Subjects -> OCCUPATIONS AND CAREERS (Total: 33 journals)
Showing 1 - 23 of 23 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Pastoral Counseling     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
British Journal of Guidance & Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Career Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Education + Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Entrepreneurship Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Field Actions Science Reports     Open Access  
Formation emploi     Open Access  
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Human Resource Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Work Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Career Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Capital     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities : A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Vocational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Neurocritical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Palliative & Supportive Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Performance Improvement Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Professions and Professionalism     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Recherches & éducations     Open Access  
Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Trabajo : Revista de la Asociación Estatal de Centros Universitarios de Relaciones Laborales y Ciencias del Trabajo     Open Access  
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Work and Occupations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Work, Employment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
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Vocations and Learning
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.662
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 9  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1874-7868 - ISSN (Online) 1874-785X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2657 journals]
  • On the Relation between Task-Variety, Social Informal Learning, and
    • Abstract: Fluctuating demands and fast changing job-requirements require organizations to invest in employees so that they are able to take up new tasks. In this respect, fostering employees’ employability is high on the agenda of many organizations. As a prerequisite for creating employability, many scholars have focused on the role of social informal learning. In this study, we extend this perspective and examine the relationships between task variety, social informal learning, and employability. We hypothesized that task variety is a catalyst for social informal learning, which in turn enhances employees’ employability. We contribute empirical evidence for this mechanism. However, while task variety leads to social informal learning and, subsequently, the competences needed for employability, task variety also may have negative direct effects on employability. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and practice.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9212-4
  • Do Practical and Academic Preparation Paths Lead to Differential
           Commercial Teacher “Quality”'
    • Abstract: The Swiss teacher education and training system offers a practically and academically oriented path for aspiring commercial vocational education and training (VET) teachers. Although teachers’ content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) are considered crucial for teaching quality and students’ achievement, little is known about Swiss VET teachers’ Economics CK and PCK. Using assessments of teachers’ economics CK and PCK as proxies of “quality” we found that teachers regardless of practical or academic preparation were similar in CK and PCK once in the teaching profession. This finding contradicts popular belief that academic preparation with its selectivity and education would produce higher quality teachers.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9208-0
  • Dual Apprenticeships in Spain – Catalonia: The Firms’
    • Abstract: This article analyzes the motives for firms providing apprenticeship training in Catalonia and the reasons why other firms do not provide such training. In light of the recent introduction of dual apprenticeships in the formal education system in Spain, a country with a traditionally school-based vocational education and training (VET) system, Catalonia constitutes a relevant case for analyzing firms’ training motives in newly established training systems. We analyzed the statements of about 800 Spanish companies in Catalonia who participated in the study. These included both companies that provide training and those that do not. The results show that companies perceive dual training more as an activity to ensure the supply of skilled workers in the future and less as a means to profit from the apprentices’ productivity. Large firms are especially able to better integrate initial training in their continuous training process and to make use of positive synergies. The reasons for the absence of training have more to do with a lack of knowledge about the dual apprenticeship program than with a fear of losing investments in human capital. The results of this article provide relevant contributions to the discussion about the implementation of dual apprenticeship systems in countries with a different framework of conditions as opposed to those countries with established dual apprenticeship systems. Moreover, they provide relevant insights for the development of policies to foster firms’ provision of dual apprenticeships.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-09217-6
  • Individual and Organisational Factors Affecting Knowledge Workers’
           Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Informal Learning: a Multilevel
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individual and organisational factors on knowledge workers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of informal learning. Because most studies on informal learning have been conducted at the individual level, studies empirically examining the influence of individual and organisational factors simultaneously remain necessary. The research question guiding this study was: What are organizational and individual factors that influence knowledge workers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of informal learning' Tynjälä’s (2013) 3-P (Presage, Process, and Product) model of workplace learning was adopted to identify factors affecting informal learning and its outcomes. In performing our multilevel analysis, we used the Human Capital Corporate Panel (HCCP) dataset covering a sample of 4628 knowledge workers across 396 companies in South Korea. At the individual level, task uncertainty, motivation, organisational commitment, job satisfaction, and perceived promotion opportunities were positively related to the workers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of informal learning. At the organisational level, training and development (T&D) support and trust climate were significantly related to perceptions of the effectiveness of informal learning, while top management support and open communication were not.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-019-09218-z
  • How Candidate Teachers Experience Coherence in University Education and
           Teacher Induction: the Influence of Perceived Professional Preparation at
           University and Support during Teacher Induction
    • Abstract: There is a common understanding that becoming a teacher needs to be a continuous and coherent process of educational and professional development across all teacher education phases. This study focuses on the professional preparation of candidate teachers when entering the induction phase. It provides an opportunity to reconstruct their transition into the profession and asks how predictive perceived professional preparation at university and support at the induction phase are of candidate teachers’ experience of coherence. A sample of 537 candidate teachers in higher secondary schools in Germany participated in a questionnaire survey. By means of structural equation modeling, perceived professional preparation at university and support at the induction phase are found to systematically predict candidate teachers’ experience of coherence. Practical implications to improve coherence in teacher education are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9211-5
  • Professional Vision in Fashion Design: Practices and Views of Teachers and
    • Abstract: Professional vision is a key skill in visually-oriented professions, but its relevance to vocational education and training has only drawn limited attention from researchers. When educating fashion designers, professional vision is vital because precisely analysing clothing is required to create good products suitable for customers. In this study, we investigate what visual information must be observed in fashion design and how the professional vision of teachers and learners differs. Semi-structured interviews targeting the visual information that should be observed in fashion design were conducted with 10 teachers and 71 of their students (the latter in groups) and subjected to content analysis. Additionally, a test involving identifying and correcting clothing defects was administered to 9 of these teachers and 132 learners across three years of training to examine how looking at clothing differs between teachers and learners. Finally, two [4 by 1] ANOVAs with the level of training as the between-groups factors were conducted to examine the differences in the total number of defects identified and the number of accurate corrections suggested. Together, the quantitative and qualitative data show that professional vision in fashion design is a multifaceted skill that takes time to develop. Professional vision enables identifying the 1) different details and patterns needed to reproduce a garment; 2) defects in manufacturing, quality, and wearability; and 3) characteristics of the customer’s body. The findings also suggest that as fashion designers develop their skills, they cease looking at the surface features of clothing and adopt a more holistic and integrated approach that considers how a final garment could be realised for specific clients.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-09216-7
  • Team Learning Behaviours and Team Affective Reactions: an Empirical Study
           on Interdisciplinary Work Teams
    • Abstract: This study examined interdisciplinary vocational educator teams to identify differences in their team learning behaviours and examined whether their team affective reactions could explain these differences. We used a mixed-methods approach comprising a survey of 117 interdisciplinary work teams with 604 members and a qualitative analysis of our observations of the meetings of six of these teams. The team-level cluster analysis to identify differences in team learning behaviours revealed three clusters that differed significantly (p = .00) regarding nearly all team learning behaviours. We named these clusters according to their patterns in team learning behaviours: ‘very active all-round teams’, ‘active all-round teams’ and ‘active teams with high knowledge sharing’. These differences in team learning behaviours could be explained by significant differences in team affective reactions (p < .05). Each cluster was represented by two teams whose team meetings (five per team) were audio- and videotaped. The overall findings of this study indicate that team affective reactions are related to team learning behaviours. The results of the qualitative analysis of the observation data provide additional information that not only positive but also negative team affective reactions can stimulate the engagement in team learning behaviours.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9205-3
  • Old Wine in old Bottles: the Neglected Role of Vocational Training Centres
           in Innovation
    • Authors: Igone Porto Gómez; Jon Mikel Zabala-Iturriagagoitia; Urko Aguirre Larrakoetxea
      Pages: 205 - 221
      Abstract: Vocational training centres are conceptually regarded as key players in the knowledge generation and dissemination processes that take place within innovation systems. However, the literature does not provide conclusive evidence of their influence on the generation, development and dissemination of innovations. The goal of this paper is to analyse whether vocational training centres are indeed relevant agents in the articulation, knowledge exchange and dissemination of a local innovation system. The paper explores the most influential agents driving cooperation and articulating the local innovation system in Durango, one of the twenty counties of the Basque Country, Spain. Social network analysis is applied to regional collaboration networks in order to address this purpose. Our results show evidence of the pivotal role played by vocational training centres within local innovation processes implemented by firms. For many local firms vocational training centres represent the main sources of knowledge in their innovation processes. In the Basque context, vocational training centres have a longer history than other knowledge infrastructures, such as universities and research centres. These long-standing centres thus constitute ‘old bottles’ that despite their history are still able to produce a ‘good old wine’ in terms of innovation, which is translated into competitive advantage for the territory. Science, technology and innovation policies should therefore not only aim to create more knowledge infrastructures, but also to reinforce the role that traditional and territorially established organizations like vocational training centres can play as intermediary agents.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-017-9187-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2018)
  • Problem-Based Learning: the Emergence of New Scripts and Roles for
           Teachers to Render Epistemic Practices Transparent
    • Abstract: A lack of alignment between professional practice and education has triggered the move to alternative educational models, often with detailed scripts and templates to be followed. Among these are variants of problem/case-based models, where learners are challenged to achieve professionally desired learning outcomes and acquire knowledge and skills in their respective disciplines by encountering real-life situations as the stimulus and focus of their learning activities. A characteristic of these diverse models is that their scripts have been based on theories and understandings of what constitutes good learning and teaching in general. This article reports on a study conducted among law students that uses a script which focuses on the core ‘know-how’ of the legal profession. To examine the merits of this approach with respect to actionable knowledge, we employ perspectives from Knorr Cetina’s practice-theoretical lens. Particular attention is paid to how students are introduced to and learn the three archetypes of epistemic practices that Knorr Cetina identifies as central for members of expert cultures. The results from the study not only show that these practices were developed but also detail what is important in this respect. Thus, the article addresses calls in this journal for more research on how connections between school and work for professionals can be enhanced.
      PubDate: 2018-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-09215-8
  • Epistemic Practices in Professional-Client Partnership Work
    • Abstract: Relational aspects of professional practice demand increasing attention in research on work and learning. However, little is known about how knowledge is enacted in practices where different people work together. Working in partnership with clients surfaces a number of epistemic demands, responses to which are poorly understood. This paper analyses two cases of nurses working with parents in support services for families with young children. The questions asked are: What epistemic practices are enacted when professionals work in partnership with clients' How do they generate distinct modes of partnership work' Findings show how professionals’ and clients’ knowledge is mobilised and made actionable through practices of diagnostic reasoning, recontextualising, testing and contesting knowledge claims. A distinction is presented between partnership that unfolds as strengthening the client from a professional epistemic perspective, and that which validates and augments the client’s own epistemic contribution. This reveals how knowledge is made to matter and becomes a basis for action in the course of working with others, and informs a new analytical distillation highlighting key epistemic aspects of professional-client partnership.
      PubDate: 2018-11-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9214-2
  • Multiple Salient Goals Pursued by Jobseekers in Mandatory Continuing
           Professional Education
    • Abstract: Continuing professional education (CPE) is viewed as the main strategy to tackle unemployment and to improve the weak position of jobseekers with few qualifications on the labour market. However, the mandatory nature of these programmes raises questions regarding jobseekers’ motivation to enrol for and engage in training and – by extension – the effectiveness of the programmes. Moreover, until now, researchers have failed to address the different personal goals that unemployed people bring to CPE. Yet goals are viewed as a central determinant of motivation and behaviour. To overcome these limitations, the purpose of this present paper is to investigate the content of the multiple goals that jobseekers with few qualifications pursue in CPE programmes and to examine the dynamics of multiple goal pursuit. Based on the taxonomy developed by Carré (1998, 2001), jobseekers were asked to rank a list of goals in order of importance when enrolling for the training. Next, an explorative multidimensional unfolding method was used to identify several subgroups of jobseekers, depending on the combination of salient goals that they strive for simultaneously. Particular attention is paid in this study to the impact of the mandatory context on the goals pursued by jobseekers (i.e. the dictated goal). Self-report data was collected from a sample of 112 jobseekers from seventeen social-professional education training centres. Results indicated that few participants attribute importance to the dictated goal, and that they pursue multiple goals, oriented primarily towards learning and to a lesser extent towards participation. In addition, four subgroups of jobseekers were distinguished, based on their different combinations of goals. Only one subgroup explicitly reported external pressure as a factor that motivated them to enrol in training. The implications of applying an approach whereby multiple goal pursuit by jobseekers is considered, and the impact of this multiple goal pursuit on their motivation in mandatory CPE programmes are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9213-3
  • Correction to: Cabinetmakers’ Workplace Mathematics and Problem
    • Abstract: Unfortunately, the original version of this article was published online with error. The Figures and Pictures was mixed up.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9202-6
  • The Joint Influence of Intra- and Inter-Team Learning Processes on Team
           Performance: A Constructive or Destructive Combination'
    • Abstract: In order for teams to build a shared conception of their task, team learning is crucial. Benefits of intra-team learning have been demonstrated in numerous studies. However, teams do not operate in a vacuum, and interact with their environment to execute their tasks. Our knowledge of the added value of inter-team learning (team learning with external parties) is limited. Do both types of team learning compete over limited resources, or do they form a synergistic combination' We aim to shed light on the interplay between intra- and inter-team learning in relation to team performance, by including adaptive and transformative sub-processes of intra-team learning. A quantitative field study was conducted among 108 university teacher teams. The joint influence of intra- and inter-team learning as well as structural (task interdependence) and cultural (team efficacy) team characteristics on self-perceived and externally rated team performance were explored in a path model. The results showed that adaptive intra-team learning positively influenced self-perceived team performance, while transformative intra-team learning positively influenced externally rated team performance. Moreover, intra-team and inter-team learning were found to be both a constructive and a destructive combination. Adaptive intra-team learning combined with inter-team learning led to increased team performance, while transformative intra-team learning combined with inter-team learning hurt team performance. The findings demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between both the scope (intra- vs. inter-team) and the level (adaptive vs. transformative) of team learning in understanding team performance.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9197-z
  • Modelling Opportunity Recognition Competence as a Foundation for Teaching
           and Learning in Vocational Education
    • Abstract: Due to tremendous worldwide changes, the entrepreneurial imperative demands innovation. Therefore, companies as well as employees require innovative thinking and acting skills to cope with modern challenges. Opportunity Recognition represents the starting point for such entrepreneurial endeavours. Hence, this paper focuses on modelling Opportunity Recognition as well as the development of an Opportunity Recognition competence model as the foundation for teaching and learning in vocational education. Building on vocational situations that trigger innovations (opportunities) and the necessary competence facets that are needed to apply competent vocational behaviour in such situations (Opportunity Recognition), we conduct a systematic literature review and develop a comprehensive Opportunity Recognition competence model. We thereby link the found vocational situations (opportunities) with the found more abstract and latent competence facets of Opportunity Recognition and operationalise them by more observable indicators, which can be construed as evidence for the latent construct and related to successful performance in associated vocational situations. This modelling procedure of “evidence-based reasoning” allows inferences from the observed behaviour to the underlying, although not directly observable, Opportunity Recognition competence. The resulting Opportunity Recognition competence model may serve as a foundation for developing evidence-based curricular goals for vocational education through both instruction and assessment.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-017-9194-7
  • Cabinetmakers’ Workplace Mathematics and Problem Solving
    • Abstract: This study explored what kind of mathematics is needed in cabinetmakers’ everyday work and how problem solving is intertwined in it. The informants of the study were four Finnish cabinetmakers and the data consisted of workshop observations, interviews, photos, pictures and sketches made by the participants during the interviews. The data was analysed using different qualitative techniques. Even though the participants identified many areas of mathematics that could be used in their daily work, they used mathematics only if they were able to. The cabinetmakers’ different mathematical skills and knowledge were utilized to their skill limit. Cabinetmakers were found to constantly face problem solving situations along with the creative processes. Being able to use more advanced mathematics helped them to solve those problems more efficiently, without wasting time and materials. Based on the findings, the paper discusses the similarities and differences between problem solving and creative processes. It is suggested that the combination of craftsmanship, creativity, and efficient problem solving skills together with more than basic mathematical knowledge will help cabinetmakers in adapting and surviving in future unstable labour markets.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9200-8
  • Evaluating Training Outcomes in Corporate E-Learning and Classroom
    • Abstract: The study contributes to training evaluation research by systematically comparing training outcomes between corporate e-learning and classroom training. We investigated a sample of vocational trainees (N = 86) in a field experiment with a time-lag design and examined their subjective as well as objective training success. While training success was subjectively perceived to vary in effectiveness depending on the setting right after the training, with higher scores for trainees in classroom training, it was perceived similarly effective in both training settings after six to eight weeks. With regard to objective training success, we found that whereas declarative and procedural knowledge scores increased for e-learning trainees, they decreased for trainees in classroom training. However, strengths of e-learning become more prevalent six to eight weeks after the training. Thus in the end, e-learning is as effective as classroom training for procedural knowledge and more effective than classroom training for declarative knowledge as e-learning trainees catch up on previous differences across time. We conclude that it is not the training setting or delivery media per se that leads to higher levels of trainings success in the long run but in order to be effective, trainings should be designed taking especially the type of learning content (declarative or procedural knowledge) into account.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9201-7
  • Stress and Resources in Vocational Problem Solving
    • Abstract: By adapting the job demands-resources model of Demerouti et al. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512, (2001) to vocational problem-solving situations, we aimed to investigate how, and to what extent, problem-solving demands and personal resources affect stress responses and task interest. Therefore, we used a problem-solving task from the business administration domain in a computer-based office simulation. We assigned 58 participants into two groups. The treatment group worked on the problem scenario, whereas the control group was instructed to inspect the computer-based scenario and to check the software’s usability without solving the problem. Problem-solving demands, perceived stress, task interest, cardiovascular parameters, and cortisol concentration were assessed before, during and after the task at several time points. The vocational problem-solving task was associated with perceived time pressure, uncertainty, mental effort, task difficulty, and perceived stress. In addition, we found higher heart rate and cortisol concentration and lower heart rate variability values in the treatment group (compared to the control group) at the end of the task. Furthermore, we found that content knowledge buffers the impact of problem-solving demands on stress responses and it maintains task interest under high mental effort. Overall, we found evidence that vocational problem-solving activities bear stress-evoking potential and personal resources may provide buffering and maintaining functions.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-017-9193-8
  • On the Relation Between Teachers’ (In)formal Learning and Innovative
           Working Behavior: the Mediating Role of Employability
    • Abstract: Teachers’ innovative work behavior and professional development is receiving more attention lately. More precisely, it is argued that teachers’ formal and informal learning is crucial to anticipate and deal with continuous changes and innovations in technology and didactics, for example. Therefore, this study researches the teachers’ innovative work behavior by studying relations between (in)formal learning activities, employability (i.e. five competences: occupational expertise, anticipation and optimization, personal flexibility, corporate sense and balance) and innovative working behavior (IWB, i.e. ideas generation, promotion and realization). Furthermore, the mediating role of employability between learning and innovative working behavior is studied, too. Based on path analysis conducted on questionnaire data from 301 primary and secondary school teachers from the French-speaking community of Belgium, findings conclude that employability competences are related to both formal and informal learning, but the relationship between informal learning and employability is stronger. Next, making a distinction between the frequency and use of social informal learning is relevant given the differentiated role the different components play. Feedback use in particular seems to play an important role in teachers’ employability and IWB. Finally, it can be concluded that employability partially mediates the relation between the undertaking of (in)formal learning activities and dimensions of innovative working behavior. Results imply that schools should pay more attention to supporting teachers’ informal learning since it’s crucial for improving their ability to innovate and to be able to deal with changes in the dynamic world of education.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9199-x
  • Twist and Shape: Feedback Practices within Creative Subject Content of
           Hairdressing Education
    • Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore feedback practices and how such actions of assessment emerge from embodied participation in classroom interactions between teachers and students. Using video recordings of teacher and student interactions in hairdressing education, I look at how feedback practices within creative subject content are produced between the participants as social actions situated in interaction, using conversation analysis. Feedback is contingent upon an embodied moment-to-moment monitoring and collaboration between the teacher and student, and is organized as a trajectory from problem detection through exploration until a final solution is found. Feedback within creative subject content is displayed as a multifarious exploration of embodied as well as materially situated professional knowledge. Overall, the findings show how feedback is mutually produced in a process, making tacit dimensions of hairdressers’ knowing explicit. This allows for improving the quality of the work over time in a trajectory of problem solving phases gradually displaying how to assess creative subject content of the material product worked on.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-017-9196-5
  • Becoming a Nurse Aide: An Investigation of an Existing Workplace
           Curriculum in a Nursing Home
    • Authors: Michael Goller; Bianca Steffen; Christian Harteis
      Abstract: Although nurse aides take on a high share of care activities in nursing homes, almost nothing is known about how they develop the knowledge and skills to do so. This study attempts to close this research gap by answering the following research questions: (1) How do novice aides learn and develop and how is their learning trajectory structured' (2) What are the potential and problems of these informal training schemes' (3) How can the enacted training schemes be improved to assure effective and efficient learning and development of novice aides' In total, 19 nurses were interviewed to answer these questions. The analysis revealed that novice aides learn almost exclusively through observation and imitation as well as explanations of more experienced nurses. The typical learning trajectory of aides is structured such that they start to care for residents described as “simple” and progressively proceed to take care of more “difficult” ones. Such a trajectory allows nurses to construct hierarchically ordered knowledge in a meaningful way, minimises consequences of potential errors, and attempts to avoid discouragement that leads to early dropout and turnover. Strong learning potential has been found in more formalised discussion opportunities where collective experience with residents is discussed. Problems in acquiring the required knowledge and skills arise especially when instructing nurses believe that the prior experience of novices is sufficient for the work at hand, as well as when work practices require competences that are highly opaque. Suggestions of how to avoid pitfalls and how to foster existing learning potential are given.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12186-018-9209-z
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