Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 58 journals)
 Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically Acta Metallurgica Slovaca Advanced Device Materials       (Followers: 3) American Journal of Fluid Dynamics       (Followers: 48) Archives of Metallurgy and Materials       (Followers: 9) Asian Journal of Materials Science       (Followers: 5) Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly       (Followers: 20) Complex Metals       (Followers: 2) Corrosion Communications Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems       (Followers: 19) Handbook of Magnetic Materials       (Followers: 2) Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)       (Followers: 10) International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys       (Followers: 3) International Journal of Metals       (Followers: 6) International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials       (Followers: 8) International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering Ironmaking & Steelmaking       (Followers: 4) ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan       (Followers: 23) JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society       (Followers: 32) Journal of Advanced Joining Processes Journal of Central South University       (Followers: 1) Journal of Cluster Science Journal of Iron and Steel Research International       (Followers: 7) Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering       (Followers: 1) Journal of Materials Processing Technology       (Followers: 19) Journal of Metallurgical Engineering       (Followers: 2) Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy       (Followers: 3) Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering       (Followers: 7) Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A       (Followers: 41) Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B       (Followers: 30) Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E       (Followers: 2) Metallurgical Research & Technology Metallurgical Research and Technology       (Followers: 6) Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering       (Followers: 1) Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration Powder Diffraction       (Followers: 1) Powder Metallurgy       (Followers: 33) Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics       (Followers: 7) Powder Metallurgy Progress       (Followers: 5) Rare Metals       (Followers: 2) Revista de Metalurgia Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica Revista Remetallica Russian Metallurgy (Metally)       (Followers: 4) Science and Technology of Welding and Joining       (Followers: 4) Soldering & Surface Mount Technology       (Followers: 1) Stainless Steel World       (Followers: 17) Transactions of the IMF       (Followers: 14) Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals       (Followers: 4) Tungsten Universal Journal of Materials Science       (Followers: 1) Welding in the World       (Followers: 4) Welding International       (Followers: 7) Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки
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 Journal of Iron and Steel Research InternationalJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.569 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 7      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1006-706X - ISSN (Online) 2210-3988 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Effect of Mg addition on TiN inclusions in GCr15 bearing steel

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Abstract: Compared with the original GCr15 bearing steel, TiN inclusions are greatly reduced by the effect of Mg addition, and many different types of non-metallic Mg-containing inclusions were observed in Mg-treated GCr15 bearing steel which includes MgO, MgS·MnS, MgO–MgS·MnS, MgAl2O4–MgS·MnS, MgO–TiN, MgS·MnS–TiN, and MgO–MgS·MnS–TiN. The inclusion size distribution based on automatic inclusion analysis software shows that the number of inclusion with the size ranging from 1 to 3 μm increases obviously because a large amount of MgO, MgS·MnS, TiN inclusions containing Mg with smaller sizes are massively generated. In situ observation on the experimental steel by high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy confirms that MgO can provide nucleation sites for TiN. In addition, the MgS·MnS and MgO–MgS·MnS inclusions can also provide positions for the nucleation of TiN. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that after Mg addition to liquid steel, a large number of fine MgO inclusions are generated in the liquid steel because of the strong reactivity of Mg and O. At the same time, MgS precedes TiN precipitates in the solid–liquid two-phase region; thus, MgO and MgS·MnS can provide sites for TiN nucleation. At last, two possible formation pathways for the above various TiN inclusions containing Mg are discussed.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Morphologies of secondary austenite in 2507 duplex stainless steel after
heat treatment

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Abstract: The microstructure evolution of secondary austenite in 2507 duplex stainless steel was investigated by means of optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Four types of secondary austenite (γ2) morphologies including partially transformed austenite, grain boundary austenite, Widmannstätten austenite (WA) and intragranular austenite could be formed during cooling after solution treatment. It was concluded that secondary austenite morphology was mainly dependent on cooling rates. Two mechanisms of WA formation were proposed. WA nucleated at grain boundary of ferrite or at the formed phase boundary. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis displayed that WA grew in parallel to the ferrite. The effects of Cr2N on secondary austenite precipitation were discussed in detail. Once Cr2N was involved, a mechanism was proposed that secondary austenite formed by element diffusion, leading to the migration of the austenite–ferrite interface. Cr2N acted as the nucleation sites for γ2 and provided the nitrogen for the transformation; meanwhile, the precipitation of Cr2N during the rapid cooling was captured by TEM. A process of nucleation followed by diffusion was concluded to be the formation of secondary austenite with no Cr2N precipitated. The decomposition of secondary austenite was also studied, which was found to be a diffusion mechanism followed by displacement in connection with the element distribution.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Effect of pre-oxidation degree on gaseous reduction of pre-oxidized
ilmenite concentrate by CO

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Abstract: The effect of pre-oxidation degree of Panzhihua ilmenite concentrate on the gaseous reduction by carbon monoxide was investigated. The raw ilmenite concentrates were pre-oxidized at 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1000 °C for 2 h, respectively. The phase change, FeO content, and morphology after the oxidation at various temperatures were characterized. The oxidation degree was calculated according to the change of FeO content. Thermogravimetry was performed on the oxidized ilmenite concentrate samples (oxidized at 600, 800, and 1000 °C) at 850, 900, and 950 °C, respectively. The results show that the pre-oxidation of ilmenite concentrate can accelerate the reduction process: the higher pre-oxidation degree, the faster reduction rate. The high pre-oxidation degree of ilmenite concentrate is beneficial to accelerate the subsequent reduction process in two ways. Three stages of the reduction process were divided via the first derivatives of reduction degree, and the reduction mechanism and apparent activation energy were discussed subsequently.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Phase equilibria in Ti-rich portion and thermodynamic re-optimization of
Co–Ti system

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Abstract: The experimental and thermodynamic studies of the Co–Ti system are an important part of the project to build a thermodynamic database for multicomponent Co–Ti-based alloys. Several key alloys were prepared and then examined for microstructural, compositional and thermal analyses to determine the Ti-rich phase equilibria. According to the available experimental information, the Co–Ti system was thermodynamically re-optimized on the basis of CALPHAD method. Four disordered solutions, liquid, fcc-A1 (α-Co), bcc-A2 (β-Ti) and hcp-A3 (ε-Co and α-Ti) were modeled as substitutional ones. CoTi2 with limited solubility was treated as a stoichiometric compound, while γ-Co2Ti and β-Co2Ti with certain solubility were described in the form of (Co,Ti)2(Co,Ti)1 using a two-sublattice model. A single Gibbs energy function was employed to model two order–disorder transformations from fcc-A1 to fcc-L12 (Co3Ti) and from bcc-A2 to bcc-B2 (CoTi). A group of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters of the Co–Ti system were obtained. With these thermodynamic parameters, the experimental data can be described more reasonably and satisfactorily.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Leaching process of phosphorus and iron from steelmaking slag into malic
acid solution

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Abstract: In order to remove phosphorus element from steelmaking slag and decrease iron loss, malic acid was selected as the leaching agent to dissolve steelmaking slag. Firstly, the influences of different factors, such as malic acid concentration, slag particle size, temperature, liquid/solid ratio and stirring speed, on the leaching ratios of phosphorus and iron were studied. Then, the kinetics for the leaching process of phosphorus was analyzed. The results showed that the leaching ratios of phosphorus and iron increase significantly with increasing the malic acid solution concentration and liquid/solid ratio. When the concentration of malic acid solution increases up to 0.01492 mol/L, about 80% phosphorus can be dissolved, and iron leaching ratio is less than 17%. In addition, decreasing slag particle size can obviously increase the leaching ratio of phosphorus. However, temperature and stirring speed have no significant effect on the dissolution of phosphorus and iron. The leaching kinetics of phosphorus follows the unreacted shrinking core model. Diffusion through product layer is the rate-limiting step of the leaching process, and the corresponding apparent activation energy is determined to be 3.32 kJ/mol. Finally, a semi-empirical kinetic equation was established.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Effect of strain rate on fracture behaviour of Cr18Ni11Ti stainless steel
at high temperatures

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Abstract: The effect of strain rate on the fracture behaviour of Cr18Ni11Ti stainless steel at high temperatures was analysed. The steel was subjected to solid solution treatment at 1050 °C and ageing at 650 °C for 24 h. The high-temperature tensile properties of Cr18Ni11Ti stainless steel were subsequently investigated via high-temperature tensile testing at 650 °C and different strain rates (1.43 × 10–1, 1.43 × 10–2, 1.43 × 10–3, 1.43 × 10–4, and 1.43 × 10–5 s−1). The microstructure, precipitated phase, tensile fracture surface, and dislocation of the experimental steel were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy spectrometry. The results show that Cr18Ni11Ti stainless steel is mainly austenite, with a large number of twin crystals, chromium-rich precipitated phase and composite precipitated phases of TiC and AlMgCaO. With decreases in strain rate, the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and reduction in area also decrease. When the strain rate is high, obvious necking and ductile fracture occur in the experimental steel. However, when the strain rate is reduced to 1.43 × 10–5 s−1, the necking phenomenon is not obvious and intergranular brittle fracture appears. Greater segregation of P and S contents at grain boundaries, or dislocation motion creep and grain-boundary sliding creep, leads to brittle fracture of the steel at lower strain rates of 1.43 × 10–4 to 1.43 × 10–5 s−1.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Influence of desulfurization slag containing oxides of vanadium and
titanium on semi-steel pre-desulfurization

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Abstract: The desulfurization and resulfurization of slag containing oxides of vanadium and titanium (CaO–SiO2–MgO–Al2O3–V2O3–TiO2–FeO) in the pretreatment of semi-steel desulfurization at 1623 K were investigated. Based on the ionic structure theory of slag, it could be concluded that V2O3 and TiO2 combined with (O2–) to form complex anions including $${\mathrm{VO}}_{3}^{3-}$$ , $${\text{Ti}}{\text{O}}_{4}^{{4}-},$$ etc., which reduced the activity of (O2–) and decreased the sulfur partition ratio (LS). And FeO enhanced the activity of [O] at the slag–metal interface, which decreased the desulfurization capacity of the slag. Compared to the binary basicity, the presented basicity expression containing V2O3 and TiO2 described the relationship between LS and basicity more accurately. Considering the problems of dilute slag, a large amount of residual slag and much resulfurization in the slagging-off process after pretreatment, the effect of CaO + C-based slag modifier on the resulfurization, melting point and viscosity of the desulfurization slag was investigated. It was proposed that adding 5%–10% of the slag modifier to the desulfurization slag after desulfurization decreased the resulfurization effectively. And the added modifier adjusted the slag viscosity well, which helped to reduce iron loss and residual slag.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Particle motion simulation and pulverized coal injection combustion
simulation of titanomagnetite pellets in rotary kiln for reduction process
with coal

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Abstract: The production process of direct reduced iron from titanomagnetite by coal reduction in air in rotary kiln is a key step in the extraction of titanium and iron. This process is conducive to alleviating the stocking problem of a large amount of Ti-bearing blast furnace slag. The relationships between particle movement and pulverized coal injection combustion in rotary kiln were studied by the particle motion simulation and the pulverized coal injection combustion simulation. In particle motion simulation, the repose angle of ore particles was calculated to be 28.06°, and the reaction zone was roughly determined by the reaction temperature isothermal surface and the repose angle; the axial discrete distribution of ore particles would further cause the axial energy fluctuation due to the endothermic nature of the reduction. In pulverized coal injection combustion simulation, the rebound effect of coal injection under gravity would cause local overheating in the rebound region due to the benefits of heat and mass transfer processes, while this could strengthen the reduction reaction of ore particles and cause agglomerate by melting. Two suggestions on weakening the energy fluctuation and agglomerate were proposed based on the characteristics of particle motion and external carbon reaction.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Application of phase-field modeling in solid-state phase transformation of
steels

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Abstract: Solid-state phase transformation is usually associated with excellent mechanical properties in steel materials. A deep understanding of the formation and evolution of phase structure is essential to tailor their service performance. As a powerful tool for capturing the evolution of complex microstructures, phase-field simulation quantitatively calculates the phase structures evolution without explicit assumptions about transient microstructures. With the development of advanced numerical technology and computing ability, phase-field methods have been successfully applied to solid-state phase transformation in steels and greatly support the research and development of advanced steel materials. The phase-field simulations of solid-phase transformation in steels were summarized, and the future development was proposed.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Interaction between local corrosion and flow field of natural gas
long-distance pipeline by artificial rectangular defect pit

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Abstract: The corrosive environment in long-distance natural gas pipeline was simulated by the online high shear stress flow test platform. The interaction between flow fields and local corrosion in different local corrosion stages was studied by machining different depths rectangular defect pit (RDP) on X80 pipe steel specimens. The electrochemical signals of each specimen under high shear stress flow were measured online using an integrated three-electrode and electrochemical system. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the corrosion scale of X80 pipeline steel in CO2-saturated National Association of Corrosion Engineers solution was composed of FeCO3. The scanning electron microscope images displayed variations in microstructure of the corrosion scale at different RDP depths and different areas. The flow field fluctuations induced by RDP were analyzed by computational fluid dynamics simulations and the development of local corrosion pits was discussed in terms of integrity of corrosion scale, convective mass transfer, and diffusion mass transfer.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Analysis of longitude profiled rolling process of Cu/Al cladded sheet and
evaluation of outlet warpage

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Abstract: Longitude profiled cladded sheet is obtained by rolling bimetal cladded sheet with variable gauge rolling technology. The longitude profiled rolling process of Cu/Al cladded sheets was studied by finite element method and experiments. The rolling force rises with the increase in reduction, and a sudden change appears at the end of the thickness variation zone. The thickness ratio of copper layer is enlarged after rolling owing to its relatively large deformation resistance and continues to rise with the increase in reduction rate. Lower elongation of copper side leads to the warpage of exit metal to copper side, which further hinders the deformation of copper. The influence of asymmetric rolling parameters indicates that increasing the work roll diameter ratio, speed radio, and friction coefficient on Al side can reduce the warpage when the reduction rate is below a certain value depending on the thickness ratio and other rolling parameters. Comparison of experiments and simulation results showed good agreement and verified the finite element model.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Effect of boron on dissolution and repairing behavior of passive film on
S31254 super-austenitic stainless steel immersed in H2SO4 solution

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Abstract: The impact of boron on the dissolution and repairing behavior of passive films formed on S31254 super-austenitic stainless steel (SASS) was investigated. SASS was immersed in 0.5 mol/L of H2SO4 for 0, 2, 6, 10, and 14 days to explore the evolution of the passive film. The electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS), the Mott–Schottky analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope were utilized to analyze the semiconductor properties and compositions of the passive films. EIS showed a decrease and consequent increase over 14 days; the same pattern was observed for Cr2O3 and Cr/Fe. However, the defect density of the passive film exhibited a reverse trend. The variation in film thicknesses indicated that the passive films possessed dissolution and repairing behavior. SASS passive film had a double-layer structure; the outer layer was found to be rich in Fe3+ and Cr(OH)3, but low on Mo6+, while the inner layer was rich in Cr2O3 and low in Mo4+. The addition of boron increased the corrosion resistance and could promote the efficiency of the passive film repair, likely by promoting the migration of Mox+, which promoted the repairing of the passive film.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Effects of coke charging pattern on burden movement in COREX melter
gasifier based on physical simulation

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Abstract: A three-dimensional semicircle cold model of COREX melter gasifier (MG) was established, and the effects of coke charging pattern on burden movement were investigated by adopting this model. The burden flow pattern of packed bed was measured with different coke charging amounts, coke charging positions, and coke sizes. The results show that the solid flow pattern presents a change from straight line type to reverse U type and finally to W type in MG with traditional coke charging, while the burden flow pattern experiences the change from straight line type to W type with platform and finally W type under center coke charging, and the solid flow pattern presents a change from straight line type to W type with platform and finally W type under intermediate coke charging. The difference demonstrates that coke charging pattern affects the uniform descending in MG to some degree. The burden in the coke charging zone keeps a straight line descending. No matter what kind of coke charging pattern is adopted, the burden residence time is shortened with the increase in coke charging amount, and the vertex of deadman decreases obviously, which is conducive to the renewal of the deadman. The appropriate coke charging amount and coke size should be well controlled at 8.7% and 5 mm, respectively. The results are useful not only in developing further understanding of solid flow in MG but also in verifying different mathematical models, particularly the coupled discrete element method with computational fluid dynamics simulation which has been increasingly used in the literature.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Effect of strain-induced precipitation on microstructure and properties of
titanium micro-alloyed steels

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Abstract: The strain-induced precipitation behavior of titanium micro-alloyed steel was examined through the stress relaxation method. In addition, the relationship between strain-induced precipitation and isothermal precipitation was explored. The findings revealed that the strain-induced precipitation and recrystallization processes of titanium micro-alloyed steel coexist and compete at the same time. The results also showed that the recrystallization process was inhibited with strain-induced precipitation. Moreover, a large amount of nano-sized TiC particles precipitated in Ti micro-alloyed steel. Notably, the strain-induced precipitated TiC had a size of 10 nm and isothermally precipitated TiC had a size of 3–6 nm. Additionally, there was a clear competitive relationship between strain-induced precipitation and isothermal precipitation. The findings also showed that strain-induced precipitation had an obvious effect on the refinement of austenite although the effect was not obvious on the increase in the yield strength. Furthermore, isothermal treatment was shown to be more advantageous than strain-induced precipitation. Finally, the major increase in the yield strength was mainly attributed to the precipitation strengthening of nano-sized TiC during isothermal precipitation.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Numerical investigation on particles removal by bubble flotation in
swirling flow

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Abstract: The removal of particles is of great importance in many fields including effluent treatment, mineral separation, clean metal production, etc. However, most of the researchers paid their attention to the two-phase flow involving gas–liquid or solid–liquid independently. The motion and interaction between bubbles and particles in the swirling three-phase flow field were simulated by discrete phase model. The swirling flow and the collision between bubbles and particles were governed by compiling the user-defined function program. The centripetal pressure gradient force pushes the discrete phases toward the central region, where the collision rate between particle and bubbles is improved greatly. Moreover, it proved beneficially for particle removal to increase the swirling velocity, particularly for larger particles. Thus, bubble flotation is an effective method to remove particles from the fluid. The swirling velocity was optimized, which is valuable for industrial design.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Effect of hollow insulation riser on shrinkage porosity and solidification
structure of ingot

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Abstract: Abstract The thermal insulation performance of riser is very important to the shrinkage porosity and solidification structure of ingot, but it is difficult to significantly improve due to the limit of thermal conductivity of riser material. A new type of hollow insulation riser was proposed based on the low thermal conductivity of air, which aims to improve the thermal insulation performance of riser. A 14.5-t steel ingot was prepared using the hollow insulation riser, and the casting temperature was 1500 °C. The temperature evolution of the external surface of mold during solidification was measured using an infrared temperature instrument. A numerical model was established to simulate the porosity and solidification structure of ingot. The reliability of numerical simulation was verified by comparing simulation and experimental results. Results show that the insulation performance of the riser can be significantly improved through application of the hollow insulation sleeve. Compared with solid insulation sleeve, the shrinkage cavity depth was decreased and the position of porosity was raised when hollow insulation riser was applied.
PubDate: 2022-05-19

• A weighted fuzzy C-means clustering method for hardness prediction

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Abstract: Abstract The hardness prediction model was established by support vector regression (SVR). In order to avoid exaggerating the contribution of very tiny alloying elements, a weighted fuzzy C-means (WFCM) algorithm was proposed for data clustering using improved Mahalanobis distance based on random forest importance values, which could play a full role of important features and avoid clustering center overlap. The samples were divided into two classes. The top 10 features of each class were selected to form two feature subsets for better performance of the model. The dimension and dispersion of features decreased in such feature subsets. Comparing four machine learning algorithms, SVR had the best performance and was chosen to modeling. The hyper-parameters of the SVR model were optimized by particle swarm optimization. The samples in validation set were classified according to minimum distance of sample to clustering centers, and then the SVR model trained by feature subset of corresponding class was used for prediction. Compared with the feature subset of original data set, the predicted values of model trained by feature subsets of classified samples by WFCM had higher correlation coefficient and lower root mean square error. It indicated that WFCM was an effective method to reduce the dispersion of features and improve the accuracy of model.
PubDate: 2022-05-18

• Dynamic and quasi-static compressive performance of integral-forming
aluminum foam sandwich

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Abstract: Abstract Strain rate sensitivity and deformation mechanism of integral-forming aluminum foam sandwich (IFAFS) under quasi-static and dynamic compression were investigated. Split Hopkinson pressure bar experiments with high-speed video cameras were conducted to analyze strain rate dependency and actual deformation mechanism of IFAFS. X-ray microtomography technique (Micro-CT) based on 3D finite element (FE) was used to study stress and plastic strain contours of IFAFS sample and to predict stress distribution and deformation history under both dynamic and quasi-static loadings. Micro-inertia effect of typical cell structures was quantitatively analyzed by FE simulation. The results showed that IFAFS is sensitive to strain rate where the deformation mode under dynamic loading is different from that observed under quasi-static loading. With strain rate increasing, good metallurgical bonding of face sheet and foam core layer contributed to improving the elastic modulus and peak stress of IFAFS. Furthermore, finite element model confirmed that micro-inertia effect of IFAFS can be ignored during dynamic loading.
PubDate: 2022-05-17

• Effect of cyclic quenching treatment on microstructural evolution and
properties of ductile cast iron

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Abstract: Due to the coarse grain microstructure and low hardness of ductile cast iron (DCI), this material is unable to meet the performance requirements of bearing structural materials. To obtain ultra-fine-grained and ultra-hardened DCI, the influence of a cyclic quenching treatment on the evolution process and properties of DCI after three cycles of quenching at 860 °C for 30 min was investigated through morphology and grain-size characterization, X-ray diffraction analysis, and mechanical-property determination of DCI. It was found that the microstructure and performance depended strongly on the process of the cyclic quenching. With an increasing number of cycles, the grain size of austenite was significantly refined from 41.2 to 12.3 μm, and the length and width of lath/plate martensite, as well as the lath and twins, are decreased. In the meantime, the morphology of retained austenite changed from blocky to granular, together with the stability increased. The experimental sample obtained a performance with a hardness higher than 60 HRC after cyclic quenching treatment due to the refined grain size and increased dislocation density.
PubDate: 2022-05-12

• Kinetic triplet from low-temperature carburization and carbon deposition
reactions

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Abstract: Carbon deposition reaction is unfavorable for smooth operation of blast furnace, while the product of carburization reaction is a superior iron-bearing raw material in non-blast furnace routes. The kinetic triplet of these two reactions was obtained based on non-isothermal kinetic analysis. According to the Sharp–Wentworth method, the activation energy of the carburization reaction is 397.77 kJ/mol, and the activation energies of the carbon depositions on hematite and magnetite are 188.92 and 100.89 kJ/mol, respectively. The carburization reaction is controlled by the Jander mechanism, and the carbon depositions on hematite and magnetite are both controlled by the mechanism of Zhuravlev–Lesokhin–Tempelman. Based on Coats–Redfern method, the activation energies of the above three reactions are 360.65, 149.29, and 102.36 kJ/mol, respectively. The carburization reaction is a first-order reaction, while the carbon depositions on hematite and magnetite are both third-order reaction. In particular, the negative activation energy is obtained if considering the anti-Arrhenius circumstance in the Sharp-Wentworth method. Based on above results, it is feasible to adopt non-isothermal kinetic method to study the kinetic triplet of a reaction. According to the obtained activation energies and reaction mechanism functions, the simulated kinetic data are in good agreement with the experimental values even using the negative activation energy.
PubDate: 2022-05-11

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