Subjects -> OCCUPATIONS AND CAREERS (Total: 33 journals)
Showing 1 - 23 of 23 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Pastoral Counseling     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Guidance & Counselling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Career Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Education + Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Field Actions Science Reports     Open Access  
Formation emploi     Open Access  
Health Care Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Human Resource Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal for Quality in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Work Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Career Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Capital     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities : A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Vocational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Neurocritical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Palliative & Supportive Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Performance Improvement Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recherches & Ă©ducations     Open Access  
Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Vocations and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Work and Occupations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Work, Employment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
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Neurocritical Care
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.311
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1556-0961 - ISSN (Online) 1541-6933
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Minimum Criteria for Brain Death Determination: Consensus Promotion and
           Chinese Practice

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      Abstract: Background Brain death (BD), the irreversible cessation of function in the whole brain, is a well-known condition in most countries. The criteria and practical guidelines for brain death determination (BDD) in China were issued by the Brain Injury Evaluation Quality Control Center (BQCC) of the National Health and Family Planning Commission in 2013. Thereafter, we proposed a plan called the three-step quality control plan (three-step QCP) to ensure the safety and consistency of the clinical judgments regarding BD. By retrospectively reviewing this plan, we aimed to identify problems during its implementation and to provide suggestions for future work on quality control for BDD. Methods Data were retrieved from the BQCC database. The characteristics and test results of physicians undergoing a BDD training course and the BD case records submitted by hospitals before and after receiving accreditation were analyzed. Results In the first step of the plan, the error rate for physicians undergoing the BDD paper test was highest for limb movement discrimination (26.29%); this error rate was correlated with age (per 10-year increase) (odds ratio = 1.262, 95% confidence interval 1.067–1.491, P = 0.007) but was nonsignificantly associated with sex, specialty category, professional level, and hospital level (P > 0.05). During the second step of the plan, the highest percentage of problems was associated with apnea testing (22.75%), followed by ancillary testing of BDD (16.17%). In the last step, the highest percentage of problems in the case records was associated with apnea testing (41.73%). Conclusions The three-step QCP is of significant utility for ensuring accuracy and appropriateness in BDD. Simultaneously, this study provides important evidence for advancing quality control for BDD in the next stage.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Proceedings of the Second Curing Coma Campaign NIH Symposium: Challenging
           the Future of Research for Coma and Disorders of Consciousness

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      Abstract: Abstract This proceedings article presents actionable research targets on the basis of the presentations and discussions at the 2nd Curing Coma National Institutes of Health (NIH) symposium held from May 3 to May 5, 2021. Here, we summarize the background, research priorities, panel discussions, and deliverables discussed during the symposium across six major domains related to disorders of consciousness. The six domains include (1) Biology of Coma, (2) Coma Database, (3) Neuroprognostication, (4) Care of Comatose Patients, (5) Early Clinical Trials, and (6) Long-term Recovery. Following the 1st Curing Coma NIH virtual symposium held on September 9 to September 10, 2020, six workgroups, each consisting of field experts in respective domains, were formed and tasked with identifying gaps and developing key priorities and deliverables to advance the mission of the Curing Coma Campaign. The highly interactive and inspiring presentations and panel discussions during the 3-day virtual NIH symposium identified several action items for the Curing Coma Campaign mission, which we summarize in this article.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Neuroprognostication Under ECMO After Cardiac Arrest: Impossible is
           Nothing!

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      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Natural Language Processing of Radiology Reports to Detect Complications
           of Ischemic Stroke

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      Abstract: Background ion of critical data from unstructured radiologic reports using natural language processing (NLP) is a powerful tool to automate the detection of important clinical features and enhance research efforts. We present a set of NLP approaches to identify critical findings in patients with acute ischemic stroke from radiology reports of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods We trained machine learning classifiers to identify categorical outcomes of edema, midline shift (MLS), hemorrhagic transformation, and parenchymal hematoma, as well as rule-based systems (RBS) to identify intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and continuous MLS measurements within CT/MRI reports. Using a derivation cohort of 2289 reports from 550 individuals with acute middle cerebral artery territory ischemic strokes, we externally validated our models on reports from a separate institution as well as from patients with ischemic strokes in any vascular territory. Results In all data sets, a deep neural network with pretrained biomedical word embeddings (BioClinicalBERT) achieved the highest discrimination performance for binary prediction of edema (area under precision recall curve [AUPRC] > 0.94), MLS (AUPRC > 0.98), hemorrhagic conversion (AUPRC > 0.89), and parenchymal hematoma (AUPRC > 0.76). BioClinicalBERT outperformed lasso regression (p < 0.001) for all outcomes except parenchymal hematoma (p = 0.755). Tailored RBS for IVH and continuous MLS outperformed BioClinicalBERT (p < 0.001) and linear regression, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study demonstrates robust performance and external validity of a core NLP tool kit for identifying both categorical and continuous outcomes of ischemic stroke from unstructured radiographic text data. Medically tailored NLP methods have multiple important big data applications, including scalable electronic phenotyping, augmentation of clinical risk prediction models, and facilitation of automatic alert systems in the hospital setting.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Neuroprognostication Under ECMO After Cardiac Arrest: Are Classical Tools
           Still Performant'

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      Abstract: Background According to international guidelines, neuroprognostication in comatose patients after cardiac arrest (CA) is performed using a multimodal approach. However, patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may have longer pharmacological sedation and show alteration in biological markers, potentially challenging prognostication. Here, we aimed to assess whether routinely used predictors of poor neurological outcome also exert an acceptable performance in patients undergoing ECMO after CA. Methods This observational retrospective study of our registry includes consecutive comatose adults after CA. Patients deceased within 36 h and not undergoing prognostic tests were excluded. Veno-arterial ECMO was initiated in patients < 80 years old presenting a refractory CA, with a no flow < 5 min and a low flow ≤ 60 min on admission. Neuroprognostication test performance (including pupillary reflex, electroencephalogram, somatosensory-evoked potentials, neuron-specific enolase) toward mortality and poor functional outcome (Cerebral Performance Categories [CPC] score 3–5) was compared between patients undergoing ECMO and those without ECMO. Results We analyzed 397 patients without ECMO and 50 undergoing ECMO. The median age was 65 (interquartile range 54–74), and 69.8% of patients were men. Most had a cardiac etiology (67.6%); 52% of the patients had a shockable rhythm, and the median time to return of an effective circulation was 20 (interquartile range 10–28) minutes. Compared with those without ECMO, patients receiving ECMO had worse functional outcome (74% with CPC scores 3–5 vs. 59%, p = 0.040) and a nonsignificant higher mortality (60% vs. 47%, p = 0.080). Apart from the neuron-specific enolase level (higher in patients with ECMO, p < 0.001), the presence of prognostic items (pupillary reflex, electroencephalogram background and reactivity, somatosensory-evoked potentials, and myoclonus) related to unfavorable outcome (CPC score 3–5) in both groups was similar, as was the prevalence of at least any two such items concomitantly. The specificity of each these variables toward poor outcome was between 92 and 100% in both groups, and of the combination of at least two items, it was 99.3% in patients without ECMO and 100% in those with ECMO. The predictive performance (receiver operating characteristic curve) of their combination toward poor outcome was 0.822 (patients without ECMO) and 0.681 (patients with ECMO) (p = 0.134). Conclusions Pending a prospective assessment on a larger cohort, in comatose patients after CA, the performance of prognostic factors seems comparable in patients with ECMO and those without ECMO. In particular, the combination of at least two poor outcome criteria appears valid across these two groups.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Demystifying the Black Box: The Importance of Interpretability of
           Predictive Models in Neurocritical Care

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      Abstract: Abstract Neurocritical care patients are a complex patient population, and to aid clinical decision-making, many models and scoring systems have previously been developed. More recently, techniques from the field of machine learning have been applied to neurocritical care patient data to develop models with high levels of predictive accuracy. However, although these recent models appear clinically promising, their interpretability has often not been considered and they tend to be black box models, making it extremely difficult to understand how the model came to its conclusion. Interpretable machine learning methods have the potential to provide the means to overcome some of these issues but are largely unexplored within the neurocritical care domain. This article examines existing models used in neurocritical care from the perspective of interpretability. Further, the use of interpretable machine learning will be explored, in particular the potential benefits and drawbacks that the techniques may have when applied to neurocritical care data. Finding a solution to the lack of model explanation, transparency, and accountability is important because these issues have the potential to contribute to model trust and clinical acceptance, and, increasingly, regulation is stipulating a right to explanation for decisions made by models and algorithms. To ensure that the prospective gains from sophisticated predictive models to neurocritical care provision can be realized, it is imperative that interpretability of these models is fully considered.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • The Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomic Response to Traumatic and Nontraumatic
           Acute Brain Injury: A Prospective Study

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      Abstract: Background Quantitative analysis of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF) proteins following acute brain injury (ABI) may help identify pathophysiological pathways and potential biomarkers that can predict unfavorable outcome. Methods In this prospective proteomic analysis study, consecutive patients with severe ABI expected to require intraventricular catheterization for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring for at least 5 days and patients without ABI admitted for elective clipping of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm were included. vCSF samples were collected within the first 24 h after ABI and ventriculostomy insertion and then every 24 h for 5 days. In patients without ABI, a single vCSF sample was collected at the time of elective clipping. Data-independent acquisition and sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry were used to compare differences in protein expression in patients with ABI and patients without ABI and in patients with traumatic and nontraumatic ABI. Differences in protein expression according to different ICP values, intensive care unit outcome, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) versus traumatic brain injury (TBI), and good versus poor 3-month functional status (assessed by using the Glasgow Outcome Scale) were also evaluated. vCSF proteins with significant differences between groups were compared by using linear models and selected for gene ontology analysis using R Language and the Panther database. Results We included 50 patients with ABI (SAH n = 23, TBI n = 15, intracranial hemorrhage n = 6, ischemic stroke n = 3, others n = 3) and 12 patients without ABI. There were significant differences in the expression of 255 proteins between patients with and without ABI (p < 0.01). There were intraday and interday differences in expression of seven proteins related to increased inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and cellular response to hypoxia and injury. Among these, glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was higher in patients with ABI with severe intracranial hypertension (ICH) (ICP ≥ 30 mm Hg) or death compared to those without (log 2 fold change: + 2.4; p < 0.001), suggesting extensive primary astroglial injury or death. There were differences in the expression of 96 proteins between patients with traumatic and nontraumatic ABI (p < 0.05); intraday and interday differences were observed for six proteins related to structural damage, complement activation, and cholesterol metabolism. Thirty-nine vCSF proteins were associated with an increased risk of severe ICH (ICP ≥ 30 mm Hg) in patients with traumatic compared with nontraumatic ABI (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in protein expression between patients with SAH versus TBI or between those with good versus poor 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Conclusions Dysregulated vCSF protein expression after ABI may be associated with an increased risk of severe ICH and death.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Modern Learning from Big Data in Critical Care: Primum Non Nocere

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      Abstract: Abstract Large and complex data sets are increasingly available for research in critical care. To analyze these data, researchers use techniques commonly referred to as statistical learning or machine learning (ML). The latter is known for large successes in the field of diagnostics, for example, by identification of radiological anomalies. In other research areas, such as clustering and prediction studies, there is more discussion regarding the benefit and efficiency of ML techniques compared with statistical learning. In this viewpoint, we aim to explain commonly used statistical learning and ML techniques and provide guidance for responsible use in the case of clustering and prediction questions in critical care. Clustering studies have been increasingly popular in critical care research, aiming to inform how patients can be characterized, classified, or treated differently. An important challenge for clustering studies is to ensure and assess generalizability. This limits the application of findings in these studies toward individual patients. In the case of predictive questions, there is much discussion as to what algorithm should be used to most accurately predict outcome. Aspects that determine usefulness of ML, compared with statistical techniques, include the volume of the data, the dimensionality of the preferred model, and the extent of missing data. There are areas in which modern ML methods may be preferred. However, efforts should be made to implement statistical frameworks (e.g., for dealing with missing data or measurement error, both omnipresent in clinical data) in ML methods. To conclude, there are important opportunities but also pitfalls to consider when performing clustering or predictive studies with ML techniques. We advocate careful valuation of new data-driven findings. More interaction is needed between the engineer mindset of experts in ML methods, the insight in bias of epidemiologists, and the probabilistic thinking of statisticians to extract as much information and knowledge from data as possible, while avoiding harm.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • Early Hyperchloremia is Independently Associated with Death or Disability
           in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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      Abstract: Background On the basis of increased mortality associated with hyperchloremia among critically ill patients, we investigated the effect of occurrence of early hyperchloremia on death or disability at 90 days in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods We analyzed the data from Antihypertensive Treatment of Cerebral Hemorrhage 2 trial, which recruited patients with spontaneous ICH within 4.5 h of symptom onset. Patients with increased serum chloride levels (110 mmol/L or greater) at either baseline or 24, 48, or 72 h after randomization were identified. We further graded hyperchloremia into one occurrence or two or more occurrences within the first 72 h. Two logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the effects of hyperchloremia on (1) death within 90 days and (2) death or disability at 90 days after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Among the total of 1,000 patients analyzed, hyperchloremia within 72 h was seen in 114 patients with one occurrence and in 154 patients with two or more occurrences. Patients with one occurrence of hyperchloremia (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–5.5) and those with two or more occurrences (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3–5.0) had significantly higher odds of death within 90 days after adjustment for age, race and ethnicity, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score strata, hematoma volume, presence or absence of intraventricular hemorrhage, cigarette smoking, previous stroke, and maximum hourly dose of nicardipine. Patients with two or more occurrences of hyperchloremia (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.1–5.6) had significantly higher odds of death or disability at 90 days compared with patients without hyperchloremia after adjustment for the abovementioned potential confounders. Conclusions The independent association between hyperchloremia and death or disability at 90 days suggests that avoidance of hyperchloremia may reduce the observed death or disability in patients with ICH. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01176565.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • Ethics Priorities of the Curing Coma Campaign: An Empirical Survey

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      Abstract: Background The Curing Coma Campaign (CCC) is a multidisciplinary global initiative focused on evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, research, and prognostication for patients who are comatose due to any etiology. To support this mission, the CCC Ethics Working Group conducted a survey of CCC collaborators to identify the ethics priorities of the CCC and the variability in priorities based on country of practice. Methods An electronic survey on the ethics priorities for the CCC was developed using rank-choice questions and distributed between May and July 2021 to a listserv of the 164 collaborators of the CCC. The median rank for each topic and subtopic was determined. Comparisons were made on the basis of country of practice. Results The survey was completed by 93 respondents (57% response rate); 67% practiced in the United States. On the basis of respondent ranking of each topic, the prioritization of ethics topics across respondents was as follows: (1) clinical care, (2) diagnostic definitions, (3) clinical research, (4) implementation/innovation, (5) family, (6) data management, (7) public engagement/perceptions, and (8) equity. Respondents who practiced in the United States were particularly concerned about public engagement, the distinction between clinical care and research, disclosure of results from clinical research to families, the definition of “personhood,” and the distinction between the self-fulfilling prophecy/nihilism and medical futility. Respondents who practiced in other countries were particularly concerned about diagnostic modalities for clinical care, investigational drugs/devices for clinical research, translation of research into practice, and the definition of “minimally conscious state.” Conclusions Collaborators of the CCC considered clinical care, diagnostic definitions, and clinical research the top ethics priorities of the CCC. These priorities should be considered as the CCC explores ways to improve evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, research, and prognostication of patients with coma and associated disorders of consciousness. There is some variability in ethics priorities based on country of practice.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • The Frontier of Electrophysiologic Monitoring in Acute Brain Injury

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      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Safety and Efficacy of Vinpocetine as a Neuroprotective Agent in Acute
           Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Abstract: Background Vinpocetine as a neuroprotective agent is effective in acute ischemic stroke in some randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Since the last systematic review has been published in 2008, which didn’t find conclusive evidence favoring its use, two more RCTs have also been completed. Methods Relevant electronic databases were searched with a suitable combination of Medical Subject Headings terms to detect publications describing RCTs exploring the safety and efficacy of vinpocetine in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The risk of bias was determined by using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias in RCTs after full-text review and relevant data extraction. Higgins and Thompson’s I2 method was used to assess heterogeneity in studies. The presence of publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test. We used a random effect model when I2 was more than 50% and a fixed-effect model for other parameters. Results Four placebo-controlled RCTs enrolling a total of 601 and 236 patients in vinpocetine and placebo groups, respectively, were included. The number of patients with death or significant disability was lower in the vinpocetine group than that in the placebo group at both 1 and 3 months (relative risk 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65–0.99 and relative risk 0.67, CI 0.48–0.92, p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). The degree of disability in participants at 1 month and 3 months was also lower in vinpocetine group than that in the placebo group (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.49, 95% CI 0.03–0.95 and SMD 1.22, CI 0.23–2.24, p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). Change in mini-mental state examination score compared with baseline at trial enrolment was also better in the vinpocetine group than in the placebo group (pooled weighted mean difference 0.92, 95% CI 0.02–1.82, p = 0.04). Conclusions Vinpocetine has some promising efficacy in patients with ischemic stroke when used in the acute stage in reducing the disability, but presently there is not enough evidence to suggest that it also reduces case fatality. More double-blind, placebo-controlled RCTs of adequate sample size are needed before making recommendations for the routine administration of vinpocetine for all patients with acute ischemic stroke.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Cerebral Microdialysis-Based Interventions Targeting Delayed Cerebral
           Ischemia Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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      Abstract: Background Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), a complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is linked to cerebral vasospasm and associated with poor long-term outcome. We implemented a structured cerebral microdialysis (CMD) based protocol using the lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) as an indicator of the cerebral energy metabolic status in the neurocritical care decision making, using an LPR ≥ 30 as a cutoff suggesting an energy metabolic disturbance. We hypothesized that CMD monitoring could contribute to active, protocol-driven therapeutic interventions that may lead to the improved management of patients with SAH. Methods Between 2018 and 2020, 49 invasively monitored patients with SAH, median Glasgow Coma Scale 11 (range 3–15), and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies scale 4 (range 1–5) on admission receiving CMD were included. We defined a major CMD event as an LPR ≥ 40 for ≥ 2 h and a minor CMD event as an LPR ≥ 30 for ≥ 2 h. Results We analyzed 7,223 CMD samples over a median of 6 days (5–8). Eight patients had no CMD events. In 41 patients, 113 minor events were recorded, and in 23 patients 42 major events were recorded. Our local protocols were adhered to in 40 major (95%) and 98 minor events (87%), with an active intervention in 32 (76%) and 71 (63%), respectively. Normalization of energy metabolic status (defined as four consecutive samples with LPR < 30 for minor and LPR < 40 for major events) was seen after 69% of major and 59% of minor events. The incidence of DCI-related infarcts was 10% (five patients), with only two observed in a CMD-monitored brain region. Conclusions Active interventions were initiated in a majority of LPR events based on CMD monitoring. A low DCI incidence was observed, which may be associated with the active interventions. The potential aid of CMD in the clinical decision-making targeting DCI needs confirmation in additional SAH studies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Patients’ Families, Physicians, and Nurses: Trying to See Eye-to-Eye
           Regarding Prognosis in Neurocritical Care

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      PubDate: 2022-04-26
       
  • Prognosis Predictions by Families, Physicians, and Nurses of Patients with
           Severe Acute Brain Injury: Agreement and Accuracy

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      Abstract: Background Effective shared decision-making relies on some degree of alignment between families and the medical team regarding a patient’s likelihood of recovery. Patients with severe acute brain injury (SABI) are often unable to participate in decisions, and therefore family members make decisions on their behalf. The goal of this study was to evaluate agreement between prognostic predictions by families, physicians, and nurses of patients with SABI regarding their likelihood of regaining independence and to measure each group’s prediction accuracy. Methods This observational cohort study, conducted from 01/2018 to 07/2020, was based in the neuroscience and medical/cardiac intensive care units of a single center. Patient eligibility included a diagnosis of SABI—specifically stroke, traumatic brain injury, or hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy—and a Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 12 after hospital day 2. At enrollment, families, physicians, and nurses were asked separately to predict a patient’s likelihood of recovering to independence within 6 months on a 0–100 scale, regardless of whether a formal family meeting had occurred. True outcome was based on modified Rankin Scale assessment through a family report or medical chart review. Prognostic agreement was measured by (1) intraclass correlation coefficient; (2) mean group prediction comparisons using paired Student’s t-tests; and (3) prevalence of concordance, defined as an absolute difference of less than 20 percentage points between predictions. Accuracy for each group was measured by calculating the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (C statistic) and compared by using DeLong’s test. Results Data were collected from 222 patients and families, 45 physicians, and 103 nurses. Complete data on agreement and accuracy were available for 187 and 177 patients, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient, in which 1 indicates perfect correlation and 0 indicates no correlation, was 0.49 for physician-family pairs, 0.40 for family-nurse pairs, and 0.66 for physician-nurse pairs. The difference in mean predictions between families and physicians was 23.5 percentage points (p < 0.001), 25.4 between families and nurses (p < 0.001), and 1.9 between physicians and nurses (p = 0.38). Prevalence of concordance was 39.6% for family-physician pairs, 30.0% for family-nurse pairs, and 56.2% for physician-nurse pairs. The C statistic for prediction accuracy was 0.65 for families, 0.82 for physicians, and 0.76 for nurses. The p values for differences in C statistics were < 0.05 for family-physician and family-nurse groups and 0.18 for physician-nurse groups. Conclusions For patients with SABI, agreement in predictions between families, physicians, and nurses regarding likelihood of recovery is poor. Accuracy appears higher for physicians and nurses compared with families, with no significant difference between physicians and nurses.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
       
  • Prognosis After Cardiac Arrest: The Additional Value of DWI and FLAIR to
           EEG

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      Abstract: Background Despite application of the multimodal European Resuscitation Council and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine algorithm, neurological prognosis of patients who remain comatose after cardiac arrest remains uncertain in a large group of patients. In this study, we investigate the additional predictive value of visual and quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to electroencephalography (EEG) for outcome estimation of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Methods We performed a prospective multicenter cohort study in patients after cardiac arrest submitted in a comatose state to the intensive care unit of two Dutch hospitals. Continuous EEG was recorded during the first 3 days and MRI was performed at 3 ± 1 days after cardiac arrest. EEG at 24 h and ischemic damage in 21 predefined brain regions on diffusion weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery on a scale from 0 to 4 were related to outcome. Quantitative MRI analyses included mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and percentage of brain volume with ADC < 450 × 10−6 mm2/s, < 550 × 10−6 mm2/s, and < 650 × 10−6 mm2/s. Poor outcome was defined as a Cerebral Performance Category score of 3–5 at 6 months. Results We included 50 patients, of whom 20 (40%) demonstrated poor outcome. Visual EEG assessment correctly identified 3 (15%) with poor outcome and 15 (50%) with good outcome. Visual grading of MRI identified 13 (65%) with poor outcome and 25 (89%) with good outcome. ADC analysis identified 11 (55%) with poor outcome and 3 (11%) with good outcome. EEG and MRI combined could predict poor outcome in 16 (80%) patients at 100% specificity, and good outcome in 24 (80%) at 63% specificity. Ischemic damage was most prominent in the cortical gray matter (75% vs. 7%) and deep gray nuclei (45% vs. 3%) in patients with poor versus good outcome. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging is complementary with EEG for the prediction of poor and good outcome of patients after cardiac arrest who are comatose at admission.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
       
  • Cerebral Blood Flow and Oxygen Delivery in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid
           Hemorrhage: Relation to Neurointensive Care Targets

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      Abstract: Background The primary aim was to determine to what extent continuously monitored neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU) targets predict cerebral blood flow (CBF) and delivery of oxygen (CDO2) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The secondary aim was to determine whether CBF and CDO2 were associated with clinical outcome. Methods In this observational study, patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated at the neuro-ICU in Uppsala, Sweden, from 2012 to 2020 with at least one xenon-enhanced computed tomography (Xe-CT) obtained within the first 14 days post ictus were included. CBF was measured with the Xe-CT and CDO2 was calculated based on CBF and arterial oxygen content. Regional cerebral hypoperfusion was defined as CBF < 20 mL/100 g/min, and poor CDO2 was defined as CDO2 < 3.8 mL O2/100 g/min. Neuro-ICU variables including intracranial pressure (ICP), pressure reactivity index, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), optimal CPP, and body temperature were assessed in association with the Xe-CT. The acute phase was divided into early phase (day 1–3) and vasospasm phase (day 4–14). Results Of 148 patients, 27 had underwent a Xe-CT only in the early phase, 74 only in the vasospasm phase, and 47 patients in both phases. The patients exhibited cerebral hypoperfusion and poor CDO2 for medians of 15% and 30%, respectively, of the cortical brain areas in each patient. In multiple regressions, higher body temperature was associated with higher CBF and CDO2 in the early phase. In a similar regression for the vasospasm phase, younger age and longer pulse transit time (lower peripheral resistance) correlated with higher CBF and CDO2, whereas lower hematocrit only correlated with higher CBF but not with CDO2. ICP, CPP, and pressure reactivity index exhibited no independent association with CBF and CDO2. R2 of these regressions were below 0.3. Lower CBF and CDO2 in the early phase correlated with poor outcome, but this only held true for CDO2 in multiple regressions. Conclusions Systemic and cerebral physiological variables exhibited a modest association with CBF and CDO2. Still, cerebral hypoperfusion and low CDO2 were common and low CDO2 was associated with poor outcome. Xe-CT imaging could be useful to help detect secondary brain injury not evident by high ICP and low CPP.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
       
  • Blood Pressure and Spot Sign in Spontaneous Supratentorial Subcortical
           Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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      Abstract: Background Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a potentially devastating cause of brain injury, often occurring secondary to hypertension. Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA), known as the spot sign, has been shown to predict hematoma expansion and worse outcomes. Although hypertension has been associated with an increased rate of the spot sign being present, the relationship between spot sign and blood pressure has not been fully explored. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 134 patients (40 women and 94 men, mean age 62.3 ± 15.73 years) presenting to a tertiary academic medical center with spontaneous supratentorial subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage from 1/1/2018 to 1/4/2021. Results A spot sign was demonstrated in images of 18 patients (13.43%) and correlated with a higher intracerebral hemorrhage score (2.61 ± 1.42 vs. 1.31 ± 1.25, p = 0.002), larger hematoma volume (53.49cm3 ± 32.08 vs. 23.45cm3 ± 25.65, p = 0.001), lower Glasgow Coma Scale on arrival (9.06 ± 4.56 vs. 11.74 ± 3.65, p = 0.027), increased risk of hematoma expansion (16.67% vs. 5.26%, p = 0.042), and need for surgical intervention (66.67% vs. 15.52%, p < 0.001). We did not see a correlation with age, sex, or underlying comorbidities. The presence of spot sign correlated with higher modified Rankin scores at discharge (4.94 ± 1.00 vs. 3.92 ± 1.64, p < 0.001). We saw significantly higher systolic blood pressure at the time of CTA in patients with a spot sign (184 mm Hg ± 43.11 vs. 153 mm Hg ± 36.99, p = 0.009) and the highest recorded blood pressure (p = 0.019), although not blood pressure on arrival (p = 0.081). Performing CTA early in the process of blood pressure lowering was associated with a spot sign (p < 0.001). Conclusions The presence of spot sign correlates with larger hematomas, worse outcomes, and increased surgical intervention. There is a significant association between spot sign and systolic blood pressure at the time of CTA, with the highest systolic blood pressure being recorded prior to CTA. Although the role of intensive blood pressure management in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage remains a subject of debate, patients with a spot sign may be a subgroup that could benefit from this.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • Neurological Prognostication After Hypoglycemic Coma: Role of Clinical and
           EEG Findings

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      Abstract: Background Hypoglycemic coma (HC) is an uncommon but severe clinical condition associated with poor neurological outcome. There is a dearth of robust neurological prognostic factors after HC. On the other hand, there is an increasing body of literature on reliable prognostic markers in the postanoxic coma, a similar—albeit not identical—situation. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the use and predictive value of these markers in HC. Methods We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, cohort study within five centers of the Critical Care EEG Monitoring Research Consortium. We queried our electroencephalography (EEG) databases to identify all patients undergoing continuous EEG monitoring after admission to an intensive care unit with HC (defined as Glasgow Coma Scale < 8 on admission and a first blood glucose level < 50 mg/dL or not documented but in an obvious clinical context) between 01/01/2010 and 12/31/2020. We studied the association of findings at neurological examination (Glasgow Coma Scale motor subscale, pupillary light and corneal reflexes) and at continuous EEG monitoring(highly malignant patterns, reactivity, periodic discharges, seizures) with best neurological outcome within 3 months after hospital discharge, defined by the Cerebral Performance Category as favorable (1–3: recovery of consciousness) versus unfavorable (4–5: lack of recovery of consciousness). Results We identified 60 patients (30 [50%] women; age 62 [51–72] years). Thirty-one and 29 patients had a favorable and unfavorable outcome, respectively. The presence of pupillary reflexes (24 [100%] vs. 17 [81%]; p value 0.04) and a motor subscore > 2 (22 [92%] vs. 12 [63%]; p value 0.03) at 48–72 h were associated with a favorable outcome. A highly malignant EEG pattern was observed in 7 of 29 (24%) patients with unfavorable outcome versus 0 of 31 (0%) with favorable outcome, whereas the presence of EEG reactivity was observed in 28 of 31 (90%) patients with favorable outcome versus 13 of 29 (45%) with unfavorable outcome (p < 0.001 for comparison of all background categories). Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that highly malignant EEG patterns might be reliable prognostic markers of unfavorable outcome after HC. Other EEG findings, including lack of EEG reactivity and seizures and clinical findings appear less accurate. These findings should be replicated in a larger multicenter prospective study.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • A Comparison Between Enteral and Intravenous Nimodipine in Subarachnoid
           Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and enteral nimodipine in preventing poor outcome from delayed cerebral ischemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We performed a systematic search and a network meta-analysis using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar. Risk of Bias 2 tool was used to assess risk of bias of included studies. A ranking among methods was performed on the basis of the frequentist analog of the surface under the cumulative ranking curve. Published studies that met the following population, intervention, comparison, outcomes and study (PICOS) criteria were included: patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage aged 15 years or older (P); nimodipine, intravenous and oral formulation (I); placebo or no intervention (C); poor outcome measured at 3 months (defined as death, vegetative state, or severe disability), case fatality at 3 months, delayed cerebral ischemia, delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit, and vasospasm measured with transcranial Doppler or digital subtraction angiography (O); and randomized controlled trials (S). No language or publication date restrictions were applied. Ten studies were finally included, with a total of 1527 randomly assigned patients. Oral and intravenous nimodipine were both effective in preventing poor outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit. Neither treatment was effective in improving case fatality. Evolving clinical protocols over a 30-year period and the risk of bias of the included studies may limit the strength of our results. Enteral and intravenous nimodipine may have a similar effectiveness in terms of preventing poor outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit. More research may be needed to fully establish the role of intravenous nimodipine in current clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
 
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