Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 59 journals)
Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Metallurgica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Device Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Complex Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Graphene and 2D Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Vuzov. Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya i Funktsional’nye Pokrytiya (Proceedings of Higher Schools. Powder Metallurgy аnd Functional Coatings)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Advanced Joining Processes     Open Access  
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Processing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metal Finishing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgical Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Metallurgical Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Powder Diffraction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Powder Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Powder Metallurgy Progress     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Metalurgia     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Revista Remetallica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Metallurgy (Metally)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Soldering & Surface Mount Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Steel Times lnternational     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Transactions of the IMF     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tungsten     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B
Number of Followers: 32  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1543-1916 - ISSN (Online) 1073-5615
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2657 journals]
  • Correction to: A Critical Review of Limitations of Slag Capacity Concepts
           in Metallurgical Applications by Taking Sulfide and Phosphate Capacities
           as Examples
    • Abstract: A correction to this paper has been published:
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Correction to: Thermodynamic Study of the Chlorine Content of Stainless
    • Abstract: A correction to this paper has been published:
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Reply to the Discussion on “Prevention of High-Temperature Surface
           Degradation in SiMo Cast Irons by Cr and Al Alloying”
    • PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Grain Refinement of the CrMnFeCoNi High Entropy Alloy Cast Ingots by
           Adding Lanthanum
    • Abstract: The effect of lanthanum addition on the grain refinement of CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs) was investigated experimentally. When 9.3 pct lanthanum was added, the equiaxed zone faction enlarged sharply from 41.17 to 76.58 pct. The number of grains < 200 µm increased obviously, and the mean grain size in the equiaxed zone decreased from 331 to 144 μm. Compositional undercooling induced by lanthanum addition caused grain refinement of the HEAs.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Discussion of “Prevention of High-Temperature Surface Degradation in
           SiMo Cast Irons by Cr and Al Alloying”
    • PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Strength and Bonding Mechanism of Nonhydraulic Cementitious Binders:
           Reutilization of MgO in Basic Oxygen Furnace Dust
    • Abstract: Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) dust is a secondary resource with high total iron (TFe) content produced in metallurgical steelmaking process. It is the most economical way to recycle BOF dust by adding binders to prepare cold-bonded pellets and returning to BOF for steelmaking. Nevertheless, the digestion reaction of dead-burned MgO and CaO contained in BOF dust causes expansion and cracking of the pellets. Based on the hydration mechanism of nonhydraulic cementitious materials, it was first proposed to use the dead-burned MgO contained in BOF dust as a binder raw material, mixed with MgCl2 or KH2PO4 to form magnesium oxychloride (MOC) or magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) binder to prepare cold-bonded pellets, while simultaneously consuming MgO and reducing the expansion stress generated by digestion reaction. In this paper, a comparative analysis of strength and bonding mechanism of the two binders is carried out to lay the foundation theory for their rational application. The results show that MKP and MOC binders are beneficial to improve the early and later strength of pellets respectively. The acicular 5 phase crystals formed by MOC binder have strong surface polarity and high bonding strength. They are interlocked to generate a network structure, which forms a unified whole with high strength after the dust particles are wrapped; the prismatic K-Struvite crystals formed by MKP binder have strong intermolecular force and high binder self-strength. They are embedded in the gaps between the dust particles and form solid bridges to improve the pellet strength.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Evolution of Non-Metallic Inclusions in Al-Killed Stainless Steelmaking
    • Abstract: The evolution of non-metallic inclusions (> 10 µm) for the Al-killed steel in the stainless steelmaking is described. The effects of the slag basicity at the AOD/VOD process, Ca treatment, raw materials (dolomite and spent refractory), reoxidation and vacuum condition on the evolution of the non-metallic inclusion were investigated using the thermo-chemical program (FactSageTM) and the SEM-EDS analysis of the non-metallic inclusions sampled at each process (AOD/VOD-ladle treatment-tundish-continuous casting) and discussed for the beneficial modification of the non-metallic inclusions to obtain better surface quality of the steel in the secondary refining process. The phase stability diagram of the inclusion newly developed from the analysis results and the mechanism for the evolution of non-metallic inclusion in Al-killed stainless steel was suggested.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Optimization of the CCT Curves for Steels Containing Al, Cu and B
    • Abstract: New continuous cooling transformation (CCT) equations have been optimized to calculate the start temperatures and critical cooling rates of phase formations during austenite decomposition in low-alloyed steels. Experimental CCT data from the literature were used for applying the recently developed method of calculating the grain boundary soluble compositions of the steels for optimization. These compositions, which are influenced by solute microsegregation and precipitation depending on the heating/cooling/holding process, are expected to control the start of the austenite decomposition, if initiated at the grain boundaries. The current optimization was carried out rigorously for an extended set of steels than used previously, besides including three new solute elements, Al, Cu and B, in the CCT-equations. The validity of the equations was, therefore, boosted not only due to the inclusion of new elements, but also due to the addition of more low-alloyed steels in the optimization. The final optimization was made with a mini-tab tool, which discarded statistically insignificant parameters from the equations and made them prudently safer to use. Using a thermodynamic-kinetic software, IDS, the new equations were further validated using new experimental CCT data measured in this study. The agreement is good both for the phase transformation start temperatures as well as the final phase fractions. In addition, IDS simulations were carried out to construct the CCT diagrams and the final phase fraction diagrams for 17 steels and two cast irons, in order to outline the influence of solute elements on the calculations and their relationship with literature recommendations.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Assisted Green Electrochemical Preparation of
           Silicon from Solid Silica in Calcium Chloride Melt
    • Abstract: A novel integrated cell with O2- YSZ Pt O2(air) reference and counter electrodes was constructed using a short yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte (YSZ) tube. Combining with cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic electrolysis methods, green electrochemical preparation of Si from solid SiO2 in CaCl2 melt at 1173 K was studied via an experimental apparatus containing the novel integrated cell under completely carbon-free conditions; the effect of electrolysis time on the morphology of the Si product was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results show that the morphology of the product obtained from potentiostatic electrolysis at a low overpotential (− 1.6 V) undergoes an evolution from SiO2 raw powder with different sizes to aggregates of spherical particles and small particles with partial reduction, and then to Si nuclei, and finally to Si wires or flakes. The morphology of electrolytic products has little relation with that of SiO2 raw powder and may be controlled by applying different potentials. Furthermore, the longer the electrolysis time, the more the Si wires grow, and the higher the Si purity overall. It is feasible that the experimental apparatus without the sealed stainless steel reactor and any carbonaceous materials can be used to prepare Si from solid SiO2 in CaCl2 melt and release O2 gas at the same time.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Review of the Liquid Metal Extraction Process for the Recovery of Nd and
           Dy from Permanent Magnets
    • Abstract: Neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy) based rare earth (RE) magnets are critical to green economy due to their vital role in permanent magnet applications such as electric motors and generators. The accumulating RE magnet waste in the form of end-of-life products (EoL), criticality of supply-demand, and the huge environmental costs associated with RE mining translated into an increased focus on RE recycling processes in the last decade. Environmentally friendly pyrometallurgical techniques were developed as an alternative to the traditional hydrometallurgical route due to the generation of large amounts of waste in hydrometallurgy. Liquid metal extraction (LME) is a promising pyrometallurgical technology as it has the ability to handle a wide variety of scrap feed materials, from swarf to ingots; to produce clean material with minimal impurities; and to allow the separation of metallic species without metallothermic reduction. So far, magnesium, silver, copper, and bismuth have been used as LME agents while exploration of other possibilities is ongoing. This article presents a systematic review of previous studies on the extraction agents in terms of the reaction mechanisms, behavior of the RE elements, extraction efficiencies, and the formation of intermetallic compounds during the process.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • The Utilization of Bauxite Residue with a Calcite-Rich Bauxite Ore in the
           Pedersen Process for Iron and Alumina Extraction
    • Abstract: Metallurgical grade alumina is produced worldwide through the well-known Bayer process, which unavoidably generates bauxite residue (BR, also known as red mud) in almost equal amounts to alumina. This study aims the valorization of BR through a smelting-reduction process to obtain calcium aluminate slags that can be a proper feed for alumina recovery via the Pedersen process. It investigates the thermodynamics and characteristics of the slags and pig iron produced from mixtures of BR, a bauxite beneficiation byproduct, and lime. In this context, the evolution of the different phases in the slags is studied with advanced analytical techniques and thermodynamic calculations. According to the results, a CaO/Al2O3 mass ratio within 1.3 to 1.4 in the slags can yield more Al2O3-containing leachable phases, such as CaO·Al2O3 and 12CaO·7Al2O3. The cooling dictates the amount and the characteristics of these phases, and the slower cooling rate yields improved slag characteristics. The distribution of the elements between the slag and metal phases shows that iron is separated, and the majority of the P, Cr, Ni, and V are distributed in the produced pig iron, while S, Ti, and Si are mostly concentrated in the slags.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Interface-Resolved Simulation of Bubbles–Metal–Slag Multiphase System
           in a Gas-Stirred Ladle
    • Abstract: A grid-filtered scale interface-resolved volume of fluid (VoF) model coupling a sub-grid scale large eddy simulation (LES) was used to directly simulate bubble behavior and the evolution of multiphase interfaces and free surfaces in a bubble–metal–slag multiphase system. The model has been applied to an industrial 150-ton gas-stirred ladle. The results show transient behavior of the slag eye, with large variations over time of the eye size. Bubble detachment frequency and rise characteristics (including coalescence and breakup) directly affect the size, position and variation of the slag eye. The effects of the argon flow rate, slag thickness, slag viscosity, and slag–steel interfacial energy were investigated; the latter two have little effect. The calculated average slag eye size agrees with previously reported results for industrial ladles. A new correlation for the time-averaged slag eye area, based on the modified Froude number, is proposed for industrial ladles.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Study on Microstructure Formation in Non-autogenous Laser Welded 2A97
           Al-Li Alloy
    • Abstract: 2A97 is the third-generation aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy developed by China. However, the fine equiaxed zone (FEQZ) of weld is the weakest area of its joint, which severely limits its practical application in the aerospace field. In this study, the macro- and microscopic characteristics of weld and the formation mechanism of the microstructure under the condition of non-autogenous laser welding (NLW) were investigated. The results showed that the droplet transition behavior varied with the change in the content of low-boiling-temperature elements of filler metals. The porosity imperfection in 2A97-T3 via NLW was relatively serious, which could be modified by using ER2319 filler metal. The addition of Zr in the equiaxed zone resulted in effective refinement of the equiaxed dendrite. Furthermore, it also led to the alternate distribution of coarse and fine equiaxed dendrites. The distribution of FEQZ was affected by the flow of the weld pool and concentrated at the four corners of the weld. Moreover, its morphology and distribution ranges were influenced significantly by the welding parameters and filler metals.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Factors Controlling the Synthesis of Porous Ti-Based Biomedical Alloys by
           Electrochemical Deoxidation in Molten Salts
    • Abstract: The study has aimed at understanding the key factors involved in the synthesis of porous Ti-based β-Ti-35Nb-7.9Sn alloy by electro-deoxidation of compacted and sintered TiO2-Nb2O5-SnO2 mixed oxide disks in molten calcium chloride. Processing parameters assessed were the sintering temperature, and thus, the open porosity, of the oxide precursor as well as the temperature, voltage, and time of electro-deoxidation. Process conditions were arrived at that enable the complete and efficient reduction of the mixed oxide. The Ti-35Nb-7.9Sn alloy product was single-phase bcc and had a porous microstructure with nodular particles. Electro-deoxidation experiments of different durations allowed the identification of the main intermediate phases occurring during the reduction as well as the mechanism of the oxide-to-alloy conversion. The porous Ti-35Nb-7.9Sn alloy prepared was subjected to corrosion testing in Hanks’ simulated body fluid solution and was found to exhibit superior performance when compared with dense 304L and 316L steels and brass.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • CFD Modeling of Multiphase Flow in an SKS Furnace: The Effect of Tuyere
    • Abstract: The emerging bottom blown copper smelting (SKS) technology has attracted growing interest since it came into production. To further reveal the agitation behavior inside the bath and optimize the variable parameters, CFD simulation was conducted on a scaled down SKS furnace model with different tuyere arrangements. The Multi-Fluid VOF model was used for the first time in SKS furnace simulation and the simulated results show good agreement with an experimental water model reported in the literature, in terms of plume shape and surface wave. It was found that a low velocity region would appear on the opposite side of the bubble plume and persisted for a long time. To enhance the agitation in the low velocity region and reduce the dead zone area, an arrangement with tuyeres installed at each side of the furnace was recommended. Results suggested that a smaller tuyere angle difference would help to strengthen the agitation in the system. However, further investigation indicated that the difference in tuyere angle between two rows of tuyeres should be limited within a certain range to balance the requirements of higher agitation efficiency and longer lining refractory lifespan.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Vaporization of Vanadium Pentoxide from CaO-SiO 2 -VO x Slags During
           Alumina Dissolution
    • Abstract: The vaporization of vanadium pentoxide from CaO-SiO2-VOx ternary slags using different gas treatment regimens and parallel vacuum gas extirpation to treat V-bearing slags at 1873 K has been developed in the present study. The novelty of the present study is to monitor the effect of parallel alumina dissolution on the vaporization phenomenon. Vanadium pentoxide has high vapor pressure at the temperatures over 1500 K. When CaO-SiO2-VOx ternary slags, kept in dense alumina crucibles, are injected with oxygen, V2O5 gas bubbles are formed which are forced out by using vacuum extirpation. The vanadium pentoxide could be then collected in the exhaust gases. The mechanism of the process phenomenon is described as the formation of V2O5 gas phase resulting from the oxidation of the lower-valent oxides present in the slag. This gas phase would form microbubbles in the molten slag bulk phase due to low surface tension between the gas phase and the slag, thereby increasing the contact surface. At the same time, the crucible material would dissolve in the slag causing an increase in the slag viscosity. Due to the high slag viscosity of the bulk slag, these microbubbles formed would have difficulty in coalescing and reaching the slag surface. The escaping of the bubbles into the gas phase is enabled by the vacuum extirpation.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Investigation on Desulfurization of Rejected Electrolytic Manganese Metal
           Scrap: Experiment and Mathematical Modeling
    • Abstract: To improve the recycling efficiency of rejected electrolytic manganese metal (EMM) scrap that contains excessive sulfur, a high-temperature experiment and mathematical model reflecting the mechanism of sulfur transfer from the molten manganese metal to the molten slag were elaborated. A MoSi2 electrical resistance furnace filled with argon protective gas was first employed to perform the desulfurization experiment at 1673 K (1400 °C). Four different fluorine slags with the CaO content ranging from 0 to 20 pct were used in the experiment. A mathematical model of the rejected EMM scrap desulfurization, based on the two-film theory, was established. It adequately described the thermodynamics and kinetics of the rejected EMM scrap desulfurization reaction. In particular, it captured the influence of the interfacial tension between the molten slag and molten manganese for the sulfur transfer process. A comparative analysis of measured and calculated results proved the model feasibility: it took into account the effects of the holding temperature, slag CaO content, the initial sulfur content in rejected EMM scrap, and slag/manganese mass ratio on the desulfurization efficiency. The results indicate that CaO could promote the desulfurization of the manganese metal. The sulfur removal ratio is 58.01 pct with a CaO-free slag at 1673 K (1400 °C), while the ratio increases to 84.58 pct if the CaO content rises to 20 pct. At higher temperatures, the CaO content in the slag can be appropriately reduced. High slag/manganese mass ratios were found to benefit the sulfur removal, while the CaO content in the slag could be adjusted according to the initial sulfur content in the rejected EMM scrap.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Analysis of Surface Tension and Viscosity of Liquid Metals
    • Abstract: The surface tension γ and the dynamic viscosity η of liquid alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals at the melting point have been investigated. A physical interpretation of γ and η, as well as γ·η−1 and η2·γ−1, is given using surface density, thermal impulse, and the thermal length scale. Dimensionless surface tension and dimensionless dynamic viscosity at melting point are obtained, and excess entropy is calculated from the universal scaling law.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Microstructure and Porosity Evolution During the Reduction, Softening and
           Melting of Iron-Bearing Materials
    • Abstract: The performance of the blast furnace is strongly affected by the position and thickness of the cohesive zone, which is largely influenced by the high-temperature properties of the iron-bearing materials. During its reduction, softening and melting, ferrous materials undergo major microstructure changes and its understanding is essential to develop new raw-materials, technologies, and models. In this study, the behavior of reduction, softening and melting of a lump ore, an acid pellet, and a sinter was characterized by softening and melting (S&M) experiments. After that, to access the samples’ structural transformations, interrupted S&M tests were carried out up to four different conditions based on contraction and pressure loss levels. The obtained products were characterized according to its density (true and apparent), porosity (open, closed and total), phase composition by X-ray diffraction and microstructure (reflected light microscopy and electron scanning microscopy). From the S&M test results, three main regions of reduction were characterized, namely: solid/gas reduction, reduction retardation, and melting reduction. In the solid/gas reduction, samples open porosity increased, with reduction following the shrinking core model. On the region of reduction retardation, a sharp decrease in open porosity was identified together with the diminishing of the reduction rate, which occurred due to the iron shell porosity being clogged due to the slag transfer from the particles’ cores to its periphery. At the melting exudation region, reduction retardation ceased and exudation of the ferrous slag lead to a peak of reduction. The lower the reduction degree of the samples at this stage, the higher the consumption of carbon. Furthermore, at 10 pct contraction, a pseudo-globular wüstite structure interspersed with slag was observed for the pellet and sinter cores. At 50 pct contraction, the previous structure coalesced to form a globular shape wüstite in a well-connected slag matrix.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Temperature Dependence of CaO Desulfurization Mechanism in Molten Ni-Base
    • Abstract: Desulfurization phenomenon of Ni-base superalloy using a solid CaO was identified by adjusting the temperature of melt. Ni-base superalloy and NiS powder were heated together at 1400 °C, 1500 °C, and 1600 °C. Dense and porous CaO rods were inserted into the melts individually. After the rods were pulled out, CaO, CaS, and calcium aluminates were detected on the rods by X-ray diffraction analysis. Electron probe microanalysis showed that only Ca, O, Al, and S distributed at the melt/CaO interfaces. At 1500 °C and 1600 °C, Al and S were also detected at particle boundaries in the rods. S contents in the alloys decreased as the desulfurization time passed and the temperature was raised. There was no prominent correlation between the rod porosity and the S contents. The desulfurization reaction was suggested to be that CaO, Al, and S react to generate CaS and calcium aluminates. When the temperature is high enough, the calcium aluminates form a solid–liquid coexisting state. Effective diffusion coefficient, which shows the S diffusivity in the generated layer at the melt/CaO interface, depends on the temperature and can be expressed by the Arrhenius equation. It has been supposed that the desulfurization reaction mainly occurs on CaO, and a macroscale surface area controls the desulfurization rate.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
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