Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 59 journals)
Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Metallurgica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Device Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Complex Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Graphene and 2D Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Vuzov. Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya i Funktsional’nye Pokrytiya (Proceedings of Higher Schools. Powder Metallurgy аnd Functional Coatings)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Advanced Joining Processes     Open Access  
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Processing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metal Finishing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgical Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Metallurgical Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Powder Diffraction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Powder Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Powder Metallurgy Progress     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Metalurgia     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Revista Remetallica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Metallurgy (Metally)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Soldering & Surface Mount Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Steel Times lnternational     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Transactions of the IMF     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tungsten     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  
Similar Journals
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Welding in the World
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.533
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0043-2288 - ISSN (Online) 1878-6669
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Lung cancer and arc welding of steels
    • PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Obituary Norman Frank Eaton
    • PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Welding thermal efficiency in cold wire gas metal arc welding
    • Abstract: Cold wire gas metal arc welding (CW-GMAW) has been increasingly used in heavy-gauge manufacturing where high deposition rates are required. In such applications, the thermal efficiency of the CW-GMAW is crucial, yet it is not reported in the literature. Water calorimetry experiments were conducted to assess the thermal efficiency of CW-GMAW for two cold wire feed fractions and three common transfer modes: short circuit, globular, and spray, and these are compared to standard GMAW using the same transfer modes. The welds were produced using ER70S-6 as the electrode and cold wires. AISI 1020 plain carbon steel plates were used as the base metal with thicknesses of 9.53 mm and 6.35 mm. After producing the welds, three cross-sections were cut and analyzed using Vickers hardness maps, where differences were attributed to cooling variation rate across the weld cross-sections in high arc power samples. Results have shown that feeding a cold wire into the arc can re-introduce part of the lost heat back into the weld pool both in the short circuit and spray transfer regimes, suggesting an increase in the heat content in the weld pool.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • TiAl/IN718 dissimilar brazing with TiZrNiCuCo high-entropy filler metal:
           phase characterization and fractography
    • Abstract: This paper aims at understanding the microstructural evolution during the dissimilar brazing of γ-TiAl intermetallic to a Ni-based superalloy by using a novel high-entropy quinary amorphous TiZrNiCuCo filler alloy. Three distinct zones were characterized in the joint region: reaction layer adjacent to the γ-TiAl, diffusion zone in the IN718 side, and centerline solidified zone. Ti-Ni (Cu)-Al intermetallic compounds were formed in the reaction layer. αʹ (Cr, Fe) and γ (Fe, Ni) have precipitated in the γ-Ni matrix of the IN718 substrate discontinuously. The middle TiNi phase solidified isothermally during bonding. The maximum shear strength of 396 MPa achieved at 1020 °C for 40-min bonding, and the high temperature strength was 67% of the room temperature strength.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Joining of copper nanowires by electrodepositing silver layer for
           high-performance transparent electrode
    • Abstract: Copper nanowire (CuNW) has been considered as one of the most promising materials to replace ITO for transparent electrode (TE). However, the loose connections and oxidation problem limited its practical usage. Herein, we introduced a facile and simple electrodeposition method to solve these problems, which can effectively join the stacked NWs together and improve the oxidation resistance. After electrodeposition of Ag layer, the sheet resistance decreased to 13.8 Ohm/sq. at a transmittance of 90.5%. Thanks to the forming of firm joints, the relative resistance kept stable after 1000 times cyclic bending. Compared with pristine TE that the electrical conductivity increased 10 times under the atmosphere ambient, the electrical conductivity nearly unchanged after electrodepositing Ag layer under the same condition. The peaks of copper oxides are not observed in the XPS spectrum, proving the Ag layer prevents the contact between CuNWs and oxygen element. At last, a flexible and transparent heater was fabricated based on these advantages, which can produce uniform heating under a low input voltage.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Soldering Zr metallic glass to Ti alloy using pre-cladding ultrasonic
    • Abstract: That increasing temperature is beneficial for solder-wetting but not for amorphous-maintaining the state causes difficulties in joining of Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG). In order to solve the contradiction, this paper presents a two-step process of pre-cladding ultrasonic soldering, in which a Zn-6Al-3Cu-20Sn solder layer was firstly vacuum-cladded on surface of a Ti-6Al-4V sample, and then a Zr-14Cu-10Ti-8Ni BMG sample was ultrasonic-soldered to the solder layer without flux. Microstructures of the Zr-14Cu-10Ti-8Ni/Zn-6Al-3Cu-20Sn/Ti-6Al-4V soldering joints were studied using optical microscope, SEM, EDS, and XRD, and shear strengths were tested. Results show that shear strength ranges from 20 to 50 MPa among the joints obtained under different soldering temperatures and ultrasonic times. Shear fracture of all the experimental ultrasonic soldered joints occurred at the interface between solder and Zr-based BMG. The fracture surface shows a mixture of solder tearing and solder peeling off from the surface of the Zr-based BMG. Pits or grooves formed on surface of Zr-based BMG by ultrasonic cavitation benefit not only chemical adhesion but also mechanical adhesion by an anchoring effect. This work confirmed that ultrasonic treatment is very effective for the soldered joint of Zr-based BMG.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Effects of operating parameters on weld bead morphology with welding
           operations of API 5L X70 steel pipes by SMAW process
    • Abstract: The work presented in this paper deals with the study of the influence of the operating parameters of welding on observables which are the geometrical characteristics of the melted zone. In this study, the method implemented is of the SMAW (Shielded metal arc welding) manual arc type and is used to assemble the pipes through the filling of a V-shaped chamfer between two tubes 1219.5 mm in diameter, 13 mm thick, and a material of grade X70 steel. In order to increase the productivity and reliability of the chamfer filling operation, we used the experimental designs method, on the one hand to estimate the effects of the operating parameters and their interactions on several functions characterizing the morphology of the weld bead, and on the other hand, to provide a mathematical model that links the welding process operating parameters to the objective functions studied.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Limitations of the Schlieren technique for shielding gas flow
           visualization in arc welding processes
    • Abstract: Gas protection is very important in arc welding processes and several factors influence its effectiveness. This paper provides a discussion of the applicability of the Schlieren technique to arc welding processes. Tests were performed with different types of shielding gas and with GMAW and GTAW torches, in order to highlight differences associated with the various conditions. The results obtained in conjunction with a review of results reported in the literature allowed an evaluation of the limitations associated with the use of the Schlieren technique in the arc welding processes. The most important limitation is that the visualization is inherently difficult when using pure Ar gas, meaning that in most situations it is not possible to adequately visualize the flow interface with atmospheric air, which is the main region of interest in this type of analysis. However, visualization is possible in regions where pure Ar is heated, or when mixtures with other gases are used. In addition, the results obtained with different sources of light were compared and the test was performed by filming the arc welding or with the gas flowing through the torch without the arc. The differences observed in the results obtained are discussed herein.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Effect of activated flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding on the
           mechanical properties and the metallurgical and corrosion assessment of
           Inconel 625
    • Abstract: This article makes an attempt to investigate the outcome of activated flux and filler wire in addition to A-TIG welding and TIG welding of Inconel 625 respectively. Ni-Cr-Mo enriched filler namely ERNiCrMo-3 was used to join 6.5-mm-thick plates. Microstructure characterization, mechanical properties evaluation and secondary dendritic arm spacing measurements were carried out to find the cause of the perceived differences. Tensile test failures were observed at the weld zone in both welding processes. Charpy impact studies showed that weldment using A-TIG revealed a low toughness value compared to the TIG weldment. Root bend test showed no discontinuity in both fusion zones and hence, the weldment was produced without defect. The deleterious laves phase was reduced when activated flux and fillers were used. Corrosion performance was undertaken in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, to illustrate the outstanding corrosion resistance in Inconel 625’s fusion zone using A-TIG and TIG welding processes.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V with a copper-based brazing filler metal
    • Abstract: A copper-based (Cu-40Ag-6Ga-1Si, wt.%) filler metal was developed and used for Ti-6Al-4V brazing. The solidus temperature of the filler metal is 773.05 °C and the liquidus temperature is 776.14 °C. The spreading coefficient and contact angle of the filler metal at 850 °C on TC4 are 95.07% and 5°, respectively. The brazing experiment of Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) was performed using the copper-based filler metal. The TC4 alloy was successfully brazed using the Cu-Ag-Ga-Si filler metal at the brazing temperature 850 °C for 10 min. The joint microstructure consisted of αTi/TiCu and Ti2Cu IMCs/Cu(s,s), Ag(s,s), and AgCu eutectic. The effects of brazing time on the microstructure, shear strength, and microhardness of the brazed joints were investigated. The (Ti, Cu) intermetallic compound increased with time, which degrades the properties of the brazed joint. The shear strength of the brazed joint decreases with the increase of holding time. The average shear strength of the joint is 170.65 MPa at the brazing temperature of 850 °C for 10 min. The microhardness across the joint increases first and then decreases with the holding time. The average microhardnesses of the brazing center is 170.5  HV, and the maximum microhardness is 699.3 HV at the interlayer area due to the high content of intermetallic compounds. Further prolonging the holding time from 10 min is not beneficial for the joint strength.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Investigation on the induction brazing of copper–steel tubes with
           different coil structures
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of coil structure on electromagnetic fields and temperature distributions of copper–steel tube induction brazing for compressor-automatic production line. To get a satisfied temperature distribution, five coil structures were designed and three-dimensional finite element models were established. The temperature distribution of the workpiece was numerically predicted and compared with the experimental values, and the simulated temperature field shows very good agreement with the experimental temperature measurements on the workpiece surface. The simulated results revealed that the coil structure was crucial and considerable to the thermal field of the workpiece and heating efficiency. Moreover, different materials have large differences in temperature change when heated by the same coil. To ensure good quality of the joints and high productivity, a reasonable heating time of rapid induction brazing was obtained at about 4 s. The comparison results indicated that the coil structure of square ring with series connection demonstrated the highest performance in terms of heating efficiency and energy usage among the coil designs.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Interference-fit joining of Cu-SS composite tubes by electromagnetic
           crimping for different surface profiles
    • Abstract: This paper explores the possibility of producing an improved interference-fit tubular joint between pure copper and stainless steel tube by electromagnetic crimping (EMC). Successful joints are obtained with optimal parameters consisting of the outer surface profile of the inner tube and discharge energy. Joints exceeding the strength of the parent tube are formed without any metallic bond formation. Three destructive testings, namely, pull-out, compression and torsion tests, have confirmed the successful joint formation as the failure occurs in the copper base tube. Analysis of failure mechanisms has revealed joint behaviour at various discharge energies and surface profiles. Among smooth, knurled and threaded surface profiles with different discharge energy levels, knurled surface provides best joint strength at 6.2 kJ, which has shown a failure in the parent Cu tube during all three destructive testings. Radial deformation of the tubes is measured and compared for different discharge energy and surface profile. No metallic bond formation and the wavy interface are observed between the joining partners during microstructural analysis. Furthermore, no elemental overlapping is observed during energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping analysis indicating an absence of diffusion. Higher micro-hardness is observed near the Cu-SS tubular joint interface due to strain hardening caused by high-velocity impact.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Influence of material degradation on weld seam quality in hot gas butt
           welding of polyamides
    • Abstract: The joining of plastics is required because component geometries are severely restricted in conventional manufacturing processes such as injection molding or extrusion. In addition to established processes such as hot plate welding, infrared welding, or vibration welding, hot gas butt welding is becoming more and more important industrially due to its advantages. The main benefits are the contactless heating process, the suitability for glass fiber reinforced, and high-temperature plastics as well as complex component geometries. However, various degradation phenomena can occur during the heating process used for economic reasons, due to the presence of oxygen in the air and to the high gas temperatures. In addition, the current patent situation suggests that welding with an oxidizing gas is not permissible depending on the material. On the other hand, however, there is experience from extrusion welding, with which long-term resistant weld seams can be produced using air. Investigations have shown that the same weld seam properties can be achieved with polypropylene using either air or nitrogen as the process gas. Experimental investigations have now been carried out on the suitability of different gases with regard to the weld seam quality when welding polyamides, which are generally regarded as more prone to oxidation. The results show that weld strengths are higher when nitrogen is used as process gas. However, equal weld strengths can be achieved with air and nitrogen when the material contains heat stabilizers.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Effect of brazing parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties
           of Ti 5 Si 3 /Ti 3 Al composite joints brazed with Ti–Zr–Cu–Ni
           filler alloy
    • Abstract: In this study, Ti5Si3/Ti3Al composite was successfully vacuum-brazed with Ti-33Zr-16Cu-13Ni (wt.%) filler alloy. The typical interfacial microstructure of the joints presented a symmetrical characteristic, which mainly consisted of Ti3Al, Ti2Ni, and α-Ti phases. The effects of brazing temperature and holding time on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated in details. The optimized average shear strength of 224 MPa was obtained when brazing at 900 °C for 5 min. The high temperature shear strength of the joints reached 377 and 405 MPa at 600 and 650 °C, respectively. In addition, the microstructure evolution mechanism of the joints was put forward based on the experimental analysis.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Feasibility study of the Oxy Fuel Gas Welding (OFW) process in AA2024-T3
           and GF/PEI composite hybrid joint
    • Abstract: The aim of the present study is evaluating the feasibility of Oxy Fuel Welding (OFW), using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), for the joining of the glass fiber/polyetherimide composite and aluminum alloy 2024-T3, which combine the effectiveness of the joint and the low cost of operation. A statistical experimental design was performed to determine by OFW parameters, and the samples were welded and evaluated after Lap Shear Strength (LSS) loading as the planning response variable. For a better result of the joint strength, through the mechanical interlock between the laminate and the AA2024-T3, anodization process was performed. A maximum value of LSS with 6.20 MPa was obtained, with optimized values reaching 6.32 MPa. The results of mechanical resistance of the hybrid junction involving the anodized AA2024-T3 were doubled, being 13.80 MPa in relation to the maximum obtained from the joint without treatment, confirming the increase of the interaction between these two materials. This fact was confirmed by the roughness test and optical microscopy. After welding, the AA2024-T3 structure was converted into a new structure of equiaxed grains, from the recrystallization of the grains, the hardness value being reduced by approximately 24%. From the TGA and EDS analyses, there was no significant difference in the degradation temperature of the thermoplastic composite, confirming the efficacy of the process for hybrid joint AA2024-T3 and GF/PEI composite, and there is no indication of contaminant that could interfere with the quality of the weld.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Influence of ultrasonic vibration on keyholing/penetrating capability in
           plasma arc welding with controlled pulse waveform
    • Abstract: Ultrasonic vibration-assisted plasma arc welding with controlled pulse current waveform was developed to weld the 8 mm thick stainless steel plates. Both bead-on-plate and butt welding experiments were carried out with open-loop and closed-loop control strategies under different welding conditions. The signals of welding current and efflux plasma voltage and the images of keyhole exit were sensed to monitor the keyhole status during the welding process. It was found that the ultrasonic vibration-assisted plasma arc can completely penetrate the stainless steel plates with the thickness of 8 mm in a single pass with higher welding speed or lower peak welding current in controlled pulse keyhole mode. By continuous real-time adjustment of welding current waveform in closed-loop strategy, the “one-pulse-one-open keyhole” mode was achieved successfully with lower welding heat input. Due to the reduction of heat input and further constriction of plasma arc under the action of ultrasonic vibration, the weld was narrowed and the depth-width ratio was raised.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Investigations on arc brazing for galvanized heavy steel plates in steel
           and shipbuilding
    • Abstract: Arc brazing with low-melting copper-based filler materials, which has long been established and standardized in the thin sheet sector, offers numerous advantages in the processing of predominantly electrolytically galvanized steel structures. In steel and shipbuilding, on the other hand, equipment parts made of thick steel sheets are hot-dip galvanized at low cost and with good corrosion-inhibiting properties. Quality welding of such constructions is not possible without special precautions such as removing the zinc layer and subsequent recoating. With regard to greater plate thicknesses, arc brazing was analyzed in these investigations as an alternative joining method with regard to its suitability for practical use. Within the scope of the investigations, CuSi3Mn, CuMn12Ni2, and four different aluminum bronzes were examined on different sheet surface conditions with regard to the geometrical and production parameters. This was carried out by build-up and connection brazing, executed as butt and cross joints. Quasi-static tensile tests and fatigue tests were used to assess the strength behavior. In addition, metallographic analyses are carried out as well as hardness tests. The suitability for multi-layer brazing and the tendency to distortion were also investigated, as well as the behavior of arc brazed joints under corrosive conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Microstructural analysis and mechanical behavior of the HAZ in an API 5L
           X70 steel welded by GMAW process
    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the heat-affected zone (HAZ) behavior in an API 5L X70 steel welded by the gas metal arc welding process (GMAW). In the steel welding processes, this region is very critical due to microstructural and allotropic transformations that affect the mechanical properties. Three samples were welded using a robotic arm with different welding speeds, thus obtaining three different heat inputs, which were 2.0 kJ/mm, 2.5 kJ/mm, and 3.0 kJ/mm. For all heat inputs, the microstructures of the HAZ showed the Widmanstätten ferrite, Acicular ferrite, bainite, and martensite and retained austenite, which influenced the mechanical properties of this region. The electron backscattering diffraction analysis showed that the presence of low-angle grain boundaries (2–15°) increases the fracture toughness. The kernel average misorientation map and the results of the Charpy impact test showed that the heat input of 3.0 kJ/mm lead to characteristics of the HAZ that are remarkably similar to the base metal (BM).
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
  • Effect of heat input of TIG repair welding on microstructure and
           mechanical properties of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy
    • Abstract: In the present study, the effect of heat input of gas tungsten arc welding on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated. The microstructural studies were performed by using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and tensile test was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. It was shown that, comparing to the base metal, a fine microstructure of α(Mg) and Mg17Al12 phase is formed in the weld metal and the size of α(Mg) phase slightly increased with heat input during welding process. The results also indicated that the thickness of partially melted zone increased with heat input. Tensile strength of welded samples was lower than that of the base metal and it decreases with increasing heat input. Failure of the welded specimens accrues in the partially melted zone. Studying of fracture surface revealed that the interface of α(Mg) and Mg17Al12 compound acts as crack initiation and growth path during the tensile test. Formation of cleavage steps in the fracture surface was the dominant fracture mechanism during tensile tests.
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40194-021-01100-8
  • Brazing of graphite to 6063 aluminum alloy with Al-Cu-Si-Ni-Mg filler
           metal and Ag-Cu-Ti paste
    • Abstract: In the present work, an Al-Cu-Si-Ni-Mg brazing filler metal was developed for the joining of 6063 aluminum alloy and graphite metallized with Ag-Cu-Ti paste. The joint microstructures were studied by means of SEM and EDS. Results show that joints with a good quality can be produced at a brazing temperature of 550 °C for 10 min. TiC was formed at the graphite/active Ag-Cu-Ti paste interface due to the reaction between Ti and C, and thus, the wettability on the graphite was improved. Compared to the metallization stage, more diffusions of Al, Ag, Ti, and Cu from interlayer to graphite are observed. The bonding area mainly consists of α-Al, Ag rich phase, α + Al2Cu + Si, Al2Cu, and TiC. It is shown that joints with good quality can be produced and the average shear strength of the joints is 21 MPa.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40194-021-01094-3
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