Subjects -> OCCUPATIONS AND CAREERS (Total: 33 journals)
Showing 1 - 23 of 23 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Pastoral Counseling     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
British Journal of Guidance & Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Career Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Education + Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Field Actions Science Reports     Open Access  
Formation emploi     Open Access  
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Human Resource Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Work Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Career Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Human Capital     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities : A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Vocational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Neurocritical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Palliative & Supportive Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Performance Improvement Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recherches & éducations     Open Access  
Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Trabajo : Revista de la Asociación Estatal de Centros Universitarios de Relaciones Laborales y Ciencias del Trabajo     Open Access  
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Work and Occupations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Work, Employment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Similar Journals
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Education + Training
Number of Followers: 23  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 4 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0040-0912 - ISSN (Online) 1758-6127
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • The role of work-integrated learning in preparing students for a corporate
           entrepreneurial career

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Joakim Winborg , Gustav Hägg
      Abstract: In the literature there is limited knowledge about how to prepare students for a corporate entrepreneurial career. The purpose is therefore to develop a framework for understanding the role corporate development projects play in corporate entrepreneurship education, and to examine the potential role of the design of the project. The study defines a corporate development project as a project being part of an academic education to provide students with working experiences situated in an experiential learning process. Based on work-integrated learning literature, the authors first develop a conceptual framework. Thereafter, they undertake a multiple case study using data from a Master's Program in Corporate Entrepreneurship. Starting from the conceptual framework, the authors employ deductive thematic analysis in order to analyze data and finally to develop an elaborated framework. In the framework, the authors identify and label five categories of learning outcomes from the corporate development project. The framework helps understand the interplay between the different learning outcomes in students' learning process and shows how the design of the project shapes the learning process. The framework can assist educators in designing and integrating the corporate development project as a key module within a corporate entrepreneurship academic program. Based on the framework, the study develops the knowledge about the design of corporate entrepreneurship education. Future research should test the framework using data from other academic programs in corporate entrepreneurship.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2022-01-17
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-05-2021-0196
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Enterprise education: pre-service further education teachers' impressions
           and aspirations

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Peter Tiernan , Jane O’Kelly
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attitudes and impressions of pre-service Further Education teachers towards enterprise education. It also looks at the potential impact on their future teaching practices and aspirations. This study builds on the literature in this area by bringing a teacher education focus and by providing views from the underserved further education sector. A qualitative research approach was used to evaluate pre-service further education teachers' understanding of and attitudes towards, enterprise education. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 students in their final year of an initial teacher education degree. Findings emerged through constant comparative analysis of interview transcripts. These findings indicate that exposure to enterprise education greatly increased understanding of its importance and relevance, while also encouraging pre-service further education teachers to recognise the benefits of incorporating enterprise education into their classrooms of the future. While there is an array of literature on entrepreneurship and enterprise education outside of business contents, very few studies exist, which examine enterprise education in an initial teacher education context. Fewer still examine enterprise education from the perspective of further education. This study provides a unique qualitative view of pre-service further education teachers' impressions of enterprise education and their aspirations for the future.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-03-2021-0116
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A disruptive model for delivering higher education programs within the
           context of entrepreneurship education

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      Authors: Gerrit Anton de Waal , Alex Maritz
      Abstract: The purpose of this practitioner paper is to explore whether the principles of Design Thinking and the Lean Startup could be employed in developing a disruptive model for delivering educational programs within higher education in a way that attempts to eliminate the multitude of problems facing this industry, while simultaneously adhering to the principles of frugal innovation and meeting relevant sustainability goals. The authors followed a design thinking approach, employing tools such as empathy mapping, customer journey, value proposition and semi-structured interviews to obtain a deep level of understanding of the problems educators and students within the context of entrepreneurship education are facing. Throughout the process they drew on the practice of emergent inquiry and customer co-creation to help guide decision making. The authors successfully derived a conceptual solution in the form of a Minimum Viable Product of which the features were tested against the multitude of user needs and requirements. It was possible to demonstrate how the solution meets all nine of the requirements for frugal innovations while simultaneously adhering to applicable sustainability principles. The proposed solution offers a potential opportunity to first-movers in chosen academic disciplines to become leaders in online education. Even in an industry such as higher education there is a dire need for frugality and finding sustainable solutions for educators and students in both developed and developing markets. With this paper the authors succeed in presenting innovative combinations of digital artefacts, platforms and infrastructure to arrive at a novel crowd-sourced solution that is unique in its design.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-03-2021-0102
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Construction and validation of the employability questionnaire for
           accounting graduates

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      Authors: Nabil Ahmed Mareai Senan , M.M. Sulphey
      Abstract: Globally, serious doubts are now expressed about the quality of accounting education, and employers are concerned about the lack of employability among graduates. There is a lack of a validated tool to measure employability in the Saudi Arabia context. Such a tool is required to assess the level of employability so that required corrective measures could be taken. The purpose of the study is to construct and validate a questionnaire to measure employability of accounting graduates. The data for the study was collected from various accounting professionals using a pool of 50 items from 420 randomly collected samples. The researchers used different statistical techniques, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, to construct and validate the 29 item questionnaire. Based on the purpose of the study, a questionnaire for measuring the employability of accounting graduates was constructed. The questionnaire developed and scientifically validated through various scientific techniques has 20 items under five factors. The questionnaire is ideal for measuring employability of accounting graduates. A fair review of the literature revealed a dearth of a validated tool to measure employability of accounting graduates. The study has constructed and validated a questionnaire to measure employability of accounting graduates, thereby bridging the gap in literature. This questionnaire, it is expected, would facilitate the conduct of further empirical examinations about employability of accounting graduates.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2021-0152
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A design science approach to developing and evaluating items for the
           assessment of transversal professional competences

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Florian Fahrenbach
      Abstract: Relying on a design science paradigm, the purpose of this paper is to describe the development and evaluation of items for an ICT artefact that supports the assessment of transversal professional competences within the validation of prior learning (VPL). To do so, the authors build a conceptual bridge between the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). Design science research paradigm, in particular the participatory development of candidate items and their evaluation in a multi-stakeholder approach. The authors find that a self-assessment of professional competences should be comprised of 160 items in order to cover the breadth and depth of the O*NET in the hierarchical taxonomy. Such quantity of items sufficiently builds a conceptual bridge between the O*NET and the; EQF. When designing procedures for the VPL, it is imperative to bear in mind the purpose of the validation procedure, in order to determine relevant stakeholders and their needs in advance as well as the; required language proficiency of the assessment instrument. The innovative value of this approach lies in the combination of an underlying hierarchical taxonomy with assessment items that are developed based on the qualification standards of different Austrian professions. Together with specific verbs that were adapted for each particular item, an innovative self-assessment is proposed. Thereby the authors aim to account for some of the mentioned shortcomings of the EQF. This paper applies a design science paradigm to develop an ICT artefact that should support the VPL. By reflecting on the design process, the authors introduce a theoretical bridge between the O*NET and the EQF. Thereby the authors aim to account for some of the mentioned shortcomings of the EQF.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-12-24
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-03-2020-0056
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, need for
           achievement and entrepreneurial intention among commerce students in
           Pakistan

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      Authors: Bahadur Ali Soomro , Naimatullah Shah
      Abstract: The present study undertook an empirical investigation of entrepreneurship education, self-efficacy, need for achievement and entrepreneurial intention among Pakistan's commerce students. The authors applied quantitative methods based on cross-sectional data. The commerce students of the different public sector universities are targeted through a random sampling technique. The authors used a survey questionnaire to attain the responses from respondents. Finally, 184 usable cases are utilized to assume the hypothesized paths. By applying the structural equation modeling (SEM), the findings of the study demonstrate a significant positive effect of constructs of entrepreneurship education (EE), that is, opportunity recognition (OR) and entrepreneurship knowledge acquisition (EKA) on entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE), entrepreneurial intention (EI) and need for achievement (NFA). Besides, ESE and NFA are found to be the robust predictors of EI. The findings provide significant guidelines to policy-makers and university authorities for developing useful EE courses to uplift and boost students' skills to face today's considerable business and entrepreneurship challenges. The study also helps to generate eagerness among students in selecting entrepreneurship as a career option. This study suggests the confirmation of EE's significant role in developing ESE, NFA and EI among commerce students.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-01-2021-0023
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The impact of industry-oriented capstone courses on the employability of
           EECS students in technological universities

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      Authors: Jen-Chia Chang , Hsiao-Fang Shih , Fan-Ru Liao
      Abstract: This study used the industry-oriented capstone course to increase the employability of electrical engineering and computer science (EECS) students in technological university. In this study, EECS students were selected and divided into groups, and the non-equivalent pretest–posttest quasi-experimental research method was adopted. Industry-oriented capstone courses can improve students' employability, especially general ability, behaviour and attitude. The results of this study and many other studies show that capstone courses are helpful for the soft skills of students. This study provides evidence that industry-oriented capstone courses can improve EECS students' employability.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2021-0129
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • “Still haven't found what I am looking for”: rural black students'
           perceived work readiness and assessment of labor market access

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      Authors: Tinashe Harry , Willie Tafadzwa Chinyamurindi
      Abstract: South African Black graduates experience a transition challenge between the higher education context and the labor market system. The study focuses on rural Black students' perceived work readiness and assessment of labor market access in South Africa. Focus groups and unstructured individual interviews were conducted with 30 final-year students enrolled at a historically Black university in South Africa. Four main narratives were found to affect rural Black students' perceptions of work readiness and their assessment of labor market access in South Africa. These include: (1) language of instruction within the higher education system, (2) challenges around access to career counseling and guidance services, (3) dealing with a curriculum system not relevant to the lived experiences of Black people and finally, (4) challenges inherent within higher education institution attended by Black students. A thread among these four appraisals appears to be the rural Black students' concern around the entire education system from basic to higher education. The paper sheds light and presents an understanding of perceptions of an educational system and issues around work readiness and labor market access in South Africa.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-10-2021-0387
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • How to develop higher education curricula towards employability'
           A multi-stakeholder approach

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      Authors: Daniela Olo , Leonida Correia , Conceição Rego
      Abstract: This paper aims to find out what conditions are needed to enhance higher education curricula towards employability from the perspective of different stakeholders in the graduate labour market. An empirical study was developed, using a qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews with higher education institutions (HEIs) and labour market players, in the north region of Portugal. The data were analysed through content and descrip\tive analysis with NVivo. The results show a set of constraints that hinder the match of higher education curricula with employability, namely, (1) the weak connection between HEIs and employers and (2) the curricular structure, which is characterised by a heavy theoretical component and a weak approach to the soft skills required by the current labour market. Possible solutions, with implications for educational policy, are given throughout the study. The geographical scope and the nature of the study suggest that some precautions are required when generalising results. However, the literature on other areas in Portugal strengthens the findings and compensates for the sample's limitations. This study combines the perspectives of the different individual stakeholders involved which, when taken as a whole, provide some recommendations for tailored curricula towards employability. Other studies in Portugal address each of these issues individually, without a connection between all the different perspectives.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-10-2020-0329
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Design, implementation and academic perspectives on authentic assessment
           for applied business higher education in a top performing Asian economy

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      Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari , Hung Manh Nguyen , Robert McClelland , Kristof Van Houdt
      Abstract: The purpose of authentic assessment can enrich students with a set of skills that can have a significant impact on their employability. The key aim of these actions is to equip students with the practical skills to be work ready. The focus here is to demonstrate effects on student satisfaction and observations from teaching staff accrued over several semesters in an educational institution after introducing authentic assessments. This paper used a set of scaffolded authentic assessments for students in logistics and supply chain management (LSCM). A combination of literature and expert input was used to design and implement the authentic assessment. A multi-phase systematic approach using cyclical model steps articulated the course learning outcomes (CLOs). Reinforced evidence that authentic assessments create options for divergent learners and provide opportunities for applying practical and higher-order cognitive skills in tertiary education system of an emerging economy. With the focus on student ability in doing things, students with diversified backgrounds and abilities in Asia can be encouraged to take an active role in their own learning. The formats of the newly redesigned assessments allow multidimensional cognitive capabilities such as art development (posters and video tasks) and reflective exercises. Importantly, formative types of authentic assessments help to decrease the level of anxiety by emphasising the aspect of doing and lead to better student satisfaction with the courses. All of these effects are shown to be repeatable in an Asian economy. Authentic assessments prepare students for the new world of work through a more focused scaffolding of their learning. Stimulation of deeper learning in tertiary education students is relevant for a top performing Asian economy.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2021-0121
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploring the impact of positing entrepreneurship in nature of science:
           initial science teachers' perspectives

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      Authors: Sila Kaya-Capocci , Orla McCormack , Sibel Erduran , Naomi Birdthistle
      Abstract: The social aspects of nature of science (NOS) have become more eminent but entrepreneurial perspectives of NOS continue to be neglected. Entrepreneurship is relevant to NOS and science education due to its role in scientific enterprises and its importance as a 21st-century skill required in all subjects, particularly in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) subjects. Due to the impact of initial teacher education (ITE) and the science curriculum on Initial Science Teachers' (ISTs) understanding, the paper aims to explore the impact of including entrepreneurship in NOS with ISTs. The qualitative study investigated the changes in three ISTs by examining their understanding of entrepreneurship within NOS and their perspectives on the inclusion of entrepreneurship in the science curriculum following an intervention. The results were analysed through thematic and network analysis (NA). The results indicated that following an intervention, ISTs developed a more holistic understanding of entrepreneurship in NOS and could see the benefits and rationale for including entrepreneurship in the science curriculum. However, certain concerns remained. Although entrepreneurship may contribute to NOS by promoting scientific development, enhancing interest in science and developing a holistic understanding of science, a thorough review of the relevant research literature suggests that studies investigating entrepreneurship in NOS are rare. The current paper fills this gap by exploring Irish ISTs' perspectives on positing entrepreneurship in NOS. The study suggests conducting further research on the integration of entrepreneurship in the science curriculum and its impact on ITE.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-05-2021-0180
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Gendered personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions: insights from
           information technology education

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      Authors: Ioannis Sitaridis , Fotis C. Kitsios
      Abstract: Entrepreneurial intention of students is frequently used in entrepreneurship research as an indicator of creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurial mindset. The entrepreneurship courses offered by engineering disciplines do not always have the expected outcomes, while differences are observed on students' entrepreneurial intention. These differences sometimes stem from the stereotypical beliefs about entrepreneurship, in favor of masculinity. Although these anachronistic perceptions gradually fade in the society, personality traits attributed to “traditional” gender schemas still have an impact on students' career choices, especially in academic fields considered “masculine,” such as information technology. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of gender-typed personality (GTP) on students' entrepreneurial intentions (EI) and identify differences between genders. The impact of GTP traits on students' entrepreneurial intention is examined using gender schema theory and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) based on a sample of 321 university students of information technology. Structural equation models are used for the investigation of causal effects and group differences. The results indicate significant interaction of GTP traits on the EI for both male and female students. However, no significant differences were found in the perception of gender schemas between males and females, which clearly suggests that the attribution of these traits to a specific gender nowadays is false. The results offer convincing explanation of the differences observed in EI between the two genders and have both theoretical and practical implications for entrepreneurship education.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-12-2020-0378
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Influence of role models on the entrepreneurial skills of science and
           technology undergraduates

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      Authors: Kittichai Rajchamaha , Jatupat Prapojanasomboon
      Abstract: This study examines the perspectives of undergraduate science and technology students in Thailand regarding the influence of various role models on their entrepreneurial skills. This study employed the single case study research method. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. The sample consisted of 142 key informants, whose responses were analysed using a direct content analysis method. From the students' perspectives, entrepreneurial role models indirectly influenced their entrepreneurial skills. The findings have clear implications for educators and policymakers. Educational institutions should design and implement educational strategies that help connect informal learning gained from the family with formal training at higher education institutions. On-the-job or apprenticeship training should also be included as a component of course content. Our findings regarding the influence of role models differ from those of previous studies in relation to two of the four role models considered here. First, according to the students, their family environment has no direct impact on their entrepreneurial skills. In addition, science- and technology-based educational environments should adopt an entrepreneurial orientation to help students understand various market and business pressures, which will enable them to make a positive contribution to the workplace.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2021-0151
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • An examination of comparative perspectives on international internships

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      Authors: Uraiporn Kattiyapornpong , Shamika Almeida
      Abstract: Work integrated learning (WIL) activities, especially internships, are essential for career preparation and development. This paper applies career adaptability and capital theories to examine how international internships help undergraduate business students in their career exploration, preparation and development. This study used data from 20 interviews, including 15 undergraduate business students from two universities in Australia and Thailand who undertook internships in Asian countries, three internship administrators across two universities, and two overseas internship partners. Thematic-based analysis using the Nvivo program and duoethnographic reflections of the internship coordinators in Australia was applied for data analysis. The data analysis indicates that international internship experiences facilitate students to become culturally savvy, build their international professional networks, enhance the level of self-perceived competency and cultivate a globalised career adaptability perspective. This study contributes to theory-building within the WIL literature, international internship experiences, students’ career adaptability and capital. Although international internship opportunities are available to students, few students are willing to challenge themselves in a foreign setting. The study’s insights provide a better understanding of how university administrators could set up a task force of academics and professional staff to consider a cohesive resourcing structure for the long-term sustainability of the international internship programs. This study highlights how the international internships enhanced students’ globalised social, cultural and human capital and their ability to adapt to culturally diverse business contexts. The international internship experience can also increase student’s confidence to enter the global labour market and seek opportunities beyond their original country of residence.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-11-05
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-02-2021-0072
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effect of role model teachers on students' entrepreneurial
           competencies and intentions

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      Authors: Paula San-Martín , Andrea Pérez , Ana Fernández-Laviada , Estefanía Palazuelos
      Abstract: The paper aims to provide empirical evidence on whether the identification of the teacher as a role model is truly a key factor in improving students' entrepreneurial competencies and intention. Data were obtained from a survey of 387 university students enrolled in an entrepreneurship course, who were asked to respond to the same questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the semester. To test the proposed hypotheses, comparison of means tests for independent samples were carried out. The results obtained confirm that students with a role model teacher perceive that entrepreneurial competencies and perceived behavioural control increase largely during the course, whilst students with a non-role model teacher perceive that their attitude towards intention decrease. The “Who should teach'” question has been disregarded in previous entrepreneurship education (EE) literature. The current paper is a first step towards a better comprehension of the teacher of entrepreneurship as a role model.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-03-2021-0118
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Systematic mapping: educational and social entrepreneurship innovations
           (2015–2020)

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      Authors: Ruth Montes-Martínez , María Soledad Ramírez-Montoya
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze recent publications (2015–2020) that refer to educational and social entrepreneurship to identify the primary emerging themes and gaps of entrepreneurship research and management that would be helpful for future studies and entrepreneurial ventures. The authors used systematic mapping to review 92 research articles that address educational innovation and social entrepreneurship. All the articles were published between 2015 and January 2020 and were found in the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases. The data analysis identified the following: the articles most frequently cited, the journals that published the highest number of relevant articles, the geographical distribution of these publications and their authors, the context of the research, the lines and themes that emerged, and the gaps in the literature regarding the research and management of educational and social entrepreneurship. The search for articles was limited to educational and social entrepreneurship innovations and the English language; thus, studies published in other languages were not analyzed. The analysis of this research allowed us to review concepts and identify research methods employed and thematic lines analyzed. Therefore, the work is of value for educational and social entrepreneurs and researchers who wish to examine such concepts or focus on areas not yet fully explored.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2021-0133
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Vulnerable workers and the demise of adult education in England

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      Authors: Emma Wallis , Lizel Nacua , Jonathan Winterton
      Abstract: This paper reviews changing government policy on adult education in England over the past 20 years and the funding regimes affecting adult and community learning and union-led learning, which play a major role in learning opportunities for socially excluded adults. A review and analysis of extant literature, informed by previous involvement in the sector and ongoing collaborations. Two decades ago, adult education in England provided a variety of learning opportunities for people who either had limited qualifications or who needed to reskill for whatever reason. Access to those opportunities has been reduced just when it is most needed. This is a review and viewpoint paper based on experience in England, the limitations of which are discussed in the concluding section. Notwithstanding the institutional specificities of adult education in England, many of the implications are generic and have wider relevance beyond this country context. Economic recovery post-coronavirus (COVID) and Brexit will require more access to adult education so people can prepare for labour market re-integration. The practical implication of extending provision in adult education to support labour market integration of vulnerable workers is relevant to most countries. This paper takes a holistic view of adult education, with particular attention to adult and community learning and union-led learning.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-07-2021-0257
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Abduction and entrepreneurial learning

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      Authors: Helle Munkholm Davidsen , Christina Højlund
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to describe the similarities between abductive reasoning and entrepreneurial learning processes in order to contribute to the conceptual understanding of learning as an entrepreneurial process in itself. The research is theoretically rooted in a conceptual development of the understanding of entrepreneurial learning processes as abductive reasoning inspired by the philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. The theoretical explication of the connection between entrepreneurial learning processes and abductive reasoning is additionally illustrated by a hypotheses-based didactic model, developed by the authors to scaffold abducting reasoning into learning processes. The authors found in the theoretical investigation of abductive reasoning a conceptualisation of entrepreneurial learning processes that connects entrepreneurial learning processes to basic cognitive human competences, and the authors found that key concepts in entrepreneurship, such as hunches and experiments, can be understood in a broader philosophical framework as basic cognitive competences. The authors exemplify how abductive reasoning can be used in practice through a hypothesis-based didactic approach designed as a loop model. The authors have discovered that abduction is closely related to entrepreneurship and can be a central conceptual link in understanding the relationship between entrepreneurship and learning. The athors also believe that Peirce's concept of abduction can contribute to the philosophical understanding of entrepreneurship as another name for a constant rethinking of the world.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-08-2020-0244
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effect of entrepreneurship education on graduate students'
           entrepreneurial alertness and the mediating role of entrepreneurial
           mindset

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      Authors: Soroush Saadat , Aliasghar Aliakbari , Amirreza Alizadeh Majd , Robin Bell
      Abstract: This study investigates the effect of entrepreneurship education in terms of the development of entrepreneurial knowledge and skills, on graduate students' entrepreneurial alertness and the mediating role of the entrepreneurial mindset. The study collected data using questionnaires from graduate students at an Iranian university who had engaged with entrepreneurship education. The questionnaires collected data on the respondent's demographics and adopted previously validated measures to measure entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial alertness and entrepreneurial mindset. Statistical techniques were applied to test validity and structural equation modeling was undertaken to test the hypotheses. The findings demonstrated that entrepreneurship education has a positive and significant effect on entrepreneurial alertness and entrepreneurial mindset. In addition, entrepreneurial mindset was found to have a positive and significant role in mediating the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial alertness. This finding highlights the importance of educators seeking to build an entrepreneurial mindset within entrepreneurship education, in addition to developing students' entrepreneurial alertness by focusing on opportunity identification and recognition. The study addresses a gap in the literature as to the relationship between entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial alertness, and the entrepreneurial mindset, and furthers the understanding of the impact of entrepreneurship education. The results inform educational practice, as ensuring students recognize entrepreneurial opportunities is an important element of venture creation.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-10-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-06-2021-0231
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Triggering events in the decision to be an entrepreneur: an analysis of
           their influence on higher education graduates

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      Authors: Inés Ruiz-Rosa , Desiderio Gutiérrez-Taño , Francisco J. García-Rodríguez , Esperanza Gil-Soto
      Abstract: The present research focuses on an understudied field in the entrepreneurial process: the events that transform intention into effective entrepreneurial behavior. In this paper a comparative analysis, using the t-test on related samples, is made of the perceptions of these triggering events of a group of graduates who showed entrepreneurial intention in higher education but, up to now, had not taken the decision to start a business with those of a group who had started a business. To do this, a sample of 227 graduates from a medium-sized European University located in Spain, with manifest entrepreneurial intention was used. The results show that there are important differences between perceptions of entrepreneurship triggering events of potential entrepreneurs who have yet to start a company compared to entrepreneurs who have actually started a company. In this sense, the overevaluation by those who have not yet become entrepreneurs of events related to access to finance and the greater relevance for those with entrepreneurial experience of having a good team and contacts consisting of other entrepreneurs, mentors and advisers stand out. Some of the limitations observed in this work are related to the size of the sample analyzed. In the future, the study should be broadened, and different entrepreneurial behavior by academic specialization, gender, sector and/or type of activities should be investigated. Our study focuses on the phase of the entrepreneurship process in which intention becomes action and, more specifically, on those events that favor this change in behavior.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-10-19
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2021-0128
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploring the link between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial
           intentions: the moderating role of educational fields

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      Authors: Cong Doanh Duong
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to integrate the prediction from entrepreneurship education with the theory of planned behaviors (TPB) to build a conceptual framework and estimate the effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention over and above key predictors from an extended TPB model. Also, the moderating impacts of educational fields in the paths from entrepreneurial education, attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control to entrepreneurial intention are tested in this study. The study used a sample of 559 university students who received entrepreneurship education at 12 universities from Vietnam. Confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to test the validity and reliability of all variables and regression analyses were used to estimate coefficient paths. Then, bootstrapping method with the PROCESS approach was utilized to test the indirect correlations. The study reveals that attitude toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control were positively and strongly associated with entrepreneurial intention, while the linkage between subjective norms and entrepreneurial intention was not significant. Also, the findings show that even though entrepreneurship education did not have a direct effect on entrepreneurial intention, it increased entrepreneurial intention via attitude toward entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control. In addition, this study finds that educational fields moderate the associations between predictors and entrepreneurial intention. This study offers both universities and policymakers options to foster youths' entrepreneurial activities. This study is expected to significantly contribute to entrepreneurship literature by enriching our understanding of the interesting and crucial linkages between entrepreneurship education, attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the current research reveals that for economic and business management students, the paths are driven from entrepreneurial education, attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control to intention to engage in entrepreneurial activities has become stronger when compared to students of majors in engineering and others.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-05-2021-0173
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploration of employability perceptions with blended multi-criteria
           decision-making methods

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      Authors: Adrian Castro-Lopez , Sílvia Monteiro , Ana B. Bernardo , Leandro S. Almeida
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore employment perception of students as a relevant indicator of higher education quality, using blended multi-criteria decision-making methods. The differential impact of these variables was analyzed in this paper taking a sample of 641 students and six higher education lecturers identified as experts on young vocational careers. The traditional study of student behavior and perceptions of employability does not incorporate the uncertainty associated with multi-criteria decision processes and is therefore less adapted to the human reasoning process. This research applies traditional techniques together with fuzzy techniques capable of managing more effectively the uncertainty associated with student actions and behaviors. This research shows that it is important to consider previous work experience, academic achievement and soft skills developed during education experiences. In this way, this research shows the lecturers how to adapt their pedagogical practices according to students' perceptions of employability and assess their students' perceptions of employability. In addition, lecturers will be able to incorporate the uncertainty associated with decision-making processes to optimize employability perception. Higher education-related research on uncertainty environments as multi-criteria decision problems is still in early stages. The incorporation of the uncertainty associated with decision-making processes to this field allows to optimize employability perception thanks to its adaptation to real human behavior in the adoption of decisions.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-07-2021-0296
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Three decades of interventions for the unemployed – review of practices
           between 1990 and 2020 and their effects on (re) employment competencies

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      Authors: Macarena-Paz Celume , Helene Korda
      Abstract: This paper provides evidence of the outcomes proposed by the reviewed programmes and their level of effectiveness. Articles were screened by title and abstract to ensure correspondence with exclusion/inclusion criteria. Themes were analysed through collective coding and scoring. Size effects were calculated. Three expected outcomes: psychological, technical and (re) employment. The most frequent and significant results are found in psychological. The review could not find consistent results in effectiveness of the type of training, because of the diversity of propositions and socio-cultural origins of interventions. Socio-cultural context acts as variable; thus, deep interdisciplinary analysis on context where trainings were developed is suggested in order to understand the impact of trainings according to their population defining effectiveness. There is no previous review of type of interventions for the unemployed focusing on last 30 years.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-08-03
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-02-2021-0053
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Employer perspectives on workforce integration of self-initiated
           expatriates in Canada

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      Authors: Nita Chhinzer , Jinuk Oh
      Abstract: This study explores employer perspectives regarding barriers to and responsibility for the workforce integration of skilled immigrants. Specifically, this study assesses employer perceptions of how influential various barriers are to the integration of self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) in the workplace, uncovers employer perceptions of SIEs competence levels, identifies employer perceptions regarding multiple stakeholders’ levels of responsibility for SIEs integration and explores impactful means to overcome these barriers. Given Canada’s dependence on SIEs for labour force growth, an online survey was conducted with hiring managers of 99 firms in a mid-sized city in Ontario, Canada. The results demonstrate that employers shift the onus of responsibility for SIEs integration to other stakeholders (namely, the immigrant or government agencies), require documentation to evaluate human capital attainment of SIEs and may be systemically discriminating against SIEs. The results indicate a need for documented evidence to validate foreign education and skills previously acquired by SIEs. They advance research by providing a comparative assessment of barriers from the employer’s point of view. The findings support the notion that employers should strategically partner with specialized private or government agencies to help with efforts to attract and evaluate SIEs. Given that employers are key decision-makers regarding employment outcomes, this study investigates the underexplored role and perspective of employers in integrating SIEs. Additionally, this study provides both a holistic and a relative assessment of the barriers to and responsibility for SIEs integration, exploring the impact of each factor on employer decision-making.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-07-27
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2021-0154
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Multilevel comprehension for labor market inclusion: a qualitative study
           on experts' perspectives on Industry 4.0 competences

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      Authors: Francesco Tommasi , Marco Perini , Riccardo Sartori
      Abstract: Given the exponential and massive technological disruption in work that Industry 4.0 will lead to, nowadays, authors and practitioners within the field of education and training are witnessing increased attention on the features of and threats to employability and integration in current labor transformations. The purpose of this paper is to address current education and training challenges as related to the fourth industrial revolution by investigating which skills and competences will be crucial for the 4.0 era. A qualitative field study with semi-structured interviews has been conducted. Qualitative data on a sample of N = 16 vocational training experts has been analyzed via the grounded theory approach for a bottom-up perspective on Industry 4.0 competences. Data analysis revealed a partial consensus between current scientific literature and practitioners' views on skills and competences for Industry 4.0. Indeed, practioners support the need for a mix of competences comprising the broad group of disciplines of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), technical skills and transversal competences. Moreover, the perspective of practitioners supports a multilevel comprehension of the needs of Industry 4.0 for education and training. Drawing on these findings, an evaluation tool for an applied field intervention for inclusion in the labor market is proposed. The paper advances current knowledge within the field of education and training by proposing a novel perspective to address market integration as a means to tackle the risk of technological disruption.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-07-16
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-04-2021-0146
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Can gamification and interface design aesthetics lead to MOOCs'
           success'

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      Authors: Yung-Ming Cheng
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to propose an integrated post-adoption model based on expectation-confirmation model (ECM) and flow theory to examine whether gamification and interface design aesthetics as antecedents to students' beliefs can affect their continuance intention of massive open online courses (MOOCs) and perceived impact on learning. Sample data for this study were collected from students enrolled in a comprehensive university in Taiwan. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed in the campus, and 318 (53.0%) useable questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling in this study. This study's results verified that students' perceived gamification and interface design aesthetics of MOOCs positively affected their perceived usefulness, confirmation and flow experience elicited by MOOCs, and these in turn directly or indirectly led to their satisfaction, continuance intention of MOOCs and perceived impact on learning. Essentially, the results strongly support the research model with all hypothesized links being significant. It should be particularly noticed that this study contributes to the application of capturing both ECM and flow experience (i.e. an intrinsic motivator) for completely explaining students' perceived gamification and interface design aesthetics as external variables to their continuance intention of MOOCs and perceived impact on learning, and this study's empirical evidence can further shed light on the possible formulation of MOOCs success.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-09-2020-0278
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Towards competence-oriented higher education: a systematic literature
           review of the different perspectives on successful exit profiles

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Sanna Brauer
      Abstract: The twenty-first century education system seeks to meet the societal demands of economic effectiveness and the unique professional development needs of individuals. This paper aims to discuss the qualities of competence-oriented educational processes and the recent movement towards competence-based curricula in higher education. This study follows a systematic literature review (SLR) methodology to explore the concept of competence within the context of educational science. The subsequent thematic synthesis analyses the findings of reviewed publications regarding graduate attributes in competence-oriented higher education and their perspectives and working-life expectations on exit profiles. Interest in competence-oriented education, training and learning has grown in recent years, resulting in numerous theoretical and technical pedagogical applications in higher education. Nonetheless, ambiguous terminology presents a significant challenge, which is demonstrated by the inconsistent language of the study's results. Moreover, there is an obvious need for teachers' in-service training. The qualitative synthesis of this article will be useful for both educational and working life sectors to inform and promote different perspectives on competence-oriented educational processes. A clear articulation of competences is crucial for reforming higher education to meet students' interests and recognise their work-life needs. The concept of competence has been under-investigated in higher education research and practices. This study offers novel insights and practical implications for competence-oriented learning concerning the paradigmatic change across higher education.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-07-2020-0216
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Business students' future time perspective and quality of university life:
           evidence from Vietnam

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      Authors: Nguyen N.Q. Thu , Nguyen T.M. Trang , Nguyen Dinh Tho
      Abstract: This study, based on self-determination theory (SDT), investigates the effect of business students' future time perspective (FTP), directly and indirectly (mediated by deep learning approaches), on quality of university life. A sample of 547 business students in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, was surveyed via a two-wave process to collect data to validate the measures and to test the hypotheses using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results produced by SEM demonstrated that FTP had no direct effect on quality of university life and that deep learning approaches fully mediated the impact of FTP on quality of university life. The study findings provide business educators with a better understanding of the role that FTP can play for business students. Increased awareness of this issue may help nurture the FTP of business students, which in turn directs them to pursue deep learning approaches to achieve a higher level of quality of university life. This study is among the first to empirically investigate the overarching role that FTP plays in both deep learning approaches and quality of university life.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-09-15
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-07-2020-0208
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • From high school to workplace: investigating the effects of soft skills on
           career engagement through the role of psychological capital in different
           age groups

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      Authors: Farida Aryani , Hillman Wirawan , Abdul Saman , Sulaiman Samad , Muhammad Jufri
      Abstract: This study aims at investigating the indirect effect of soft skills on career engagement through the role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in different age groups. The social cognitive theory (SCT) and job demands-resource model (JD-R) were employed to explain the effect of perceived skill mastery on PsyCap and career engagement. The data were collected from 707 high school students, 150 university students and 165 employees using a three-wave data collection technique. This study measured soft skills, PsyCap and career engagement at different age groups (i.e. high school students, university students and employees). The data were analysed using a moderated-mediation technique. The results showed that soft skills positively influenced PsyCap and eventually increased career engagement in all age groups. However, the effect was stronger for students (both in high school and university) than employees in the workplaces. Unlike most students, employees related soft skills to performance. Regardless of the effect on performance, students would be more likely than employees to perceive soft skill mastery as a source of efficacy. First, the education system should direct more attention to developing students' non-cognitive skills. Second, people should understand that their career advancement continues in the workplace context. Organizations can foster employees' soft skills by providing more opportunities to develop new skills. This study sheds light on the importance of soft skills beyond academic and workplace performance. This study is among the few empirical investigations that reveal career engagement factors across different career development stages.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-03-2021-0087
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Role ambiguity in entrepreneurship education: expectation gaps between
           educators and students in venture creation courses

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      Authors: Aki Harima , Agnieszka Kroczak , Martina Repnik
      Abstract: This study aims to explore expectation gaps concerning the roles between educators and students in the context of venture creation courses at higher education institutions by investigating their mutual perspectives. The authors seek to answer the following research questions: (1) how is the role expectation toward the entrepreneurship education of teachers different from that of students and (2) what are the consequences of these expectation gaps in entrepreneurship education' This study applies an explorative qualitative approach. As the research setting, the authors selected an entrepreneurship education course for advanced management students at a German public university. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with both educators and students to examine how role ambiguity emerges in venture creation courses. This study identified discrepancies between educators and students in their fundamental assumptions regarding the role of educators and students. Such discrepancies are the autonomy-level assumption gap, capacity assumption gap and learning outcomes expectation gap. Based on the findings, this study develops a framework of expectation gaps between educators and students as sources for role ambiguity in entrepreneurship education by extending the role episode model developed in role theory. The findings contribute to the extant literature on entrepreneurship education in several ways. First, this study reveals that students in venture creation programs can encounter role ambiguity due to differing expectations about their role between educators and students, which can negatively affect the students' perception of their learning outcome. Second, this study discovered that the possible discrepancies regarding the fundamental assumptions about the role of educators and students pose a challenge to educators. Third, the findings illuminate the importance of understanding the complex identity of students in the context of student-centered entrepreneurship education. This study offers several practical implications for entrepreneurship educators in higher education institutions. First, this study reveals the confusion among students concerning their role in entrepreneurship education. As such, it is recommended that educators explain to students the purpose of the student-centered pedagogical approach and the expected role of students in acting as independent entrepreneurial agents. Second, while student-centered entrepreneurship education is based on the fundamental assumption that students are motivated to develop their own startup projects, educators must consider the nature of students' motivation and their overall student-life situation. Finally, this study demonstrates the importance of creating an active feedback loop so that entrepreneurship teachers can be aware of such perceptional gaps between educators and students and understand the sources of these gaps. While the extant literature indicates the existence of perceptual gaps between educators and students in the context of entrepreneurship education, how these gaps emerge and influence the outcome of entrepreneurship education remained unclear. One critical reason for the under-investigation of this issue was that existing studies predominantly emphasize the educators' perspectives, although such expectation gaps can only emerge through the discrepant views of two different parties. This study tackled this research gap by considering the mutual perspective of educators and students by applying role theory.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-07-2020-0204
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Game learning analytics of instant messaging and online discussion forums
           in higher education

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      Authors: Ana Beatriz Hernández-Lara , Alexandre Perera-Lluna , Enric Serradell-López
      Abstract: With the growth of digital education, students increasingly interact in a variety of ways. The potential effects of these interactions on their learning process are not fully understood and the outcomes may depend on the tool used. This study explores the communication patterns and learning effectiveness developed by students using two basic synchronous and asynchronous communication tools in e-learning environments, specifically business simulation games. The authors conduct a quasi-experiment research with 478 online business students, 267 of whom used online discussion forums and 211 interacted via an instant messaging app. The application of learning analytics and text mining on natural language processing allows us to explore the student communication patterns with each of tools and their effectiveness in terms of learning. The results confirm the complementarity of the communication tools, asynchronous tools being especially the suitable for task-related communication and synchronous ones for speeding up and facilitating student social interactions. The main value of this research lies in the use of data analytics and text mining to access and analyse the content of student interactions to assess the learning process in greater depth, comparing synchronous and asynchronous learning modes, considering that little is known about the impact of online synchronous interaction or instant messaging, and even less about the different features, content and performance that emerge when these two learner interaction modalities are compared.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-08-05
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-11-2020-0334
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Longitudinal associations between soft skills, education and labour market
           outcomes: evidence from a survey of young Australians

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      Authors: Cameron J. Forrest , Tasman Swanton
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop a measure of soft skills suitable for use in a large survey of Australian adolescents. A survey was conducted with N = 4,704 Australians aged 15–19 over 2 years. Principal components analysis was performed on 14 self-report items, followed by generalised linear mixed modelling predicting education- and employment-related outcomes. Self-reported problem solving, creativity, teamwork and verbal communication were alternately associated with later high school performance, hourly wage and employment status. These effects persisted when controlling for demographics and prior academic achievement. Existing measures have been limited by their length or focus on specific skills or industries. The presented measures are short, domain-general, measure multiple skills simultaneously, and are suitable for a wide range of research contexts.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-07-29
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-10-2020-0325
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Cultivating social capital: an exploratory analysis of business
           postgraduates in Ghana

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      Authors: Desmond Tutu Ayentimi , Robert Ebo Hinson , John Burgess
      Abstract: This paper, grounded on social capital and social networking theory, examines how postgraduate students in Ghana cultivate and utilise social resources towards career development. Following a qualitative study design, the authors recruited and conducted interviews with postgraduate student-workers undertaking a two-year Master of Science in International Business. There was an active engagement and consciously pre-plan mobilisation of social resources and utilisation of social resources among the postgraduates. Despite the diverse processes of social capital development identified, four important key themes emerged underpinning social capital mobilisation and utilisation: (1) the recognition of the importance of social capital acquisition, (2) the strong link between social capital and individual successes in employment and business opportunities, (3) the importance of the utilisation of social resources for emotional support and (4) the use of social capital to reinforce the individual social identity and recognition of an individual's worth. The authors offer a theoretical and practical contribution with a frame of understanding by demonstrating that there is more to social capital than economic gain. Unlike the findings from prior research in Africa, the strong institutional and cultural conditions did not constrain the key force of education and employability as drivers in attainment and social positioning. This is an interesting and positive finding from the research, especially in terms of the importance of providing educational opportunities to overcome institutional and cultural barriers to workforce participation and career development. Social networks contribute to career success, and while the participants used social networks that reinforced ethnic and religious bonds, there is the opportunity to develop networks through other identity processes, especially education. Formal education imparts more than formal skills and qualifications. It provides the opportunity to access networks that transcend personal identity such as ethnicity and to get support for career development.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-07-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-11-2020-0357
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Experiential Entrepreneurship Education and the student-focused
           Entrepreneurial University

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      Authors: Leigh Morland , Jonathan Matthew Scott , John L. Thompson
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the provision and reported outcomes of Experiential Entrepreneurship Education (EEE), from learner, educator and university perspectives, in order to reflect upon the progress of the Entrepreneurial University. It proposes a conceptual framework for integrating the multiple stakeholder perspectives for an “education led” and student-focused Entrepreneurial University, something yet to be identified from existing research and, consequentially, future research. A reflective literature review explores the depth and breadth of EEE provision in Universities, noting: what is taking place, who is involved, where EEE is situated (within the university context), and how the knowledge base is informed. From these reflections, a conceptual framework is proposed as a means of exploring and categorizing progress towards a student-focused Entrepreneurial University through education experiences. The literature review is largely informed by case studies developed by educators reflecting on student learner experiences for the purpose of course enhancement. These case exemplars provide the resource for emergent, bottom-up strategy that could support the Entrepreneurial University. However, the role of the University is less researched, in terms of providing context and external strategic relationships to resource EEE and deliver a more planned approach to the Entrepreneurial University. The Entrepreneurial University and EEE are mainstream agendas and the development of both must consider the role and contribution of the University in terms of strategy formulation and implementation. This study takes a holistic view, seeing EEE and the Entrepreneurial University as connected agendas. The student-focused Entrepreneurial University cannot result from emergent, bottom-up strategy alone and thus there is a need to address the role of top-down resource-based University strategy in creating real progress. The paper provides a conceptualization, for the purpose of analysing and informing the relationship between EEE and the Entrepreneurial University that places the University as a key stakeholder, and in doing so asks that scholars and educators build the knowledge base not only from cases of good practice but also from the review of strategic management within Universities.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-07-28
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-09-2020-0259
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Life situations and lived experiences of young people who are not in
           education, employment, or training in South Africa

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      Authors: Walter Matli , Mpho Ngoepe
      Abstract: In recent years, South Africa has continued to experience a high rate of young people who are not in employment, education, or training (NEET). The emergence of the concept ‘NEET’ affords researchers an opportunity to more closely examine the life situations and experiences of this population sub-group. The purpose of this paper is thus to further explore the life situations and lived experiences of people in South Africa who are NEET. Structuration theory is adopted to better understand how social structures play a role in the lives of people who are NEET. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 24 NEET people over a period of two months in South Africa. This paper presents a section of the findings from a broader study that used self-administered interviews to collect data in three metropolitan municipalities of Gauteng Province, the economic heartland of South Africa. The findings indicate that poverty remains an obstacle for many young people in furthering their studies or developing their ideas into businesses. Also evident is that there are NEETs who are taking action to disconnect from the NEET sub-group by means of seeking work, funding, or volunteering for initiatives, among other activities. Lack of financial support affects most NEETs perpetuating their vulnerability and their efforts to detach themselves from their NEET status. It is evident that most NEETs who took part in this study are still seeking opportunities to become economically active, regardless of their current financial situations. There remains a lack of adequate exploration and understanding of the experiences and life situations of people who are NEET. The relevance of this study is in its contribution towards extending the applicability of structuration theory to understanding the life situations of people who are NEET in South Africa. This study contributes to the literature by providing the experiences and life situations of people who are NEET in a country with already high levels of inequalities. It is hoped that this study may provide the basis for developing more specific policy solutions able to address the NEET issues in South Africa and in society more generally.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-07-22
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-10-2019-0231
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Applying theory in practice: views of graduating business students

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      Authors: Kelly Benati , Sophie Lindsay , Juan Fischer
      Abstract: Universities have traditionally focused on imparting theoretical knowledge, which graduates then transfer to the workplace. However, the unpredictable modern workplace makes this transfer less certain. Whilst the gap between theory and practice has often been considered from an employer and academic standpoint, less is known about the graduate perspective. The purpose of this study is to determine the ways in which theoretical knowledge and practical experience interact for graduating students. The views of 86 undergraduate business approaching graduation were gathered on how they applied theory to practice during their recent internship. Graduating students apply theory that they have learnt at university through the direct application of fundamental knowledge and through workplace experience, which built on and deepened the knowledge accumulated at university. The findings indicate that there is, indeed, a gap between theory and practice but that employability skills may assist in the transfer process. The research broadens the understanding of how theoretical knowledge is applied in practice and helps to determine if graduating students are prepared to meet the demands of an ever-changing workplace. The results give us insight into how theory and practice interact for graduating students and give support to universities further exploring experiential learning opportunities for students and continuing to the development of employability skills. The findings encourage a more nuanced debate regarding the role of universities and that both the provision of core theoretical concept and employability skills are necessary for graduates to effectively use their academic education in the modern workplace.
      Citation: Education + Training
      PubDate: 2021-07-06
      DOI: 10.1108/ET-07-2020-0197
      Issue No: Vol. 63 , No. 9 (2021)
       
  • Education + Training

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