Subjects -> METALLURGY (Total: 59 journals)
Showing 1 - 10 of 10 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Metallurgica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Device Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Complex Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Materials : Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Graphene and 2D Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences (IJEMS)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Metallurgy and Alloys     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ISIJ International - Iron and Steel Institute of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Izvestiya Vuzov. Poroshkovaya Metallurgiya i Funktsional’nye Pokrytiya (Proceedings of Higher Schools. Powder Metallurgy аnd Functional Coatings)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Advanced Joining Processes     Open Access  
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cluster Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Processing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metal Finishing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgical Research & Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Metallurgical Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration     Hybrid Journal  
Powder Diffraction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Powder Metallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Powder Metallurgy Progress     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Practical Metallography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Metalurgia     Open Access  
Revista del Instituto de Investigación de la Facultad de Ingeniería Geológica, Minera, Metalurgica y Geográfica     Open Access  
Revista Remetallica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Metallurgy (Metally)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Times lnternational     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Transactions of the IMF     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tungsten     Hybrid Journal  
Universal Journal of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Welding International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.559
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 12  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1674-4799 - ISSN (Online) 1869-103X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2652 journals]
  • Effects of CeO 2 pre-calcined at different temperatures on the performance
           of Pt/CeO 2 -C electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation reaction
    • Abstract: Pt/CeO2-C catalysts with CeO2 pre-calcined at 300–600°C were synthesized by combining hydrothermal calcination and wet impregnation. The effects of the pre-calcined CeO2 on the performance of Pt/CeO2-C catalysts in methanol oxidation were investigated. The Pt/CeO2-C catalysts with pre-calcined CeO2 at 300–600°C showed an average particle size of 2.6–2.9 nm and exhibited better methanol electro-oxidation catalytic activity than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. In specific, the Pt/CeO2-C catalysts with pre-calcined CeO2 at 400°C displayed the highest electrochemical surface area value of 68.14 m2·g−1 and If/Ib ratio (the ratio of the forward scanning peak current density (If) and the backward scanning peak current density (Ib)) of 1.26, which are considerably larger than those (53.23 m2·g−1 and 0.79, respectively) of the commercial Pt/C catalyst, implying greatly enhanced CO tolerance.
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
  • Comparative characterization of iridium loading on catalyst assessment
           under different conditions
    • Abstract: To discuss the potential role of iridium (Ir) nanoparticles loaded under atmospheric and high pressures, we prepared a series of catalysts with the same active phase but different contents of 10wt%, 20wt%, and 30wt% on gamma-alumina for decomposition of hydrazine. Under atmospheric pressure, the performance of the catalyst was better when 30wt% of the Ir nanoparticles was used with chelating agent that had greater selectivity of approximately 27%. The increase in the reaction rate from 175 to 220 h−1 at higher Ir loading (30wt%) was due to a good dispersion of high-number active phases rather than an agglomeration surface. As a satisfactory result of this investigation at high pressure, Ir catalysts with different weight percentages showed the same stability against crushing and activity with a characteristic velocity of approximately 1300 m/s.
      PubDate: 2021-03-13
  • Progress in developing self-consolidating concrete (SCC) constituting
           recycled concrete aggregates: A review
    • Abstract: Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) derived from demolition waste has been widely explored for use in civil engineering applications. One of the promising strategies globally is to incorporate RCA into concrete products. However, the use of RCA in high-performance concrete, such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC), has only been studied in the past decade. This paper summarizes recent publications on the use of coarse and/or fine RCA in SCC. As expected, the high-water absorption and porous structure of RCA have posed challenges in producing a high-fluidity mixture. According to an analysis of published data, a lower strength reduction (within 23% regardless of coarse RCA content) is observed in SCC compared with vibrated concrete, possibly due to the higher paste content in the SCC matrix, which enhances the weak surface layer of RCA and interfacial transition zone. Similarly, SCC tends to become less durable with RCA substitution although the deterioration can be minimized by using treated RCA through removing or strengthening the adhered mortar. To date, the information reported on the role of RCA in the long-term performance of SCC is still limited; thus, a wide range of research is needed to demonstrate the feasibility of RCA-SCC in field applications.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
  • Improvement of the microstructural features and mechanical properties of
           advanced high-strength steel DP590 welds
    • Abstract: The effects of the welding current mode in resistance spot welding on the microstructure and mechanical properties of advanced high-strength steel dual-phase 590 (DP590) sheets were investigated. Results showed that a rough martensitic structure was formed in the weld zone of the sample welded via the single-pulsed mode, whereas the microstructure in the heat-affected zone consisted of a very rough martensitic microstructure and rough ferrite. However, using the secondary pulse mode led to the formation of tempered martensite in the weld zone. The maximum load and the energy absorption to failure of the samples with the secondary pulsed cycle were higher than those of the samples with the single-pulsed mode. Tensile shear results indicated that the secondary pulsed mode could significantly change the mode of failure upon shear tension testing. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that the use of secondary pulsed mode can improve the microstructural feature and mechanical properties of advanced high-strength steel DP590 welds.
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
  • Erratum to: Interactions of molten salts with cathode products in the FFC
           Cambridge Process
    • Abstract: The copyright information of the print version for this article unfortunately is not the same with that of the online version. The copyright information of the online version is right, which is “© The Author(s) 2020”.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Evaluation of the microstructure, thermal and mechanical properties of
           Cu/SiC nanocomposites fabricated by mechanical alloying
    • Abstract: Nano-sized silicon carbide (SiC: 0wt%, 1wt%, 2wt%, 4wt%, and 8wt%) reinforced copper (Cu) matrix nanocomposites were manufactured, pressed, and sintered at 775 and 875°C in an argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy were performed to characterize the microstructural evolution. The density, thermal expansion, mechanical, and electrical properties were studied. XRD analyses showed that with increasing SiC content, the microstrain and dislocation density increased, while the crystal size decreased. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the nanocomposites was less than that of the Cu matrix. The improvement in the CTE with increasing sintering temperature may be because of densification of the microstructure. Moreover, the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites showed noticeable enhancements with the addition of SiC and sintering temperatures, where the microhardness and apparent strengthening efficiency of nanocomposites containing 8wt% SiC and sintered at 875°C were 958.7 MPa and 1.07 vol%-1, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the sample slightly decreased with additional SiC and increased with sintering temperature. The prepared Cu/SiC nanocomposites possessed good electrical conductivity, high thermal stability, and excellent mechanical properties.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Simulation on scrap melting behavior and carbon diffusion under natural
    • Abstract: A 3D model applying temperature- and carbon concentration- dependent material properties was developed to describe the scrap melting behavior and carbon diffusion under natural convection. Simulated results agreed reasonably well with experimental ones. Scrap melting was subdivided into four stages: formation of a solidified layer, rapid melting of the solidified layer, carburization, and carburization + normal melting. The carburization stage could not be ignored at low temperature because the carburization time for the sample investigated was 214 s at 1573 K compared to 12 s at 1723 K. The thickness of the boundary layer with significant concentration difference at 1573 K increased from 130 µm at 5 s to 140 µm at 60 s. The maximum velocity caused by natural convection decreased from 0.029 m·s−1 at 5 s to 0.009 m·s−1 at 634 s because the differences in temperature and density between the molten metal and scrap decreased with time.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Strengthening mechanisms of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic
           steels: A review
    • Abstract: This review summarizes the strengthening mechanisms of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels. High-angle grain boundaries, subgrain boundaries, nano-sized M23C6, and MX carbide precipitates effectively hinder dislocation motion and increase high-temperature strength. M23C6 carbides are easily coarsened under high temperatures, thereby weakening their ability to block dislocations. Creep properties are improved through the reduction of M23C6 carbides. Thus, the loss of strength must be compensated by other strengthening mechanisms. This review also outlines the recent progress in the development of RAFM steels. Oxide dispersion-strengthened steels prevent M23C6 precipitation by reducing C content to increase creep life and introduce a high density of nano-sized oxide precipitates to offset the reduced strength. Severe plastic deformation methods can substantially refine subgrains and MX carbides in the steel. The thermal deformation strengthening of RAFM steels mainly relies on thermo-mechanical treatment to increase the MX carbide and subgrain boundaries. This procedure increases the creep life of TMT(thermo-mechanical treatment) 9Cr-1W-0.06Ta steel by ∼20 times compared with those of F82H and Eurofer 97 steels under 550°C/260 MPa.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Effect of spheroidization of cementite in ductile cast iron
    • Abstract: The research aims to provide an alternative to austempering treatment of ductile cast iron with a simple and cost-effective heat-treatment process. This goal was accomplished by applying a simple one-step spheroidization heat treatment to the as-cast ductile iron, which would normally possess a coarse pearlitic microstructure to a significant extent. Spheroidization experiments involving isothermal holding below the lower critical temperature (A1) were conducted followed by standard mechanical testing and microstructural characterization for an experimental ductile iron. After improving the spheroidization holding time at a given temperature, the work shows that the ductility and toughness of an as-cast ductile iron can be improved by 90% and 40%, respectively, at the cost of reducing the tensile strength by 8%. Controlled discretization of the continuous cementite network in pearlitic matrix of the ductile iron is deemed responsible for the improved properties. The work also shows that prolonged holding time during spheroidization heat treatment leads to degradation of mechanical properties due to the inhomogenous microstructure formation caused by heterogeneous decomposition and cementite clustering in the material. The main outcome of this work is the demonstration of ductile cast iron’s necking behavior due to spheroidization heat treatment.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Electrochemical investigation of the anode processes in LiF–NdF 3
           melt with low oxygen content
    • Abstract: The oxidation of oxygen ions and the generation of an anode effect at a low oxygen content of 150 mg/kg were discussed in this paper. Cyclic voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry tests were conducted to explore the anodic processes of LiF–NdF3 melt after a lengthy period of pre-electrolysis purification at 1000°C (during which the oxygen content reduced from 413 to 150 mg/kg). The oxidation process of oxygen ions was found to have two stages: oxidation product adsorption and CO/CO2 gas evolution. The adsorption stage was controlled by diffusion, whereas the gas evolution was controlled by the electrochemical reaction. In comparison with oxygen content of 413 mg/kg, the decrease in the amplitude of the current at low oxygen content of 150 mg/kg was much gentler during the forward scanning process when the anode effect occurred. Fluorine-ion oxidation peaks that occurred at about 4.2 V vs. Li/Li+ could be clearly observed in the reverse scanning processes, in which fluorine ions were oxidized and perfluorocarbons were produced, which resulted in an anode effect.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Construction of TiO 2 -pillared multilayer graphene nanocomposites as
           efficient photocatalysts for ciprofloxacin degradation
    • Abstract: We successfully constructed TiO2-pillared multilayer graphene nanocomposites (T-MLGs) via a facile method as follows: dodecanediamine pre-pillaring, ion exchange (Ti4+ pillaring), and interlayer in-situ formation of TiO2 by hydrothermal method. TiO2 nanoparticles were distributed uniformly on the graphene interlayer. The special structure combined the advantages of graphene and TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, T-MLGs with 64.3wt% TiO2 showed the optimum photodegradation rate and adsorption capabilities toward ciprofloxacin. The photo-degradation rate of T-MLGs with 64.3wt% TiO2 was 78% under light-emitting diode light irradiation for 150 min. Meanwhile, the pseudofirst-order rate constant of T-MLGs with 64.3wt% TiO2 was 3.89 times than that of pristine TiO2. The composites also exhibited high stability and reusability after five consecutive photocatalytic tests. This work provides a facile method to synthesize semiconductor-pillared graphene nanocomposites by replacing TiO2 nanoparticles with other nanoparticles and a feasible means for sustainable utilization of photocatalysts in wastewater control.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Microstructure and mechanical characteristics of AA6061-T6 joints produced
           by friction stir welding, friction stir vibration welding and tungsten
           inert gas welding: A comparative study
    • Abstract: This study compared the microstructure and mechanical characteristics of AA6061-T6 joints produced using friction stir welding (FSW), friction stir vibration welding (FSVW), and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). FSVW is a modified version of FSW wherein the joining specimens are vibrated normal to the welding line during FSW. The results indicated that the weld region grains for FSVW and FSW were equiaxed and were smaller than the grains for TIG. In addition, the weld region grains for FSVW were finer compared with those for FSW. Results also showed that the strength, hardness, and toughness values of the joints produced by FSVW were higher than those of the other joints produced by FSW and TIG. The vibration during FSW enhanced dynamic recrystallization, which led to the development of finer grains. The weld efficiency of FSVW was approximately 81%, whereas those of FSW and TIG were approximately 74% and 67%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Role of laser scan strategies in defect control, microstructural evolution
           and mechanical properties of steel matrix composites prepared by laser
           additive manufacturing
    • Abstract: Steel matrix composites (SMCs) reinforced with WC particles were fabricated via selective laser melting (SLM) by employing various laser scan strategies. A detailed relationship between the SLM strategies, defect formation, microstructural evolution, and mechanical properties of SMCs was established. The laser scan strategies can be manipulated to deliberately alter the thermal history of SMC during SLM processing. Particularly, the involved thermal cycling, which encompassed multiple layers, strongly affected the processing quality of SMCs. S-shaped scan sequence combined with interlayer offset and orthogonal stagger mode can effectively eliminate the metallurgical defects and retained austenite within the produced SMCs. However, due to large thermal stress, microcracks that were perpendicular to the building direction formed within the SMCs. By employing the checkerboard filling (CBF) hatching mode, the thermal stress arising during SLM can be significantly reduced, thus preventing the evolution of interlayer microcracks. The compressive properties of fabricated SMCs can be tailored at a high compressive strength (∼3031.5 MPa) and fracture strain (∼24.8%) by adopting the CBF hatching mode combined with the optimized scan sequence and stagger mode. This study demonstrates great feasibility in tuning the mechanical properties of SLM-fabricated SMCs without varying the set energy input, e.g., laser power and scanning speed.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Corrosion behavior of cold-rolled and post heat-treated 316L stainless
           steel in 0.9wt% NaCl solution
    • Abstract: The effect of cold rolling and post-rolling heat treatment on the microstructural and electrochemical properties of the 316L stainless steel was investigated. Two-pass and four-pass cold-rolled stainless steel specimens were heat-treated by annealing at 900°C followed by quenching in water. During the cold rolling, the microstructure of the as-received specimen transformed from austenite to strain-induced α’-martensite due to significant plastic deformation that also resulted in significant grain elongation (i.e., ∼33% and 223% increases in the grain elongation after two and four rolling passes, respectively). The hardness of the heat-treated as-received specimen decreased from HV 190 to 146 due to the recovery and recrystallization of the austenite grain structure. The cyclic polarization scans of the as-rolled and heat-treated specimens were obtained in 0.9wt% NaCl solution. The pitting potential of the four-pass rolled specimen was significantly increased from 322.3 to 930.5 mV after post-rolling heat treatment. The beneficial effect of the heat treatment process was evident from ∼10-times-lower corrosion current density and two-orders-of-magnitude-lower passive current density of the heat-treated specimens compared with those of the as-rolled specimens. Similarly, appreciably lower corrosion rate (3.302 × 10−4 mm/a) and higher pitting resistance (1115.5 mV) were exhibited by the post-rolled heat-treated specimens compared with the as-rolled 316L stainless steel specimens.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Effect of nonmetallic inclusions on localized corrosion of spring steel
    • Abstract: Certain inclusions in high-strength 60Si2Mn-Cr spring steel result in poor resistance to localized corrosion. In this work, to study the effect of inclusions on the localized corrosion behavior of spring steel, accelerated corrosion tests were performed by immersing spring steel in 3wt% FeCl3 solution for different times. The results show that severe corrosion occurred in areas of clustered CaS inclusions. Sulfide inclusions containing Ca and Mg induced the strongest localized corrosion susceptibility. For the case of (Ca,Mn,Mg)S inclusions, the ability to induce localized corrosion susceptibility is ranked as follows: MgS > CaS > MnS. Moreover, CaS, (Ca,Mn)S, and (Ca,Mn,Mg)S inclusions were mainly responsible for inducing environmental embrittlement.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Effect of Mo content on the thermal stability of Ti-Mo-bearing ferritic
    • Abstract: The effects of tempering holding time at 700°C on the morphology, mechanical properties, and behavior of nanoparticles in Ti-Mo ferritic steel with different Mo contents were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The equilibrium solid solution amounts of Mo, Ti, and C in ferritic steel at various temperatures were calculated, and changes in the sizes of nanoparticles over time at different Mo contents were analyzed. The experimental results and theoretical calculations were in good agreement with each other and showed that the size of nanoparticles in middle Mo content nano-ferrite (MNF) steel changed the least during aging. High Mo contents inhibited the maturation and growth of nanoparticles, but no obvious inhibitory effect was observed when the Mo content exceeded 0.37wt%. The tensile strength and yield strength continuously decreased with the tempering time. Analysis of the strengthening and toughening mechanisms showed that the different mechanical properties among the three different Mo content experiment steels were mainly determined by grain refinement strengthening (the difference range was 30–40 MPa) and precipitation strengthening (the difference range was 78–127 MPa). MNF steel displayed an ideal chemical ratio and the highest thermodynamic stability, whereas low Mo content nano-ferrite (LNF) steel and high Mo content nano-ferrite (HNF) steel displayed relatively similar thermodynamic stabilities.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Liquid-liquid extraction of phosphorus from sulfuric acid solution using
           benzyl dimethyl amine
    • Abstract: This study addresses the liquid-liquid extraction behavior of phosphorus from a sulfuric acid solution using benzyl dimethyl amine (BDMA) in kerosene. The extraction equilibria investigated with varied BDMA concentrations could reveal the formation of \(\overline {3[{\rm<Emphasis Type="Bold">MA</Emphasis>}] \cdot [{{\rm{H}}_3}{\rm{P}}{{\rm{O}}_4}]} \) complex in the organic phase. The thermodynamic properties determined at various temperatures indicated that the process was exothermic with a calculated enthalpy (ΔH⊖) of −24.0 kJ·mol−1. The organic-to-aqueous phase (O/A) volume ratio was varied to elucidate the quantitative extraction of phosphorus. The McCabe-Thiele diagram plotted for the extraction isotherm was validated for the requirement of three counter-current stages in the extraction at an O/A volume ratio of 2.0/3.5. The back-extraction of phosphorus from the loaded organic phase was quantitatively achieved by contacting 4.0 mol·L−1 H2SO4 solution in three stages of counter-current contact at an O/A volume ratio of 3/2. This study can be applied to remove phosphorus from the sulfuric acid leach solutions of monazite processing, and many other solutions.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Reductive leaching of indium from the neutral leaching residue using
           oxalic acid in sulfuric acid solution
    • Abstract: The present study evaluates the reductive leaching of indium from indium-bearing zinc ferrite using oxalic acid as a reducer in sulfuric acid solution. The effect of main factors affecting the process rate, including the oxalic-acid-to-sulfuric-acid ratio, stirring rate, grain size, temperature, and the initial concentration of synergic acid, was precisely evaluated. The results confirmed the acceptable efficiency of dissolving indium in the presence of oxalic acid. The shrinking-core model with a chemical-reaction-controlled step can correctly describe the kinetics of indium dissolution. On the basis of an apparent activation energy of 44.55 kJ/mol and a reaction order with respect to the acid concentration of 1.14, the presence of oxalic acid was found to reduce the sensitivity to temperature changes and to increase the effect of changes in acid concentration. Finally, the equation of the kinetic model based on the factors under study is presented.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
  • Hot ductility behavior of a Fe-0.3C-9Mn-2Al medium Mn steel
    • Abstract: The hot ductility of an Fe-0.3C-9Mn-2Al medium Mn steel was investigated using a Gleeble3800 thermo-mechanical simulator. Hot tensile tests were conducted at different temperatures (600–1300°C) under a constant strain rate of 4 × 10−3 s−1. The fracture behavior and mechanism of hot ductility evolution were discussed. Results showed that the hot ductility decreased as the temperature was decreased from 1000°C. The reduction of area (RA) decreased rapidly in the specimens tested below 700°C, whereas that in the specimen tested at 650°C was lower than 65%. Mixed brittle-ductile fracture feature is reflected by the coexistence of cleavage step, intergranular facet, and dimple at the surface. The fracture belonged to ductile failure in the specimens tested between 720–1000°C. Large and deep dimples could delay crack propagation. The change in average width of the dimples was in positive proportion with the change in RA. The wide austenite-ferrite inter-critical temperature range was crucial for the hot ductility of medium Mn steel. The formation of ferrite film on austenite grain boundaries led to strain concentration. Yield point elongation occurred at the austenite-ferrite intercritical temperature range during the hot tensile test.
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
  • Changes in underflow solid fraction and yield stress in paste thickeners
           by circulation
    • Abstract: The trouble-free and efficient operation of paste thickeners requires an optimal design and the cooperation of each component. When underflow discharging is suspended, alleviating the vast torque that the remaining solids within the thickeners may place on rakes mainly lies in the circulation unit. The mechanism of this unit was analyzed, and a mathematical model was developed to describe the changes in underflow solid content and yield stress. The key parameters of the circulation unit, namely, the height and flow rate, were varied to test its performance in the experiments with a self-designed laboratorial thickening system. Results show that the circulation unit is valid in reducing underflow solid fraction and yield stress to a reasonable extent, and the model could be used to describe its efficiency at different heights and flow rates. A suitable design and application of the circulation unit contributes to a cost-effective operation of paste thickeners.
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
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