in real-life projects to change the entire IPD cost structure and ensure a fair sharing of risk–rewards among the involved parties in IPD projects. Using the proposed methodology of cost estimation for IPD can enhance the relationship among IPD's core team members; all revealed financial deficiencies will be considered (i.e. compensation structure, profit pooling), hence enhancing the IPD performance. This paper presents a comprehensive solution for integrating BIM and IPD in terms of cost estimation, offering three main contributions: (1) an innovate approach to utilise five-dimensional (5D) BIM capabilities with Monte Carlo simulation, hence providing reliable cost estimating during the conceptual TVD stage; (2) mathematical models that are developed through integrating ABC into the detailed 5D BIM to determine the three IPD's cost structure limbs; and (3) a novel mechanism of managing cost saving (rewards) through distinguishing between saved resources from organisation level, to daily task level, to increase trust among parties.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-10
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2019-0222
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Best practices of organizational change for adopting alternative project
           delivery methods in the AEC industry
    • Authors: Khaled Medath Aldossari, Brian C. Lines, Jake B. Smithwick, Kristen C. Hurtado, Kenneth T. Sullivan
      Abstract: Although numerous studies have examined alternative project delivery methods (APDMs), most of these studies have focused on the relationship between these methods and improved project performance. Limited research identifies how to successfully add these methods within architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) organizations. The purpose of this paper is to identifying organizational change management (OCM) practices that, when effectively executed, lead to increased success rates of adopting APDMs in owner AEC organizations. Seven OCM practices were identified through a comprehensive literature review. Then, through a survey of 140 individuals at 98 AEC organizations, the relationships between OCM practices and organizational adoption of APDMs were established. The findings indicate that OCM practices with the strongest relationship to successful APDM adoption are realistic timeframe, effective change agents, workloads adjustments, senior-leadership commitment and sufficient change-related training. Adopting APDMs can be extremely difficult and requires significant organizational change efforts to ensure the change is a success. Organizations that are implementing APDMs for the first time should consider applying the OCM practices that this study identifies as most related to successful APDM adoption. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by identifying the OCM practices that are most significantly associated with successfully adopting APDMs.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-06
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0166
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Understanding relationship between risks and claims for assessing risks
           with project data
    • Authors: Ratnesh Kumar, K. Chandrashekhar Iyer, Surya Prakash Singh
      Abstract: In construction management, risks and claims are treated separately, but several studies tacitly acknowledge a strong link between the two. In this context, this research intends to investigate whether risks and claims have a causal relationship' Based on this causal relationship, a claim-based risk assessment model (C-RAM) is developed to quantify occurrences and cost implications of risks using project data. First, the causal relationship between risks and claims is established through a conceptual framework for content analysis of the literature on risk management (RM) and claim management (CM). Then, a C-RAM is developed based on the content analysis of 234 claims from 24 settled arbitration awards. Risks and claims are found to be two stages in the same chain of uncertain events that affect projects, subsequently revealing a causal relationship between risks and claims. Due to this causal relationship, claim documents become a potential source of risk information from past projects. Proposed C-RAM quantifies occurrences of risks with three parameters: number of projects in which a risk occurs, number of ways in which a risk occurs, and number of claims a risk causes if it occurs. Also, cost implications of risks are quantified as percentage of contract sums for interpretation as tangible values. Though C-RAM is applicable to all types of claims, the results in this paper are based on impacts of risks in past projects that caused claims and reached to arbitration stage. The causal relationship between risks and claims will encourage integration of knowledge on RM and CM which is currently treated separately. Practitioners can now visualize claims as cost implications of risks that occurred in projects. Further, C-RAM makes risk assessment (RA) more objective by quantifying the cost implications of risks as percentage of contract sums which can be readily used for contingency estimation. The relationship between risks and claims, and the potential of claim documents as a source of project risk information, can initiate a new paradigm in RM research based on project data.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-03
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-11-2019-0664
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Managerial implications for construction practices as a consequence of
           using a psychological contract of safety
    • Authors: Mohammad Tanvi Newaz, Marcus Jefferies, Peter Rex Davis, Manikam Pillay
      Abstract: Despite many studies that aim to argue, develop and position the concept of psychological contracts, few have explored how a psychological contract may be applied to safety in the construction industry. A psychological contract of safety (PCS) describes an individual's conceptualized belief that relates to mutual safety obligations, drawn from explicit or implicit promises of associated workers or its supervisor. This study investigates safety practices on construction sites through the lens of the widely applied and researched psychological contract theory emanating from a business paradigm. The process of validating a PCS scale within the construction industry required the collection of data from a mega-construction project in Sydney, Australia. A quantitative methodology was used to collect data from 352 construction workers through a survey instrument designed to reveal their perception of procedures, policies and practices. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to ensure data reliability and data validity of the survey findings together with goodness of fit of PCS model. The findings showed the presence of a PCS in a construction safety setting examined. A two-factor model underlying aspects, namely employer and employee obligations was recommended since the four-factor model, including relational and transactional components of both parties' safety obligations, could not be validated due to the discriminant validity associated with the particular constructs. Conceptualizing the extant PC theory as a framework from which to leverage safety management initiatives brings a new approach to construction safety studies, revealing the influential role of supervisors in interpreting safety practices. The research aimed to identify safety obligations, which are influential in the development of PSC scale, further the research provides an explanation as to how a PCS may be contextualized in the construction industry.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-03
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-02-2020-0119
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • An exploratory study of safety communication networks of ethnic minority
           crews in the Hong Kong construction industry
    • Authors: Sainan Lyu, Carol K.H. Hon, Albert P.C. Chan, Arshad Ali Javed, Rita Peihua Zhang, Francis K.W. Wong
      Abstract: Previous studies have highlighted that communication barrier was one of the major safety problems faced by ethnic minority (EM) workers. This study aims to model the predominant safety communication networks of EM crews and explore the relationships among safety communication networks, individual attributes, safety climate, near misses and injuries of EM crews. Case studies were conducted with EM crews in the Hong Kong construction industry. Demographic attribute, network, safety climate and accidents data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed by a combination of social network analysis (SNA), cross-case comparison and nonparametric tests. The results revealed that language proficiency, network density and level of reciprocity were contributing factors of distinguishing high and low safety performing EM crews. EM management received more safety information from EM workers than local management. The centrality of EM workers was significantly related to their age, the perceived priority of safety and language ability. The research findings regarding the impact of safety communication network characteristics on the safety performance of EM crews provides insights to employers on how to cultivate effective safety communication patterns within EM crews that can lead to better safety performance. The connections between personal attributes and their positions in safety communication networks could help the employers identify the EM workers who are positioned on edges of networks and need more attention. This study contributes to knowledge by enriching the limited research on analyzing safety communication of small construction crews using SNA and expanding the research object to EM construction crews in the literature, who are more vulnerable to construction accidents. This research also extends the existing body of knowledge from studies mainly carried out in Western culture to Eastern culture. Although safety communication has been regarded as important for EM workers, there is a lack of quantitative analysis on this at a crew level. The present study provides empirical research to reveal authentic safety communication networks and their connections with safety performance and personal attributes.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-08-03
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-07-2019-0368
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Cost and environmental impacts reduction through building compactness
    • Authors: Andrea Parisi Kern, Renata Postay, Eduardo Reuter Schneck, Mauricio Mancio, Marco Aurélio Stumpf González, Georgio Guerra
      Abstract: The central motivation for this study was to examine alternatives against the apartment area reduction as a safe way to reduce construction costs, adopted by many construction companies. From the building economic compactness index concept, it was studied the cost and environmental impacts (material consumption, embodied energy – EE and CO2 emission). The research strategy takes advantage of a case study aiming to investigate the relation between design characteristics related to area (m²) and building economic compactness index (%) with cost (Research Stage 1) and with environmental impacts: (Research Stage 2). The study involved real data from social housing projects, chosen in terms in terms of very similar features like size, area and constructive method (constants), however, with dissimilar compactness (variable). The lack of direct relation between area and cost signs the importance of including the cost of vertical plans considered in the economic compactness building. The higher the economic compactness index, the lower the cost, the lower the amount of material, EE and CO2 emission parameters. However, due to the wide range of EE and CO2 values available, the reduction in the amount of materials achieved by increasing building economic compactness index may not be reflected in EE and CO2 gains. As the limitation of this study, it must be taken into account a limited number of case buildings and the fact that the analysis is dependent on the reliability and accuracy of the data provided by constructors and the available information of EE and CO2 emission. As well discussed in the literature, the consistent database is a great challenge for the construction sector. There might be alternatives to higher areas with relatively low-cost increments since results from buildings with the same area present different cost estimative and suggest a strong relationship with the economic compactness index. The large variation of EE and CO2 emission data indicates that reductions obtained by compactness increase may be impaired if the construction materials are produced with high levels of EE and CO2 emission. Thus, there must be an integrated effort on the part of designers (design and material specification) and manufacturers (material production), since isolated solutions may not be enough.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-31
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2020-0147
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Review of construction journals on causes of project cost overruns
    • Authors: Serdar Durdyev
      Abstract: The study investigates the causes of project cost overruns (COs) that have been reported in the construction-management-related articles since 1985. To achieve the aim and provide recommendations to avoid project COs, 48 selected journal articles were reviewed and assessed with regard to the countries, institutions and researchers that have contributed to the subject. The review of the articles shows that the subject has attracted a considerable attention from the researchers worldwide. However, the problem mainly occurred in developing countries and the researchers drew the attention on the resource-related, economic/financial as well as political problems. While 79 causes of COs were identified, the top ten causes of project COs, which have received the highest number of citations by the reviewed articles, were presented and discussed. These causes are: design problems and incomplete design, inaccurate estimation, poor planning, weather, poor communication, stakeholder's skill, experience and competence, financial problems/poor financial management, price fluctuations, contract management issues and ground/soil conditions. The study findings have several implications, which are not only for the academic world, but also for the construction front line. For scholars, the study provides a list of project COs that the researchers in the area could benefit for their future studies. The industry practitioners could find ways to improve project cost performance by giving attention to the causative factors that are significantly affecting construction projects and investing their resources and efforts towards the most occurred ones. Thus, this study provides insight into the research output on the subject and a checklist of COs, which is believed to provide a better understanding of significant areas requiring attention where steps should be taken to minimize or control factors causing COs in construction projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-31
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-02-2020-0137
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Theoretical review on critical risk factors in oil and gas construction
           projects in Yemen
    • Authors: Mukhtar A Kassem, Muhamad Azry Khoiry, Noraini Hamzah
      Abstract: The oil and gas construction projects are affected negatively by the drop in oil price in recent years. Thus, most engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) companies are opting to optimize the project mainly to mitigate the source of risks in construction to achieve the project expectation. Risk factors cause a threat to the project objectives regarding time, cost and quality. It is additionally a vital component in deviating from the client's expectation of productivity, safety and standards. This research aims to investigate the causes of risk in the oil and gas construction projects in Yemen. A comprehensive literature review from various sources including books, conference proceedings, the Internet project management journals and oil and gas industry journals was conducted to achieve the objectives of this study. This initial work was predicated strictly on a literature review and the judgments of experts to develop the risk factor framework for the oil and gas construction projects in Yemen. The authors found a few studies related to risk factors in oil and gas construction projects and shared a similar view about general construction projects. However, only a fraction of the factors accepted have included the variances of other studies on a regional basis or specific countries, such as the Yemen situation, due to the differences between the general construction industry and oil and gas industry. Moreover, the factors of these attributes were still accepted due to their applicability to the oil and gas industry, and no significant variances existed between countries. Research has indicated that 51 critical factors cause risks in the oil and gas construction projects in Yemen. Such risk factors can be divided into two major groups: (1) internal risk factors, including seven critical sources of risks, namely client, contractor, consultant, feasibility study and design, tendering and contract, resources and material supply and project management; and (2) external risk factors, including six sources of critical risk factors, namely national economic, political risk, local people, environment and safety, security risk and force-majeure-related risk factors. A risk factor framework was developed to identify the critical risk factors in the oil and gas construction projects in Yemen. This research was limited to the oil and gas construction projects. Practically, this study highlights the risk factors that cause a negative effect on the success of oil and gas construction projects in Yemen. The identification of these factors is the first step in the risk management process to develop strategic responses for risks and enhance the chances of project success. The identification of risks factors that cause the failure of construction projects helps develop response strategies for these risks, thereby increasing the chances of project success reflected in the oil and gas sector, which is a main tributary of the national economy in developing countries. This research is the pioneer for future investigations into this vital economic sector. Given the lack of resources and studies in the field of construction projects for the Yemeni oil and gas sector, the Yemeni government, oil companies and researchers in this field are expected to benefit from the results of this study. The critical risk factors specific to the oil and gas construction projects in Yemen should be further investigated with focus only on Yemen and its oil and gas industry players.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-03-2019-0123
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Managing public–private partnerships: a transmission pattern of
           underlying dynamics determining project performance
    • Authors: Dan Wang, Xueqing Wang, Mingshuai Liu, Henry Liu, Bingsheng Liu
      Abstract: The performance of public–private partnerships (PPPs) can be determined by a variety of factors, i.e. influencing factors (IFs). This study is undertaken for a purpose of identifying how such factors determine the project's performance (i.e. factor transmission patterns), particularly from the key stakeholders' perspectives. A hybrid approach, which comprises a Social Network Analysis, ISM (i.e. Interpretive Structural Modeling) and an improved DEMATEL (i.e. Decision-Making Trail and Evaluation Laboratory), was developed to analyze the causal relationships between the identified IFs as well as the transmission patterns of their impacts on PPPs. Data were collected from interviews and questionnaire surveys. The transmission patterns of the identified IFs cascade from project environment and features and stakeholders' relationship to the project company capabilities and project process. It is identified that the public authority has a higher level than that of the private entity in PPPs. It lacks longitudinal studies to investigate the dynamics of PPP stakeholder relationships and social networks. Future research needs to explore the transmission patterns of sub-factors affecting PPP performance and extend the applicability of the developed hybrid approach. This research provides practitioners with a robust tool that is useful for and insights into enhancing the management of lifecycle performance. It ensures the public authorities and private entities embarking on PPPs will make an informed decision about the monitoring of the life cycle performance. This study contributes to knowledge of managerial mechanisms that can be adopted to manage factors determining the performance of PPPs. It enables an understanding of stakeholders' roles in driving the life cycle performance of PPPs.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-01-2020-0034
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Identifying enablers for coordination across construction supply chain
           processes: a systematic literature review
    • Authors: Qian Chen, Daniel Mark Hall, Bryan Tyrone Adey, Carl Thomas Haas
      Abstract: Managing stakeholders' reciprocal interdependencies is always a challenging issue. Stakeholders need to find out different ways to communicate information and coordinate material flows during the supply chain processes. Many recent studies have advanced construction supply chain coordination from multiple perspectives. However, the field still lacks a comprehensive analysis to summarize existing research, to explicitly identify all the possible enablers for coordination and to investigate how the enablers can be carried out at the supply chain interfaces. To fill the gap, this study aims to conduct a systematic review in order to examine the relevant literature. A systematic literature review process was conducted to identify and synthesize relevant publications (published in the past 20 years) concerning the coordination of construction supply chain functions. These publications were coded to link main research findings with specific enabler categories. In addition, how these enablers can be used at the interfaces across supply chain processes was reviewed with an in-depth analysis of reciprocal communications between stakeholders at design-to-production, production-to-logistics and production-to-site-assembly phases. The coordination enablers were classified into three categories: (1) contractual enablers (including subtopics on relational contracts and incentive models), (2) procedural enablers (including subtopics on multiagent knowledge sharing systems and the last planner system) and (3) technological enablers (including subtopics on linked databases for design coordination, design for manufacturing software platforms and automated monitoring technologies). It was found that interfacing different functions requires a certain level of integration of stakeholders for quick response and feedback processes. The integration of novel contractual forms with digital technologies, such as smart contracts, however, was not adequately addressed in the state of the art. The scope of the systematic review is limited to the static analysis of selected publications. Longitudinal studies should be further included to sharpen the inductions of enablers considering organizational changes and process dynamics in construction projects. Different enablers for coordination were summarized in a concise manner, which provides researchers and project stakeholders with a reinforced understanding of various ways to manage reciprocal interdependencies at different supply chain interfaces. This study constitutes an important input for research on the construction supply chain by illuminating the thematic topic of coordination from inductively developed review processes, which included a holistic framing of the emerging coordination enablers and their use across supply chain functions. Consequently, it closes some identified knowledge gaps and offers additional insights to improve the supply chain performance of construction projects.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0299
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Product diversification and large construction firm productivity: the
           effect of institutional environments in Malaysia
    • Authors: Mohd Azrai Azman, Carol K.H. Hon, Bo Xia, Boon L. Lee, Martin Skitmore
      Abstract: Many large construction firms (LCFs) adopt product diversification (PD) to counter downturns and spread risks. However, no detailed information is available concerning the type of PD that improves their performance. In addition, it is still uncertain how much changes in institutional dimensions influence the effectiveness of PD. Therefore, the aim is to resolve this issue by establishing a model that shows the extent of this influence. The generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator is used to model the PD strategies of 86 LCFs in Malaysia over 14 years (2003–2016) and its impact on productivity and profitability performance. Unrelated diversification (UD) decreased firm performance in 2003–2016, while related diversification (RD) had a positive impact during the more liberal 2010–2016 phase. The models show that the impact of PD is highly dependent on changes in institutional dimensions. Firstly, managers may adjust the type of PD and its level of diversification to improve firm performance. Secondly, they may devise PD strategies based on changes in institutional dimensions to maximise their effectiveness. The study contributes to the literature by determining the optimal amount of PD (including RD and UD) and its impact on performance. Secondly, the study is the first to investigate the moderating relationship of the institutional dimensions of economic and regulatory institutions on PD-firm performance. Thirdly, the study is the first to explore the components of technical-scale-scope economies (movement towards and around the production frontier), this being crucial to the strategy that was only conjectured in previous studies.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-05-2020-0288
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Structuring architectural competitions as a competitive procurement
           process
    • Authors: Samuel Laryea, Ron Watermeyer
      Abstract: Architectural competitions have been in existence for over 2,500 years. Past studies on this have focussed on the architectural aspects, competition formats, design evaluation by jury members and its evolution. However, no comprehensive research has examined the way that architectural competitions can be structured as a competitive procurement process for contractual outcomes. This paper addresses that gap by examining the way in which a two-stage proposal procedure (as defined by ISO 10845) was used to convert the architectural ideas competition for two new universities in South Africa (SPU and UMP) into a public procurement process with contractual outcomes. A case study was designed to examine (1) the procurement and contractual aspects of the two-stage proposal procedure within a public procurement context; (2) the challenges encountered in implementing the procurement procedure adopted; and (3) the outcomes of the procurement process. In total, 16 documents relating to the architectural competition were examined, using document analysis, to obtain insights into the procurement approach and processes. This was followed by in-depth interviews with the competition administrators to identify the key challenges encountered in implementing the procurement procedure. A content analysis method was used to analyse the qualitative data. Only 40% of architects who expressed interest made submissions in the first stage. Those admitted to the second stage associated themselves with architectural practices and submitted tender offers which were evaluated on the basis of their financial offer, preference and quality. Most participants experienced difficulty with the procurement procedure due to unfamiliarity with the process and tight timescales. However, necessary clarifications provided by the client's team enabled them to respond appropriately and the procurement procedure proved effective for procuring innovative design ideas from nine talented architects. They were all based in small to medium-sized firms rather than large firms. This paper fills an important gap in current understanding of how architectural competitions may be alternatively structured into a competitive procurement process, using empirical evidence from two architectural competitions. Architectural competitions have traditionally been used and characterized in the research literature primarily as an ideas competition rather than a competitive procurement process. This paper, therefore, extends current knowledge on the traditional way architectural competitions are generally used in practice and demonstrates through examination of two case studies how architectural competitions may be further extended and utilized as a competitive procurement process rather than just a process for obtaining ideas.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-21
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-06-2019-0282
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Design information release under alternative design-construction modes
    • Authors: Mayssa Kalach, Mohamed-Asem Abdul-Malak, Issam Srour
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of schedule compression under alternative project delivery methods (APDMs) on the design information release (DIR). The objectives are to understand the dynamics and the respective implications of the DIR under alternative design-construction (DC) modes (e.g. fast-track). The methodology of work includes: (1) identifying the relevant factors that may impact the release of design deliverables under APDMs, (2) representing the selected APDMs with corresponding DC sequencing modes and (3) conceptualizing the possible alternative dynamics of the released deliverables. The findings reveal that in contrast to the traditional one-time packaging of design deliverables, multiple DIR – with less certainty on their scope, timing, frequency and coordination quality – are released under alternative DC modes. This uncertainty mainly emanates from the deduced impact of the identified factors (e.g. DC overlapping intensity and degree of pressure by the builder) on the design deliverables dynamics. This study can be of benefit to Architecture/Engineering (A/E) professionals as well as to project owners in better planning for their roles and responsibilities under each of the identified modes, as it helps raising their awareness on new issues brought about by APDMs. For instance, the presented analysis indirectly informs designers, design review professionals and project owners about a potentially increased liability exposure emanating from the reduced certainty on the DIR's coordination quality. Moreover, it informs design managers about the need for a design team's re-formation and/or re-structuring (i.e. of the involved staff) in order to accommodate for the hypothesized DIR dynamics. This work offers a novel study that theorizes the impact of time-reduction-related factors, under alternative DC modes, on the release of design deliverables.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-17
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-02-2020-0080
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Developments in the UK road transport from a smart cities perspective
    • Authors: Subashini Suresh, Suresh Renukappa, Abdul-Rashid Abdul-Aziz, Yogeswary Paloo, Haddy Jallow
      Abstract: A smart city is a city that functions in a sustainable and intelligent way, by integrating all of its infrastructures and services in a cohesive way using intelligent devices for monitoring and control, to ensure efficiency and better quality of life for its citizens. As other countries globally, the UK is keen on economic development and investment in smart-city missions to create interest in monetary environment and inward investment. This paper aims to explore the driving forces of smart road transport transformation and implementation in the UK. The study involved interviews with 16 professionals from the UK road transport sector. A semi-structured interview technique was used to collect experts' perception, which was then examined using content analysis. The results of the study revealed that the technological advancement is a key driver. The main challenges faced during the implementation of smart-city elements in the UK road network are lack of investment, maintenance, state of readiness and the awareness of the smart road transport concept. The study concludes that an understanding of the concept of smart cities from a road transport perspective is very important to create awareness of the benefits and the way it works. A wider collaboration between every sector is crucial to create a successful smart city. The study contributes to the field of digitalisation of road transport sector. This paper reveals the key driving forces of smart road transport transformation, the current status of smart road transport implementation in the UK and challenges of the smart road transport development in the UK.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2019-0687
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Key attributes of designers' competency for prevention through design
           (PtD) practices in construction: a review
    • Authors: Che Khairil Izam Che Ibrahim, Sheila Belayutham, Patrick Manu, Abdul-Majeed Mahamadu
      Abstract: Designers have a key role to play in the Prevention through Design (PtD) practices in construction projects. Nonetheless, previous studies indicated that the issue of competencies to perform and sustain such practices over time is of a significant concern. This study aims to explore the key attributes of designers' competencies for PtD practices in construction. By using the Scopus database, a total of 86 papers related to PtD in construction published in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed and analysed using the well-established systematic literature review (SLR) methodology. The review indicates that in order to be competent in PtD implementation, designers need to be equipped with tacit and explicit knowledge, technical and soft skills and experience related to PtD. Furthermore, the review identifies attributes of these competencies. Additionally, a framework that links key PtD elements/principles with the PtD competencies is presented. The findings would enable contribution to the industry by providing the necessary references for design organisations to improve their designers' PtD competencies and hence, be able to meet their responsibility under relevant occupational safety and health (OSH) legislative framework. This study extends the PtD literature in the construction context by providing deeper insights into the conceptualisation of relationship between competent designers and PtD elements. The novelty also lies in the consolidation of PtD competency attributes for designers in construction that could act as a reference for any future developments related to PtD competency assessment for designers.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-14
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-04-2020-0252
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Construction project productivity evaluation framework with expanded
           system boundaries
    • Authors: Wenting Zhan, Wei Pan, Le Chen
      Abstract: While the investment in construction projects has increased over the past few decades, low construction project productivity (CPP) appeared to be persistent, thereby reflecting an “investment-in-failure” paradox between the investment and CPP. Hence, this paper aims to develop a systematic and holistic CPP evaluation framework to explain the apparent paradox in the construction industry. The paper first reviews the literature about the theories of system, production, principal–agent and project success evaluation to re-conceptualise the CPP and proposes a two-stage CPP evaluation framework. The framework is subsequently explored through a sequential qualitative mixed-methods design within the context of the Hong Kong construction industry by combining 32 semi-structured interviews with senior industry experts and exploratory case studies, with three real-life construction projects. The paper identifies three system boundaries for CPP evaluation, that is, parameter, timeframe and stakeholder, and develops a two-stage CPP evaluation framework to indicate site efficiency and utilisation effectiveness, thereby accessing the productivity of both the construction and post-construction stages. The “investment-in-failure” paradox associated with current CPP evaluation approaches is primarily attributed to the narrowly defined CPP boundaries. The qualitative exploration of the evaluation framework only focusses on the Hong Kong construction industry. Further case studies within other urban contexts could be used to improve the generalisability of the findings. Quantitative research is also necessary to advance theoretical development of the two-stage CPP evaluation. The systemic CPP conceptualisation and the two-stage CPP evaluation framework support the systems thinking of industry stakeholders and enable them to formulate holistic strategies for long-term CPP enhancement. The research demonstrates the needs to expand the system boundaries of CPP to reflect its systemic value and to shift the paradigm of CPP evaluation from being output-orientated and quantity-focussed to being outcome-orientated and value-focussed.
      Citation: Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
      PubDate: 2020-07-13
      DOI: 10.1108/ECAM-12-2019-0691
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management
    •  
 
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