Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 59 journals)
Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Metallurgica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Device Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Complex Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Graphene and 2D Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Vuzov. Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya i Funktsional’nye Pokrytiya (Proceedings of Higher Schools. Powder Metallurgy аnd Functional Coatings)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Advanced Joining Processes     Open Access  
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Processing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metal Finishing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgical Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Metallurgical Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Powder Diffraction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Powder Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Powder Metallurgy Progress     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Metalurgia     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Revista Remetallica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Metallurgy (Metally)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Times lnternational     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Transactions of the IMF     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tungsten     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2199-3823 - ISSN (Online) 2199-3831
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2652 journals]
  • Weathering Behavior of Newly Developed Highly Fluxed DRI
    • Abstract: The weathering behavior of highly fluxed and reduced iron ore pellet (DRI-Direct Reduced Iron) having 4, 6, and 8 basicity and 65–98% R (R-reduction) are given in this paper. The primary objective has been to solve weathering issues related to DRI and fresh lime used in the secondary steelmaking process. Experimental studies indicated that the addition of lime during pellet making and its subsequent reduction in coal bed yielded weather-resistant fluxed DRI with lime present in combined state. Such fluxed DRI exposed to 10 days open air (85% humidity) resulted in only 2 wt% moisture adsorption. The 30 days of air exposure caused 6 wt% moisture adsorption within acceptable limits for industrial acceptance. This low moisture adsorption by fluxed DRI was perhaps due to the presence of lime in combined form. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
  • Tantalum Metal Production Through High-Efficiency Electrochemical
           Reduction of TaS 2 in Molten CaCl 2
    • Abstract: The electro-calciothermic reduction of tantalum sulfide (TaS2) was applied to open a new pathway for producing high-purity Ta powders applicable for tantalum electrolytic capacitors. The supplied electric charge was varied to electrochemically reduce the sulfide at 900 °C using Ca in molten CaCl2−xCaS (x = 0.1, 0.5 mol%) salts. The cleaner TaS2 could also be prepared via the highly efficient carbo-sulfidation of Ta2O5 using S2 gas. The plate-like Ta particles with internal voids and coral structures were obtained through the electrochemical reduction of the sulfides. Sulfur removal was achieved rapidly from TaS2. Ta powder with 0.08 mass% O and 0.01 mass% S was successfully produced from Ta2O5 via clean TaS2. It was obtained by increasing the electric charge to two times higher than that required to generate the stoichiometric amount of Ca in the CaCl2 melt. Therefore, the electrometallurgical reduction of TaS2 could be a promising, cost-effective, and sustainable approach for producing high-purity Ta powders. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
  • Impurity Migrations in Aluminum Reduction Process and Quality Improvement
           by Anti-oxidized Prebaked Anode
    • Abstract: Higher quality primary aluminum is increasingly required for high-performance alloy products. The influence of the impurity contents in such raw materials as prebaked anodes, alumina, etc. and impact of the process operations on the quality of primary aluminum are discussed in detail in this paper. The results show that Fe and Si are the major impurity components migrated in primary aluminum. The impurity Fe mainly comes from the cell covering material, prebaked anode, alumina, and operation process. The impurity Si mainly comes from the same sources as well as fluoride salts. Besides, a kind of anti-oxidized prebaked anodes with excellent reactivity to CO2 and air was studied and developed to reduce obviously Si content in primary aluminum and to improve aluminum quality. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-03
  • Slag Chemistry and Behavior of Nickel and Tin in Black Copper Smelting
           with Alumina and Magnesia-Containing Slags
    • Abstract: The global amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is growing fast. Non-ferrous metals represent a large portion of this waste, and they can be potentially recovered via black copper smelting. Alumina and magnesia, originating from the e-waste or fluxes, can be present in the feed of a secondary copper smelter in varying concentrations. Our study focuses on the impact of MgO on the slag chemistry of high-alumina iron silicate slags. The distributions of tin and nickel as minor elements were also investigated and compared with literature data. The equilibrium study was performed at 1300 °C in reducing conditions. Three different slag mixtures with 0, 3, and 6 wt% MgO were used in the study. The MgO addition significantly reduced the solubility of alumina in the slag and changed the primary spinel phase composition. The combined effects of increasing MgO and decreasing Al2O3 concentration in the slag regarding the distribution of tin were noticeable, i.e., its deportment to metal phase increased, but for nickel the effect was negligible. Theoretical calculations were performed for estimating the isolated effect of MgO on the distributions and they confirmed the beneficial effect on the behavior of tin but showed no impact for nickel. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Design of a Novel Fertilizer Made of Steelmaking Slag Using the Glassy
           Phase of the CaO–SiO 2 –FeO System. Part I: Optimization on the Slag
           Chemistry and Microstructure
    • Abstract: Fertilizers made of steelmaking slag are important inexpensive materials for recovering degraded paddy fields. The results of our previous works showed that essential Ca and Si elements were effectively supplied by the dicalcium silicate phase (C2S) while the glassy phase of the CaO–SiO2–FeO system served as an Fe source. In this study, we have developed a slag containing both the C2S and glassy phases that are capable of simultaneously supplying Ca, Si, and Fe elements to paddy fields. To determine the optimum conditions for supplying Fe from the glassy phase, the molten slag of the CaO–SiO2–FeO system was quenched from 1573 K, and the upper limits of its FeO content and basicity for glass formation were obtained. After that, slags consisting of the glassy phases with various compositions and the C2S crystal phase were synthesized and subjected to a leaching test. By analyzing the dissolution behaviors of different phases, a kinetic model was established to estimate the dissolved amount of each element and determine the optimum slag composition, which was obtained at a quenching temperature of 1573 K, basicity of 1.6, and FeO concentration of approximately 25 mass%. The dissolved amounts of Fe and Si produced by this slag exceeded those of commercial fertilizers prepared from steelmaking slag by factors of 6 and 2–3, respectively, while their respective amounts of supplied Ca were close to each other. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Potentially Exploitable Reprocessing Routes for Recovering Copper and
           Cobalt Retained in Flotation Tailings
    • Abstract: This research aimed at recovering metals retained in the tailings from the flotation of copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) ores conducted at the New Concentrator in Kipushi (NCK). Metals retention in the tailings (0.73% Cu and 0.37% Co) increased due to the removal of the gravity separation section from the processing circuit together with changes arising in the feed mineralogical characteristics namely the increase in sulfide minerals. The concentrator’s feed was traditionally composed of oxidized minerals of Cu and Co from the Luiswishi deposit (DR Congo). Experiments conducted at the laboratory scale enabled identifying two exploitable routes for recovering metals retained in the tailings: firstly, the sulfuric acid leaching of tailings under reducing conditions in view of preparing a leach liquor (2.43 g/L Cu and 1.10 g/L Co) that can be utilized for cementing Cu, using iron chips and precipitating Co; secondly, the flotation of valuable minerals using xanthates in view of obtaining a rougher concentrate grading 1.43% Cu and 0.75% Co recovered at 56% and 59%, respectively, and later on, the obtaining of a cleaner concentrate assaying 3.97% Cu and 2.4% Co at the recoveries of 35% and 43%, respectively. The final concentrate enables the hydrometallurgical extraction of Cu and Co. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Green Power Furnaces in Aluminum Cast House for Scrap Preheating Using CO
           2 -Flue Gas
    • Abstract: Implementing preheating furnaces in the aluminum industry, powered by waste heat, has been a subject of interest due to the economic and energy-saving benefits. Metal holding furnaces, keeping aluminum in a liquid state (approx. 760 °C) before casting, are powered by fuel burners. Hot flue gas escapes the cast house furnaces at very high temperatures close to the aluminum melting point and represents a significant energy loss. One can heat aluminum scrap by redirecting hot flue gases from the holding furnace to a metal scrap preheating furnace, which is to be melted, prior to loading them in the metal melting furnace. Introducing a preheating step, incredibly hot flue gas, will reduce the melting time required while saving energy. This present study examines the effectiveness of preheating aluminum sow and billet profiles with hot flue gases and find the optimal design considerations for a preheating furnace. Different approaches to achieve quantitative heat treatment in batch homogenizing furnaces were evaluated. Heat transfer modeling, analysis of flue gas furnace, and sows’ temperature coupled with thermodynamic analysis improve thermal equation prediction precision. Turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer physics are used in a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate aluminum heating by hot gas. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Improving Zinc Recovery from Steelmaking Dust by Switching from
           Conventional Heating to Microwave Heating
    • Abstract: Recently, microwave energy has attracted increasing interest for accelerating thermal reactions. This study investigated the impact of microwave heating on the zinc recovery rate from electric arc furnace (EAF) and chromium converter (CRC) dusts. The results indicated that microwave heating required a lower temperature to recover zinc from EAF and CRC dusts compared with that in conventional thermal heating. For CRC dust, zinc recovery rates of 37.84% and 97.43% were obtained with conventional and microwave heating, respectively, at 850 °C. For EAF dust, zinc recovery rates of 79.88% and 98.20% were obtained with conventional and microwave heating, respectively, at 850 °C. The improved zinc recovery in this study was concluded to results from the rapidity of microwave heating and the interactions between the electromagnetic microwave field and the molecules of heated materials. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Reaction Kinetics of Palm Char and Coke with Iron Oxides in EAF
           Steelmaking Slag
    • Abstract: The reaction kinetics, activation energy, and reduction rates of different carbon reductant properties with electric arc furnace (EAF) slag determine the effectiveness of carbon in EAF steelmaking. This article investigates the interaction between slag and carbonaceous materials derived from palm char and coke. Palm shells were converted into palm char using chemical activation method (phosphorus acid, H3PO4) and pyrolyzed at 450 °C for 2 h in a horizontal tube furnace. Then, all the carbonaceous materials were mixed with iron oxide from slag with mass ratio of 1:3.73. The reduction reaction was carried out in a horizontal tube furnace at different temperature ranges of 1250–1550 °C under argon gas to understand the reaction kinetics, activation energies, and reduction rates of iron oxide from EAF slag with palm char and coke. All iron oxides in EAF slag were completely reduced into metallic iron at 1550 °C for both reductants. The phase and quantity of reduced iron were confirmed by Rietveld refinement method using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Palm char/slag has lower activation energy value, E (38.52 kJ/mol), than coke/slag (47.75 kJ/mol). The reaction rate of palm char was found faster (4.99 × 10–5 mol/cm2 s) than coke due to larger specific surface area, higher pore volume, amorphous carbon structure, and higher fixed carbon with high volatile content leading to lower activation energy, thus accelerating the iron oxide reduction rates. This finding forms the basic understanding of the reaction between EAF slag and carbonaceous materials for future research on the production of palm char as a feasible carbon reductant in EAF steelmaking. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Application of Enhanced Gravity Separators for Fine Particle Processing:
           An Overview
    • Abstract: Beneficiation of low-grade ore is of critical importance in order to meet the growing demand for coal and mineral industries. But, low-grade ores require fine grinding to obtain the desired liberation of valuable minerals. As a result, production of fine particles makes the beneficiation process difficult through conventional gravity separators. Hence, alternative beneficiation techniques are being investigated for upgradation of metal values from low-grade ores. The gravitational force effecting the separation is replaced by the centrifugal force to usher in enhanced gravity separators. The objective of the present paper is to summarize the applicability aspect of enhanced gravity separators for different mineral systems including non-ferrous, precious, ferrous, and industrial minerals. These mineral systems include run off mine ore, secondary products like tailings and plant slags, etc. For this purpose, the design, operational features, types, and separation mechanism of enhanced gravity separators, such as Falcon concentrator, Knelson concentrator, multi-gravity separator (MGS), and Kelsey Jig, are discussed. Based on our review, research scope and future possibilities of enhanced gravity separators are also proposed. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Correction to: Recovery of Gallium from Aqueous Solution through
    • Abstract: A correction to this paper has been published:
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
  • Pb Recycling Through Leaching, Precipitation, and Cementation from Zinc
           Plant Residue
    • Abstract: This paper presents the hydrometallurgical methods used for the recovery of concentrate and metallic lead from zinc plant residue (ZPR). The ZPR mainly consisting of 9.5% Pb and 7.5% Zn was initially leached by sulfuric acid under the following conditions: leaching temperature 90 °C, leaching time 90 min., sulfuric acid concentration 200 g/l, and solid/liquid ratio 1/5. The zinc recovery obtained was 92.8%, which was finally directed to solvent extraction circuit to produce zinc cathode. Then acidic residue was subjected to alkaline leaching, using sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The lead recovery obtained was 92.58%. For precipitation method by using NaClO, the effects of three important factors including (NaClO/solution) ratio, temperature, and precipitation time were studied and reported. As a result, lead was precipitated in the form of PbO2 with concentrated grade of 72.03% and recovery of 92.31%. Furthermore, aluminum was used for cementation process to produce metallic Pb with grade of 96.11% and total recovery of 87.17%. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-02-23
  • Recovery of Zn as ZnO from Steelmaking Waste Materials by Mechanochemical
           Leaching, Solvent Extraction, Precipitation, and Thermal Decomposition
    • Abstract: A large amount of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is produced as hazardous waste materials during steelmaking in electric arc furnace. EAFD includes a considerable amount of zinc. Recovery of Zn as ZnO from EAFD via mechanochemical leaching, solvent extraction, precipitation, and thermal decomposition route was investigated. Dissolution behavior of Zn, Fe, Mn, Si, Mg, and Ca during the mechanochemical leaching of EAFD in H2SO4 solution was determined. Optimum mechanochemical leaching parameters were considered as 10 g of EAFD, 2 M H2SO4, 240 min of reaction time, ball to the dust weight ratio of 20, and rotational speed of 500 rpm. D2EHPA solution (20%, vv) was used for solvent extraction of Zn from mechanochemical leach solution. McCabe–Thiele diagrams constructed for extraction and stripping stages indicated that 95% of zinc in the leach solution was extracted in three stages at A:O = 1:1, while 97% of Zn was stripped from loaded organic phase at operating line of A:O = 4:1. ZnC2O4∙2H2O powder was precipitated from strip solution obtained by solvent extraction by adding oxalic acid solution at pH 4. Thermal properties of ZnC2O4·2H2O precipitated were investigated by thermogravimetric–differential thermal analysis technique. High-purity ZnO was obtained by thermal decomposition of ZnC2O4∙2H2O precipitated. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
  • Fundamental Study of Palladium Recycling Using “Dry Aqua Regia”
           Considering the Recovery from Spent Auto-catalyst
    • Abstract: In this research, a recycling process for palladium using “dry aqua regia,” which consists of iron(III) chloride–potassium chloride, was proposed. Palladium was dissolved in “dry aqua regia,” and the dissolved palladium was recovered by leaching with potassium chloride solution with added ammonium chloride and nitric acid. Palladium was almost completely dissolved in 3 h at 600 K, and the recovery ratio of dissolved palladium was up to 80%. In addition, the dissolution of palladium in coexistence with platinum and the dissolution of platinum-palladium alloy by “dry aqua regia” were also tested. The dissolved palladium and platinum were separated and recovered by solid–liquid separation technique using the difference in solubility of their compounds in potassium chloride and sodium chloride solutions. As a result, pure compounds of each element were recovered. This result suggested the possibility of using “dry aqua regia” for the separation of platinum-group metals. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
  • Comprehensive Utilization of Boron-Concentrate by Hydrometallurgy
    • Abstract: A new eco-friendly process to comprehensively utilize boron-concentrate is proposed in this paper. In this process, Iron-concentrate, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide, and boric acid could be produced from boron-concentrate. The highlight of this process was minimal waste discharge during the whole process. Iron removal was a key step to ensure the quality of boric acid and magnesium oxide. The introduced goethite precipitation method could remove iron to a very low level. With the addition of 3 cm3 H2O2 (5 vol. %) as an oxidizing agent, more than 99% of iron was removed from the leaching liquor. After the removal of iron, the resulting liquor was used to prepare magnesium precipitate. And the optimal preparation conditions were: the temperature of 30 °C and precipitation time of 60 min, ammonium- magnesium ratio of 1.5, the magnesium ion concentration of 34.8 g·L−1. Under those conditions, the magnesium precipitation efficiency was up to 98.5%. Magnesium oxide was obtained by roasting magnesium precipitate at 550 °C for 2 h. Then the mixed crystals of ammonium sulfate and boric acid were obtained by evaporating the liquor after iron removing and magnesium precipitating. Boric acid was separated from ammonium sulfate by dissolving the mixed crystals in ethanol solution. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
  • Recovery of Gallium from Aqueous Solution through Preconcentration by
           Adsorption/Desorption on Disordered Mesoporous Carbon
    • Abstract: This work studies gallium preconcentration by means of an adsorption/desorption process using two mesoporous activated carbons synthesized by the replica method as adsorbents. The adsorption results indicate that both carbons can remove 90% of gallium from aqueous solution. Increasing the adsorbent dose favors gallium adsorption and makes the adsorption process strongly pH dependent. However, the most outstanding conclusion is related to the gallium recovery: by using a HF solution as desorbing agent (the same as employed in the adsorbents’ synthesis, in line with circular economy principles), it is possible to regenerate the adsorbent as well as recover 82% of the gallium previously retained. Additionally, the desorption enables sevenfold preconcentration of gallium ions, up to 250 ppm, by reducing the volume of the acidic solution eightfold. This enables further recovery by means of refining processes such as extraction. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
  • Process Design to Obtain Copper Sulfate Crystals Using Solid–Liquid
           Equilibrium of Copper Sulfate–Sulfuric Acid–Seawater
    • Abstract: In Chile, there are several mining companies that crystallize copper sulfate pentahydrate using freshwater; however, it would be interesting to know the effect of seawater in the process design of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals, considering the low freshwater availability in the mining zones. In the present work, three different processes are proposed for obtaining copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals using seawater, by means of the addition of sulfuric acid. These were evaluated and compared in terms of their mass and energy balances. The first process (Case 1) is composed of crystallization, heating/mixing, recrystallization, centrifugation, and drying stages. In the second process (Case 2), the recirculation of the solution from the recrystallization to the crystallization stage is added. In the third process (Case 3), the heating/mixing and recrystallization stages are eliminated, considering one crystallization stage along with centrifugation and drying. The results of the Mass and Energy balances showed that there is high energy consumption associated with the heating/mixing and recrystallization stages, so the process that does not contain these stages (Case 3) is the most convenient from an energy point of view. On the other hand, the results indicated that the highest yield (97.17%) of the process is obtained when the recirculation of the solution is added from the recrystallization to the crystallization stages (Case 2), followed for the yield of 94.41% obtained in the process where the heating/mixing and recrystallization stages are eliminated (Case 3), which would make it the most convenient process from an energy and production point of view. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
  • Characterization of Waste-Integrated Multi-hybrid Structure for Enhancing
           Corrosion Resistance of High-Carbon Steel
    • Abstract: Due to their exceptional properties, low-cost high-carbon steels have long been extensively utilized in many industrial applications. However, their corrosion resistance is poor for many applications and requires further enhancement. Various methods have been developed to achieve this, but they suffer from some limitations. In the work presented herein, a single-stage heat treatment process was applied at low temperature and utilizing waste materials for comparison as new resources, being shown to be a cost-effective approach. In the framework of this study, a multi-hybrid coating structure was developed on the surface of high-carbon steel by applying a single-step heat treatment process and utilizing various waste materials, namely metallurgical slag, glass, and automotive shredder residue (ASR). The results reveal that not only was the process completed in a short time but significant enhancements in the corrosion resistance and hardness performance were achieved. Analyses were performed by high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in peak force quantitative nanomechanical (PF-QNM) mode. The electrochemical corrosion performance was tested using Tafel method. Both the Young’s modulus and corrosion resistance of the steels treated using the waste materials were improved compared with the base material. This approach opens a new perspective for utilizing waste materials to obtain environmentally sustainable products in a cost-effective fashion, thereby reducing reliance on new resources as well as disposal of waste materials in landfill. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
  • Reduction Behavior and Direct Reduction Kinetics of Red Mud-Biomass
           Composite Pellets
    • Abstract: A large amount of red mud is discharged in the aluminum oxide production process, which contains a variety of valuable metals and is considered as a secondary resource. In order to reveal the mechanism of red mud carbon thermal reduction process, isothermal reduction experiments on carbon-bearing pellets of red mud were investigated with biomass carbon as a reducing agent. In this study, the reduction temperatures were conducted using a microwave stove in the temperature range from 850 to 1250 ℃, and the C/O molar ratio was 1.1. The results show that the reduction process of red mud is governed by a carbon gasification reaction, and the apparent activation energy is 88.44 kJ/mol. The optimum reduction process conditions were established to be 1150 ℃ for 13 min. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40831-020-00326-y
  • Correction to: Development of a Sustainable Alternative for the Ammoniacal
           Cyanidation of Copper–Gold Ores Through a Biological Approach
    • Abstract: There are inaccuracies in the graphical abstract presented in this article.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40831-020-00332-0
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