Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 59 journals)
Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Metallurgica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Device Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Complex Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Graphene and 2D Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Vuzov. Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya i Funktsional’nye Pokrytiya (Proceedings of Higher Schools. Powder Metallurgy аnd Functional Coatings)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Advanced Joining Processes     Open Access  
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Processing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metal Finishing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgical Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Metallurgical Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Powder Diffraction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Powder Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Powder Metallurgy Progress     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Metalurgia     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Revista Remetallica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Metallurgy (Metally)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Soldering & Surface Mount Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Steel Times lnternational     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Transactions of the IMF     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tungsten     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.093
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 42  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1543-1940 - ISSN (Online) 1073-5623
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Correction to: Isothermal Phase Transformations in a Low Carbon Steel
           During Single and Two-Step Partitioning
    • Abstract: A correction to this paper has been published:
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • A New Strategy for Preparation of NiAl Bronze/Zn Composite by Friction
           Stir Processing
    • Abstract: In this work, we successfully prepared a NAB/Zn composite using Zn wires by friction stir processing (FSP). During FSP, Zn-containing α matrix and (Fe, Ni)Al phases and nano α and CuZn grains with the size of less than 10 nm are formed on the top surface. The average microhardness of the composite is increased by 15 pct compared with the alloy without Zn, which originates from fine grains, CuZn particles strengthening, and more β′ phase.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Balanced Constrained Carbon Equilibrium Accompanied by Carbide
    • Abstract: The final carbon content of austenite in equilibrium with tempered martensite can be estimated by the so-called constrained carbon equilibrium in the presence of carbide (CCEθ) model. However, the linear predictions under CCEθ deviate from both the initial and the experimentally measured carbon content. A modified approach to the CCEθ model is proposed, which predicts an increase of the carbon content in austenite with the decrease of temperature below the onset of martensitic transformation.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Order and Disorder in Amorphous and High-Entropy Materials
    • Abstract: Order and disorder are important principles in materials science in which entropy is a measure of disorder in a system. For example, recently developed high-entropy alloys and amorphous alloys have drawn interest based on the ability to design their disorder to bring out different material characteristics. High-entropy alloys are controlled by chemical disorder, whereas amorphous alloys are governed by topological disorder. There is often a need to increase disorder or entropy in these materials to satisfy certain complex performance requirements. Here, we examine the roles of order, disorder, and entropy in amorphous and high-entropy alloys. Several key research topics are summarized, including high-entropy films, high-entropy ceramics, and high-entropy alloys. Moreover, there remain questions about the role of entropy stabilization in high-entropy ceramics. Here, we also report three novel porous light-weight high-entropy nitrides based on the NbTiAlSi system. Our findings clarify the general role of entropy in high-entropy ceramics.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Spatial Variation of Thermokinetics and Associated Microstructural
           Evolution in Laser Surface Engineered IN718: Precursor to Additive
    • Abstract: The spatial variation of thermokinetic parameters has a significant influence on solidification and microstructural aspects such as grain orientation, types and dimensions of the microstructural features, and crystallographic defects. In laser-based additive manufacturing, these factors are mainly dependent on the process parameters and have a wide implication on the microstructural aspects and, in turn, on the mechanical properties. In view of this, the current study focuses on the spatial variation on thermokinetic parameters such as cooling rate, thermal gradient (G), and solidification velocity (R) within the melt pool formed during laser processing of IN718. The continuous-wave Nd-YAG laser was employed at a laser fluence of 14.85, 19.10, and \(23.34\text { J/mm}^2\) with varying power (700, 900, 1100 W) at a constant scanning speed of 100 mm/s. The finite element method-based multiphysics heat transfer model, coupled with the dynamic fluid flow, was developed to predict these parameters. The model was correlated with microstructural aspects such as melt pool dimensions, orientation of columnar grains, and secondary dendritic arm spacing. The cumulative diffusion length of Nb obtained via thermo-diffusion calculation during multiple heating/cooling cycles was enough to dissolve the fine intragranular plate-shaped \(\delta \) precipitates in the heat-affected zone.The spatial variation of the G/R ratio recognized the transition of columnar to equiaxed solidification grains which was associated with the G/R ratio lower than \(10 \text {K s/mm}^2\) in the top region ( \(\sim 25 \mu \text {m}\) ) of the melt pool. In addition, the coupled solid mechanics model predicted the evolution of thermal stresses during solidification of the melt pool under a high thermal gradient, which marked the generation of high dislocation density in the solidified melt pool.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Understanding the Effects of CoAl 2 O 4 Inoculant Additions on
           Microstructure in Additively Manufactured Inconel 718 Processed Via
           Selective Laser Melting
    • Abstract: The effect of varying amounts of CoAl2O4 inoculant ranging from 0 to 2 wt pct on the microstructure evolution of Inconel 718(IN718) fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) was evaluated. Characterization of the as-built microstructure revealed that addition of CoAl2O4 resulted in a modest degree of grain refinement with a slight increase in microstructural anisotropy. Increasing the total CoAl2O4 content beyond 0.2 wt pct resulted in severe agglomeration of the non-metallic particles and the formation of slag inclusions measuring up to 100 μm in size present in the as-built microstructure. In addition to large agglomerates, the inoculant was chemically reduced to form a fine dispersion of submicron-sized Al2O3 particles throughout the IN718 matrix. The fine dispersion of oxides significantly hindered grain recrystallization during the post-fabrication heat treatment due to a Zener pinning effect. The findings from this study indicate in order to effectively utilize CoAl2O4 as a grain refining inoculant for additive manufacturing, the process parameters need to be optimized to avoid agglomeration of the non-metallic particles and other process-related defects.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Development of a Novel Ni-Based Multi-principal Element Alloy Filler
           Metal, Using an Alternative Melting Point Depressant
    • Abstract: Brazing is a crucial joining technology in industries where nickel-superalloy components must be joined. Nickel-based brazing filler metals are extensively employed, possessing excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and retained strength at elevated temperatures. To function as a filler metal, the alloy melting point must be reduced to below that of the materials being joined, but the addition of melting point depressants (MPDs) such as boron, silicon, and phosphorus can, however, lead to the formation of brittle intermetallics, potentially compromising the joint performance. In the present work, a novel multi-principal element brazing alloy (in the style of a high entropy alloy), utilizing Ge as an alternative MPD along with a reduced B addition, is investigated. The design process considered binary phase diagrams and predictions based on Thermo-Calc software and empirical thermodynamic parameters. The alloy was used to vacuum braze nickel-superalloy Inconel-718, and microstructural and mechanical investigations are reported. The maximum shear strength achieved was 297 MPa with a brazing temperature of 1100 °C and 60-minute hold time, with isothermal solidification completed. Shear strength was only slightly reduced with increased joint width. Assessments are made of the ability to accurately predict properties of multi-principle element alloys using Thermo-Calc software and empirical thermodynamic parameters.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Solid-State Joining of Dissimilar Ni-Based Superalloys via Field-Assisted
           Sintering Technology for Turbine Applications
    • Abstract: Friction welding or electron/laser beam welding of nickel superalloys compromises the microstructure with localized melting and heat-affected zones (HAZ). In this work, Field-Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) is studied as an alternative method for solid-state diffusion bonding of superalloys CM247LC and Inconel 718. Bonding microstructures and room-temperature tensile strengths are evaluated. Preliminary results suggest that FAST bonding leads to an interface with a compositional gradient without producing a HAZ and without losing tensile strength.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Evolution of Texture and Deformation Mechanisms During Repeated
           Deformation and Heat Treating Cycles of U-6Nb
    • Abstract: The evolution of the crystallographic texture and lattice strain of uranium 6-weight percent niobium alloy samples are tracked during multiple deformation and heat treating cycles in an effort to understand and control the mechanical properties of the material following thermo-mechanical processing. The heavily twinned microstructure and low-symmetry crystal structure of U-6Nb result in multiple sequential active deformation mechanisms associated with distinctive deformation textures in strain ranges from 0-0.15 true strain. It is found that heating into the high-temperature γ-phase erases much of the texture formed during deformation at room temperature in the α′′-phase and resets the active deformation mechanisms. Through a small number of deformation/heat treat cycles to moderate strains, i.e., ~ 0.13 per cycle, the flow strength of the material is recovered to its original value. However, on the fourth such cycle, a reduction of strength is observed and the sample failed.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Measurement of Lattice Distortion in NbTaTiV and NbTaTiVZr Using Electron
    • Abstract: High annular angle dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) was used to directly measure the lattice distortion of NbTaTiV and NbTaTiVZr by fitting the images with a two-dimensional (2-D) Gauss function. The effect of the scanning direction and the accuracy of the HAADF-STEM method were discussed, and the lattice distortion factors in NbTaTiV and NbTaTiVZr were 0.113 and 0.155 Å, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Correlation Between Potentiodynamic Polarization Behaviors of Transient
           Liquid Phase Bonded 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel and the Bonding
    • Abstract: In order to precisely evaluate the contribution of each bonding constituent to the pitting corrosion resistance of transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS), we have undertaken potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and microstructural analytic measurements all across the TLP bonded area. The PDP results show that the pitting corrosion resistance of TLP bonded specimens is significantly affected by the presence of certain bonding constituents across the TLP bonded area. Electron microscopy analysis indicates that the formation of complex (Fe,Ni,Cr,Mo)3P phosphide in the bonding zone (BZ) before the completion of isothermal solidification (IS) as well as the formation of P-rich sigma phase in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) following the completion of the IS provides the most preferential sites for the occurrence of pitting corrosion. The PDP results also confirm that the pitting potentials (Epit) of the TLP bonded specimen before and after IS completion are, respectively, closer to the Epit of the BZ and the Epit of the DAZ rather than to those of other TLP BZs.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Long-Term Creep-Rupture Behavior of Alloy Inconel 740/740H
    • Abstract: To explore potential application of Ni-based alloys for power generation at the higher temperatures and pressures needed to achieve high thermal to electrical-energy conversion efficiency, an extensive creep-rupture dataset covering up to 875 °C and almost 70,000 hours for Inconel 740/740H was analyzed using Larson–Miller parameter and Wilshire approaches. The results were used to assess the relative effectiveness of the two analytical methods, both in describing the experimental data and, because of the breadth of the dataset, using analyses of its shorter-time data to make creep lifetime predictions for much more extended times, which were then directly compared to the measured rupture times. The respective methods were also used to predict creep-limited lifetimes relevant to power production (that is, 100,000 hours or greater). Despite the complexity of the precipitation-strengthened Inconel 740/740H alloy and the generalized parametric approach of these methodologies, the predictions based on such were reasonably accurate when the entire dataset was analyzed. However, when the analysis was confined to only data for conditions yielding creep-rupture times < 5000 hours (about 65 pct of the entire dataset), the Wilshire correlation yielded better prediction for longer time lifetimes due to the inherent instability of the specific Larson–Miller formalism used in this analysis when extrapolated significantly outside its analysis range.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Microstructure and Properties of Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag Alloy Prepared by Directional
           Solidification and Upward Continuous Casting
    • Abstract: A Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag alloy was prepared by directional solidification (DS) and upward continuous casting (UCC) to study the effect of different casting methods on the structure and properties of Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag. The results showed that the directionally solidified Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag alloy had excellent mechanical properties and conductivity. After cold drawing and isothermal aging, the peak tensile strength (789 MPa) and peak conductivity (65.5 pct IACS) of directionally solidified Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag alloy were 21 MPa and 4.7 pct IACS higher, respectively, than those that of the upward continuously casted Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag alloy. Compared to upward continuously casted Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag alloy, the Fe dendrites in directionally solidified Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag alloy were much finer, more uniform, and arranged along the direction of the magnetic field. Cu and Ag formed a Cu-Ag eutectic structure at the edge of the directionally solidified Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag alloy rod. After multi-stage thermomechanical treatment, Ag was mainly distributed around the material and formed a structure similar to Ag-clad Cu. The directionally solidified Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag alloy had a smaller lattice constant and finer Fe fibers. The small lattice constant and Fe fibers and the special distribution of Ag lead to the excellent comprehensive performance of the directionally solidified Cu-Fe-Cr-Ag alloy.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • The Site Preferences of Transition Elements and Their Synergistic Effects
           on the Bonding Strengthening and Structural Stability of γ′ -Ni 3 Al
           Precipitates in Ni-Based Superalloys: A First-Principles Investigation
    • Abstract: Advanced mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloys strongly depend on the site preferences of alloying X elements in γ′-Ni3Al-X precipitates, which are associated with the partial bonding characteristics between Ni, Al, and X atoms. Therefore, in the current work, the site occupancy tendencies of transition X metals were revealed via first-principles ab initio calculations at 0 K. Bonding features of Ni-Al, Ni-X, and Al-X pairs were simulated by using the charge density difference (CDD), electron localization function (ELF), and density of states (DOS) methods, respectively. According to simulations, higher atomic size X elements preferably occupy Al sites of γ′-Ni3Al-X intermetallics and lead to strong covalent-like directional bondings between themselves and their nearest neighbor (NN) Ni atoms along 〈110〉 directions. However, if these larger X metals substituted for Ni sites, the bonding properties would differ by plane due to the nature of the L12-type crystal structure of γ′-Ni3Al-X precipitates. Considering all transition elements, refractory metals (i.e., X = Re, W, Mo, Ta, or Nb) appear as the most effective strength inducers, improving the structural stability of γ′ phase, even if Ni site substitution of X = Re atoms would start to increase structural instability. On the other hand, relatively small alloying X elements having electron configuration similarities with Ni (i.e., X = Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, or Au) are more likely to worsen bonding strengthening. Instead, these transition X metals creating metallic bondings with NN Ni atoms would contribute to ductility and malleability of Ni-based superalloys. Furthermore, depending on the relative atomic size of γ′-former and refractory elements, the phase and site preferences of refractory atoms would alter in multicomponent systems. As a result of the attractive or weak repulsive forces between Re-Re, Re-Mo, and Re-W pairs, the structural stability of the constituent phases would deteriorate and harmful topologically close-packed (TCP) phases would precipitate.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Size Control of In Situ Synthesized TiB 2 Particles in Molten Aluminum
    • Abstract: Aluminum-matrix nanocomposites offer advantageous properties over conventional aluminum alloys. However, controlling the size and size distribution of ceramic nanoparticles during in situ synthesis at high temperatures has been a long-term challenge due to a lack of effective size-control mechanisms. Here, we successfully synthesized titanium diboride (TiB2) nanoparticles with an unprecedented narrow size distribution in molten aluminum. The average size of TiB2 nanoparticles was tunable from 22.1 to 171.4 nm by solely controlling the reaction temperature under a diluted reactant salt solution. To uncover the mechanism of particle size control, an interface diffusion-controlled model was developed. The dilution of reactant salt was crucial to achieve a steady reaction environment while confining the growth of the particles in a shallow region. The model suggests that the average size of as-synthesized nanoparticles is mostly controlled by reaction temperature and unaffected by the titanium salt concentration in a diluted solution due to a steady diffusion of titanium and boron. Temperature controls the diffusion of reactants and nucleation rate to dictate the average size of the as-synthesized nanoparticles.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Microstructure Evolution of Commercial Pure Titanium During Interrupted In
           Situ Tensile Test
    • Abstract: Microstructure evolution of commercial pure titanium is investigated by interrupted in situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement during tensile deformation along transverse direction at room temperature. After 24 pct elongation, the split basal texture of initial material is weakened and rotated around 90 deg along normal direction (ND). \({{11}\bar{2}{{2}}}\) - \({{10}\bar{1}{{2}}}\) double twin is the main reason for the change of texture. The basal poles are rotated nearly perpendicular to ND by the primary \({{11}\bar{2}{{2}}}\) twin and back to ND through the reorientation of \({{10}\bar{1}{{2}}}\) secondary twin. Both Schmid factor criterion and displacement gradient accommodation are considered to predict the twin-induced texture evolution during TD tension. Kink bands formed by the accumulation of basal 〈a〉 dislocations are also observed in the deformed grain. The activation of other slip systems can deviate the rotation axis and reduce the rotation angle of kink boundary. Besides, the kink boundary with high basal dislocation density obviously hinders the twin transmission and simultaneously can be taken as a preferential nucleation site for \({{11}\bar{2}{{2}}}\) twin.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • The Ductility Variation of High-Pressure Die-Cast AE44 Alloy: The Role of
           Inhomogeneous Microstructure
    • Abstract: In the study, the through-thickness microstructure and its effects on the ductility and strain heterogeneity in high-pressure die-cast AE44 alloy were investigated. The results show that the studied alloy had a gradient microstructure, where two fine-grained skins sandwiched a core with coarse externally solidified crystals (ESCs) embedded in fine grains. In the core, where porosity concentrated, the ultra-coarse ESCs with sizes up to 600 μm were observed. A great amount of Al11RE3 phase, as the predominant intermetallic phase, was distributed in homogeneously through the thickness. High-resolution digital image correlation (DIC) measurement coupled with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was employed to reveal the deformation inhomogeneity and its root cause. It was found that considerable strain localization mainly appeared in the ultra-coarse ESCs with soft orientation for basal slip and the regions where porosity appeared. Unlike the yield strengths and ultimate tensile strengths, the elongations showed a significant variation. Not only defects but also the ultra-coarse ESCs were the primary factors responsible for the variation in ductility.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • New Composition Based Technique for Solidification Cracking Resistance
    • Abstract: Predicting the occurrence of solidification cracking during the solidification of metallic alloys by numerical simulation is a crucial move for avoiding such defects. Several models are widely available, however, the application of such are impacted due to the specific and not accessible parameters required. A simple, composition-based approach to rank solidification cracking susceptibility is presented. The procedure links computational thermodynamic and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to provide an evaluation tool for solidification cracking. The method is related to the liquid filling phenomena in dendritic arms during solidification, which plays a critical role in solidification cracking phenomena. The dendritic profiles were constructed using the fraction of solid calculated by commercial thermodynamic software packages. The calculated results were compared with experimental solidification cracking data and showed satisfactory accuracy. The method capability to rank the solidification cracking propensity of similar alloys based on composition provides an important new operative tool to aid alloy development in welding and additive manufacturing related areas.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Research on Bulk-metallic Glasses and High-entropy Alloys in Peter K.
           Liaw’s Group and with His Colleagues
    • Abstract: Bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs) and high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have attracted extensive attention in the field of metallic materials research for several decades due to their extraordinary properties. Many scientists and researchers have significantly contributed to developing new classes of metallic alloys, such as BMGs and HEAs, for various applications. Liaw’s group and his colleagues have focused on the fundamental understanding of unique features, structures, and properties in BMGs and HEAs as well as the development of new types of metallic materials. In this article, we summarized the research work of Liaw’s group and his colleagues by reviewing relevant papers. The goal is to provide an understanding of the current research progression in BMGs and HEAs while further encouraging young and junior researchers to be involved in the field of structural materials research pertaining to these classes of exotic alloy systems.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Excess Solute Carbon and Retained Tetragonality in Tempered Fe-0.6C-1Mn
           Martensite and the Effect of Silicon Addition
    • Abstract: The tetragonality and carbon distribution in tempered Fe-0.6C-1Mn martensite were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atom probe tomography to elucidate strain relaxation in the tetragonal lattice during tempering and its relationship with the solubility of excess carbon in martensite. Even though tetragonality (c/a) decreased with an increase in the tempering temperature, it persisted at low levels up to 400 °C. Si addition suppressed the decrease in tetragonality at 400 °C by inhibiting recovery in the dislocated matrix. Such persistence implies that dislocation migration is crucial for the complete release of tetragonal lattice strain at such a temperature, in addition to the decrease in the amount of solute carbon in martensite. A low level of tetragonality was observed for martensite containing carbon in the solid solution below the critical value of ~ 0.2 mass pct, at which a bcc structure was predicted. The amount of solute carbon after tempering was linearly correlated with tetragonality in the solute carbon content range of 0.07 to 0.6 mass pct, and the correlation coefficient was similar to those for as-quenched auto-tempered martensite and bainitic ferrite; these results indicate that the amount of excess carbon is simply determined by the amount of tetragonal lattice distortions remaining after carbide precipitation and recovery.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
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