Subjects -> OCCUPATIONS AND CAREERS (Total: 33 journals)
Showing 1 - 23 of 23 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Pastoral Counseling     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
British Journal of Guidance & Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Career Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Education + Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Entrepreneurship Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Field Actions Science Reports     Open Access  
Formation emploi     Open Access  
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Human Resource Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Work Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Career Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Capital     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities : A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Vocational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Neurocritical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Palliative & Supportive Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Performance Improvement Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Professions and Professionalism     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Recherches & éducations     Open Access  
Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Trabajo : Revista de la Asociación Estatal de Centros Universitarios de Relaciones Laborales y Ciencias del Trabajo     Open Access  
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Work and Occupations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Work, Employment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Work, Employment & Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.615
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 52  
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0950-0170 - ISSN (Online) 1469-8722
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1151 journals]
  • The ‘Gender Face’ of Job Insecurity in France: An Individual- and
           Organizational-Level Analysis
    • Authors: Clotilde Coron, Géraldine Schmidt
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Admittedly, women have a more precarious situation on the job market than men, which would suggest that they feel more insecure. However, literature on subjective job insecurity (JI) is contradictory about the effect of gender on JI. This could be explained by both individual characteristics and labour market gendered segregation – the companies in which women and men work do not have the same characteristics, particularly in terms of strategy and workforce management. Previous literature on JI rarely addresses this phenomenon. We propose to better understand the ‘gender face’ of subjective JI combining individual and organizational characteristics. We utilize data from the 2017 REPONSE survey and generalized linear models, notably multi-level models. Our findings reveal that, although women hold more precarious jobs, they work in more protective organizations. Consequently, while women report an average lower level of JI, this difference disappears when controlling for individual and organizational variables.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-05-14T06:29:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021995673
  • Upgrading China through Automation: Manufacturers, Workers and the
           Techno-Developmental State
    • Authors: Ya-Wen Lei
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyses how local states, electronics manufacturers and low-skilled workers perceive and make decisions about automation under China’s techno-developmentalism. Since the early 2010s, local states have made automation – specifically, the substitution of robots for human workers – the linchpin of their techno-developmentalist strategy and set statistical targets to facilitate policy implementation. Although manufacturers realised the limitations of such substitution, most continue to overstate the power of robots in order to receive material and symbolic benefits from local states, which rely on manufacturers to achieve their statistical targets. Meanwhile, most low-skilled workers embrace the state’s vision and see automation as beneficial for national progress, although these workers are the most excluded by state policy. Essentially, China’s techno-developmentalism has led to symbiotic state-capital relations that marginalise low-skilled workers, while reproducing a national sociotechnical imaginary that prioritises abstract notions of technological progress over the actual efficacy of automation, labour protection and social equality.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-05-13T02:04:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021999198
  • Superfluous Jobs in Extractive Industries: The Usefulness/Uselessness of
           Job Creation after Dispossession
    • Authors: Sara Geenen, Mollie Gleiberman
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Job creation has become central to the global development agenda. Extractive industries in particular highlight employment opportunities for the host communities in which they operate through direct, indirect and induced jobs. Exploring literature on surplus populations/dispossession and distributive politics/Corporate Social Responsibility and using evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo, we scrutinize the idea of job creation in the extractive industries as a development strategy. We argue that (1) superfluous jobs are being created to keep people alive yet silent in the wake of dispossession; and that (2) while they may help certain people to ‘stay alive’, these jobs also produce new inequalities and further marginalization.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T09:09:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09500170211008721
  • Killing Them ‘Softly’ (!): Exploring Work Experiences in
           Care-Based Animal Dirty Work
    • Authors: Linda Tallberg, Peter J Jordan
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Working with animals is a daily occurrence for millions of people who often complete tasks which are tainted, in spite of the work being seen as essential in modern society. Animal shelter-work is such an occupation. This article contributes to a deeper understanding of the caring–killing paradox (a dissonance that workers face when killing animals they are also caring for), through an insider ethnographic study. We find that care-based animal dirty work consists of unique ambiguities and tensions related to powerlessness, deception and secrecy in the work based on a ‘processing-plant’ framework which informs how workers deal with unwanted animals. We find competing ideologies of care and control to be foundational in this work.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T09:08:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09500170211008715
  • ‘Working While Feeling Awful Is Normal’: One Roma’s
           Experience of Presenteeism
    • Authors: Helen Collins, Susan Barry, Piotr Dzuga
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents an account of a young Roma man’s lived experience of working in the agricultural sector while sick, and shines a spotlight on the impact of precarious work, low pay and eligibility, and access to sick pay, with particular emphasis on Roma, and how these factors interconnect to foster presenteeism. The repercussions of presenteeism, relayed through Piotr’s personal narrative and reflections about his work, family role, ambition and daily survival, enrich public sociology about this under explored area of migrant Roma’s working life.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T04:30:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021998950
  • Reproductive Work in the Global South: Lived Experiences and Social
           Relations of Commercial Surrogacy in India
    • Authors: Madhusree Jana, Anita Hammer
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates reproductive work in the Global South which thrives on the commodification of women’s reproductive bodies under local-global reproductive hierarchies, appropriating the process of reproduction for production. Through a qualitative study of commercial surrogacy in north India, it examines the lived experiences of surrogates within the capitalist social relations they are embedded in. Conceptualising surrogacy as reproductive labour which contributes to value generation, the article assesses labour relations at the workplace, for example hostels where surrogates ‘live and work’, and the mechanisms of recruitment, contracting and control which function through dense networks of social and material relations between various stakeholders. The weak bargaining power of surrogates and the immense power of fertility clinics and agents are compounded by the lack of effective regulation and the state’s prohibitionist policy. The article argues for protecting the rights of surrogates as workers rather than the recent ban on surrogacy imposed in India.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-30T08:41:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021997370
  • Women’s Vulnerability to the Economic Crisis through the Lens of
           Part-time Work in Spain
    • Authors: Valeria Insarauto
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article studies women’s vulnerability to the economic crisis of 2008 through the lens of part-time work in Spain. It posits that part-time work made the female employment position more fragile by acting as a transmission mechanism of traditional gender norms that establish women as secondary workers. This argument is tested through an analysis of Labour Force Survey data from 2007 to 2014 that examines the influence of the employment situation of the household on women’s part-time employment patterns. The results expose the limited take-up of part-time work but also persistent patterns of involuntariness and underemployment corresponding to negative household employment situations, highlighting the constraining role of gender norms borne by the relative position of part-time work in the configuration of employment structures. The article concludes that, during the crisis, part-time work participated in the re-establishment of women as a family dependent and flexible labour supply, increasing their vulnerability.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T09:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09500170211001271
  • Staying Down with the Joneses: Differences in the Psychological Cost of
           Unemployment across Neighbourhoods
    • Authors: Peter Howley, Sarah Knight
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article demonstrates how the unemployment of neighbours can ameliorate the psychological costs of unemployment. In support of this premise, we find that while unemployment is always harmful, the gap in psychological well-being between employed and unemployed individuals is much less in relatively high unemployment neighbourhoods (particularly so for males and relatively older cohorts). Our proposed explanation is that people employ close points of social comparison with the result that any feelings of shame or embarrassment associated with unemployment are mitigated when surrounded by unemployed neighbours. One potentially important labour market implication of these findings is that it may be more difficult than anticipated to transition some people out of unemployment in high unemployment neighbourhoods. Apart from highlighting the place-specific nature of the relationship between unemployment and psychological well-being, our findings also highlight the importance of non-pecuniary factors, such as the social norm to work, in explaining the substantive negative psychological impact of unemployment.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T09:05:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09500170211003483
  • Who Did You Meet at the Venice Biennale' Education-to-Work Transition
           Enhancers for Aspiring Arts Professionals in Australia
    • Authors: Caitlin Vincent, Hilary Glow, Katya Johanson, Bronwyn Coate
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Precarious employment and unpaid labour are common features of the cultural and creative industries. While existing literature highlights the benefit of professional development in building careers, it focuses on self-driven rather than formalised activities. Social capital and social disadvantage are recognised as major factors limiting career success. Yet, it is unclear whether formalised professional development programs offer advantages to overcoming such barriers. This article examines a professional development scheme led by a government-funded cultural agency that provides cultural workers with opportunities to develop education-to-work ‘transition enhancers’. Using data from 45 participants in the Australia Council for the Arts’ Venice Biennale Professional Development Program, we find that the program enables access to three transition enhancers (professional experience, social connections and international experience). However, the program’s lack of structure ensures the benefits of participation are most effective for those who bring a proactive approach to engaging in events and building social relations.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T09:04:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09500170211004239
  • Women’s Attrition from Male-Dominated Workplaces in Norway: The
           Importance of Numerical Minority Status, Motherhood and Class
    • Authors: Aleksander Å Madsen, Idunn Brekke, Silje Bringsrud Fekjær
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores women’s attrition from male-dominated workplaces based on Norwegian public administrative records, covering individuals born 1945–1983, in the period between 2003 and 2013. It examines sex differences in rates of attrition and tests the significance of two commonly proposed explanations in the literature, namely the degree of numerical minority status and motherhood. It also investigates whether these explanations vary by occupational class. Selection into male-dominated workplaces is accounted for by using individual fixed effects models. The results show that attrition rates from male-dominated workplaces are considerably higher among women than among men. Moreover, the risk of female attrition to sex-balanced workplaces increases, regardless of occupational class, with increases in the percentage of males. Childbirth is associated with an increased risk of attrition to female-dominated workplaces, while having young children (⩽ 10 years old) lowered the risk. This association, however, was primarily evident among working-class women in manual occupations.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T09:04:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09500170211004247
  • The Making of Cheap Labour across Production and Reproduction: Control and
           Resistance in the Senegalese Horticultural Value Chain
    • Authors: Elena Baglioni
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the making of cheap workers at the bottom of global value chains. Adopting a class relational approach, it engages in labour regime and social reproduction analyses, to examine the labour process in Senegalese export horticulture and its relations with rural households. Drawing from primary qualitative data, it analyses power relations within workplaces and households investigating the structural relations between them through the disciplining and exploitation of women. It argues that labour control beyond workplaces is crucial to the supply of cheap and disciplined workers, showing how patriarchy and religion regulate a continuum of class relations between households, fields, and packaging centres. It shows the inherent conflict between production and reproduction intensifies South of the supply chain and fuels fragmentation of women in ‘classes of labour’. While women shape, respond and defy some forms of subordination, their resistance to the combined pressures of disciplining and exploitation is less manifest.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-29T09:03:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021999569
  • Doing Double Time: Women, Incarceration and Employment Discrimination
    • Authors: Diane van den Broek, Prudence Black, Nicki
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      People who have served prison time experience a higher unemployment rate than other social groups. Australian law stipulates individuals must not face employment discrimination on the basis of criminal record if unrelated to the job’s inherent requirements, but discrimination remains significant. Female ex-offenders are particularly vulnerable to stigma and discrimination. Nicki’s (pseudonym) account airs injustices facing women seeking rehabilitation post-incarceration. Her experiences highlight structural barriers female ex-offenders face when seeking employment and marginalisation hindering social acceptance.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-27T02:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021995662
  • Work Identity Pause and Reactivation: A Study of Cross-Domain Identity
           Transitions of Trailing Wives in Dubai
    • Authors: Tatiana S Rowson, Adriana Meyer, Elizabeth Houldsworth
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study takes a cross-domain identity transition perspective to explore the development of work-related identities by trailing wives in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Biographical-narrative interviews with 28 expatriate wives were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. The findings indicated that these women approached their cross-domain identity transition sequentially through a process of work identity pause and reactivation. Gendered family demands and contextual constraints led them to temporarily pause their work identity while adjusting to non-work domain changes. The reactivation of the work identity domain prompted them to redevelop a work identity aligned to their new reality. Four manifestations of identity redevelopment status emerged: hobbyists, adaptors, explorers and re-inventors. For some women, their emerging work identity was just a way to escape the ‘expat wife’ stigma, for others it was an opportunity to develop a new career. This article introduces the concepts of identity pause and reactivation.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021993736
  • Professionalism, Payment by Results and the Probation Service: A
    • Authors: Matt Tidmarsh
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article utilises Foucauldian understandings of the sociology of the professions to explore how marketising reforms to probation services in England and Wales, and the implementation of a ‘Payment by Results’ (PbR) mechanism in particular, have impacted professional autonomy. Drawing on an ethnographic study of a probation office within a privately owned Community Rehabilitation Company, it argues that an inability to control the socio-economic organisation of probation work has rendered the service susceptible to challenges to autonomy over technique. PbR was proffered as a means to restore practitioner discretion; however, the article demonstrates that probation staff have been compelled to economise their autonomy, adapting their conduct to conform to market-related forms of accountability. In this sense, it presents the Transforming Rehabilitation reforms to probation as a case study of the impact of marketisation on the autonomy of practitioners working within a public sector profession.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T07:18:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09500170211003825
  • Divide and Conquer: Social Assistance Clients’ Competing Frames of
           Social Justice
    • Authors: Melissa Sebrechts, Thomas Kampen
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Like many other countries, the Netherlands have witnessed increasing conditionality regarding the right to social assistance. To date, research paid little attention to how recipients themselves experience (in)justice in an increasingly conditional policy landscape. Based on 53 interviews with recipients, we distinguish three different ways of framing social assistance: as a right, a transaction, or a gift. Each frame gives way to particular ideas about social justice, legitimates different feelings and leads to othering of fellow social assistance recipients. Bringing together insights from the sociology of emotions and social justice literature, the article empirically shows the diversity of ideas and feelings regarding social justice, illuminates the role of framing and feeling rules in the process, and argues that increased conditionality produces steep divisions that undermine in-group solidarity.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T01:11:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021994486
  • Public Service, Private Delivery: Service Workers and the Negotiation of
           Blurred Boundaries in a Neoliberal State
    • Authors: Asa Maron
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Neoliberal restructuring blurs the state/market boundary in introducing the position of ‘private state workers’: employees of for-profit providers who deliver publicly funded, state-prescribed services. Despite their prevalence, these workers have received scant scholarly attention. Addressing this gap, this article studies Employment Goal Planners (EGPs) employed at private for-profit providers of activation services in Israel. Drawing on extensive ethnographic observation and in-depth interviews, it argues that far from detached ‘mercenaries’, private state workers are committed actors who advance a distinct vision of public service delivery suited to the neoliberal state. These workers navigate their liminal position along an ever-shifting state/market divide by intertwining contemporary market tropes onto outdated schemas of state work. While the literature commonly views the market as an imposition on public service workers, this study finds that the market can also serve as a resource for inspiring alternative public service ethics and work models.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T07:04:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/09500170211001272
  • Negotiating Gendered Ageing: Intersectional Reflexivity and Experiences of
           Incongruity of Self-Employed Older Women
    • Authors: Elina Meliou, Oliver Mallett
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyses the experiences of self-employed older women. Developing an intersectional reflexivity approach, our analysis shows how older women negotiate their concerns in relation to gendered ageing and realize self-employment. Our study reveals three practices: ‘Expressing the self’, ‘Exploring learning’ and ‘Embracing solidarity’. We contribute to the neglected intersection of gender and age in studies of work, and to an appreciation of the transformational potential of self-employment for older women.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T07:01:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021994489
  • Disability and Academic Careers: Using the Social Relational Model to
           Reveal the Role of Human Resource Management Practices in Creating
    • Authors: Katherine Sang, Thomas Calvard, Jennifer Remnant
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Disabled people continue to face a variety of significant barriers to full participation and inclusion in work and employment. However, their experiences remain only sparsely discussed in relation to human resource management (HRM) practices and employment contexts. The current study contributes to this gap in understanding by drawing together relevant work connecting HRM practices, diversity management and disability studies to examine the experiences of a sample of 75 disabled academics in the UK. Through the social relational model of disability, HRM practices socially construct disability in the workplace. Interview and email data from disabled academics in the UK are drawn upon to illustrate how organisational practices and policies, while intended to ‘accommodate’ disabled people, inadvertently construct and shape disability for people with impairments or chronic health conditions.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T04:48:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021993737
  • Lordly Management and its Discontents: ‘Human Resource
           Management’ in Pakistan
    • Authors: Syed Imran Saqib, Matthew MC Allen, Geoffrey Wood
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      New institutionalism increasingly informs work on comparative human resource management (HRM), downplaying power and how competing logics play out, and potentially providing an incomplete explanation of how and why ‘HRM’ and associated practices vary in different national contexts. We examine HRM in Pakistan’s banking industry and assess how managers’ espoused views of HRM practices reflect prevailing ones in dominant HRM models, and how they differ from early-career professionals’ perceptions of these practices. The cultural script of ‘seth’ (a neo-feudalist construction of authority) influences managers’ implementation of HRM policies and competes with the espoused HRM logic. We argue that managers will pursue a ‘seth’ logic when managing employees, as it reproduces existing power differentials within companies. By doing so, they render HRM unrecognizable from dominant models. Indeed, by using the term ‘HRM’, much of the existing, new institutionalism-influenced literature rationalizes a particular view of organizations and management that is inappropriate and analytically misleading in emerging economies.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-10T12:56:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021997369
  • Organisational Social Mobility Programmes as Mechanisms of Power and
    • Authors: Louise Ashley
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Successive UK governments have blamed poor rates of relative social mobility on the tendency of elite occupations to exclude according to social class. Organisational programmes implemented in response aim to identify talented young people from less privileged socio-economic backgrounds, help them identify as ‘legitimate’ professionals, and equip them with relevant knowledge and skills. Based on interviews with 35 participants in one programme and drawing on Foucauldian perspectives on governmentality and disciplinary power, the current study explores how these programmes may reproduce inequalities rather than challenge the status quo. It shows how a dominant discourse of merit invites participants to adopt a subject position that conforms with an idealised professional identity and how they shape their conduct in response. The core contribution is to suggest that social mobility initiatives framed by organisations as mechanisms to empower disadvantaged young people, might be read as expressions of neo-liberal governmentality, unequal power and corporate control.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T08:55:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021990550
  • Economic Inactivity, Not in Employment, Education or Training (NEET) and
           Scarring: The Importance of NEET as a Marker of Long-Term Disadvantage
    • Authors: Kevin Ralston, Dawn Everington, Zhiqiang Feng, Chris Dibben
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      The category of not in employment, education or training (NEET) refers to young people who are recorded as neither in paid employment nor formal education either at one time point, or for a continuous period. This article assesses levels of employment scarring for those aged 36–39, at Census 2011 (prime employment years) who were recorded as NEET when aged 16–19 at Census 1991 in Scotland. Outcomes are compared for those who moved from NEET into economic activity and by gender. We find evidence that NEET status leads to long-term scarring associated with economic inactivity and unemployment and that this is only partially offset for those who moved from NEET in 1991 to be economically active in 2001. The results also highlight gendering of NEET outcomes. NEET may be a category borne of administrative convenience, rather than sociological consistency but, as intended, it captures a group who experience disadvantage.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T10:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020973882
  • Working Conditions in Global Value Chains: Evidence for European Employees
    • Authors: Dagmara Nikulin, Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, Aleksandra Parteka
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates a sample of almost nine million workers from 24 European countries in 2014 to conclude how involvement in global value chains (GVCs) affects working conditions. We use employer–employee data from the Structure of Earnings Survey merged with industry-level statistics on GVCs based on the World Input-Output Database. Given the multidimensional nature of the dependent variable, we compare estimates of the Mincerian wage model with zero-inflated beta regressions focused on other aspects of working conditions (overtime work and bonus payments). Wages prove to be negatively related to involvement in GVCs: workers in the more deeply involved sectors have lower and less stable earnings, implying worse working conditions. However, they are also less likely to have to work overtime. We prove that the analysis of social implications of increasing involvement of countries in global production must compare wage effects of GVCs with other aspects of complex changes in workers’ well-being.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-03-19T10:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020986107
  • Motherhood 2.0: Slow Progress for Career Women and Motherhood within the
           ‘Finnish Dream’
    • Authors: Charlotta Niemistö, Jeff Hearn, Carolyn Kehn, Annamari Tuori
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the gendered dynamics of motherhood and careers, as voiced by professionals in the knowledge-intensive business sector in Finland. It is informed by the CIAR method through 81 iterative, in-depth interviews with 23 women and 19 men. Among the women respondents with no children, one child, or two children, three dominant forms of discursive talk emerge: ‘It takes two to tango’, ‘It’s all about time management’ and ‘Good motherhood 2.0’. Though Finland provides a seemingly egalitarian Nordic welfare state context, with the ‘Finnish Dream’, women face contradictions between expectations of women as full-time ideal workers pursuing masculinist careers and continuing responsibilities at home, performing ‘good motherhood’. The women’s double strivings meet the double constraining demands of these ideals. The gendered pressures are imposed on the women by themselves, male colleagues, the organisation more broadly and society, leading the women to enact a form of ‘bounded individualism’.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T10:51:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020987392
  • When Values and Ethics of Care Conflict: A Lived Experience in the Roman
           Catholic Church
    • Authors: Krystin Zigan, YingFei G Héliot, Alan Le Grys
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates contemporary understandings of the ethics of care. While the ethics of care is predominantly known as showing empathy and support to others, analysing the complex relationship between institutional and personal values of clerical leaders and the congregation in the Roman Catholic Church in England reveals very different understandings. The sociological and psychological concepts of authority, pastoral care and identity are used to analyse the role of a female youth work leader in a Roman Catholic parish who is exposed to different (conservative and liberal) leadership approaches. She explains how her views on care, gender and participation differ from those of three clerical leaders and powerfully illustrates the resulting conflicts between the priests but also towards the congregation. This story shows that individual agency influences strong conservative institutional values and that leadership in faith-based organisations needs to embrace the complex interplay between institutional and personal dynamics.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T10:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017021990552
  • Women Managers’ Impact on Use of Family-friendly Measures among Their
           Subordinates in Japanese Firms
    • Authors: Makiko Fuwa
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Using data from the Survey on Support for Work–Life Balance conducted in Japan, this study investigates the role of female managers in enhancing their male and female subordinates’ access to family-friendly measures in the workplace. Research on organisational gender inequality has proposed two contrasting perspectives regarding the impact of female managers on gender inequality, describing female managers as either ‘change agents’ or ‘cogs in the machine’. However, previous research has rarely investigated whether female managers address men’s limited access to family-friendly measures, which is often the hidden side of the coin of gender imbalance in male-dominated organisations. Results indicate that female managers were more likely to have subordinates who take parental leave and to exhibit stronger support for male subordinates’ family-related requests than male managers, although, like male managers, they reported feeling that managing their sections during these absences is a challenge. The implications of the findings are discussed.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-02-20T10:10:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020987409
  • Conflictual Complementarity: New Labour Actors in Corporatist Industrial
    • Authors: Assaf S Bondy
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Liberalisation of industrial relations entails the weakening of unions and a respective rise of alternative, ‘new labour actors’, altering traditional class representation by introducing new strategies. Research on this phenomenon has focused on decentralised contexts, where new actors are seen to pursue both independent strategies as well as cooperation with unions to contest rising employers’ discretion. Drawing on multiple qualitative methodologies, this article analyses the roles and contributions of new actors in the context of corporatist industrial relations, to find rising conflicts between them and unions. Combining social movement theories of strategic change with industrial relations theories of power and theories of institutional complementarity, reveals conflictual forms of complementarity between new actors and corporatist unions. Through interacting with new labour actors, corporatist union strategies are seen to change in a ‘spin-off’ form, reforming unions’ traditional power and dominance to (partially) counter previous liberalisation of industrial relations.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T04:41:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020981557
  • Job Satisfaction and Sexual Orientation in Britain
    • Authors: Sait Bayrakdar, Andrew King
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Studies looking at patterns of labour market outcomes among lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals focus mostly on earnings, while non-pecuniary outcomes of LGB individuals have remained a relatively under-researched area. Using the latest wave of the Workplace Employment Relations Study (WERS), this article investigates the job satisfaction levels of LGB individuals compared to their heterosexual peers for the first time in Britain. The results show significantly lower job satisfaction levels only for bisexual men, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Moreover, the findings do not show a direct impact of LGB(T)-related workplace policies on job satisfaction levels.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T04:39:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020980997
  • Relationship-Based Care Work, Austerity and Aged Care
    • Authors: Donna Baines, Annabel Dulhunty, Sara Charlesworth
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Home care and aged care in English-speaking countries around the globe have enthusiastically taken up a model of work known as ‘relationship-based care’ (RBC). Part of the popularity of RBC is because it does not challenge austerity, underfunding, and extensive managerialism. Instead it works within and through them to foster caring connections between patients, staff, and families, and is able to do so because workers are willing to self-sacrifice for clients. Drawing on case study data collected using a ‘rapid ethnography’ methodology in two large Australian aged care organisations, this article explores workers’ experience of work and contributes to Bolton’s typology of emotion management in the relationship-based care endeavour. Our typology includes: (1) austerity-linked sacrifice; (2) official discourse; (3) faux control; and (4) compulsory time philanthropy. The article contributes to debates on care work, relationship-based care, emotional labour, and emotion management and working in the context of austerity and managerialism.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T05:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020980985
  • When Following the Rules Is Bad for Wellbeing: The Effects of Gendered
           Rules in the Australian Construction Industry
    • Authors: Natalie Galea, Abigail Powell, Fanny Salignac, Louise Chappell, Martin Loosemore
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      The construction industry is known to be highly masculinised and to have work practices detrimental to employees’ wellbeing. Drawing on feminist institutional theory and a rapid ethnographic approach in two construction multinationals in Australia, we examine the relationship between the gendered nature of construction and workplace wellbeing for professional women and men employed in the industry. The findings reveal that adhering to the gendered ‘rules in use’ in the construction industry is negatively associated with wellbeing and is usually endured in silence. We also identify the ways in which the gendered rules have different effects on the wellbeing of men and women. We conclude that the construction industry is characterised by a set of ‘greedy’ gendered institutions that are inextricably linked to workplace wellbeing for both men and women and that these rules must be broken to improve worker wellbeing.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T11:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020978914
  • Moral Dilemma of Striking: A Medical Worker’s Response to Job Duty,
           Public Health Protection and the Politicization of Strikes
    • Authors: Yao-Tai Li, Jenna Ng
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      The emergence of COVID-19 has led many countries to take strong border control measures. In Hong Kong, in reaction to government reluctance to close the border, more than 9000 medical workers went on strike. The strike lasted for five days only, yet it provoked a moral dilemma for healthcare occupations – when workers strike, citizens’ medical needs may be sacrificed. This article presents Jenna, a medical worker who went on strike, and her evaluation of the moral dilemma. Her account shows the ways in which different narratives shape power and politics and lend legitimacy to striking. Her example reveals the contested framing of professionalism – the struggle between job duties, workplace safety and a commitment to the public interest (public health). This contribution highlights how the moral dilemma of medical strikes can be resolved, and how the politicization of strikes can be legitimized by medical workers.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-26T07:28:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020981554
  • Families under Pressure: The Costs of Vocational Calling, and What Can Be
           Done about Them
    • Authors: Stephanos Anastasiadis, Anica Zeyen
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This conceptual article extends the literature on the disadvantages of calling. The article makes four main contributions. First, it argues that some of the burden of calling is shouldered not by called individuals or their employers, but rather by close family members. Second, it argues that calling influences work–life ideology, limiting a called person’s ability to exercise choice and self-manage their work–life boundary. Third, it introduces the novel notion of the sacrifice-reliant organisation, which relies on calling to achieve organisational goals. Fourth, the article argues normatively that organisations with called members have an enhanced duty of care towards families of its members that is commensurate with the extent to which they rely on calling to achieve their goals. Using ethics of care, it also develops guidelines on the extent and components of such an enhanced duty of care.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-25T08:59:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020980986
  • Emotional Labour and the Autonomy of Dependent Self-Employed Workers: The
           Limitations of Digital Managerial Control in the Home Credit Sector
    • Authors: Esme Terry, Abigail Marks, Arek Dakessian, Dimitris Christopoulos
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Changes to the labour process in the home credit sector have exposed the industry’s agency workforce to increased levels of digital managerial control through the introduction of lending applications and algorithmic decision-making techniques. This article highlights the heterogeneous nature of the impact of digitalisation on the labour process and worker autonomy – specifically, in terms of workers’ engagement in unquantified emotional labour. By considering the limitations of digital control in relation to qualitative elements of the labour process, it becomes evident that emotional labour has the scope to be a source of autonomy for dependent self-employed workers when set against a backdrop of heightened digital control. This article therefore contributes to ongoing labour process debates surrounding digitalisation, quantified workers and digital managerial control.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-18T07:08:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020979504
  • Doing and Negotiating Transgender on the Front Line: Customer Abuse,
           Transphobia and Stigma in the Food Retail Sector
    • Authors: Anastasios Hadjisolomou
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite growing research on LGBT+ populations, few studies have examined transgender individuals’ specific workplace experiences, whose voice is often subsumed in a wider category. This article presents the story of Kathrine, a female transgender food retail worker, and discusses the abusive, discriminatory and transphobic behaviour of customers, which has received limited attention in the sociology of service work literature. The article reveals the stigmatization of transgender employees by customers, which is expressed through micro-aggressions, such as mis-gendering, mocking and harassing, and is often neglected and/or tolerated by management. Kathrine discusses the coping strategies she utilizes to reduce the negative consequences of the stigma, and to negotiate and protect her gender identity. These include confronting and/or refusing to serve transphobic customers, reflecting her resilience towards discrimination and abuse. The article calls for further research to understand transgender service employees’ experiences and the complexity and diversity of coping strategies used by stigmatized workers.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-12T03:11:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020977331
  • Residential Care Aides’ Experiences of Workplace Incivility in
           Long-Term Care
    • Authors: Heather A Cooke, Jennifer Baumbusch
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Exposure to peer incivility and bullying potentially disrupts the respectful, collaborative workplace relationships essential to quality care provision in long-term care homes. This study critically examined the nature of peer incivility and bullying in residential care aides’ workplace relationships. Using critical ethnography, 100 hours of participant observation and 33 semi-structured interviews were conducted with residential care aides, licensed practical nurses, support staff and management in two, non-profit care homes in British Columbia, Canada. While residential care aides’ experiences of bullying were rare, peer incivility was pervasive, occurring on an almost daily basis. Two key themes, ‘gendered work environment’ and ‘seeking informal power and control’, reflect how residential care aides experienced and explained their uncivil encounters. Findings highlight the gendered, relationally aggressive nature of workplace mistreatment within this predominantly female workforce.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T07:36:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020977314
  • Data Scientists’ Identity Work: Omnivorous Symbolic Boundaries in
           Skills Acquisition
    • Authors: Netta Avnoon
      First page: 332
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing on theories from the sociology of work and the sociology of culture, this article argues that members of nascent technical occupations construct their professional identity and claim status through an omnivorous approach to skills acquisition. Based on a discursive analysis of 56 semi-structured in-depth interviews with data scientists, data science professors and managers in Israel, it was found that data scientists mobilise the following five resources to construct their identity: (1) ability to bridge the gap between scientist’s and engineer’s identities; (2) multiplicity of theories; (3) intensive self-learning; (4) bridging technical and social skills; and (5) acquiring domain knowledge easily. These resources diverge from former generalist-specialist identity tensions described in the literature as they attribute a higher status to the generalist-omnivore and a lower one to the specialist-snob.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T07:35:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020977306
  • Masters of None' How Cultural Workers Use Reframing to Achieve
           Legitimacy in Portfolio Careers
    • Authors: Allyson Stokes
      First page: 350
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines how cultural workers interpret and respond to reputational challenges they encounter when leading portfolio careers. Specifically, the portfolio career model involves the cultivation and signalling of adaptability through broad competencies and diverse portfolios comprised of boundary-spanning work. These practices conflict with standards of artistic legitimacy and highlight specialist-generalist tensions, since they can make workers appear to be ‘jacks of all trades, masters of none’ – unskilled, opportunistic dabblers, lacking expertise and artistic integrity. The article draws on 56 interviews with cultural producers working as filmmakers, fashion designers and musicians. Findings show how workers engage in ‘reframing’ to reinterpret the symbolic meanings attached to their behaviours and, in the process, carve out new positions and standards for legitimacy within their fields. Reframing is structured by field and labour market conditions, but also represents the possibility of change as a form of culture in action.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-01-12T07:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020977324
  • Resisting Patriarchal Cultures: The Case of Female Spanish Home-Based
    • Authors: Ana Gálvez, Francisco Tirado, Jose M Alcaraz
      First page: 369
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the role of resistance as a micro-political practice carried out by female Spanish teleworkers. Drawing on a qualitative study focused on female workers in different cities in Spain, we conceive telework as a labour logic in which resistance is the cornerstone of meaning and subjectivity creation. Micro-practices of resistance are analysed following de Certeau’s notion of tactics and strategies, honing in on the limitations, restrictions, problems and difficulties faced by female teleworkers as they try to balance the different dimensions of their lives, namely family, work and everyday activities. The accounts given by the participants in our study reveal key tactics which ultimately serve to denounce prevailing work ideologies that uphold the patriarchy and promote false flexibility. These tactics allow teleworkers to define a subjectivity in which motherhood and telework are both absolutely relevant.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T06:04:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020987390
  • Deservingness, Conditionality and Public Perceptions of Work Disability:
           The Influence of Economic Inequality
    • Authors: Rossella Ciccia, Declan French, Frank Kee, Mark O’Doherty
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article contributes to classical debates about the role of self-interest and social norms in shaping the moral economy of work and welfare by incorporating economic inequalities in the analysis of opinions about welfare deservingness. The relationship between inequality and perceptions of work conditionality has received little attention in previous studies. This article addresses this issue by investigating the association between economic inequalities and perceived work limitations of disabled people experiencing various conditions related to health using vignettes from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The results show that people living in areas with higher levels of wealth inequality, but not income inequality, were more likely to rate the vignettes as limited in the amount of work that individuals can do due to health problems. This finding casts doubts on the crucial role attributed to self-interest as the central mechanism linking economic inequality and solidaristic, pro-welfare attitudes.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-25T10:00:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020967229
  • McStrike! Framing, (Political) Opportunity and the Development of a
           Collective Identity: McDonald’s and the UK Fast-Food Rights Campaign
    • Authors: Tony Royle, Yvonne Rueckert
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the development of the UK ‘Fast-Food Rights Campaign’ and the formation of a collective identity amongst McDonald’s UK workers. It illustrates how, despite an acquiescent and fragmented workforce, workers diagnostically frame (recognize, articulate and attribute) perceived injustices relating to their pay and working conditions. However, the main focus is on prognostic framing which brings people ‘together’ to find a ‘consensus’ for a solution to perceived injustices. Prognostic framing also requires the ability to process and interpret information in a holistic way and to reach out for support to external stakeholders such as trade unions. The article applies Bourdieu’s theory of capital and the concept of political opportunity to help us ‘unpick’ prognostic framing. In this context, it examines the cultural and social capital of worker leaders, in particular their personal characteristics, and their perceptions about the level of support in the external environment.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T09:19:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020959264
  • The Menopause Taboo at Work: Examining Women’s Embodied Experiences of
           Menopause in the UK Police Service
    • Authors: Carol Atkinson, Fiona Carmichael, Jo Duberley
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article contributes to the growing body of knowledge about gendered ageing at work through an examination of the embodied experiences of women undergoing menopause transition in the UK police service. Drawing on 1197 survey responses, providing both quantitative and qualitative data gathered across three police forces in 2017–18, the findings highlight the importance of a material-discursive approach that considers contextual influences on women’s bodily experiences. The article evidences gendered ageism and the penalty suffered by women whose ageing bodies fail to comply with an ideal worker norm. It makes an important contribution both to theorising embodiment, drawing in age as well as gender discourses, and to promoting a material-discursive approach that recognises the materiality of the body while also offering the potential for agency, reflection and resistance.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T05:24:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020971573
  • Desperate Housewives and Happy Working Mothers: Are Parent-Couples with
           Equal Income More Satisfied throughout Parenthood' A Dyadic
           Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Laura Langner
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Are parent-couples with equal income more satisfied as their children grow up, than those who prioritize the father’s career (specialize)' For the first time, 384 German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study couples were categorized into life-course coupled earnings types, by tracing how earnings were divided within couples between the ages of 1 to 15 of their youngest child. Multivariate, multilevel analysis showed that, unlike mothers pursuing an (eventually) equal earnings division, mothers in an (eventually) specialized arrangement experienced a strong decline in life satisfaction. Hence, particularly high-status mothers (having invested heavily into their career) were eventually up to two life satisfaction points less satisfied if they prioritized their partner’s earnings, than those who shared earnings equally with their partner. Paternal life satisfaction was not significantly different between patterns of earnings (in)equality. For most couples, earnings equality led to a win-win situation: mothers’ life satisfaction was higher than for specialized mothers without negatively affecting paternal satisfaction.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T05:24:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020971548
  • Means of Control in the Organization of Digitally Intermediated Care Work
    • Authors: Paula McDonald, Penny Williams, Robyn Mayes
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Digital platforms that facilitate care work are new entrants to the intermediary marketplace and they are growing in number in response to rising demand for care services. This study examines, through the lens of labour process theory, the means of control utilized by digital platforms operating in Australia which organize and direct disability and aged care. The analysis of terms and conditions and website content reveals four means of control that influence the enactment of the labour process: Shifting risks and responsibilities from the platform to workers and clients; Apportioning the costs of doing business to workers; Dictating contractual arrangements; and Monitoring quality standards of service work. The findings advance knowledge of how power relations embedded in platform business models and the organization of work direct a precarious, freelance workforce. More broadly, the study demonstrates the explanatory power of labour process theory for understanding emergent forms of work and labour.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T05:23:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020969107
  • ‘I Have a Newborn at Home’: Multi-actor Attributions and the
           Implementation of Shared Parental Leave
    • Authors: Sara Chaudhry, Ishbel McWha-Hermann, Sophie Flemig, Arleta Blackley-Wiertelak
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article studies the organizational implementation of public policy, specifically shared parental leave (SPL) legislation (2015), through the lens of attribution theory (that is, actors’ inferences for why policies are implemented by their employing organization), drawing on 26 in-depth interviews with a range of actors in a British university. Our findings highlight that attributions vary between different organizational actors despite SPL being an externally-mandated, unavoidable policy. Our key contributions are to study attributions associated with under-considered external policy, highlight the unintended intra-organizational variations in these attributions, and explore how the co-existence of varying actor attributions impacts policy implementation.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T05:22:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020962006
  • ‘We Don’t Have the Same Opportunities as Others’: Shining
           Bourdieu’s Lens on UK Roma Migrants’ Precarious (Workers) Habitus
    • Authors: Patricia Harrison, Helen Collins, Alexandra Bahor
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      According to a 2019 UK government report, Roma had the ‘worst employment outcomes’ of any ethnic group in the UK with similar evidence in Europe. Roma are in the growing flexible, mobile workforce that constitute precarious, insecure workers. Based on a qualitative in-depth study of these precarious workers, and utilising Bourdieu’s concepts, we show the impact of flexploitation, while sharing Roma’s habitus and capitals that distinguish and challenge the dominant homogenous narrative about the response to precarity. We argue that Roma, owing to their long-standing, symbiotic relationship with precarity, compounded by centuries-old persecution, offer insights into the lived experience of precarious workers. While not diminishing the impact of flexploitation, we culminate with our claim that Roma possess a precarious habitus and, as such, are a ‘fish in water’ with a distinguishing feature of ‘social capital on the move’.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-19T09:12:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020979502
  • University or Degree Apprenticeship' Stratification and Uncertainty in
           Routes to the Solicitors’ Profession
    • Authors: Caroline Casey, Paul Wakeling
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article considers whether degree apprenticeships could disrupt traditional university routes to professional careers and redress longstanding inequalities in access between individuals from different social backgrounds. Using the solicitors’ profession as a pertinent case, issues of access and choice are explored, utilising Breen and Goldthorpe’s theory of Relative Risk Aversion to understand variation across social background. Drawing on 23 in-depth interviews with law students, trainee solicitors and solicitor degree apprentices from four universities and five law firms across England, the analysis illuminates the decision-making approaches of aspiring solicitors through both the university and the degree apprenticeship routes. Contrary to expectation, the degree apprenticeship route appears to be discounted as unfamiliar and risky by many of those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Instead, it is tactically adopted as an alternative by some middle-class students. As such, the degree apprenticeship is not likely to disrupt existing patterns of access to the solicitors’ profession.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T12:41:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020977001
  • Bringing Women on Board' Family Policies, Quotas and Gender Diversity
           in Top Jobs
    • Authors: Helen Kowalewska
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      An influential body of work has identified a ‘welfare-state paradox’: work–family policies that bring women into the workforce also undermine women’s access to the top jobs. Missing from this literature is a consideration of how welfare-state interventions impact on women’s representation at the board-level specifically, rather than managerial and lucrative positions more generally. This article contributes to addressing this ‘gap’. A fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of 22 industrialised countries reveals how welfare-state interventions combine with gender boardroom quotas and targets in (not) bringing a ‘critical mass’ of women onto private-sector corporate boards. Overall, the analysis finds limited evidence in support of a welfare-state paradox; in fact, countries are unlikely to achieve a critical mass of women on boards in the absence of adequate childcare services. The results further suggest that ‘hard’, mandatory gender boardroom quotas are not necessary for achieving more women on boards; ‘soft’, voluntary recommendations can also work under certain family policy constellations.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-04T11:18:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020971221
  • Dementia, Work and Employability: Using the Capability Approach to
           Understand the Employability Potential for People Living with Dementia
    • Authors: Louise Ritchie, Valerie Egdell, Michael Danson, Mandy Cook, Jill Stavert, Debbie Tolson
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      The importance of remaining in, or re-entering, the labour market is emphasised by governments internationally. While this may bring benefits, progressive disabilities such as dementia affect an individual’s employability. Although employers have legal obligations to support employees with disabilities, research suggests that employers are not providing this support to employees living with dementia and are undermining their capabilities. Drawing on interview data from 38 key informants collected over two studies, we explore the potential for supporting and promoting the employability of people living with dementia. A model of sustainable employability based on the Capability Approach is used as a lens to explore this issue. The findings demonstrate the implications of progressive disabilities for employability when the worker and their family are faced with dealing with a disability in a period of uncertainty with a lack of public and workplace understanding.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-03T06:35:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020961929
  • Why Do Humans Remain Central to the Knowledge Work in the Age of
           Robots' Marx’s Fragment on Machines and Beyond
    • Authors: Emrah Karakilic
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      The integration of new technologies into the process of production has recently resuscitated the question of world-without-work. Accounts that regard a workless future as a strong possibility often base their arguments on a body of work that upholds that new machines already tend to eliminate the category of work, including knowledge work. This article challenges this view by revisiting Marx’s Fragment on Machines through the lens of autonomist Marxist writings. It offers an answer to the research question, inscribed in the title, that in contemporary capitalism the principal source of value and wealth lies in the general intellect embodied in living labour, living-knowledge-as-mêtis, that cannot be crystallized in and reproduced by the system of machinery and organizational tools in any meaningful way. The political implications of this argument will be discussed in the conclusion.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-03T06:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020958901
  • Training Regimes and Diversity: Experiences of Young Foreign Employees in
           Japanese Headquarters
    • Authors: Harald Conrad, Hendrik Meyer-Ohle
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the capacity of Japanese companies to integrate non-Japanese employees into headquarters in Japan, following recent initiatives to recruit significant numbers of foreign fresh graduates from universities in and outside of Japan. Grounding the research in the literature on diversity in workplaces and through an interview study with young foreign employees and representatives from human resource departments, this article argues that the nature of Japanese training regimes, mismatches in expectations between employees and employers and a denial of authenticity inhibit the successful integration of young foreign employees. Based on the Japanese case, we question in general terms the complementarity between diversity and inclusion and different kinds of training regimes. The article also points to the possibility that companies use diversity initiatives instrumentally to develop their existing core labour forces with a view to stabilize rather than fundamentally change the status quo.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-02T07:18:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020966537
  • Gender Differences in the Social Consequences of Unemployment: How Job
           Loss Affects the Risk of Becoming Socially Isolated
    • Authors: Jan Eckhard
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, the study examines whether the impact of unemployment on the risk of becoming socially isolated is different for women and men and whether it can be traced back to financial straits. An isolating effect of unemployment is found only with regard to men, to long-term unemployment, and to social isolation in terms of scarce contact to friends and family. There is no such effect with regard to women, to short-time unemployment, and to social isolation in terms of a non-participation in civic associations. It is also found that the isolating impact of unemployment is only to a small extent attributable to the financial situation of the unemployed.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-02T07:18:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020967903
  • A Feminist Political Economy Critique of ‘the Militant
    • Authors: Adam DK King
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Recent growth in strike activity in the United States and Canada has motivated a broad scholarship on union organizing and labour movement revitalization. However, researchers and activists particularly concerned with the role of member mobilization in union renewal have downplayed institutional changes to labour law and regulation which might address the decline of union density and worker power. This commentary offers a feminist political economy critique of recent works on ‘the rank and file strategy’ and ‘the militant minority’ by arguing that greater focus should be devoted to how North American labour law and decentralized bargaining continue to impede union renewal. The article briefly traces the gendered legacy of ‘Wagnerism’ and the latter’s growing incompatibility with contemporary workplaces and forms of employment. It then makes the case for thinking through how organizing could also push for labour law reform, particularly towards broader-based, sectoral forms of collective bargaining and labour market regulation.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-27T11:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020954746
  • ‘They’ve Been with Me the Whole Journey’: Temporality, Emotional
           Labour and Hairdressing Work
    • Authors: Oonagh M Harness, Kimberly Jamie, Robert McMurray
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      The role of time in organisational and relational development remains an understudied component of work and employment. In response, this article draws attention to the ways that temporality informs relations between workers and clients in service work. Drawing on data from interviews and observations with hair stylists in salons located in the North East of England from 2016 to 2018, we provide a nuanced account of emotional service work by considering the role of the temporal dynamics of recurrence and experience. Describing that which we label ‘relational trajectories’, we show the role of time in developing more authentic service performances. We conclude that acknowledging time allows for a more refined conceptual understanding of how emotional labour is performed based on an appreciation of how relations develop and change. Emotional labour is positioned as highly nuanced and adaptive in its responses to the specificities of relational trajectories that unfold over time.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-25T05:44:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020955081
  • A Heterodox Re-Reading of Creative Work: The Diverse Economies of Danish
           Visual Artists
    • Authors: Ana Alacovska, Trine Bille
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the diverse and heterodox array of labour practices and economic activities in artistic work. Existing studies contend that artistic income is highly skewed, with the majority of artists living in poverty, and that artistic work is intermittent, project-by-project based and precarious, with artists juggling multiple jobs. However, these prevalent perspectives typically foreground only formal contractual employment while neglecting the variegated range of informal, alternative and relational economic practices. Building on a mixed method study of Danish visual artists’ livelihoods and drawing on the total social organization of labour perspective, the article maps a diverse spectrum of labour practices ranging from formal paid/unpaid work to informal cash-in-hand work and non-monetized barter exchanges, to wholly non-commodified everyday practices of mutual aid and favour-swapping, as well as ‘consumption work’ such as thrift and self-provisioning. Heterodox economic practices are the primary mode by which artists cope with and manage precarious artistic livelihoods.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-25T05:44:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020958328
  • The Worker Capabilities Approach: Insights from Worker Mobilizations in
           Italian Logistics and Food Delivery
    • Authors: Lorenzo Cini, Bartek Goldmann
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Following years of declining labour activism, militant forms of worker mobilization have recently emerged in the Italian platform economy and logistics sector, exhibiting novel forms of organization and action repertoires. This article investigates two cases which have been ongoing since 2011, namely mobilizations by logistics porters and food delivery couriers. Both cases seem puzzling since workers have mobilized under circumstances normally associated with non-mobilization, meaning workplaces characterized by technological innovation and absent or ineffective trade unions. How have these mobilizations occurred' We argue that these workers successfully overcame such circumstances by relying on resources and opportunities related to their workplace and external to it, which they have been able to create and develop over several years. We gathered data from semi-structured interviews with workers, union representatives and lawyers, and participated at political meetings, strikes and protest events in four Italian cities between 2018 and 2019.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-25T05:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020952670
  • Career Advancement for Women in the British Hospitality Industry: The
           Enabling Factors
    • Authors: Valentine Calinaud, Jithendran Kokkranikal, Maria Gebbels
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Women are historically under-represented in senior management positions in almost all industries. Despite the UK hospitality industry being a major employer of women, there is a clear lack of women in management positions. This research aims to gain insight into the factors enabling women to access senior positions in the UK hospitality industry. Using the gendered organizations perspective, the study analyses female managers’ perceptions about their career advancement within this sector. It identifies key enablers and strategies to facilitate women’s career advancement. The findings reveal that despite improvements in career opportunities for women within the UK hospitality organizations, there is still a long way to go in terms of employment policies and practices that enable women’s career progression, which includes family-friendly practices; proactive and transparent gender equality measures; support networks and mentors; and personal development plan.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-23T10:06:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020967208
  • Book Review: Colin C Williams and Friedrich Schneider, Measuring the
           Global Shadow Economy: The Prevalence of Informal Work and Labour
    • Authors: Jen Lendrum
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-20T06:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020960662
  • On the Biopsychosocial Costs of Alienated Labor
    • Authors: Melvin Seeman, Sharon Stein Merkin, Arun Karlamangla, Brandon Koretz, Joseph G Grzywacz, Margie Lachman, Teresa Seeman
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Data from the national, longitudinal Mid-Life in the US (MIDUS) study were used to examine work alienation and its relationship to biological health as well as psychological and social functioning. The alienation measure focuses on the autonomy and creativity the work provides. We hypothesized that alienated work would have negative associations with each of the three domains: in biology, higher ‘allostatic load’ (biological dysregulation); in psychology, poorer cognitive performance; and socially, negative impacts on family life. The outcomes are generally as predicted, though there are notable differences for men and women.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-18T05:42:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020952662
  • How Occupational Pensions Shape Extended Working Lives: Gender, Class and
           Chance after the Norwegian Pension Reform
    • Authors: Anne Skevik Grødem, Jon M Hippe
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals’ need for extended working lives depends on the design of pension systems, including occupational pensions. This article examines variation in occupational pension generosity and coverage in Norway’s private sector. The analysis consists of microsimulations of future pension outcomes for cohorts born in 1953, 1963, 1973 and 1983. The first set of calculations estimate average pension levels for individuals with different pension packages who retire at 67; the second, how much longer workers in different cohorts will have to work in order to obtain a replacement rate of 70%. The overall finding is that while all workers in Norway must extend working life in the future, those with the most generous occupational pensions can retire about four years earlier than those with the least generous packages. This shows that the design and regulation of occupational pensions are crucial to the debate on extended working lives.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-17T06:21:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020952619
  • Conceptualizing Responsible Return to Work: Corporate Social
           Responsibility in Relation to Employee Return to Work after Cancer
    • Authors: Layla Branicki, Senia Kalfa, Stephen Brammer
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Demographic change, improvements in medical screening and treatment, evolving patterns of work, and eroding social security systems are contributing to greater numbers of seriously and chronically ill employees within the workforce. This study builds upon research in Corporate Social Responsibility and return to work (RTW) to conceptualize responsible return to work (RRTW). The study draws upon first-hand accounts of Australian women breast cancer survivors to inductively theorize the factors influencing RRTW practices. RTW practices that accommodate illness as required by law and regulation are found to be insufficient to meet employees’ needs and expectations and significant challenges for RTW are caused by this frame of reference and the distinction between medically certificated and non-medically certificated leave. Interactions between the economic case for creating mutual benefit through cooperation between employer and employee and the moral case for on-going tailored workplace adaptations as part of RRTW are critically evaluated.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-17T06:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020955092
  • Don’t Work for Free: Online Discursive Resistance to Precarity in
           Commercial Photography
    • Authors: Holly Patrick-Thomson, Michael Kranert
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      While increasing academic attention has been paid to the precariousness of contemporary work, less research has examined how workers organise in response. This article examines how a group of precarious workers – commercial photographers – use an online forum to resist changes to their working conditions. Our findings illustrate how the forum enables photographers to share knowledge, debate rules and organise collectively. We discuss two implications: firstly that the forum performs many of the functions of a professional association, and so gives us a new insight into how traditional forms of worker organisation may be translated in the digital realm; and secondly, that the form of collective resistance produced by the group may constitute a move beyond existing understandings of online resistance as relatively ineffectual. Our work contributes a new perspective on how precarity is reshaping workers’ collective organisation and resistance mechanisms.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-12T08:38:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020952630
  • Youth, Work and ‘Career’ as a Way of Talking about the Self
    • Authors: David Farrugia
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article develops research on youth and ‘career’ beyond a focus on attitudes towards employment flexibility and towards an examination of the ideological role of work in the formation of youth identities. The article draws on a programme of research on the formation of young people’s working identities, and presents interview data in which young people discuss the meaning of ‘career’ and the significance of work in general. These data show that across divergent aspirations and family histories of employment, young people define ‘career’ in terms of the promise of self-actualisation through labour, and thereby position work as the key site for self-expression and the cultivation of personal uniqueness. This article therefore suggests that the notion of ‘career’ is a way that the ‘post-Fordist work ethic’ is articulated on the level of youth identities, elevating self-realisation through labour as the goal of successful labour market engagement for youth.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-10T09:06:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020947576
  • At Least I’m My Own Boss! Explaining Consent, Coercion and
           Resistance in Platform Work
    • Authors: Christina Purcell, Paul Brook
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Platform work has grown significantly in the last decade. High-profile legal cases have highlighted the grey area which platform work inhabits in terms of the employment relationship and have raised concerns about the quality and conditions of work. Platform operators claim they are neutral intermediaries, yet often control over scheduling and tasks lies with them. This article presents a theoretical framework that integrates macro and micro-level analyses to account for the production of hegemony and playing out of consent, coercion and resistance within platform work. It does so by rearticulating Burawoy’s concept of hegemonic despotism by drawing upon Foucauldian notions of neoliberal governmentality and reasserting the centrality of Gramsci’s work in understanding power and hegemony, in particular the concept of contradictory consciousness and the dialogical contest between hegemonic ‘common sense’ and ‘good sense’, which constitutes our understanding and sense-making in the social world.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-05T10:29:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020952661
  • When Can a Disability Quota System Empower Disabled Individuals in the
           Workplace' The Case of France
    • Authors: Sarah Richard, Sophie Hennekam
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study uses an empowerment theory perspective to examine how a disability quota system affects the decision to disclose one’s disability at work. The study reports on 39 life story interviews with disabled individuals who recently entered or were seeking to enter the labour market in France. The study shows that when considering the disclosure decision, disabled workers reflect on personal attributes, such as their educational level, the visibility of their disability and whether they need workplace adaptations; on the organisational environment, such as the organisation’s commitment to diversity; and on the legal context (underpinned by the biopsychosocial model), in this case, the quota system. These reflections determine whether the disabled workers perceive their disability status as a valuable attribute and whether legal disclosure can be empowering. This study proposes a nuanced perspective by highlighting both the system’s potential for empowerment and for propagating inequality among disabled workers.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-03T10:03:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020946672
  • Informal Practices in the Making of Professionals: The Case of Engineers
           in Soviet and Post-Soviet Azerbaijan
    • Authors: Ayça Ergun, Leyla Sayfutdinova
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study expands the understanding of the role of informality in post-socialist professions by examining the use of informal practices by an under-researched professional group of engineers in Azerbaijan. We use in-depth interviews with engineers educated in Soviet and post-Soviet periods to trace changes and continuities in the use of informal practices in their education and work. The study found that although many practices inherited from the Soviet period (e.g. bribery in higher education and nepotism in employment) have undermined professional standards, others, such as reliance on interpersonal professional networks and reputations, have helped to transmit professional knowledge and preserve professional values. We argue that informality has a dual impact on the engineering profession in Azerbaijan: some informal practices undermine professionalism while others help to sustain it.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-03T09:53:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020947581
  • Fathers’ Perceptions of the Availability of Flexible Working
           Arrangements: Evidence from the UK
    • Authors: Rose Cook, Margaret O’Brien, Sara Connolly, Matthew Aldrich, Svetlana Speight
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      A conditional right to request flexible working arrangements (FWAs) has existed for most UK employee parents since 2003. However, there are growing concerns about access, particularly among fathers. Using nationally representative data from the 2015 UK Household Longitudinal Survey, this article examines fathers’ perceptions of the availability of hours reduction, schedule flexibility and working from home. Results show that almost one-third of fathers believe that FWAs that reduce working hours are unavailable to them, compared with one-tenth of mothers. There are no gender differences in perceptions of availability of schedule and location flexibility. Among fathers, those with lower education levels, in lower status occupations, working in the private sector and in workplaces that do not have trade union presence are more likely to believe that FWAs are unavailable. Therefore, even though most employees now have the right to request FWAs, a significant minority of fathers do not perceive FWAs to be available to them.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-11-01T09:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020946687
  • The Partner Pay Gap: Associations between Spouses’ Relative Earnings and
           Life Satisfaction among Couples in the UK
    • Authors: Vanessa Gash, Anke C Plagnol
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite women’s recent gains in education and employment, husbands still tend to out-earn their wives. This article examines the relationship between the partner pay gap (i.e. the difference in earned income between married, co-resident partners) and life satisfaction. Contrary to previous studies, we investigate the effects of recent changes in relative earnings within couples as well as labour market transitions. Using several waves of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, we reveal that men exhibit an increase in life satisfaction in response to a recent increase in their proportional earnings relative to their wives’ earnings. For women, changes in proportional earnings had no effect on life satisfaction. We also find secondary-earning husbands report lower average life satisfaction than majority-earning and equal-earning men, while such differences were not found for women. The analysis offers compelling evidence of the ongoing role of gendered norms in the sustenance of the partner pay gap.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-10-16T09:55:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020946657
  • ‘Good’ Bad Jobs' The Evolution of Migrant Low-Wage Employment in
           Germany (1985–2015)
    • Authors: Torben Krings
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      The article examines the evolution of migrant low-wage employment in the context of structural changes in the German labour market. By drawing on data from the Socio-Economic-Panel, it seeks to answer why low-wage jobs disproportionally rose among migrants since the late 1980s. It argues that while human capital characteristics mattered to some extent, institutional and organisational changes were more important to account for worsening earnings. When linking the findings to the broader debate about migration and labour market segmentation, several issues emerge. First, the extent of low-wage jobs is not fixed but shaped by historically specific segmentation patterns that may change over time. Second, whether less-skilled jobs are precarious and of low pay depend above all on the presence of inclusive labour market institutions and power relations between actors. Third, the growth of low-wage jobs cannot be considered independent of the available labour supply, including a rise in cross-border mobility.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T07:07:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020946567
  • Can Active Labour Market Programmes Emulate the Mental Health Benefits of
           Regular Paid Employment' Longitudinal Evidence from the United Kingdom
    • Authors: Senhu Wang, Adam Coutts, Brendan Burchell, Daiga Kamerāde, Ursula Balderson
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Active Labour Market Programmes (ALMPs), which form important components of employment support policies around the world, have been found to improve mental health and wellbeing of participants. However, it remains unclear how these health effects compare with the effects of different types of employment for men and women. Using 1991–2019 panel data in the UK, we find that unemployed women derive similar mental health benefits from ALMPs compared with employment. Unemployed men also benefit from ALMPs but obtain significantly more health benefits from formal employment. Such benefits are particularly pronounced in full-time, permanent and upper/middle-status jobs. Further analyses reveal that programmes that deliver human capital training have larger mental health benefits than employment assistance ALMPs. These findings provide a more nuanced understanding of the mental health impacts of ALMPs compared with different types of employment, and highlight the need for a more gender-sensitive design in labour market interventions.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-10-10T10:35:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020946664
  • Reproducing Global Inequalities in the Online Labour Market: Valuing
           Capital in the Design Field
    • Authors: Pelin Demirel, Ekaterina Nemkova, Rebecca Taylor
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Millions of freelancers work on digital platforms in the online labour market (OLM). The OLM’s capacity to both undermine and reproduce labour inequalities is a theme in contemporary platform economy debates. What is less well understood is how processes of social (re)production take place in practice for diverse freelancers on global platforms. Drawing on a study of freelance designers, we use Bourdieu’s notions of capital and field to explore the specific ‘rules of the game’ and the symbolic valuing of skills and identities that secure legitimacy and advantage in the OLM. We contribute to contemporary debates by illuminating the power of Global North actors to shape freelancer positions and hierarchies in the online design field. The ‘cost advantages’ of Global South workers are counterbalanced by the symbolic legitimising of specific cultural and social practices (specifically in relation to language) and the devaluing of others.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-09-12T11:48:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020942447
  • Building Inequality: Wage Disparity between Bangladeshi and Thai
           Guestworkers in Singapore’s Construction Industry
    • Authors: Katie Rainwater
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research on wage inequality in the construction industry focuses on dual labour markets in which migrants earn considerably less than native workers. This article examines occupational inequality between higher-paid Thai and lower-paid Bangladeshi first-time guestworkers in Singapore’s low-wage construction industry. It argues that differently priced national groups of first-time construction guestworkers persist in Singapore’s industry; first, because Singapore wages are established with reference to the economies of sending states, and second, because construction firms associate worker productivity with nationality. Alleged differences in productivity between Thai and Bangladeshi guestworkers are related to the workers’ differently classed socialization in their home countries: Bangladeshis are recruited from their country’s middle-class, whereas Thais are working-class. Sourcing reflects the subset of each sending state’s population who can afford the considerable recruitment and training fees and are attracted by Singapore wages and work.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T07:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020942448
  • Upskilling, Deskilling or Polarisation' Evidence on Change in Skills
           in Europe
    • Authors: Žilvinas Martinaitis, Aleksandr Christenko, Jonas Antanavičius
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      What are the directions of change in the complexity of work and the required skill levels of the labour force in Europe' Three prominent strands of literature suggest conflicting expectations – upskilling, deskilling and polarisation. This question is answered by employing a novel work complexity indicator that measures how tasks are performed at work according to three dimensions: routinisation of tasks, autonomy at work and continuous skill-building. The measurements rely on the European Working Conditions Surveys carried out in 2005, 2010 and 2015. The results show that the European labour markets witness upskilling with some polarisation, although there are significant cross-national differences. They also show that, individually, neither shifts in work complexity within occupations (deskilling hypothesis), nor changes in employment structure (the focus of the upskilling and polarisation hypotheses) can provide an adequate view of trends in the European labour markets. Instead, both vectors of change should be analysed collectively.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T07:22:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020937934
  • ‘It’s My Passion and Not Really Like Work’: Balancing Precarity with
           the Work–Life of a Volunteer Team Leader in the Conservation Sector
    • Authors: Peter John Sandiford, Sally Green
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Working with volunteers is a challenging occupation, especially in an environment of increasingly precarious casualisation. Although this trend is evident in other types of work, workers’ engagement with the purpose and mission of volunteerism can particularly emphasise blurred boundaries between the work and non-work spheres, potentially confusing employee identities. Emerging from an ongoing ethnographic study, this account draws on Sally’s precarious experiences as a leader of volunteers in the conservation sector. She reflects on the joys and challenges of leading volunteers in a messy environment of paradoxically interacting overwork and underwork, while highlighting issues of precarity and balance within and beyond her role as employee.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T07:21:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020942052
  • Why Queer Workers Make Good Organisers
    • Authors: Michelle Esther O’Brien
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      LGBTQ retail workers act as leaders in workplace organising efforts, and union organisers identify their contributions as strengthening campaigns. What explains this propensity of queer and trans workers to labour organising and the resulting successful outcomes' Prior literature has identified that other demographics of oppressed workers similarly show strong support for labour organising, and the campaigns they lead are more likely to be successful, but without detailing what mechanisms may explain this link. Through in-depth interviews with labour organisers and worker-leaders in NYC retail worker rights and unionisation campaigns, this article finds queer workers bring to organising efforts their (1) prior experiences of workplace harassment and marginalisation, (2) prior social movement activity, (3) indigenous social networks, (4) affective skills developed in queer countercultures and (5) their use of creative expression. These factors could similarly explain the workplace organising efficacy of other oppressed social groups.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-28T05:44:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020940147
  • Gender Wage Gap and the Involvement of Partners in Household Work
    • Authors: Eleonora Matteazzi, Stefani Scherer
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Women still earn less than men and continue to perform the bulk of domestic activities. Several studies documented a negative individual wage–housework relation, suggesting that gender discrepancies in housework may explain the gender wage gap. Less attention has been paid to the role of the partner’s unpaid work and to the extent that intra-household inequalities relate to inequalities outside the house. The present study attempts to fill this gap in the literature. We exploit EU-SILC 2010 data for Germany and Italy and PSID 2009 data for the US. Results suggest the importance of accounting for a partner’s housework when evaluating the determinants of individual wages and the gender wage gap. Women seem not to profit from their partners’ housework; instead, women’s non-market work increases their partners’ earnings while decreasing their own earnings. This suggests the importance of reducing women’s involvement in domestic work in order to close gender wage equalities.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-28T01:43:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020937936
  • ‘I Wanted More Women in, but . . .’: Oblique Resistance to
           Gender Equality Initiatives
    • Authors: Owain Smolović Jones, Sanela Smolović Jones, Scott Taylor, Emily Yarrow
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Despite many interventions designed to change the gender demographics of positional leadership roles in organizations and professions, women continue to be under-represented in most arenas. Here we explore gender equality (GE) interventions through the example of positive discrimination quotas in politics to develop an understanding of resistance to them. Our case is the British Labour Party, analysing interviews with the people who designed, implemented and resisted the system of all-women shortlists. We develop the notion of ‘oblique resistance’ to describe an indirect form of resistance to the erosion of patriarchal power, which never directly confronts the issue of GE, yet actively undermines it. Oblique resistance is practised in three key ways: through appeals to ethics, by marking territory and in appeals to convention. We conclude by considering the conceptual and practical implications of oblique resistance, when direct and more overt resistance to GE is increasingly socially unacceptable.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T03:32:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020936871
  • Absence from Work after the Birth of the First Child and Mothers’
           Retirement Incomes: A Comparative Analysis of 10 European Countries
    • Authors: Giulia M Dotti Sani, Matteo Luppi
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates whether a prolonged absence from the workforce after the birth of the first child is associated with mothers having a lower retirement income and whether cross-national variations in family policy and pension systems moderate the relationship between work interruptions and retirement incomes in 10 European countries. The analysis, based on five waves of SHARE data, indicates that the longer a mother abstains from work after the birth of her first child, the lower her retirement income is. However, the association is negligible in countries where mothers are historically supported by a comprehensive welfare system, namely Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. The findings indicate that generous work–family reconciliation policies and a universally oriented pensions system are most effective in minimising long-term motherhood income penalties when they are jointly present, pointing to the importance of policy packages that combine active and passive measures to achieve dual decommodification.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T02:56:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020937935
  • Consuming Worker Exploitation' Accounts and Justifications for
           Consumer (In)action to Modern Slavery
    • Authors: Michal Carrington, Andreas Chatzidakis, Deirdre Shaw
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      While research has examined the plight of vulnerable workers, the role of consumers who drive demand for slave-based services and products has been largely neglected. This is an important gap given both historical evidence of the effectiveness of 18th and 19th century anti-slavery consumer activism and recent attempts to regulate slavery through harnessing consumer power, such as the UK’s Modern Slavery Act 2015. This article draws on data from in-depth interviews with 40 consumers, to identify their understanding of modern slavery, before revealing the neutralising and legitimising techniques they use to justify their (in)action. Our findings contribute to, and extend, neutralisation theory by exploring its applicability in this unique context. We also position techniques of legitimisation as central to understanding how modern slavery is tolerated through a variety of discursive and institutional factors.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T10:28:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020926372
  • Nonstandard Employment and Job Satisfaction across Time in China: Evidence
           from the Chinese General Social Survey (2006–2012)
    • Authors: Kritkorn Nawakitphaitoon, Can Tang
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the association of nonstandard employment with job satisfaction over time in China. An analysis is carried out using the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), a large cross-sectional survey that collected data from over 3000 workers across different industries, ownership types and regions in China in 2006, 2008 and 2012. The empirical results show that in 2006, nonstandard employment workers, on average, were less satisfied with their jobs than their counterparts in standard employment, all else being equal. However, these differences in job satisfaction became very small and insignificant in 2008 and 2012. The results from the propensity score matching exercise provide a similar conclusion. These findings suggest that improvements in regulations and employment relations in China have increased job satisfaction for nonstandard employment workers.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-06-19T04:24:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020926365
  • Women Professors across STEMM and Non-STEMM Disciplines: Navigating
           Gendered Spaces and Playing the Academic Game
    • Authors: Colette Fagan, Nina Teasdale
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Women remain poorly represented in the highest positions in academia, despite their increasing participation. This article seeks to understand how women who have reached senior occupational positions in Higher Education Institutions have navigated their organisational and disciplinary settings. In the process we explore how experiences compare across male and female-dominated spaces, integrating field theory with Acker’s work on ‘gendered organisations’ to develop the idea of academic disciplines as ‘gendered spaces’. Empirically we draw upon a qualitative study of women professors working across science, technology, engineering, maths and medicine (STEMM) and non-STEMM disciplines in a large research-intensive university in the UK. Utilising Bourdieu’s concept of ‘the game’, we show how they navigate the academic game within the context of differing ‘gendered spaces’; complicit in the game yet recognising it as unfair, and thus (inadvertently) reproducing gendered structures and practices.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T05:01:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020916182
  • Book Review: Carl Benedikt Frey, The Technology Trap: Capital, Labor, and
           Power in the Age of Automation
    • Authors: Daniel Nicholson
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-05-11T06:22:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020918073
  • Book Review: Youth, Jobs, and the Future: Problems and Prospects
    • Authors: Andrew Kozhevnikov
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-04-20T11:57:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020910355
  • A Cross-Country Comparison of Gender Traditionalism in Business
           Leadership: How Supportive Are Female Supervisors'

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Carly van Mensvoort, Gerbert Kraaykamp, Roza Meuleman, Marieke van den Brink
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates whether female supervisors hold less traditional attitudes towards gender in business leadership than male supervisors and non-supervisors, and whether these attitudinal differences vary between countries. It uses the sociological notions of self-interest and exposure and a multilevel approach to advance and expand the investigation of gender attitudes in the domain of business leadership. Two recent waves of the World Values Survey (2005/2009; 2010/2014) for 22 OECD countries were analysed with multilevel logistic regression. Findings indicated less gender traditionalism among female supervisors and among people living in countries with a larger share of women in managerial positions and a less traditional normative climate towards working women. No such attitudinal differences between individuals were found when comparing countries with and without a national legislative gender quota policy. Finally, men’s attitudes towards gender traditionalism in business leadership appeared to be more susceptible to the country context than those of women.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T12:23:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017019892831
  • Broadening of the Field of Corporate Boards and Legitimate Capitals: An
    • Authors: Cathrine Seierstad, Ahu Tatli, Maryam Aldossari, Morten Huse
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing on 31 interviews, we explore the life trajectories of some of the women with most directorships in Norway after the introduction of the quota, with specific attention to their capitals. Adopting a Bourdieusian approach, we examine to what extent forced structural changes (the quota), challenge what are valued as legitimate capital(s) in the field (corporate boards). Our research demonstrates the progressive role of the quota in challenging gendered ideas of suitability. We found that structural adjustments in the field are leading to realignment in terms of the field-specific value and meaning of different types of capitals, which are redrawing the boundaries of the field in the process. We conclude that the external push through state-imposed regulation has broadened the field, resulting in the recognition of a wider set of capitals as legitimate. The study responds to the much-debated question about the utility of quotas in addressing systemic and historical inequalities.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-01-17T02:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017019892835
  • Sticks and Stones: The Naming of Global Talent
    • Authors: Susan Kirk
      First page: 203
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      In the workplace, demand for globally mobile workers continues to grow. This article examines the consequences for the individual of being named as global talent. Findings from a qualitative study within a large, multinational organisation, reveal the identity struggles these individuals engage in as they seek to reconcile the tensions inherent in such challenging careers. By combining and building on extant literature in naming, identity and global talent, the article offers a greater understanding of the lived experiences of global talent, as they construct and re-construct their identities in an on-going cycle. By drawing on the emerging field of socio-onomastics, a greater understanding of the meaning and connotations of being named as global talent is offered. By highlighting how names do not merely mirror identities, but are negotiated and resisted through a process of identity work, a contribution is made to the fields of identity studies and global talent management.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-06-04T10:03:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020922337
  • Precarity as a Biographical Problem' Young Workers Living with
           Precarity in Germany and Poland
    • Authors: Adam Mrozowicki, Vera Trappmann
      First page: 221
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      In the context of debates on the meanings of precarious employment, this article explores the varied ways young workers in Poland and Germany are managing precarity. Biographical narrative interviews with 123 young people revealed four different ways interviewees experienced precarity. These different approaches reflected varied ways in which interviewees were orientated to work, the meanings attributed by them to precarious employment and the material and cultural resources they possessed. It is argued that despite institutional differences, precarity in both countries is experienced similarly and represents a tendency to endure precarity and cope with it by individual means. Simultaneously, criticisms of precarity were more typical of young Poles than Germans. Cross-country variances were explained by the different mechanisms of institutional support for young workers and the greater belief in meritocracy in Germany.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T01:34:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020936898
  • The Relative Quality of Sex Work
    • Authors: Cecilia Benoit, Michaela Smith, Mikael Jansson, Priscilla Healey, Douglas Magnuson
      First page: 239
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents descriptive findings on sex workers’ structural disadvantage and their evaluation of the quality of their work, relative to their other jobs. In-person interviews were conducted in 2013 with sex workers (n = 218) from Canada. Participants reported they experience precarity (i.e. uncertainty and instability) in employment and other domains of their lives. Compared to the work quality of their other jobs, the majority said sex work was more satisfying and granted greater control and money. In a context of low income and instability in employment, participants make strategic choices to engage in sex work, even when contending with its low social status. The article concludes that sex work should be recognized as valuable work for Canadian sex workers, given the circumstances of their lives under contemporary capitalism. The findings indicate a need for macro-level changes to challenge precarity in the economy and other societal institutions.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T01:33:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020936872
  • ‘Working to Live, Not Living to Work’: Low-Paid Multiple Employment
           and Work–Life Articulation
    • Authors: Andrew Smith, Jo McBride
      First page: 256
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article critically examines how low-paid workers, who need to work in more than one legitimate job to make ends meet, attempt to reconcile work and life. The concept of work–life articulation is utilised to investigate the experiences, strategies and practicalities of combining multiple employment with domestic and care duties. Based on detailed qualitative research, the findings reveal workers with two, three, four, five and even seven different jobs due to low-pay, limited working hours and employment instability. The study highlights the increasing variability of working hours, together with the dual fragmentation of working time and employment. It identifies unique dimensions of work extensification, as these workers have an amalgamation of jobs dispersed across fragmented, expansive and complex temporalities and spatialities. This research makes explicit the interconnected economic and temporal challenges of low-pay, insufficient hours and precarious employment, which creates significant challenges of juggling multiple jobs with familial responsibilities.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-09-09T07:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020942645
  • Flexible Work, Temporal Disruption and Implications for Health Practices:
           An Australian Qualitative Study
    • Authors: Ginny M Sargent, Julia McQuoid, Jane Dixon, Cathy Banwell, Lyndall Strazdins
      First page: 277
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Flexible work provisions are justified as enabling workers to manage their personal lives, including their health, around work. This study deploys social theories of practice to investigate how the temporal characteristics of flexible work can produce, alter and disrupt the health improvement efforts of workers, concentrating on healthy eating and keeping physically active. Drawing from in-depth interviews with 12 Australian workers, the study explores the temporal mechanisms linking flexible work to health practices, focusing on routines, rhythms and rituals (the three Rs). This research finds that work-time arrangements can provide the temporal scaffolding necessary for health practices (through routines, rhythms and rituals), but only when there is day-to-day, mid-term, and long-term work predictability. Australia’s flexible work policies do not provide this requisite temporal predictability. Health promoting employment provisions would have to reinstate employment standards from the 1970s, providing the desired predictability for flexible provisions to benefit workers.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-25T09:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020954750
  • Configurations of Boundary Management Practices among Knowledge Workers
    • Authors: Stefanie C Reissner, Michal Izak, Donald Hislop
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      While the literature in relation to managing the work-nonwork boundary retains a strong focus on the consistent use of segmenting or integrating boundary management practices, recent studies indicate that individuals’ behaviours are often inconsistent. To add to this emerging strand of research, this article is set in the context of flexible working to examine how knowledge workers use time, space and objects to demarcate the work-nonwork boundary. The analysis identifies three configurations of boundary management practices with differing degrees of inconsistency in the use of time, space and objects. Its contribution is three-fold: (1) it provides an original, systematic exploration of boundary management practices that do not represent consistency; (2) it creates a framework within which differing degrees of inconsistency in people’s boundary management practices can be observed; and (3) it demonstrates new and crucial differences between distinct inconsistent approaches to demarcating the work-nonwork boundary.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T09:19:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020968375
  • ‘My Life Is More Valuable Than This’: Understanding Risk among
           On-Demand Food Couriers in Edinburgh
    • Authors: Karen Gregory
      First page: 316
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing from the social study of the gig economy and platform labour and from the sociology of risk, this article explores how on-demand food couriers in Edinburgh, Scotland, construct and represent work-related risks. By taking the gig economy’s contested and contentious status of ‘self-employment’ as a starting point, this article positions couriers as experts of their own work process and draws on in-depth interviews with 25 couriers to illustrate how platformed labour creates a range of risks, including physical risk and bodily harm, financial risks and epistemic risks. To negotiate these risks, couriers use a range of strategies, including privatising, normalising and minimising risks and by forging new communities of support. While some risks can be negotiated by recourse to the private, entrepreneurial, or ‘choosing’ self, interview data illustrate how algorithmically managed work creates uncertainty and confounds the issue of choice by obscuring the work process and associated risk probabilities.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-07T10:16:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020969593
  • ‘It’s Like a War Zone’: Jay’s Liminal Experience of Normal and
           Extreme Work in a UK Supermarket during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    • Authors: Minjie Cai, Jay Velu, Scott Tindal, Safak Tartanoglu Bennett
      First page: 386
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a UK supermarket worker’s experiences of work during the COVID-19 pandemic. Writing during a period of uncertainty, Jay’s narrative reveals how the sudden and constant transitions between mundanity and extremity on the shop floor evoke conflicting emotions and work intensification that disrupt and reconstruct normality. His accounts describe violent customer behaviours, absent management, a lack of clear organisational policies, and the different views of appropriate health and safety measures among colleagues. It illustrates how liminality in the workplace at a time of crisis can endanger employees whose seemingly mundane jobs become extreme.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-02T03:23:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020966527
  • Profit over People' Evaluating Morality on the Front Line during the
           COVID-19 Crisis: A Front-Line Service Manager’s Confession and Regrets
    • Authors: Anastasios Hadjisolomou, Sam Simone
      First page: 396
      Abstract: Work, Employment and Society, Ahead of Print.
      This article gives voice to a front-line manager in food retailing, discussing her experiences during the COVID-19 outbreak which, overnight, became an ‘essential service’, leaving employees exposed to the virus. The article utilizes the ‘moral economy’ framework to understand how organizational policies, which were developed by senior management and implemented by front-line managers, denied human flourishing and well-being during a period of socio-economic crisis. The article captures the complexity of morality in organizations across managerial levels. Questioning the morality of managerial decisions during the pandemic and emphasizing how these are driven by the intense competition in the market, it reveals that front-line managers are caught between conflicting moral values and expectations. This study contributes to the ‘moral economy’ framework suggesting that the structural constraints of front-line managerial authority have challenged their moral values and narrowed the space for safe and meaningful work and well-being for front-line managers and employees.
      Citation: Work, Employment and Society
      PubDate: 2020-12-04T11:18:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0950017020971561
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