Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 58 journals)
 Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically Acta Metallurgica Slovaca Advanced Device Materials       (Followers: 3) American Journal of Fluid Dynamics       (Followers: 48) Archives of Metallurgy and Materials       (Followers: 9) Asian Journal of Materials Science       (Followers: 5) Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly       (Followers: 20) Complex Metals       (Followers: 2) Corrosion Communications Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems       (Followers: 19) Handbook of Magnetic Materials       (Followers: 2) Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)       (Followers: 10) International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys       (Followers: 3) International Journal of Metals       (Followers: 6) International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials       (Followers: 8) International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering Ironmaking & Steelmaking       (Followers: 4) ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan       (Followers: 23) JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society       (Followers: 32) Journal of Advanced Joining Processes Journal of Central South University       (Followers: 1) Journal of Cluster Science Journal of Iron and Steel Research International       (Followers: 7) Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering       (Followers: 1) Journal of Materials Processing Technology       (Followers: 19) Journal of Metallurgical Engineering       (Followers: 2) Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy       (Followers: 3) Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering       (Followers: 7) Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A       (Followers: 41) Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B       (Followers: 30) Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E       (Followers: 2) Metallurgical Research & Technology Metallurgical Research and Technology       (Followers: 6) Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering       (Followers: 1) Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration Powder Diffraction       (Followers: 1) Powder Metallurgy       (Followers: 33) Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics       (Followers: 7) Powder Metallurgy Progress       (Followers: 5) Rare Metals       (Followers: 2) Revista de Metalurgia Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica Revista Remetallica Russian Metallurgy (Metally)       (Followers: 4) Science and Technology of Welding and Joining       (Followers: 4) Soldering & Surface Mount Technology       (Followers: 1) Stainless Steel World       (Followers: 17) Transactions of the IMF       (Followers: 14) Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals       (Followers: 4) Tungsten Universal Journal of Materials Science       (Followers: 1) Welding in the World       (Followers: 4) Welding International       (Followers: 7) Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки
Similar Journals
 Metallurgical and Materials Transactions BNumber of Followers: 30      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1543-1916 - ISSN (Online) 1073-5615 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Correction to: Determination of the Partial Contributions to the
Electrical Conductivity of TiO2-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaO Slags: Role of the
Experimental Processing Conditions

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PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Correction to: Effect of Solution Treatment on Grain Growth and
Precipitates in Electroslag Remelted 15Cr-22Ni Iron-Base Superalloy

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PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Response to “Discussion on “Numerical Study of Desulphurization
Behavior During Kanbara Reactor Hot Metal Treatment””

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PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Inclusion Evolution in Al-Killed Ca-Treated Steels at Heat Treatment
Temperature In Situ Observed Using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope

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Abstract: In situ observation and elemental mapping were combined to better understand the evolution mechanism of inclusions from CaO–MgO–Al2O3 to CaO–MgO–Al2O3–CaS in Al-killed Ca-treated steels at 1273 K to 1473 K. During the heating process, the surface layer of CaS gradually formed on the MgO–Al2O3 core in inclusions. The thickness of the surface layer increased with time. The higher heating temperature promoted the generation of the CaS phase in inclusions due to the faster element diffusion.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Steelmaking Decarbonization Options with Current Technology

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Abstract: Potential reduction in carbon intensity of steelmaking (for integrated plants and electric furnaces) is estimated, based on published consumption figures. The analysis shows that substantial reductions in carbon intensity are feasible with existing process options. In future, ironmaking with green hydrogen would be a competitive option should the anticipated reductions in the relative cost of green hydrogen be realized.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Modeling of Flux Reaction and Mixing in Continuous Casting Mold of Medium
Mn Steel

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Abstract: The interfacial reaction between molten steel and mold flux causes MnO accumulation and SiO2 reduction in the mold flux during the continuous casting of medium Mn steel. A three-dimensional reaction model in the mold has been developed which coupled species transport with fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification. The model was applied to characterize the interfacial reaction and composition distribution of mold flux during the casting process. The model predictions were validated by comparison with experimental and plant measurements. The results show that the mold flux is driven by the surface flow of molten steel to form a high-speed circulating flow zone of mold flux at a distance 110 to 220 mm away from the mold’s narrow face, in which the reaction rate is high because of the fast interface update, which increases the time for the reaction with the molten steel and the components’ diffusion in the liquid flux pool. The mold flux near the nozzle flows slowly, allowing more time for interfacial reaction and component diffusion. The concentration of MnO in the molten flux pool decreases from the nozzle to the narrow face of the mold. The solid flux film is formed by the mixing and solidification of liquid mold fluxes with different MnO accumulations in different reaction stages, so that the MnO concentration in the solid film is lower than that of the liquid mold flux. The model predictions provide a basis for explaining the difference in composition of the mold flux film in the continuous casting of medium Mn steel.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Surface Morphology and Structural Evolution of Magnetite-Based Iron Ore
Fines During the Oxidation

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Abstract: The use of magnetite-based iron ore fines by means of fluidized bed technology has become a promising route to produce direct reduced iron. The significant influence of a prior oxidation treatment, which occurs in the preheating stage, on the subsequent fluidization and reduction behavior was observed in our previous study. As a result, it is important to investigate the oxidation of magnetite-based iron ore fines for an optimization of the proposed route. Three magnetite-based iron ore brands were analyzed. The oxidation characteristics are investigated based on thermogravimetric analysis. The surface morphology, structural evolution, and phase transformation were studied with a scanning electron microscope, an optical light microscope, and a high-temperature-X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), respectively. The three samples showed different oxidation capacity indexes (OCIs) but similar TG-DTG curves. The oxidation rate peaks at around 330 °C and 550 °C indicated the formation of γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3. The hematite phase shows a particular growth habit. The oxidation first occurs at the surface, forming gridlike hematite structures, and then extends to the inside, resulting in hematite needles. The specific surface area and pore volume decrease significantly due to the sintering effect during oxidation.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Solubility of Chromium in Liquid Magnesium

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Abstract: There is a necessity for quantitative information on the solubilities of various elements in Mg and its alloys owing to the growing interest in the precise control of their compositions. In this context, we investigated the quantitative dissolution of metallic Cr in liquid Mg. Pure Mg was melted in a Cr crucible at the temperature range of approximately 1073 K to 1323 K (800 °C to 1050 °C), and the composition of Mg was valuated after quenching. As a result, the relationship between the solubility limit of Cr in liquid Mg (Csol,Cr (mass pct)) and temperature (T/K) was found to be $$\log \left( {C_{{\text{sol,Cr}}} } \right) = - 5.18 \times 10^{3} /T + \, 3.61 \, ( \pm 0.07).$$ Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters for the Cr dissolution were assessed based on the experimental solubility data. The standard Gibbs energy of Cr dissolution in liquid Mg (ΔG°1,Cr/J) was evaluated to be as follows: Cr(s) = Cr(1 mass pct, in liquid Mg) ΔG°1,Cr = − 68.5 × T + 98400 (±1500). The findings in this study are beneficial for refining the Cr-Mg phase diagram and improving the impurity control of Mg in various industries such as Mg-alloy production and Ti smelting.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Synergistic Preparation of Metalized Pellets Using Stainless-Steel
Pickling Sludge and Blast-Furnace Bag Dust

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Abstract: Stainless-steel pickling sludge (SSPS) and blast-furnace bag dust (BFBD) contain heavy metals such as Ni and Cr, which are harmful to the environment. A new approach of “using waste to treat waste” is proposed, and the process of using a direct reduction method to synergistically desulfurize and extract Zn from SSPS and BFBD to prepare metalized pellets is investigated. The results show that in the reduction roasting, the Fe, Ni, and Cr oxides can be reduced to metals and exist in the form of alloy phases; the metallization rate was 87.9 pct. ZnFe2O4 can also be reduced to Zn(g) at about 1000 °C and recycled in the flue gas, and the Zn extraction rate was 99.81 pct. Moreover, S was removed in the form of SO2 flue gas, and the desulfurization rate was 45.46 pct; the remaining S was present in the form of CaS, which could be removed in the subsequent blast-furnace smelting process, reducing the SO2 flue-gas pressure during the reduction roasting process. CaF2 was relatively stable and mainly exists in the slag phase. The metalized pellets satisfy the requirements for a blast-furnace charge entering the furnace and can realize efficient resource utilization of SSPS and BFBD. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Effect of SiO2 on Crystallization of Calcium Ferrites in
Fe2O3–CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 System in Cooling Process

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Abstract: SiO2 plays an important role in the formation of calcium ferrite as a main binding phase in iron ore sinter. But the mechanism of SiO2 influence on the crystallization of calcium ferrite has been still unclear. The crystallization behavior of Fe2O3–CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 melt in a non-equilibrium state was investigated using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that SiO2 was an essential impact on the amount formation and morphology of calcium ferrite crystallization during the sintering process. With the increase of SiO2 content, the crystal morphology changed in the order of blocky, columnar, acicular to grains. The crystallization size increased first and then decreased. The crystallization sequence of samples with 4.0 mass pct SiO2 was observed as (Fe2O3, C4F14, SFCA-I) → CF→ SFCA → β-C2S. Increase of the cooling rate promoted the formation of Fe2O3, C4F14, and glass phase and the transformation of SFCA-I to SFCA. However, it also inhibited the crystallization of CF and SFCA, simultaneously the transformation of β-C2S to γ-C2S. The thermodynamic calculation shows that the crystallization temperatures and the primary crystal phase varied with the increase of SiO2 content, which agreed with the experimental results. In addition, the increase of SiO2 significantly reduced the liquid phase amount, simultaneously increased its viscosity at high-temperature range, which was contributing to decrease of the crystallization size.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Deformation Characteristics and Influential Parameters of Iron Coke Hot
Briquette During Carbonization Process

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Abstract: Iron coke hot briquette (ICHB) is considered as a typical low-carbon ironmaking charge. Much research has been done on its properties including strength, reactivity and post-reaction strength. However, the properties of ICHB in the carbonization process are also very important, which can affect the choice of reactor and the quality of the product. This paper complements the theory of ICHB during the carbonization process. ICHB was prepared with 20 pct iron ore A (referred to as ICHB-A) and iron ore B (referred to as ICHB-B) to study the effect of the reduction process of iron oxide on the deformation ratio and compressive strength of ICHB during carbonization. The main component of iron ore A is Fe3O4 and that of iron ore B is Fe2O3. The results show that Fe2O3 in ICHB-B is reduced at about 500 °C, and more gas is generated to inhibit the contraction of ICHB. However, the compressive strength of ICHB-B during carbonization is higher than that of ICHB-A, which is believed to be related to the closer bonding between hematite and coal. This study also compared the effect of the ratio of iron ore A on ICHB deformation ratio and compressive strength. The results show that the expansion ratio and shrinkage ratio of ICHB decrease with the increase of iron ore A ratio. By analyzing the deformation characteristics of briquette with the same proportion of Al2O3 during carbonization, it is considered that the influence of different proportion of iron ore A on ICHB deformation ration is mainly caused by the inhibition of inert material on the deformation behavior of coal. The iron ore can enhance the compressive strength of coke, but the reinforcing effect decreases with the increase of iron ore ratio. In addition, the influences of carbonization heating rate, forming pressure and particle size of iron ore on ICHB deformation behavior are also included in this study.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Investigations on the Barium-Bearing Magnetite Concentrate Roasted in Air

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Abstract: To expand the application of barium-bearing magnetite in pellets, the oxidation induration mechanism for barium-bearing magnetite concentrate pellets with the BaSO4 contents from 0 to 8wt pct as an additive was investigated in this paper. The green pellets were preheated at 900 °C for 10min and roasted at 1200 °C for 20min.The XRD, SEM-EDS, and TG were used to systematically analyze the phase composition, microstructure, elemental distribution, and oxidation behavior of the pellets with the different contents of BaSO4. The results indicated that BaSO4 reacted with SiO2 and Fe2O3 to form BaSiO3 and BaFe2O4, respectively. When the content of BaSO4 was less than 2 wt pct, the Ba-bearing silicate filled the hematite grains, which promoted the induration process of the pellets. With a further increase in the amount of BaSO4, the growth of hematite grains was suppressed by the Ba-bearing silicate. In addition, the BaFe2O4 distributed along the hematite grains’ boundaries, and the SO2 that decomposed from BaSO4 separated out from the pellets, which led to a decrease of compressive strength. Thereby, the compressive strength decreased, the porosity increased. A schematic of the oxidation induration mechanism is also presented based on the experimental results, providing the theoretical and technical foundations for the use of Ba-bearing oxide minerals in pellets.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Improved In-Mold Metallurgical Behavior for Slab Casting of IF Steels by a
Novel Multi-poles Electromagnetic Stirring

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Abstract: For the application of a novel in-mold multi-poles electromagnetic rotative stirring (EMRS) instrumentation, a coupled three-dimensional numerical model is established to study the effect of EMRS on the metallurgical behavior in the mold of 2150 mm × 230 mm size slab casting. The model is validated experimentally through the measurement of magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force. It has been proved that both the magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force produced by the in-mold multi-poles traveling wave stirring are mainly concentrated in front of the initial solidified shell along the mold wide sides especially at an optimal frequency of 4 Hz, which can produce a beneficial horizontal flow pattern for interstitial-free steels to wash away any hooked inclusions and/or bubbles under the meniscus. When the current intensity increases from 0 to 400 A, six swirl flows are observed in the cross-section of the mold stirrer center, the jet flow impinging depth decreased by 162 mm, and the tangential velocities of fluid flow on the solidification front increased by 0.126 and 0.120 m s−1 on the narrow and wide sides, respectively, which should be the key reasons for the washing and floating removal of the locally hooked inclusions. Meanwhile, the level fluctuation and shell thickness on the narrow side of mold decreased at first but increased later with an increasing current. A comprehensive evaluation method for the mold metallurgical behavior of EMRS is proposed based on the results from the numerical model and the statistical analysis of defect ratio in actual steel productions. It suggests that the optimum stirring current intensity is 300 A, which can cut the defect ratio of the hot rolled plates down to the lowest value of 0.06 pct while produced by the slab continuous casting process.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Redistribution of Minor and Trace Elements During Roasting of Cu-Rich
Complex Concentrate in Inert Atmosphere

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Abstract: A Cu-rich polymetallic complex concentrate produced at the Garpenberg Mines of Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden is investigated. Roasting at 700 °C in N2 leads to extensive liquid formation. The calcine obtained after cooling down to the room temperature is found to be severely sintered, entrapping numerous melt nuggets. This work focuses on analyzing redistribution of the minor (Ag) and trace elements consequent to the roasting treatment. Advanced micro-analytical techniques such as quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN), laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) are used in conjunction for detailed characterization of the initial concentrate and the roasted calcine, especially the melt nuggets (which symbolizes the phases which were molten at 700 °C). The minor element—Ag is primarily in the silver-antimonide and tetrahedrite mineral phases in the initial concentrate. Ag separates out of tetrahedrite when the later interacts with galena to form a liquid phase. Furthermore, Mn, Cd, Tl and Hg are the relevant trace elements in the Garpenberg concentrate. Sphalerite is the major host of Mn, Cd and Hg. Tl is mainly in galena. Consequent to liquid formations at 700 °C, the trace elements redistribute and tend to segregate in low-melting phase-fractions. Statistical methods such as correlation matrices and clustering analysis are used effectively in evaluating the data from laser-ablation ICP-MS measurements on sulphide samples. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Addressing Weld Metal Compositional Variations in EH36 Shipbuilding Steel
Processed by CaF2-SiO2-CaO-TiO2 Fluxes

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Abstract: Fused CaF2-SiO2-CaO-TiO2 fluxes are designed and applied to join EH36 shipbuilding steel under high heat input submerged arc welding. Pertinent elemental transfer behaviors of major alloying elements are quantified and possible chemical reactions have been postulated. It is found that transfer of Si and O is enhanced by increasing TiO2 addition, although that of Si is concurrently dependent on SiO2 activity. Furthermore, a unique neutral point is identified with regard to Ti transfer.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Kinetics of Iron Oxide Reduction in
$${\text{H}}_{2}/{\text{H}}_{2}{\text{O}}$$ H 2 / H 2 O Gas Mixture:
Global and Stepwise Reduction

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Abstract: In order to achieve lower $$\hbox {CO}_{2}$$ emissions from iron and steel manufacturing, reduction of iron oxides using hydrogen is the most promising alternative. Kinetics of these reduction reactions will govern the overall efficiency of the process. In this study, reduction of iron oxide pellet powder was carried out in different $$\hbox {H}_{2}/\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}$$ mix gas in temperature range of 1023 K to 1373 K using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). A quantitative steam generator setup was designed and installed in connection with TGA setup for controlled use of $$\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}$$ in the reducing gas mixture. For global reduction of $$\hbox {Fe}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}$$ , the effect of different mole fractions of $$\hbox {H}_{2}$$ (and $$\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}$$ ) in mix gas on the reduction kinetics was analyzed. The results suggested that when the $$\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}$$ mole fraction was lower, the reaction was only divided into the first and second stages (corresponding to $$\hbox {Fe}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\rightarrow \hbox {FeO}$$ and $$\hbox {FeO}\rightarrow \hbox {Fe}$$ ), which were controlled by chemical reaction. When the $$\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}$$ mole fraction was higher in the mix gas (20 pct), the reaction was diffusion controlled towards the end of the second stage. The apparent activation energy of the first stage was not affected with increasing $$\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}$$ content in the reducing gas whereas it increased for second stage with increasing $$\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}$$ content i.e., from 34.97 kJ/mol (100 pct $$\hbox {H}_{2}$$ ) to 51.04 kJ/mol (90 pct $$\hbox {H}_{2}$$ ) and 69.6 kJ/mol (80 pct $$\hbox {H}_{2}$$ ). In addition, stepwise reduction experiments were designed by controlling the $$\hbox {H}_{2}$$ mole fraction as 50 and 90 pct to decouple the $$\hbox {Fe}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\rightarrow \hbox {Fe}$$ reaction into $$\hbox {Fe}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\rightarrow \hbox {FeO}$$ and $$\hbox {FeO}\rightarrow \hbox {Fe}$$ respectively. XRD and SEM analysis of the reaction products was carried out to identify the phases and morphological changes at each reaction step. It was found that the products formed by reduction with gas containing higher mole fraction of $$\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}$$ were sintered more seriously at high temperature and hindered the further reaction.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• High Modulus Steel Produced by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

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Abstract: For the first time a high modulus steel (HMS) was produced by the powder-based cold spray additive manufacturing technique. The advantage of such technique is the lower thermal input leading to lower oxidation levels and higher deposition rates compared to laser additive manufacturing techniques. The objective of this work is to explore the possibilities and main challenges when using the powder-based cold spray additive manufacturing process to produce high modulus steels, which represent a novel concept for lightweight design, based here on TiB2 dispersed in a ferritic matrix. The deposits were obtained by cold spraying of the HMS powder onto aluminum substrates. The results showed that the deposit presented an extremely high hardness of more than 670 HV due to high deformation levels of the matrix and refined microstructure. A non-equilibrium microstructure in the deposit was obtained, and after heat treatment the titanium diborides precipitated along the grain/subgrain boundaries. The average hardness of the material in this condition was 338 HV. The bonding between particles was not perfect, and the oxygen content of the deposit was relatively high (0.21 wt pct), leading to the conclusion that further studies must consider improving the gas velocity associated to controlling the oxygen content.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Analysis of the Solidus Temperature of Multicomponent Steel by a Finite
Thickness Model with Heat- and Solute-Transfer Equations in the
Solid–Liquid Zone

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Abstract: To examine the assumption of a constant solidus temperature—which has been empirically adopted in general heat analyses without firm validation—in all solidification stages for multicomponent steels, heat- and solute-transfer equations were simultaneously solved using the finite thickness model, which focuses on early-to-late-stage solidification except final-stage solidification. In early-to-middle-stage solidification, the model provides a constant solidus temperature, as predicted by the previously reported semi-infinite thickness model wherein the solidification front was far from the strand center. In late-stage solidification, however, the present model exhibited a slightly decreased solidus temperature—almost within the temperature measurement accuracy range. This suggests that the assumption of a constant solidus temperature does not exactly hold in late-stage solidification but is not unreasonable from a practical viewpoint. The obtained solutions agree well with numerical analyses and are in reasonable agreement with thermoanalytical measurements and industrial findings. Thus, the present model supports the assumption of a constant solidus temperature and estimates the solidus temperature in early-to-late-stage solidification, which can play a role in search of an adequate solidus temperature as an approximate analytical solution for multicomponent steels.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Numerical Simulation of the Denitrification Reaction of INCONEL 718
Superalloy During Vacuum Induction Melting

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Abstract: The nitrogen content of INCONEL 718 superalloy is a key factor in determining its performance. Vacuum induction melting (VIM) is the main stage of nitrogen removal in the production of superalloys, where the nitrogen content of the alloy should be minimized. In this work, a mathematical model of electromagnetic thermal flow mass-transfer coupling was developed to investigate the feature of the electromagnetic force, heat transfer, fluid flow, and nitrogen distribution in the melt pool during VIM, which was used to analyze the effect of electromagnetic stirring on the denitrification reaction by means of finite element simulation. The effects of current intensity and pressure on the denitrification reaction during VIM were studied. Moreover, the model developed in this article was validated. The results indicated that electromagnetic stirring accelerated the mass transfer rate of nitrogen and had a significant effect on the distribution of nitrogen content in the melt pool of superalloys during VIM. Increasing the current intensity and reducing the pressure will promote denitrification of superalloys. The model validation results showed that the numerical simulation results were less inaccurate than traditional theoretical calculations, so the model developed in this article can more accurately predict the variation in nitrogen content of INCONEL 718 superalloy.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• In Situ Observation and Prediction of the Transformation of Acicular
Ferrites in Ti-Containing HLSA Steel

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Abstract: The evolution of different types of ferrites in a Ti-bearing high-strength low alloy (HSLA) steel was investigated using a high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy (HT-CLSM). As the austenitizing temperature increased from 1250 °C to 1400 °C, the volume fraction of acicular ferrites (AFs) increased from 17.6 to 23.2 pct in the steel containing 0.0070 pct Ti and decreased from 78.7 to 52.5 pct in the steel containing 0.0370 pct Ti. The volume fraction of the AF in the steel varied with the start transformation temperature of the AF and the ferrite side plate (FSP). A linear dependency of the Gibbs free energy variation on the grain size of austenites for the transformation of AFs was obtained. The relationship between the volume fraction ratio of AFs to FSPs and the size of inclusions and the austenite grains was established through the classical nucleation theory and was validated by HT-CLSM measurements.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

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