Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 59 journals)
Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Metallurgica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Device Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Complex Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Graphene and 2D Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Vuzov. Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya i Funktsional’nye Pokrytiya (Proceedings of Higher Schools. Powder Metallurgy аnd Functional Coatings)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Advanced Joining Processes     Open Access  
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Processing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metal Finishing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgical Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Metallurgical Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Powder Diffraction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Powder Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Powder Metallurgy Progress     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Metalurgia     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Revista Remetallica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Metallurgy (Metally)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Soldering & Surface Mount Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Steel Times lnternational     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Transactions of the IMF     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tungsten     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  
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Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2661-8028 - ISSN (Online) 2661-8036
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Preface to the special issue: applications of tungsten materials
    • PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00027-4
  • Ultra-fine W–Y 2 O 3 composite powders prepared by an improved chemical
           co-precipitation method and its interface structure after spark plasma
    • Abstract: Y2O3-doped tungsten (W–Y2O3) composite powders prepared by a traditional chemical co-precipitation method possess obvious bimodal distribution in size, which would deteriorate their sintering properties. The bimodal distribution can be effectively eliminated by an improved chemical co-precipitation method, in which the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was innovatively employed. The reduced powders with excellent uniformity have an average grain size of only ~ 31.5 nm. It is noteworthy that Y2O3 particles would fuse and grow with the growth of W grains during subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, which was rarely reported in relevant literature before. On top of that, phase interfaces of sintered W–Y2O3 alloys were systematically analyzed. Compared to the intracrystalline oxygen content, the oxygen content at W/Y2O3 phase boundaries is relatively higher. It can be found that the (110) crystal planes of W form coherent, semi-coherent, and non-coherent interfaces with different crystal planes of Y2O3. The weak interfacial bonding strength between W and Y2O3 phases results from relatively more oxygen impurities as well as more semi-coherent/non-coherent interfaces at phase boundaries compared with the inner W grains.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00021-w
  • Microstructural evolution in W-1%TiC alloy irradiated He ions at high
    • Abstract: To investigate the surface damage of a material by He ions, a dispersion-strengthened W-1wt%TiC alloy was irradiated by 5-keV He ions at 773 K, 973 K, and 1173 K up to an ion dose of 1.8 × 1021 He m−2, respectively. No He bubble formation was observed under transmission electron microscopy at any temperature for He doses less than 1.5 × 1020 He m−2. When this dose was exceeded, He bubbles grew and void swelling increased with increasing irradiation doses. Naturally, the growth of He bubbles and the void swelling became more pronounced with increasing irradiation temperatures. Compared to the published data on commercially available pure W, the formation of He bubbles was suppressed by TiC particles in the W–TiC alloy, especially at low doses.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00026-5
  • Construction of WO 3 /Ti-doped WO 3 bi-layer nanopore arrays with superior
           electrochromic and capacitive performances
    • Abstract: Crystalline WO3/Ti-doped WO3 bi-layer nanopore arrays were constructed by the template synthesis of a WO3 nanopore layer modified by a magnetron sputtering of an amorphous Ti-doped/WO3 layer. The obtained bi-layer nanopore array shows a remarkable electrochromic performance with large dual-band optical modulation in both visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) regions (optical modulation of over 70% in the wavelength range from 600 to 1600 nm) and the fast response speed (coloring for 3.4 s and bleaching for 6.6 s). In addition, the bi-layer WO3/Ti-doped WO3 nanopore array also present superior energy-storage properties (areal capacitance of 44.0 mF cm−2 and good rate capability), better than that of titanium-free thin films. The special bifunctional characteristics of electrochromism and pseudocapacitance can be ascribed to the large specific surface area provided by the architectural design, rich ion channels in the amorphous layer as well as proper titanium doping, which bestows the bi-layer nanopore array a great potential in clean energy applications.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00024-7
  • The thermal stability of dispersion-strengthened tungsten as plasma-facing
           materials: a short review
    • Abstract: One key challenge for the development of fusion energy is plasma-facing materials. Tungsten-based materials are promising candidates for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in the magnetic confinement nuclear fusion reactors because of their high melt temperature, high-thermal conductivity, high-thermal load resistance, low tritium retention, and low sputtering yield. In fusion reactors, PFCs are exposed to high-thermal flux, because there are some transient events such as plasma disruptions, edge-localized modes, and vertical displacement events (VDEs). Especially, in VDEs, a heat flux of 10–100 MW m−2 with duration of milliseconds-to-several seconds can induce recrystallization and then change the microstructure of tungsten-based plasma-facing materials, leading to instability of microstructures. Then, a significant degradation of material properties is caused such as a reduction of mechanical strength and fracture toughness, a rise in the ductile-to-brittle-transition temperature well, and decrease of irradiation/high-thermal load resistance. Therefore, many efforts were devoted to improve the thermal stability of tungsten-based materials as high as possible, such as oxide dispersion strengthening, carbide dispersion strengthening, and K bubbles dispersion strengthening. Here, the thermal stabilities of various dispersion-strengthened tungsten materials are reviewed by evaluating their recrystallization temperature and the corresponding hardness evolutions. In addition, the possible development trends are proposed.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00022-9
  • Development of manufacturing technology on WC–Co hardmetals
    • Abstract: Hardmetals are tungsten carbide (WC)-based composites, which are made of WC as a hard phase and transition metals such as Co, Fe, or/and Ni as ductile binder matrices. Their properties can be mainly tailored through the grain sizes of the sintered carbides and the amount of metallic binder. As successful tool materials, hardmetals are widely applied in metal cutting, wear applications, chipless forming, stoneworking, wood, and plastic working. In 2017, about two-thirds of tungsten consumption (including recycled materials) were produced for hardmetals in the world. This paper briefly introduces the development of manufacturing technology on WC–Co hardmetals from three aspects: powder preparation, bulk densification, and performance characterization. Two special WC–Co hardmetals are also described: cobalt-enrichment zone (CEZ) hardmetals, and binderless hardmetals. Furthermore, the development prospects for manufacturing techniques of hardmetals are also presented in the end.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00025-6
  • Microstructure evolutions of the W–TiC composite conducted by
           dual-effects from thermal shock and He-ion irradiation
    • Abstract: Considering that tungsten (W) materials served as the plasma-facing material in the fusion reactor would be exposed to edge-localized modes (ELMs)-like thermal shock loading accompanied with He-ion irradiation, the W–TiC composite produced with a wet-chemical method was conducted by the dual effects from the laser beam thermal shock first and He-ion irradiation later in this work. The microstructure changes of the W–TiC composite before and after two tests were characterized by scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy. After the laser beam thermal shock test, there was an obvious interface on the exposed surface of the W–TiC composite. Several main cracks and melting areas could be found nearby the interface and center, respectively. Furthermore, a mixture of tungsten oxide and TiC was easy to aggregate and form into circle areas surrounding the melting area. The thermal shock tested that W–TiC composite was then subjected to the He-ion irradiation. The typical features of fuzz structures could be detected on the surface of the W–TiC composite apart from the center of the melting area. Notably, several nano-sized He bubbles deeply distributed at grain boundaries in the melting area, owing to the grain boundary functioning as the free path for He diffusion.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00023-8
  • Preface to the special issue on plasma facing materials for fusion energy
    • PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00020-x
  • Plasma–tungsten interactions in experimental advanced
           superconducting tokamak (EAST)
    • Abstract: Tungsten (W) is used as the armor material of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor and is regarded as the potential first wall material of future fusion reactors. One of the key challenges for the successful application of W in fusion devices is effective control of W at an extremely low concentration in plasma. Understanding and control of W erosion are not only a prerequisite for W impurity control, but also vital concerns to plasma-facing component (PFC) lifetime. Since the application of ITER-like water-cooled full W divertor in EAST in 2014, great efforts were made to investigate W erosion by experiment and simulation. A spectroscopic system was developed to provide a real-time measurement of W sputtering source. Both experiment and simulation results indicate that carbon (C) is the dominant impurity causing W sputtering in L-mode plasmas, which comes from the erosion of C plasma-facing material (PFM) in the lower divertor and the main chamber limiters. The mixture layer on the surface of W PFCs formed through redeposition or the wall coating can effectively suppress W erosion. Increasing the plasma density and radiation can reduce incident ion energy, thus alleviating W sputtering. In H-mode plasmas, control of edge localized mode (ELM) via resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) proves to be capable of suppressing intra-ELM W erosion. The experiences and lessons from the EAST W divertor are beneficial to the design, manufacturing and operation of ITER and beyond.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00019-4
  • Irradiation effects of H/He neutral beam on different forged tungsten
    • Abstract: Tungsten has been considered as the most promising plasma-facing materials (PFMs) for the future fusion reactor due to its excellent chemical and physical properties. In this work, different kinds of tungsten-based PFMs including pure W, W-K, and W-Y2O3 alloys were prepared via powder metallurgy. Then, high-energy rate forging was used for the plastic deformation to refine the grain size of the samples and increase their densities. To evaluate the service performance of these tungsten-based PFMs under edge plasma conditions, the deformed samples were exposed to high-energy hydrogen (H) neutral beam doped with 6 at% helium (He). Sequentially, edge-localized mode-like transient loadings (1 ms, 100 cycles) were carried out on the specimens with neutral beam pre-loading to study the impact of H/He pre-loading on the generation and propagation of cracks. The microstructural changes of the exposed surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy with the help of focused ion beam. The experimental results indicate that H/He neutral beam irradiation could induce obvious surface damages of the tested samples. For example, pinhole and coral-like nanostructures were formed on the surfaces of the exposed samples, as the surface temperatures were relatively high. The cracking thresholds of the W-Y2O3 samples with and without neutral beam pre-irradiations were both between 0.22 and 0.33 GW m−2, while the cracking thresholds of pure W and W-K samples were less than 0.22 GW m−2. This result indicates that the H/He neutral beam pre-loading has no significant impact on the cracking threshold. In addition, the crack pattern on the surface of the exposed samples closely depends on the grain boundary pattern.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00017-6
  • Preparation of a diamond coating by the CVD method on the tungsten
           substrate and its resistance to D plasma irradiation
    • Abstract: After the surface of tungsten (W) alloys were roughened by laser, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond coatings were deposited on three tungsten substrates of pure W, W-1 wt.% La2O3 and W-0.5 wt.% TiC. Under the same growth parameters, the presence of the second phase in the tungsten matrix impeded the growth rate of diamonds, so a completed diamond coating with the thickness of 45 μm and a grain diamond size of 10 μm was obtained only on pure tungsten substrate after running for 10 h. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy tests proved that the obtained diamond coating was compact with a high purity and regular morphology. To verify the chemical and structural stability, the as-obtained diamond-coated tungsten materials were exposed to an ion flux of 1.4 × 1021 ions m−2 s−1 in D plasma for 30 min. After irradiation, neither delamination, dramatic coating failure nor entire erosion of the coating (graphitization) was observed. The diamond coating can be an effective protective layer to stop tungsten atoms from splashing into the plasma.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00015-8
  • Tungsten–potassium: a promising plasma-facing material
    • Abstract: Tungsten–potassium (potassium-doped tungsten or WK), initially known from the electric filament industry, is a promising plasma-facing material (PFM) in future fusion facilities like International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). However, the brittle nature of W and irradiation-induced defects of WK materials may result in a risk of deuterium–tritium reaction failure in fusion reactors. Previous studies revealed that advanced W with ultrafine grains and nanostructures might be able to address these problems. However, K-doped W, a rapidly developed material for PFMs, lacks a systematical summary. In this review, we firstly describe the powder metallurgy and plastic deformation for the preparation of WK. Then, the mechanical properties of WK and thermal shock resistance results are reviewed. Important issues such as irradiation damages from neutron, heavy ion, and plasma (H isotope or He) irradiation are also discussed. Hitherto, WK under irradiations shows comparable or even better performances compared with other counterparts such as ITER grade pure tungsten. This review could be benefitial to the future efforts of improving the ductility and irradiation tolerance of WK materials.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00018-5
  • Recent studies of tungsten-based plasma-facing materials in the linear
           plasma device STEP
    • Abstract: This contribution summarized the recent studies of tungsten-based plasma-facing materials in the linear plasma device like the simulator for tokamak edge plasma (STEP), focusing on the examination of newly developed tungsten (W)-based materials and plasma-induced defects in pure W. Pure W, W-V, W-Y2O3 and W-ZrC samples were exposed to a high-flux plasma of ~ 1021–1022 m−2 s−1 with a fluence up to 1026 m−2 at a surface temperature below 500 K. The investigation of fundamental evolution of plasma-induced defects in pure W indicated a critical role of hydrogen-dislocation interactions. Suppressed surface blistering was observed in all W-based materials, but deuterium desorption behavior and retention were distinct with respect to different materials. The studies showed that the linear plasma device like the STEP was indispensable in the understanding of plasma-material interactions and the qualification of new materials for future fusion reactors.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00004-x
  • Argon-seeded plasma exposure and oxidation performance of
           tungsten-chromium-yttrium smart alloys
    • Abstract: Tungsten-chromium-yttrium (WCrY) smart alloys are foreseen as the first wall material for future fusion devices such as Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO). While suppressing W oxidation during accidental conditions, they should behave like pure W during plasma operation due to preferential sputtering of the lighter alloying elements Cr, Y, and W enrichment of the surface. In this paper, the erosion performance of WCrY and W samples simultaneously exposed to deuterium (D) plasma with the addition of 1% of the projectile ions being argon (Ar) ions at an ion energy of 120 eV is compared. With reference to the previous experiments at 120 eV in pure D plasma, the erosion for both WCrY and W is enhanced by a factor of ~ 7. Adding Ar to the D plasma suppresses significant W enrichment previously found for pure D plasma. To investigate the impact of the plasma exposure onto the oxidation performance, plasma-exposed and non-exposed reference samples were oxidised in a dry atmosphere. Results show, on the one hand, that the oxidation suppression of WCrY in comparison to pure W is preserved during the plasma performance. On the other hand, it becomes evident that edge effects imposed by the geometry of the samples used in plasma experiments play a significant role for the oxidation behaviour.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00016-7
  • Preface from the Honorary Editor in Chief
    • PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00013-w
  • Preface from Editor in Chief
    • PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00009-6
  • Understanding corrosion and tribology behaviors of VN and VCN coatings in
    • Abstract: VN and VCN coatings were prepared using multi-arc ion plating technique on 316L stainless steel and single silicon substrates. Microstructures, mechanical performances, corrosion behaviors and tribology properties of VN and VCN coatings in the atmosphere, distilled water and seawater were contrastively tested. It was confirmed that the VCN coating had a typical nanocystallite/amorphous structure. Moreover, the hardness increased from 30.5 to 36.5 GPa and the corrosion current density decreased from 2.16 × 10−6 to 0.82 × 10−6 A cm−2 after carbon was doped into the VN coating. Compared with the VN coating, the VCN coating had the lowest friction coefficient of 0.26 and wear rate of 0.68 × 10−6 mm3 Nm−1 in seawater, which could be ascribed to the lubrication of graphitization transfer film and improvement of the comprehensive performance.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00002-z
  • A review on scandia doped tungsten matrix scandate cathode
    • Abstract: As the cathode with the highest electron emission capability in the thermionic cathode, the scandate cathode has attracted more and more attention in recent years, especially the scandia doped tungsten matrix scandate cathode. Experimental studies show that scandia doped tungsten matrix scandate cathodes with submicron microstructures exhibit excellent emission capacity, and the pulse emission current density in the space-charge region can be over 35 A cm−2 at 850 °Cb. In the direct current (DC) condition with temperature compensation, the emission current density could reach 25 A cm−2 at 850 °Cb. The device lifetime is over 3700 h after operating at 950 °Cb with the DC loading of 40 A cm−2. The emission mechanism of the scandate cathode including the effect of the surface structure and composition on the work function of the cathode are systematically reviewed.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00007-8
  • Hydrothermal synthesis of two-dimensional MoS 2 and its applications
    • Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted tremendous attention because of their unique electronic, optical and chemical properties. 2D TMDs, especially 2D MoS2, have been proved to show great potential in various applications such as sensing, hydrogen evolution and lithium ion batteries. Therefore, methods for the scalable preparation of 2D materials and 2D nanocomposites of high quality and low cost must be developed. Among the various synthesis methods, the hydrothermal synthesis method is simple and can meet the above requirements. In this review, the recent advances in the controllable hydrothermal synthesis of 2D MoS2 and its nanocomposites by the hydrothermal synthesis method are highlighted. We provide insight into the growth mechanisms of few-layered 2D MoS2 with different morphologies and the key technologies to realize wafer-scale growth of continuous and homogeneous 2D films which are important for practical applications. Further, the typical applications of TMDs in nonlinear optics as ultrafast optical modulation devices are presented based on work of our institute. For more clarity, we summarize the current challenges of the hydrothermal synthesis method encountering, and suggest solutions to these challenges concerning future developments in practical applications.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00014-9
  • Recent advances of phase engineering in group VI transition metal
    • Abstract: As the crystal quality and phase structure of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have significant impacts on their properties such as electroconductivity, superconductivity and chemical stability, the precise synthesis, which plays an important role in fundamental researches and industrial applications, is highly required. Group VI TMDs, such as MoS2, usually exhibit diverse polymorphs including semiconducting 1H and metallic 1T phases. Even great efforts are devoted to revealing the structure-dependent physicochemical nature of TMDs by modulating their phases from the stable to the metastable at the atomic scale, there are still challenges on the phase-controlled synthesis of Group VI TMDs with metallic or semimetal properties. In this review, methods such as ion intercalation, chemical doping, strain engineering, defect triggering, and electric-field treatment are examined in detail. Finally, challenges and opportunities in this research field are proposed.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42864-019-00012-x
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