Subjects -> GARDENING AND HORTICULTURE (Total: 37 journals)
Showing 1 - 20 of 20 Journals sorted by number of followers
Media, Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Landscape Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Landscape Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Mind Culture and Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Horticulture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Parallax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Vegetable Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Scientia Horticulturae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Horticultural Plant Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Horticultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscape Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sibbaldia: the International Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Landscape Studies     Open Access  
Dekoratyviųjų ir sodo augalų sortimento, technologijų ir aplinkos optimizavimas     Partially Free  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
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Number of Followers: 3  

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ISSN (Online) 2311-7524
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 560: Annona muricata Leaves as a Source of
           Bioactive Compounds: Extraction and Quantification Using Ultrasound

    • Authors: Yolanda Nolasco-González, Martina Alejandra Chacón-López, Rosa Isela Ortiz-Basurto, Selene Aguilera-Aguirre, Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar, Cristian Rodríguez-Aguayo, Merle Catalina Navarro-Cortez, Hugo Sergio García-Galindo, María de Lourdes García-Magaña, Libier Meza-Espinoza, Efigenia Montalvo-González
      First page: 560
      Abstract: In this work, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) (operating conditions of sonication amplitude, pulse-cycle, and extraction time) was investigated to obtain an extract rich in biologically active compounds from Annona muricata leaves. In addition, the content of bioactive compounds from the extract by the optimal UAE conditions (UAE extract) was compared with extracts prepared by decoction and infusion. Moreover, Artemia salina toxicity was evaluated in all extracts. UAE extract (using optimal conditions: 80% amplitude, 0.7 s pulse-cycle, for 4.54 min) contained 178.48 mg/100 mL of soluble phenols, 20.18 mg/100 mL of total flavonoids, 27.81 mg/100 mL of hydrolyzable polyphenols, 167.07 mg/100 mL of condensed tannins, 30.44 mg/100 mL of total alkaloids and 14.62 mg/100 mL of total acetogenins. The UAE extract exhibited a high antioxidant capacity and a higher content of bioactive compounds from ~6 to ~927-fold than decoction or infusion, depending on the type of compound. Twenty-four different phenolic compounds were identified in the samples, and UAE extract produced the highest concentration. All extracts were considered non-toxic using the A. salina test. The UAE extract from A. muricata leaves is a rich source of bioactive compounds and can be utilized to formulate therapeutic drugs or nutraceutical foods.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070560
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 561: Seaweed Extracts as Substitutes of
           Synthetic Hormones for Rooting Promotion in Rose Cuttings

    • Authors: Silvia Traversari, Sonia Cacini, Beatrice Nesi
      First page: 561
      Abstract: In the horticultural sector, the achievement of an efficient and eco-friendly sustainable production of plants is nowadays challenging. Indeed, in plant vegetative propagation of woody ornamentals, the substitution of chemical products used to promote rooting of cuttings with natural extracts would be a desirable goal. Thus, the aim of this work was to test the replacement of synthetic phytoregulators, such as auxins and brassinosteroids, with biostimulants, such as seaweed extracts, for the rooting promotion of rose cuttings. The rooting rate and biometric parameters of control cuttings treated with distilled water were compared with those of cuttings treated with synthetic hormones, i.e., auxins or 22(S),23(S)-homobrassinolide, or two commercial products based on low temperature seaweed extracts, i.e., Kelpak® and Phylgreen. Two scented hybrid tea rose cultivars were used to assess possible genotype-dependent effects, i.e., ‘Michelangelo®’ and ‘Cosmos®’. Auxins confirmed their role in root growth enhancement in ornamental plant cuttings. Like these phytoregulators, Kelpak® improved the survival rate and root biometric parameters of both rose cuttings, highlighting its suitability for the replacement of synthetic products used for rooting promotion in rose propagation. Brassinosteroids showed a species-dependent effect, increasing the root biomass in ‘Cosmos®’ while it resulted as distilled water in ‘Michelangelo®’. Phylgreen did not improve the rooting of both rose cuttings, highlighting the necessity of evaluating the applicability and methodology for this product before its use. In conclusions, our results highlighted the possibility to replace chemical products in rose cutting production.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070561
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 562: Recent Advances in DNA Methylation and
           Their Potential Breeding Applications in Plants

    • Authors: Aamir Ali Shaikh, Sadaruddin Chachar, Muzafaruddin Chachar, Nazir Ahmed, Changfei Guan, Pingxian Zhang
      First page: 562
      Abstract: Traditional plant breeding encompasses repetitive crossing and selection based on morphological traits, while phenotypic selection has been complemented by molecular methods in recent decades. Genome editing with techniques like the CRISPR-Cas9 system is still a novel approach that is being used to make direct modifications to nucleotide sequences of crops. In addition to these genetic alterations, an improved understanding of epigenetic variations such as DNA methylation on the phenotype of plants has led to increased opportunities to accelerate crop improvement. DNA methylation is the most widely studied epigenetic mark in plants and other eukaryotes. These epigenetic marks are highly conserved and involved in altering the activities and functions of developmental signals by catalyzing changes in the chromatin structure through methylation and demethylation. Cytosine methylation (5mC) is the most prevalent modification found in DNA. However, recent identification of N6-methyladenosine (6mA) in plants starts to reveal their critical role in plant development. Epigenetic modifications are actively involved in creating the phenotype by controlling essential biological mechanisms. Epigenetic modifications could be heritable and metastable causing variation in epigenetic status between or within species. However, both genetic and heritable epigenetic variation has the potential to drive natural variation. Hence, epigenome editing might help overcome some of the shortcomings of genome editing (such as gene knockout), which can have significant off-target effects and only enables the loss of a gene’s function. In this review, we have discussed the mechanism underlying DNA methylation and demethylation in plants. Methyltransferases and demethylases are involved in catalyzing specific types of modification. We also discuss the potential role of DNA modifications in crop improvement for meeting the requirements of sustainable and green agriculture.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070562
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 563: Disinfection Efficacy of
           Tobamovirus-Contaminated Soil in Greenhouse-Grown Crops

    • Authors: Aviv Dombrovsky, Netta Mor, Shelly Gantz, Oded Lachman, Elisheva Smith
      First page: 563
      Abstract: The tobamoviruses tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) and cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) have caused severe crop damages worldwide. Soil-mediated dispersion of the mechanically transmitted tobamoviruses constitute a major hindrance toward mitigating disease spread in crops carefully planted under sanitized conditions. Tobamoviruses are viable for months in soil and plant debris and for more than a year adhere to clay. However, a low percentage of infectious foci occur in soil following a tobamovirus-infected growing cycle, rendering disinfection studies of several contaminated plots inconclusive for large-scale crop productions. We have therefore formulated a rigorous platform for studying disinfectant efficacy in greenhouses by pouring a virus inoculum to planting pits prior to disinfectant treatment and by truncating seedling roots before planting, which was otherwise conducted under sanitized conditions. We have found that chlorine-based Taharan was significantly efficient in preventing disease spread of ToBRFV and CGMMV in tomato and cucumber plants, respectively. KlorBack was often as good as Taharan. In addition, a formulation of chlorinated tri-sodium phosphate used at a nonphytotoxic 3% concentration showed disinfection efficiency similar to Taharan effect on ToBRFV infection only. Our study provided a small-scale platform for disinfectant efficacy evaluation necessary for application in tobamovirus-contaminated soil, which commonly occurs in commercial tomato and cucumber greenhouses.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070563
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 564: Magnetized Water and Proline to Boost
           the Growth, Productivity and Fruit Quality of ‘Taifi’
           Pomegranate Subjected to Deficit Irrigation in Saline Clay Soils of
           Semi-Arid Egypt

    • Authors: Sameh K. Okba, Yasser Mazrou, Gehad B. Mikhael, Mohamed E. H. Farag, Shamel M. Alam-Eldein
      First page: 564
      Abstract: Water scarcity is becoming a global problem. The shift from traditional irrigation systems to deficit irrigation increased soil salinity, particularly in clay soils. The use of magnetized water (MW) and biostimulants can induce plant resistance to drought and salinity stress. To assess the role of MW and proline (P) on ‘Taifi’ pomegranate shrubs’ growth, productivity, and fruit quality under such conditions, a split-plots experiment was conducted for two seasons using three irrigation levels (100%, 75%, and 50%), based on the crop water requirements (CWR), and four treatments including foliar spray of tap water (control) and P, irrigation with MW, and MW + P. The most pronounced effect was referred to MW + P at 75% CWR that improved shrubs’ chlorophyll content and nutritional status, reduced endogenous proline content, and enhanced vegetative growth with minimum consumptive water use (CWU), optimum water use efficiency (WUE), maximum water productivity (WP), utmost yield and average fruit weight, lowest percentage of fruit cracking, and fairly good total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and anthocyanin contents. Overall, MW + P at 75% CWR improved the resistance mechanism of pomegranate shrubs in saline clay soils, plus improving the growers’ net profit. MW generally reduced soil salinity, expressed as reduced pH, EC, Na+, and Ca2+ values.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070564
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 565: A Pilot Study of Transplanting Methods
           for Wilding American Beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    • Authors: Andrea L. Myers, Yvette L. Dickinson, Andrew J. Storer, Tara L. Bal
      First page: 565
      Abstract: American beech is facing pressure from a number of emergent health issues including beech bark disease, beech leaf disease, beech leaf mining weevil, and climate and habitat change. Interest has increased in the propagation of American beech in response to the demand for more disease-resistant American beech for use in restoration. This study describes the first steps towards publishing methods for transplanting beech in order to supplement commercially available beech seedlings in an area with multiple agencies depleting the existing stock of slow growing species. American beech seedlings were purchased from a nursery in northern Michigan and were excavated from natural stands in the Hiawatha National Forest. Survival rates for these cohorts were compared after a growing season and by the relative amounts of fine roots present on the trees. Generally, the wildling seedlings had a higher survivability than the purchased bare root seedlings. Future work is proposed that could clarify the conditions leading to the higher survival in these wildling seedlings, including the potential for handling the time or age of the seedlings to influence survival.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070565
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 566: An Integrated Analysis of Transcriptome
           and Metabolism Reveals an Inhibitory Effect of Low Light on Anthocyanin
           Biosynthesis in Purple cai-tai (Brassicarapa L. var. purpurea)

    • Authors: Juxian Guo, Tingquan Wu, Mei Fu, Guihua Li, Wenlong Luo, Yunyan Kang, Tingqin Wang
      First page: 566
      Abstract: Low light caused by industrial development and environment change has become a limitation in crop production. This condition inhibits the petiole anthocyanin synthesis and even its tastes in purple cai-tai (Brassicarapa L. var. purpurea); however, the molecular basis of the inhibitory effects by low light on anthocyanin synthesis in purple cai-tai petiole is less reported. In this study, we performed an integrated analysis of transcriptomes and metabolisms to decipher key genes and/or metabolites that responsible for low light acclimation in a purple cai-tai cultivar, XH1. Results shows that anthocyanin is obviously repressed by low light treatment, and consistently the structural genes related to the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway is significantly enriched in the list of differentially expressed genes according to both GO and KEGG analysis. Furthermore, the amounts of some metabolites related to anthocyanin are dramatically decreased under low light treatment, such as cyanindin 3-O-glucoside chloride, cyanindin O-syringic acid, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside. In addition, we found that five transcription factors in TCP gene family especially BrTCP15 is substantially downregulated by low light treatments. The expression pattern of BrTCP15 in response to low light treatment was further confirmed by qPCR. This study reports the inhibitory effects of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway and BrTCP15 by low light treatments, and extends our knowledge on regulatory mechanism of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in response to low light in B. rapa L.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070566
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 567: The Effect of Different Doses of
           1-Methylcyclopropene on Postharvest Physiology and Predicting Ethylene
           Production through Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines in Cocktail

    • Authors: Askin Bahar, Seyda Cavusoglu, Nurettin Yilmaz, Onur Tekin, Sezai Ercisli
      First page: 567
      Abstract: Maintaining the postharvest quality of tomatoes, which are essential in the world vegetable trade, is very important; otherwise, storage may cause severe quality and economic losses. This study aimed to determine the effects of 1-MCP treatments on quality and storage time to prevent quality loss and deterioration in tomatoes due to high temperature and to predict ethylene production through the Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines algorithm during long-term storage. For this purpose, same-sized fruits were divided into three different groups. Two groups were treated with 1-MCP (625 and 1250 ppb), and the untreated fruit was the control. Then, the tomatoes were stored for 39 days at a temperature of 20 °C and relative humidity of 85–90%. The results obtained from the present study showed that the 1-MCP treatments prolonged the life and maintained the quality of tomato fruit during storage. The ethylene production and respiration rate were significantly lower in 1-MCP-treated fruit than in the untreated fruit during the storage period (p < 0.05). According to the Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines algorithm, it was observed that increasing doses of 1-MCP inhibited ethylene production. Furthermore, weight loss and respiratory rate were effective on ethylene production at 100 and 43.9%, respectively. In conclusion, treating the fruit with 1250 ppb of 1-MCP was determined to be the best practice for maintaining all quality criteria during storage.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070567
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 568: Morpho-Physiological and Anatomical
           Alterations of Salt-Affected Thompson Seedless Grapevine (Vitis vinifera
           L.) to Brassinolide Spraying

    • Authors: Mostafa F. El-Banna, Arwa Abdulkreem AL-Huqail, Saad Farouk, Bassam E. A. Belal, Mosaad A. El-Kenawy, Ahmed F. Abd El-Khalek
      First page: 568
      Abstract: Salinity is one of the most critical crises worldwide that ultimately compromises future food security. Brassinosteroids including brassinolide (BL) are a class of polyhydroxy steroids phytohormones, that play a crucial role in several plant metabolic pathways and boost plants’ stress tolerance, but less data is accessible on its function in salt-affected grapevine. The experiment was conducted throughout the 2019 and 2020 experimental seasons at EL-Baramon experimental farm, Horticulture Research Institute, Mansoura, Egypt, to recognize the remediation potential of BL (1 and 2 mg L−1) in lightening salinity (NaCl at 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg L−1) injury on Thompson seedless grapevine seedlings (H4 strain) growth and physio-anatomical attributes. Data advocated that while salinity reduced growth attributes, BL applications substantially improved the overall salt-affected plant performance. Salinity stress significantly decreased photosynthetic pigment, relative water content, and ions percentage (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, potassium/sodium ratio). Alternatively, BL spraying significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the photosynthetic pigment, maintaining a favorable potassium/sodium ratio and increasing the ions percentage. Additionally, increasing salinity levels significantly boost plant sodium percentage and induce a membrane malfunction associated with increased membrane permeability; conversely, the application of BL decreased the sodium percentage associated with decreasing membrane permeability relative to non-treated salinized plants. Moreover, salinity and/or BL significantly improved the antioxidant capacity associated with rising proline accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities. Anatomically, salinity stress considerably modified leaf structure; meanwhile, the spraying with BL drastically mitigates the harmful effects of salinity on leaf anatomy. Additionally, salt-affected plant cells explained various obvious organelles ultrastructural modifications and cellular damage; meanwhile, BL spraying to salt-affected plants repealed the ultrastructural modifications of cell organelles. Taken together, BL, especially 2 mg L−1, has a great potential to boost the salt tolerance of Thompson seedless grapevine seedlings (H4 strain). It improves salt tolerance by sustaining higher photosynthetic pigment concentrations, maintaining ion homeostasis, regulating water status, and stimulating antioxidant capacity as well as maintaining leaf anatomical attributes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070568
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 569: Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide Products on
           Basil, Lettuce, and Algae in an Ebb and Flow Hydroponic System

    • Authors: Teal D. Hendrickson, Bruce L. Dunn, Carla Goad, Bizhen Hu, Hardeep Singh
      First page: 569
      Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide has been used as a sanitation agent for many years. Recently, hydrogen peroxide products have been used to remove algae from irrigation lines and sanitize hydroponic systems between uses. However, hydrogen peroxide can have phytotoxic effects on plants at high concentrations. The goal of this research was to determine if hydrogen peroxide treatments affected plant and algae growth in the ebb and flow hydroponic systems. The research was conducted at the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture greenhouses in Stillwater, OK. Two cultivars of lettuce, ‘Green Forest’ and ‘Tropicana’, and two cultivars of basil, ‘Aroma II’ and ‘Genovese’, were transplanted into the ebb and flow hydroponic systems, and three different hydrogen peroxide products, PERpose Plus, ZeroTol, and 3% hydrogen peroxide, were applied at different rates and combinations in two experiments. Shoot fresh weight in lettuce was found to be significantly greater in control and 3% hydrogen peroxide treatments for both cultivars; however, in ‘Tropicana’ those treatments were not different from any other treatment. Greater amounts of PERpose Plus and ZeroTol, such as 60 mL, restricted plant growth in lettuce, whereas only cultivar differences for SPAD and plant width were reported for basil. Algae growth was not significantly controlled by any treatment in this research based on algae counts, weights, or spectrometer readings. However, algae species quantification did show that Microspora tumidula was found in the greatest concentrations in control, with a 96.0%, 99.2%, 94.0%, and 97.9% reduction in the 15 mL ZeroTol, 60 mL ZeroTol, 15 mL PERpose Plus, and 3% hydrogen peroxide treatments, respectively. Other algae genera identified included Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, Gloeocystis, Tetraspora, Leptolyngbya, Pennate diatoms, and Centric diatoms.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070569
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 570: Evaluation of the Storage Performance of
           ‘Valencia’ Oranges and Generation of Shelf-Life Prediction

    • Authors: Abiola Owoyemi, Ron Porat, Amnon Lichter, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Omri Jovani, Noam Koenigstein, Yael Salzer
      First page: 570
      Abstract: We conducted a large-scale, high-throughput phenotyping analysis of the effects of various preharvest and postharvest features on the quality of ‘Valencia’ oranges in order to develop shelf-life prediction models. Altogether, we evaluated 10,800 oranges (~3.6 tons) harvested from three orchards at different periods and conducted 151,200 measurements of 14 quality parameters. The storage time was the most important feature affecting fruit quality, followed by the yield, storage temperature, humidity, and harvest time. The storage time and temperature features significantly affected (p < 0.001) all or most of the tested quality parameters, whereas the harvest time, yield, and humidity conditions significantly affected several particular quality parameters, and the selection of rootstocks had no significant effect at all. Five regression models were evaluated for their ability to predict fruit quality based on preharvest and postharvest features. Non-linear Support Vector Regression (SVR) combined with a data-balancing approach was found to be the most effective approach. It allowed the prediction of fruit-acceptance scores among the full data set, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.195 and an R2 of 0.884. The obtained data and models should assist in determining the potential storage times of different batches of fruit.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070570
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 571: Early-Summer Deficit Irrigation
           Increases the Dry-Matter Content and Enhances the Quality of
           Ambrosia™ Apples At- and Post-Harvest

    • Authors: Changwen Lu
      First page: 571
      Abstract: Ambrosia™ is an apple that naturally has limited post-harvest quality retention, which is accompanied by relatively low dry-matter content (DMC). This trial was proposed to improve the DMC of this apple by scheduling deficit irrigation (DI) conducted in a semi-arid orchard in the Similkameen Valley (British Columbia, Canada) in 2018 and 2019. Two irrigation regimes were implemented in the orchard: commercial irrigation (CI) and DI, which was defined as irrigation for 2/5 of the timespan of CI. Five irrigation treatments were conducted: 1—adequate irrigation (AI), which used CI for the whole season; 2—early-summer DI (ED), which used DI from 20 June to 20 July; 3—middle-summer DI (MD), which used DI from 20 July to 20 August; 4—late-summer DI (LD), which used DI from 20 August to 10 days before harvest; and 5—double-period DI (DD), which covered the interval of MD and LD. The DI treatments resulted in a significant decrease from AI −1.0 to −1.5 MPa in stem water potential (SWP), followed by subsequent recovery. Conversely, SWP did not recover, and instead reached a critical low of −2.5 MPa under continued deficit conditions (DD). This, in turn, correlated with significant differences in the DMC among the treatments. Specifically, ED resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in DMC throughout the summer. At the time of harvest, ED resulted in a five-fold increase in the proportion of fruit, with greater than 16% DMC and 15% DMC in 2018 and 2019, respectively, compared to AI. DD resulted in similar levels of DMC elevation compared to ED, but also caused irregular maturation and the increased incidence of soft scald disorder in the post-harvest period. MD and LD had variable effects on DMC, and also increased the incidence of soft scald disorder. Consequently, fruit collected from the ED resulted in the best blush color attributes, higher soluble solid content, and a significant improvement in the post-harvest retention of both fruit firmness and acidity. The ED irrigation model would be recommended as a practical way for Ambrosia™ growers in semi-arid regions to decrease water usage, and to ensure high fruit quality for superior marketing and sustainable production.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070571
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 572: Brassinosteroid Applications Enhance the
           Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses, Production and Quality of Strawberry Fruits

    • Authors: Ramiro N. Furio, Sergio M. Salazar, Jorge A. Mariotti-Martínez, Gustavo M. Martínez-Zamora, Yamilet Coll, Juan C. Díaz-Ricci
      First page: 572
      Abstract: Brassinosteriods (BRs) have increasingly been used to improve the yields and quality of various crops. In this work we studied the effect of two brassinosteroids, BB16 and EP24, on the growth promotion of Fragaria ananassa plants under normal conditions or exposed to water or saline stress. The influence of both BRs on the plant development and fruit quality was evaluated when cultivated in semi-hydroponic conditions. A marked growth-promoting effect was observed with both compounds when plants were cultivated under normal irrigation conditions and under saline and water stresses. BB16 and EP24 yielded plants with a higher dry weight, root length and surface, a higher number and area of leaves, a higher total weight of fruits per plant, and a higher percentage of fruits of commercial quality. Additionally, a higher content of chlorophyll, number of leaves, and increased dry weight was detected in plants treated with both BRs and exposed to water and saline stresses. Finally, when evaluating the production and quality of fruits obtained under semi-hydroponic conditions, we observed that the pre-harvest treatment with both compounds induced a higher fruit production and better quality of fruits. These results suggest the potential of these compounds to achieve a more sustainable management of strawberry cultivation.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070572
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 573: Transcriptional Regulation in Leaves of
           Cut Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) ‘FenDante’ in
           Response to Post-Harvest Ethylene Treatment

    • Authors: Rui Liu, Xuele Zuo, Yu Chen, Ziyan Qian, Can Xu, Likai Wang, Sumei Chen
      First page: 573
      Abstract: The early wilting and yellowing of leaves in response to ethylene is the main limitation affecting the vase quality of cut chrysanthemums. Therefore, leaf senescence is the most difficult problem in the post-harvest and production of chrysanthemums. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of ethylene on the regulation of post-harvest senescence of cut chrysanthemum leaves is still unclear. In this study, we identified an ethylene-sensitive chrysanthemum ‘FenDante,’ which showed rapid chlorophyll content decrease under ethylene treatment, resulting in leaf yellowing and wilting before flower senescence. A new generation of Illumina sequencing platform was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the leaves in response to ethylene treatment in chrysanthemum. A total of 1.04 Gb of raw reads was obtained, including 753 and 2790 differentially expressed genes at 3 h and 24 h after ethylene treatment, respectively. KEGG analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in plant hormone synthesis and signal transduction, chlorophyll metabolism, aquaporins, and reactive oxygen species. The gene expression regulatory networks in the leaves of post-harvest cut chrysanthemums in response to ethylene treatment were studied, which lays the foundation for future research on the molecular mechanisms of ethylene-mediated leaf senescence in cut chrysanthemums.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070573
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 574: Shelf Life of Blackberry Fruits (Rubus
           fruticosus) with Edible Coatings Based on Candelilla Wax and Guar Gum

    • Authors: Alessandrina Ascencio-Arteaga, Silvia Luna-Suárez, Jeanette G. Cárdenas-Valdovinos, Ernesto Oregel-Zamudio, Guadalupe Oyoque-Salcedo, José A. Ceja-Díaz, María V. Angoa-Pérez, Hortencia G. Mena-Violante
      First page: 574
      Abstract: Blackberries are very perishable with a limited shelf life due to a high metabolic activity and susceptibility to mechanical damage and microbial attack. The effect of edible coatings (EC) based on candelilla wax (CW) and guar gum (GG) on the quality, shelf life, bioactive-compounds content and antioxidant activity of blackberries stored at 25 ± 2 °C for 6 days, was evaluated. All EC contained GG (0.4%) and gallic acid (GA)(0.06%); EC1 contained CW (0.2%), glycerol (GL)(0.2%); EC2 contained CW (0.4%) and GL (0.2%); EC3 contained CW (0.2%) and GL (0.3%) and EC4 contained CW (0.4%) and GL (0.3%). The decay percentage (Decay%), physiological weight loss (%PWL), firmness, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant activity were analyzed. EC3 showed potential for prolonging the shelf life of blackberry by reducing Decay% (47%) and %PWL (64%) on day 6, while 86% of uncoated blackberries were decayed on day 4. Fruit coated with EC3 maintained pH, gradually reduced firmness, increased the TSS and decreased the TA. In addition, EC3 maintained the TAC and decreased the TPC in blackberries, while preventing a rapid increase in antioxidant capacity. Thus, EC3 showed to be a promising alternative in prolonging shelf life and preserving the quality of blackberries.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070574
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 575: Nutritional Composition and Volatile
           Compounds of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Seed, Fatty Acid Composition
           and Tocopherols, Polyphenols, and Antioxidant Activity of Its Essential

    • Authors: Zainab Albakry, Emad Karrar, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Emel Oz, Charalampos Proestos, Aly Farag El Sheikha, Fatih Oz, Gangcheng Wu, Xingguo Wang
      First page: 575
      Abstract: This study was to assess the nutritional quality and bioactive properties of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds and oil commonly found in the Chinese market. The results showed that black cumin seeds contain 5.02, 21.07, 39.02, 3.02, 6.01, and 25.86% moisture, crude proteins, crude fat, ash, fiber, and carbohydrates, respectively. It also contains substantial amounts of minerals, namely calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, and copper. Glutamic acid (4.10 g/100 g protein) is the major amino acid of black cumin seeds. The major volatile components in black cumin seeds were thymoquinone (21.01%), o-cymene (18.23%), and β-thujene (17.22%). Cumin seed oil extracted by the soxhlet method contains high quantities of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 85.16%) and low amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA; 15.02%). The major fatty acid of black cumin seed oil was linoleic acid (57.71%), followed by oleic acid (24.46%). The most prominent TAG of black cumin seed oils was oleoyl-dilinoleoyl-glycerol (OLL; 38.87%). In addition, the levels of α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and total polyphenols in the black cumin seed oil were 25.59, 14.21, and 242.83 mg/100 g, and 315.68 mg GAE/kg, respectively, and possessed high antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50%, of 4.02 mg/mL). These findings demonstrate that black cumin seeds are nutritionally rich with high potential applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070575
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 576: In Vitro Micrografting of Horticultural
           Plants: Method Development and the Use for Micropropagation

    • Authors: Wang, Bettoni, Zhang, Lu, Zhang, Wang
      First page: 576
      Abstract: In vitro micrografting is an important technique supporting the micropropagation of a range of plant species, particularly woody plant species. Over the past several decades, in vitro micrografting has become a strategy to facilitate shoot recovery and acclimatization of in vitro-grown horticultural species. This review focuses on studies on horticultural crops over the past two decades that cover the establishment of in vitro micrografting, discusses factors affecting the success of in vitro micrografting, and provides commentary on the contribution of micrografting applications to the field of micropropagation. Considering the important roles of micrografting in the restoration of vigor and rooting competence, in promotion of shoot recovery following somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis, and in facilitation of shoot regrowth after cryopreservation, the potential use of this technique in facilitation of genetic engineering and safe conservation of horticultural species are specially highlighted.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070576
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 577: Advances and Perspectives in the Use of
           Biocontrol Agents against Fungal Plant Diseases

    • Authors: Davide Palmieri, Giuseppe Ianiri, Carmine Del Del Grosso, Giuseppe Barone, Filippo De De Curtis, Raffaello Castoria, Giuseppe Lima
      First page: 577
      Abstract: The use of synthetic fungicides to control fungal diseases has growing limitations due to eco-toxicological risks. Therefore, it is necessary to replace or integrate high risk chemicals with safer tools for human health and environment. Consequently, research on the selection, evaluation, characterization, and use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) has consistently increased in the last decades. BCA formulates, particularly in some countries, are still scarce in coping with the growing demand for their use in sustainable agricultural management. To foster development and utilization of new effective bioformulates, there is a need to optimize BCA activity, to share knowledge on their formulation processes and to simplify the registration procedures. Studies based on new molecular tools can significantly contribute to achieve such objectives. The present review provides the state of the art on biocontrol of fungal plant diseases with special emphasis on (i) features of the most studied BCAs; (ii) key strategies to optimize selection and use of BCAs (iii); mechanisms of action of the main BCAs; (iv) molecular tools and metagenomic studies in the selection and use of BCAs; (v) main issues and constraints in the registration and commercialization of BCAs, and (vi) perspectives in the biocontrol of fungal plant diseases.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070577
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 578: Characteristics of Meteorological
           Conditions during a Severe Outbreak of Onion Downy Mildew and Metalaxyl
           Sensitivity of Peronospora destructor in Saga, Japan, in 2016

    • Authors: Shin-ichirou Syobu, Sachiko Watanabe
      First page: 578
      Abstract: In 2016, an onion downy mildew epidemic caused by Peronospora destructor severely damaged the commercial onion fields in Saga Prefecture, western Japan. To identify the factors underlying the outbreak, we investigated the symptoms of downy mildew caused by secondary infections and examined P. destructor’s sensitivity to metalaxyl, the most effective traditional fungicide used against this onion pathogen, in 2016–2018. Disease symptoms developed in late March 2016, which was earlier than symptom development in 2017 and 2018. Furthermore, there were synchronous repeated disease development and favourable meteorological conditions for infection in early and late April resulting in the development of polycyclic epidemics. In field trials from 2016 to 2018, the efficacy of chlorothalonil + metalaxyl-M application ranged 18–45%, as calculated by comparing disease severity at the final stage of each treatment to that in the untreated plots. On the basis of the metalaxyl sensitivity observed in 2016, the effective concentration, which reduced germ-tube elongation in P. destructor by 50%, exceeded 200 µg ai/mL for certain strains. Our observations indicate that these characteristic meteorological conditions were major factors contributing to the severe disease outbreak in 2016. The emergence of less-metalaxyl-sensitive P. destructor strains may be an additional predisposing factor.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8070578
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 479: Biotransforming the Spent Substrate of
           Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes Berk.): A Synergistic Approach to
           Biogas Production and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Fertilization

    • Authors: Pankaj Kumar, Ebrahem M. Eid, Mostafa A. Taher, Mohamed H. E. El-Morsy, Hanan E. M. Osman, Dhafer A. Al-Bakre, Bashir Adelodun, Sami Abou Fayssal, Madhumita Goala, Boro Mioč, Valentino Držaić, Fidelis O. Ajibade, Kyung Sook Choi, Vinod Kumar, Ivan Širić
      First page: 479
      Abstract: Agro-wastes, such as crop residues, leaf litter, and sawdust, are major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions, and consequently a major concern for climate change. Nowadays, mushroom cultivation has appeared as an emerging agribusiness that helps in the sustainable management of agro-wastes. However, partial utilization of agro-wastes by mushrooms results in the generation of a significant quantity of spent mushroom substrates (SMS) that have continued to become an environmental problem. In particular, Shiitake (Lentinula edodes Berk.) mushrooms can be grown on different types of agro-wastes and also generate a considerable amount of SMS. Therefore, this study investigates the biotransformation of SMS obtained after Shiitake mushroom cultivation into biogas and attendant utilization of slurry digestate (SD) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crop fertilization. Biogas production experiments were conducted anaerobically using four treatments of SMS, i.e., 0% (control), 25, 50, and 75% inoculated with a proportional amount of cow dung (CD) as inoculum. The results on biogas production revealed that SMS 50% treatment yielded the highest biogas volume (8834 mL or 11.93 mL/g of organic carbon) and methane contents (61%) along with maximum reduction of physicochemical and proximate parameters of slurry. Furthermore, the biogas digestate from 50% treatment further helped to increase the seed germination (93.25%), seedling length (9.2 cm), seedling root length (4.19 cm), plant height (53.10 cm), chlorophyll content (3.38 mg/g), total yield (1.86 kg/plant), flavonoids (5.06 mg/g), phenolics (2.78 mg/g), and tannin (3.40 mg/g) contents of tomato significantly (p < 0.05) in the 10% loading rate. The findings of this study suggest sustainable upcycling of SMS inspired by a circular economy approach through synergistic production of bioenergy and secondary fruit crops, which could potentially contribute to minimize the carbon footprints of the mushroom production sector.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060479
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 480: Micropropagation of Vaccinium corymbosum
           L.: An Alternative Procedure for the Production of Secondary Metabolites

    • Authors: Doina Clapa, Silvia-Amalia Nemeș, Floricuța Ranga, Monica Hârța, Dan-Cristian Vodnar, Lavinia-Florina Călinoiu
      First page: 480
      Abstract: In vitro culture has become a dependable approach for the mass production of plant material as the market for innovative plant-derived medicinal approaches has grown significantly. Furthermore, because it permits manipulation of biosynthetic routes to boost the production and accumulation of certain compounds, this technology has enormous potential for the manufacture of natural bioactive chemicals. As a result, the goal of this study was to develop an efficient micropropagation system for biomass production and to investigate the accumulation of bioactive compounds from Vaccinium corymbosum L., Duke and Hortblue Petite cultivars. Two in vitro plant tissue culture systems were used for shoots production: a solid medium (5 g/L Plant agar) and liquid medium (Plantform bioreactor). The culture medium used was Woddy Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with two growth regulators: 0.5 mg/L and 1 mg/L zeatina (Z) and 5 mg/L N6-(2-Isopentenyl) adenine (2iP). The content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls of the in vitro shoot extracts were examined via the HPLC-DAD-MS/MS technique. The results showed that cv. Hortblue Petite produced a higher amount of biomass compared with cv. Duke, on all variants of culture media in both systems (solid and liquid), while the shoots extract of the Duke variety in the liquid culture system (under all concentrations of growth regulators) had the highest content of total phenolic compounds (16,665.61 ± 424.93 μg/g). In the case of the lipophilic compounds analysed (chlorophylls and carotenoids), the solid medium reported the highest values, whereas media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L Z was proved to have the richest total content for both cultivars.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060480
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 481: Effect of Titanium and Vanadium on
           Antioxidants Content and Productivity of Red Cabbage

    • Authors: Samar M. A. Doklega, Sally F. Abo El-Ezz, Nada A. Mostafa, Eldessoky S. Dessoky, Awatif M. Abdulmajeed, Doaa Bahaa Eldin Darwish, Fahad Mohammed Alzuaibr, Ahmed Abou El-Yazied, Mohamed M. El-Mogy, Samy F. Mahmoud, Noura M. Taha, Mahmoud A. M. Abd El-Hady
      First page: 481
      Abstract: The present work studied the effect of foliar spray of different concentrations of titanium (Ti, applied as titanium dioxide) and vanadium (V, applied as vanadium pentoxide) on growth, chemical composition, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, yield and quality criteria of red cabbage plants. For this purpose, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mg L−1 of Ti and V were used to treat red cabbage plants. The control plants were treated with tap water. Our results showed that plants treated with 4.0 mg L−1 of Ti recorded the highest values of plant growth and bioactive compounds, while antioxidant capacity was decreased compared to the other treatments. In addition, plants treated with Ti and V at 2.0 and 4.0 mg L−1, respectively, showed higher values of all of the growth, yield, non-enzymatic antioxidants and antioxidants enzymes’ parameters compared to the untreated plants. Based on the obtained results, it could be concluded that the low concentrations of both Ti and V (2.0 and 4.0 mg L−1) were able to enhance red cabbage growth and yield, as well as the antioxidant contents, enzymes and capacity.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060481
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 482: Combined Nano Silver,
           α-Aminoisobutyric Acid, and 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment Delays
           the Senescence of Cut Roses with Different Ethylene Sensitivities

    • Authors: Suong Tuyet Thi Ha, Byung-Chun In
      First page: 482
      Abstract: Flower senescence varies among cut roses (Rosa hybrida L.), and it is known that the postharvest life of ethylene-sensitive flowers is strongly related to the transcriptional accumulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes, whereas that of ethylene-insensitive flowers is shortened by water stress. These different responses of flowers to hormone and water stresses limit the action of preservatives in inhibiting the postharvest deterioration of cut rose flowers. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the combined application of antibacterial agents and ethylene biosynthesis and binding inhibitors on the postharvest life and quality of the cut rose cultivars ‘Matador’ (ethylene-sensitive) and ‘Dolcetto’ (ethylene-insensitive). Cut flowers were treated with nano silver (NS), a combination of NS and α-aminoisobutyric acid (NS+A), or a combination of NS+A and 1-methylcyclopropene (NS+AM), and they were subsequently exposed to ethylene for 24 h. Treatment effectiveness was compared with that of control (CON) flowers, which were kept in distilled water and exposed only to ethylene. The results showed that all treatments significantly improved the postharvest quality and vase life of both rose cultivars. However, NS+AM most markedly delayed senescence and prolonged the vase life of cut flowers by 217% in ‘Matador’ and 168.4% in ‘Dolcetto’, compared with those of CON flowers. NS+AM also effectively increased the flower diameter and maintenance time of positive water balance and initial fresh weight by enhancing solution absorption as well as suppressing bacterial growth at the cut stem ends of the cut roses. Furthermore, NS+AM greatly suppressed the ethylene-inducible increase of ethylene biosynthesis genes and the reduction of ethylene receptor genes in petals, which resulted in a reduced flower response to exogenous ethylene in both rose cultivars. These findings show that NS+AM effectively delays flower senescence in both ethylene sensitive and insensitive cultivars by synergistically preventing ethylene response and water stress in cut flowers.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060482
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 483: On-Farm Supplemental Irrigation of
           ‘Roja Lisa’ Cactus Pear: Pre- and Postharvest Effects

    • Authors: Valentín Melero-Meraz, Jorge A. Zegbe, Mayra Denise Herrera, Salvado H. Guzmán-Maldonado, Guillermo Medina-García, Blanca I. Sánchez-Toledano, Raquel K. Cruz-Bravo, Miguel Servín-Palestina
      First page: 483
      Abstract: Opuntia species grow in arid and semiarid lands, where water for irrigation is scarce. However, supplemental irrigation can be a feasible strategy for commercial cactus pear orchards. From 2018 to 2020, a commercial cactus pear orchard was managed to validate the effect of supplemental irrigation on fruit yield, crop water use efficiency, fruit quality, and storability of ‘Roja Lisa’ cactus pear grown in the semiarid region of Mexico. The irrigation treatments were no irrigation and supplemental irrigation, with four replications. Crop water use was less and, therefore, water productivity greater in non-irrigated plants than in plants with supplemental irrigation. Mean fruit yield, mean fruit mass, and proportion of commercial fruit increased with supplemental irrigation. These differences were more pronounced in growing seasons with less rainfall. Fruit quality at harvest or after room temperature or cold storage was examined. Fruit mass loss rate was reduced in fruit receiving supplemental irrigation in both storage conditions. In addition, supplemental irrigation was consistent with water savings and food security programs in marginal areas: this irrigation strategy improved both pre- and postharvest some quality components of cactus pear fruit. Therefore, this irrigation strategy is suggested for cactus pear growers, depending on the availability of water for irrigation.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060483
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 484: FytoSol, a Promising Plant Defense
           Elicitor, Controls Early Blight (Alternaria solani) Disease in the Tomato
           by Inducing Host Resistance-Associated Gene Expression

    • Authors: Yasemin Bektas
      First page: 484
      Abstract: Early blight (EB), caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria solani, is one of the most common and destructive diseases in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The use of fungicides is a prominent tactic used to control EB; however, their undesirable effects on the environment and human health, as well as involvement in the development of resistant strains, have driven researchers to search for new alternatives. Plant defense elicitors are exogenous defense-triggering molecules that induce a plant’s defense system associated with extensive transcriptional- and metabolic reprogramming of the genome and do not cause direct toxicity to phytopathogens. Moreover, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) was an early-identified and strong plant defense elicitor to various phytopathogens. Recently, the combination of chitosan oligomers and pectin-derived oligogalacturonides that can mimic the induction of plants by a pathogen or damaged-derived molecules (PAMP and DAMP) were characterized as defense elicitors, named FytoSol. In this study, the preventive roles of these two defense elicitors—FytoSol and INA—against EB disease and its molecular basis, were explored. According to the results, FytoSol significantly reduced disease severity by an average of 30% for almost one month with an AUDPC value of 399 compared to the control, which had an AUDPC value of 546. On the contrary, INA did not provide any protection against EB. Gene expression analyses of these two distinct plant defense elicitors indicated that the expression patterns of several SA-, JA-, or ET-pathway-related genes (Pti4, TPK1b, Pto kinase, TomloxD, PRB1-2, SABP2, WRKY33b, WRKY70, PR-5, and PR3) were induced by defense elicitors differently. FytoSol extensively upregulated gene expressions of PR3, downregulated the SA-related defense pathway, and provided remarkable protection against the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria solani. On the contrary, INA mostly induced genes related to biotrophic and/or hemibiotrophic pathogen protection. Our results indicate that FytoSol is a promising plant defense elicitor against EB and the modes of action of the elicitors are important to characterize their effects against pathogens. Further research may extend the use of defense elicitors as alternatives to pesticides in agriculture.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060484
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 485: Planting Arrangement and Effects of
           Planting Density on Tropical Fruit Crops—A Review

    • Authors: Mohammad Amdadul Haque, Siti Zaharah Sakimin
      First page: 485
      Abstract: With the growing importance of fruits as valuable food resources, attention has been paid in recent years to enhance productivity and quality. Increasing productivity per unit area through agronomic management is one of the important strategies to increase the production of fruit crops. Keeping this view, this review was undertaken to improve understanding of the planting arrangement and the effect of planting density on productivity and quality of fruit crops. This review will thus provide updated and in-depth information about the influence of planting density on yield and fruit quality, which will also be useful for the growers, consumers, exporters, and processing industry. In fruit crops, the effect of plant density and planting arrangement is well documented. From the review, it is understood that yield per unit area is the product of fruit yield plant−1 and the number of plants per unit area. Fruit size increases with a decreasing planting density, while total yield increases with an increasing density at a certain level. However, fruit quality decreases with an increasing planting density.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060485
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 486: Correlation of Carotenoids Content and
           ASTA Values of Pepper (Capsicum chinense) Genetic Resources

    • Authors: Ho-Cheol Ko, Mesfin Haile, Sukyeung Lee, Aejin Hwang, Gi-An Lee, Yu-Mi Choi, Bum-Soo Hahn, Nayoung Ro
      First page: 486
      Abstract: In this study, 226 Capsicum chinense genetic resources were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and a spectrophotometer to measure and compare their carotenoid content and American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) color values, respectively. The total carotenoid content and ASTA values of the 226 pepper genetic resources were found to be in the range of 7.04–2430.85 mg/100 g dry weight (DW) and 0–221.32, respectively. Capsanthin, capsorubin, lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin were the individual carotenoids studied. The average content of each carotenoid (n = 226) in mg/100 g DW was as follows: capsanthin (325.77), antheraxanthin (136.34), capsorubin (82.36), β-carotene (59.11), violaxanthin (46.54), zeaxanthin (43.21), α-carotene (13.91), β-cryptoxanthin (9.67), and lutein (2.72). A strong positive correlation was observed between total carotenoid content and ASTA value (r = 0.965). Likewise, the individual carotenoid content and ASTA value revealed a strong correlation, such as antheraxanthin (r = 0.964), capsanthin (r = 0.946), and capsorubin (r = 0.858). Three genetic resources with a total carotenoid content above 2000 mg/100 g DW were obtained, such as IT261426 (2430.85 mg/100 g DW), IT183657 (2077.55 mg/100 g DW), and IT261213 (2062.54 mg/100 g DW). The findings of this study will assist in the selection of genetic resources with high carotenoid content and ASTA value that can be used to develop and breed new pepper varieties. Also, detailed results of ASTA value correlation with carotenoids in C. chinense genetic resources are provided.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060486
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 487: The Effect of Changing Climatic
           Conditions on the Morphological Traits and Chemical Composition of Almond

    • Authors: Slavica Čolić, Zorica Basić, Gordan Zec, Ivana Bakić, Dragan Rahović, Milica Fotirić Akšić, Violeta Mickovski Stefanović
      First page: 487
      Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of two contrasting years, in terms of climatic parameters, on kernel morphology and content and on the composition of oil, tocopherols and the 11 macro- and micro-elements in almonds. Low precipitation and high temperatures increased the content of tocopherols, Cu and Zn but decreased the kernel ratio, the oil content, and the levels of macro-elements and of Cr, Fe, Mn and Mo. The obtained data indicate some statistically significant correlations among the kernel quality parameters and climate. A small variation in oil concentration with the highest value in ‘Texas’ (60.07%) was observed. The main tocopherol homologue was α-tocopherol (39.4 to 404.4 mg/100 g DW), representing more than 90% of the total tocopherols. Potassium was predominant (882.0 to 1104.5 mg/100 g), followed by phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and sodium. The most abundant micro-elements were iron (3.095 to 3.708 mg/100 g) and zinc (2.641 to 4.765 mg/100 g), followed by manganese, copper, molybdenum and chromium. The genotype 15/03 has the highest level of health-promoting compounds (α-tocopherol, potassium and zinc), so that, together with genotype 25/03 which showed the best response to changing climatic conditions, this genotype could be of interest for breeding programs.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060487
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 488: A Detailed Comparative Study on Some
           Physicochemical Properties, Volatile Composition, Fatty Acid, and Mineral
           Profile of Different Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) Varieties

    • Authors: Okan Levent
      First page: 488
      Abstract: In the present investigation, the main purpose of the research was to reveal the differences among the almond genotypes in terms of their physicochemical properties, volatile composition, fatty acid, and mineral profile. For that reason, ten different almond genotypes originated from different countries were subjected to relevant analysis. The results showed that the total oil, protein, and ash levels of the almond samples ranged between 30.84–41.43%, 17.43–22.72%, and 2.90–3.40%, respectively. Additionally, total phenolic content of the samples was in the range of 38.7–101.03 mg GAE/100 g sample. It was revealed that the almond samples were rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, and oleic acid was the major one with levels of 61.22–77.63%. For all samples, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus were the major minerals, and the highest concentration was for potassium with levels of 6192.08–11,046.05 mg/kg. Volatile profile analysis showed that the toluene, 4-octanone, pinacol, and 2-methylpentanal were the dominant volatile compounds for all almond genotypes. The results revealed that the different almond varieties showed significant differences depending on the origin.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060488
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 489: Combining Ability and Heterosis for
           Market Yield in Green Asparagus

    • Authors: Lucía Dolores Amato, Eugenia Alejandra Martin, Fernando Sebastián López-Anido
      First page: 489
      Abstract: In asparagus, current cultivars are mostly hybrids (known as clonal hybrids) derived from crosses between two parents, female and male, with good combining ability. Despite the fact that clonal hybrids have been obtained for more than 40 years, studies of the heterosis and combining abilities involved are limited. Similarly, there are no published studies regarding the association between genetic divergence and heterosis. In this sense, we evaluated two sets of diallel crosses including 12 accessions from 11 different origins for marketable green asparagus production. Parentals were also included as a way to assess heterosis. The variation for market yield was highly significant for both sets. Best parent heterosis was over 100% in four cases. The best experimental hybrid did not significant differ from the Atticus F1 all-male check. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant, with a relative greater contribution of the SCA than the GCA to the variation among crosses. The association between genetic distances and heterosis failed to be significant. The best experimental hybrids were obtained when UC157 and KBF (origins from the USA and the UK) were crossed to Argenteuil, Limburgia and Espárrago de Navarra (origins from France, the Netherlands and Spain).
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060489
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 490: Walnut Genotypes for High Density

    • Authors: Sama Rahimi Devin, Geza Bujdoso
      First page: 490
      Abstract: The aim of this review is to check the possibilities and circumstances regarding how to create a high-density Persian walnut orchard. Increasing yields, decreasing tree size, limiting juveniles, and lowering total costs are the most important objectives of breeders and horticulturists. Reducing the size of walnut trees can increase yield. Breeding programs in several countries have led to the production of walnut dwarf rootstocks. For example, Daixiang and Daihui in China, Alvand in Iran, and Fernette in France are all novel-bred dwarfing Persian walnut rootstocks. These precocious walnuts are considered to be a rare resource in the study of precociousness as well as juvenile and flowering mechanisms. Moreover, they play a potential role in breeding and modifying cultivars by genetic engineering, through walnut ameliorating programs. The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) technique is used to improve walnuts, which will be used in the near future.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060490
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 491: SlSPS, a Sucrose Phosphate Synthase
           Gene, Mediates Plant Growth and Thermotolerance in Tomato

    • Authors: Yingying Zhang, Dewen Zeng, Yahui Liu, Weimin Zhu
      First page: 491
      Abstract: Heat stress (HS) has been considered as a severe threat to crop yields in recent years. Sucrose, as a major product of photosynthesis, plays an important role in plant growth and stress response. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the sucrose synthesis pathway in plants. However, its molecular mechanism and signaling pathway remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel SPS gene (SlSPS) in tomato and generated over-expression and knock-out of SlSPS gene transgenic tomato plants to investigate its biological functions related to the growth and thermotolerance of tomato. Over-expression of SlSPS gene increased the growth and biomass of transgenic tomato plants, such as fresh weight, dry weight, plant height, fruit weight and root length. In contrast, knock-out of SlSPS gene decreased the growth and biomass of transgenic tomato plants. Under heat stress, the survival rates were positively correlated with the expression level of SlSPS gene in different tomato varieties. Furthermore, SlSPS-overexpressing tomato plants showed higher SPS activity and sucrose content and heat stress resistant phenotypes. By comparison, knock-out tomato plants showed lower SPS activity and sucrose content and susceptible to heat stress. The determination of several reference values of oxidative stress parameters were also consistent with their heat resistance of these transgenic plants. In summary, SlSPS gene could positively mediate the growth and thermotolerance in tomato plants.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060491
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 492: Moringa oleifera: Miracle Plant with a
           Plethora of Medicinal, Therapeutic, and Economic Importance

    • Authors: Chirag Prajapati, Meera Ankola, Tarun Kumar Upadhyay, Amit Baran Sharangi, Nadiyah M. Alabdallah, Fatimah A. Al-Saeed, Khursheed Muzammil, Mohd Saeed
      First page: 492
      Abstract: Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is one of the most essential medicinal plants primarily found in the rainforest area and forest ecosystem, but is now well-adapted in an organized cultivation system. Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is well-known as Drumstick tree, Moringa kai, color, Marengo, Moringe, mulangay, Sahjan, and Sajna, which are its native names commonly used. It has nourishing, beneficial, and preventive effects when taken as food and has an extensive scope of high restorative properties with huge dietary benefits. Different parts of the M. oleifera plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, and roots, contain a significant amount of protein, ß-carotene, amino acids, important minerals, and various phenolic compounds. Because of its multifarious health benefits for its therapeutic value, it is considered an essential plant. The plant is found to be blessed with several medicinal characteristics such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, cholesterol-level down, cell reinforcement, and hepatoprotective. Moreover, it is used traditionally in the local curative system against cardiac problems, and the antifungal properties are efficiently utilized for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. The present review article was designed to explore the nutritional and economic benefits, medicinal and therapeutic applications, and the future biomedical prospects of Moringa with a view towards human wellbeing.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060492
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 493: Effects of Chromium Toxicity on
           Physiological Performance and Nutrient Uptake in Two Grapevine Cultivars
           (Vitis vinifera L.) Growing on Own Roots or Grafted onto Different

    • Authors: Kleopatra-Eleni Nikolaou, Theocharis Chatzistathis, Serafeim Theocharis, Anagnostis Argiriou, Stefanos Koundouras, Elefteria Zioziou
      First page: 493
      Abstract: Chromium toxicity is considered within the most severe and dangerous nutritional disorders, and it can often be observed in crops grown in industrial areas. The present study aims to determine the effects of Cr(VI) toxicity on the growth, nutrition, and physiological performance of grapevines. In a pot hydroponic experiment, own-rooted Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapevine cultivars or cultivars grafted onto 1103P and 101-14 Mgt rootstocks were exposed to 120 μM Cr(VI). Leaf interveinal chlorosis appeared after forty-five days of treatment. Overall leaf chlorosis and brown root coloration after sixty days was reported. A significant effect on the majority of the measured parameters due to the Cr(VI) treatment was observed. Chromium stress increased the total Cr concentrations in all parts of the vines, i.e., leaves, shoots, roots, and trunks. When comparing between the studied plant sections, the roots presented the highest Cr concentrations, ranging from 396 to 868 mg kg−1 d. w., and then, in descending order, the Cr concentrations ranged from 41 to 102 mg kg−1 d. w. in the trunks, from 2.0 to 3.3 mg kg−1 d. w. in the leaves, and from 1.9 to 3.0 mg kg−1 d. w. in the shoots. Between the assessed rootstocks, 1103P was identified to be a better excluder of Cr concentration in the roots and other aerial parts of the vines. Additionally, chromium toxicity negatively affected the concentrations and compartmentalization of the most important nutrients. Leaf chlorophyll (Chl) concentration decreased down to approximately 53% after sixty days of Cr stress. Chromium toxicity significantly reduced the stem water potential (SWP), net CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and PSII maximum quantum yield in all the cases of grafted or own-rooted vines. At this stage, chromium stress increased the leaf total phenolic content from 46.14% in Merlot vines to 75.91% in Cabernet Franc vines.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060493
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 494: Impact of Cold Stress on Leaf Structure,
           Photosynthesis, and Metabolites in Camellia weiningensis and C. oleifera

    • Authors: Hongyun Xu, Chengling Huang, Xian Jiang, Jing Zhu, Xiaoye Gao, Cun Yu
      First page: 494
      Abstract: Camellia weiningensis Y. K. Li. sp. nov. (CW) is an endemic oil-tea species in Guizhou province, distributed in the alpine karst area, which exhibits cold resistance and better economic characters than C. oleifera (CO). The mechanism of cold response in CW seedlings has not been studied in depth. Herein, we performed anatomical, physiological, and metabolic analyses to assess the impact of cold stress on leaf structure, photosynthesis, and metabolites in CW and CO seedlings. Anatomical analysis of leaves showed CW seedlings had greater leaf and palisade thicknesses, tissue structure tightness, and palisade-spongy tissue ratio to enhance chilling stress (4 °C) tolerance, but freezing stress (−4 °C) caused loosening of the leaf tissue structure in both CW and CO seedlings. Photosynthetic analysis showed a reduction in the chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and photosynthetic parameters under freezing stress in both CW and CO seedlings. Cold stress increased the abscisic acid (ABA) contents in both the Camellia species, and CW exhibited the highest ABA content under −4 °C treatment. Additionally, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content was also increased in CW in response to cold stress. An obviously distinct metabolite composition was observed for CW and CO under different temperatures, and significantly changed metabolites (SCMs) were enriched under freezing stress. Prenol lipids, organooxygen compounds, and fatty acyls were the main metabolites in the two Camellia species in response to cold stress. The top key SCMs, such as medicoside G, cynarasaponin F, yuccoside C, and methionyl-proline were downregulated under freezing stress in both CW and CO. The contents of some key metabolites associated with sugar metabolism, such as UDP-glucose, UDP-D-apiose, and fructose 6-phosphate, were higher in CW than in CO, which may contribute to enhancing the cold resistance in CW. Our findings are helpful in explaining how CW adapt to alpine karst cold environments, and will provide a reference for cold tolerance improvement and application of stress-resistant breeding of Camellia in alpine and cold areas.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060494
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 495: Calcium in Photosynthetic Restoration
           and Growth of Annona emarginata after Mechanical Damage

    • Authors: Felipe Girotto Campos, Gustavo Ribeiro Barzotto, Jonas Akenaton Venturineli Pagassini, Marilia Caixeta Sousa, Gisela Ferreira, Carmen Sílvia Fernandes Boaro
      First page: 495
      Abstract: Calcium, an essential element with structural function in the cell wall and plasma membrane, in addition to being a secondary messenger, is responsible for the regulation of physiological processes in plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated the effects of calcium variation on photosynthetic performance, growth, and enzymatic antioxidant defense system in A. emarginata subjected to mechanical damage. The experimental design was in 6 × 5 factorial randomized blocks. A. emarginata plants were submitted to the six treatments: plants grown in solution with 0 mM Ca2+ without mechanical damage, 0 mM Ca2+ with mechanical damage, 2 mM Ca2+ without mechanical damage, 2 mM Ca2+ with mechanical damage, 4 mM Ca2+ without mechanical damage, and 4 mM Ca2+ with mechanical damage, as well as five evaluation periods at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days after mechanical damage. The fluorescence of chlorophyll a, gas exchange, total dry mass, quantitative growth, and lipid peroxidation was studied. It is concluded that the A. emarginata plants showed better performance in restoration after mechanical damage in the presence of Ca2+ and was more sensitive in the absence of the mineral. Cultivation of the species with 2 mM Ca2+ in complete nutrient solution was sufficient to guarantee the efficiency of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, and photosynthetic restoration of plants subjected to mechanical damage.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060495
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 496: Effects of the Preceding Crop on Soil N
           Availability, Biological Nitrogen Fixation, and Fresh Pod Yield of
           Organically Grown Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    • Authors: Dionisios Yfantopoulos, Georgia Ntatsi, Nazim Gruda, Dimitrios Bilalis, Dimitrios Savvas
      First page: 496
      Abstract: In the current study, the impact of the preceding crops on growth, fresh pod yield, nitrogen fixation efficiency, and nitrogen nutrition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) was investigated for two years in both organic and conventional crops. As preceding crops served cabbage, pea, and faba bean. The pod number per plant (PN) and the total fresh pod yield (TFPY) were significantly lower with cabbage compared to pea and faba bean as preceding crops in both cropping systems and both experimental years. However, in the organic farming system, pea increased significantly in PN and TFPY compared to faba bean as a preceding crop, while in the conventional system, there was no significant difference between the two legumes. The greater yield performance with the two legumes as preceding crops was associated with higher soil NO3-N and total-N concentrations at the beginning of the subsequent faba bean crop. The higher soil N availability when the preceding crop was a legume resulted partly from the higher biomass of crop residues left by these crops on the field after harvest, compared to cabbage. However, it was also associated with a more extensive nodulation of the faba bean roots by rhizobia and a higher percentage of N derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa) in their plant tissues, as determined through the natural abundance of the 15N isotope, when the preceding crop was a legume. The cropping system had no impact on pod yield, but organic farming increased the %Ndfa in both years.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060496
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 497: Comparative Evaluation of Yield and
           Fruit Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Five Commercial Cultivars of
           Pomegranate Grown in Southeastern Italy in Two Consecutive Years

    • Authors: Annalisa Tarantino, Laura Frabboni, Andrea Mazzeo, Giuseppe Ferrara, Grazia Disciglio
      First page: 497
      Abstract: This study, conducted over two consecutive seasons (2018–2019), evaluates the yield and fruit physico-chemical traits of five commercial cultivars (‘Mollar’, ‘Dente di Cavallo’, ‘Acco’, ‘Jolly red’ and ‘Wonderful’) grown in the orchard at Foggia (Puglia region, southeastern Italy). The results show significant variations among the investigated cultivars for many measured parameters; seasons also significantly affected some data. As an average of the years, both ‘Dente di Cavallo’ and ‘Wonderful’ significantly showed the highest numbers (16.8 and 15.2, respectively) and weights (9.3 Kg, respectively) of fruit per tree. ‘Jolly red’ had the highest percentage of edible portions (58.5%), the most intense red color in juice (a* value, 11.7), a light-red skin color (despite its name) (a*value, 31.1) and the smallest fruits (26.7% of diameter ≤ 80 mm). Total soluble solids of all cultivars were considerable above the minimum value (12 °Brix) required for commercial use. ‘Wonderful’ significantly presented the highest value of juice acidity (2.5 g citric acid 100 mL−1) and the lowest MI value, and therefore it was classified as sour. Both ‘Dente di Cavallo’ and ‘Wonderful’ had significantly higher phenolic contents (591.0 and 519.1 mg 100 mL−1, respectively) than the other cultivars, while ‘Dente di Cavallo’ significantly showed the highest antioxidant activity value (6.4 mmol TE 100 L−1). The Stepwise Discriminant Analysis procedure allowed a significant differentiation among the cultivars. Correlation analysis showed a considerable relation among the different fruit traits. The present data are helpful in the selection of elite desirable pomegranate cultivars to be used for commercial production.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060497
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 498: Strategies to Enhance the Use of
           Endophytes as Bioinoculants in Agriculture

    • Authors: Bartholomew Adeleke, Ayomide Fadiji, Modupe Ayilara, Ozede Igiehon, Blessing Nwachukwu, Olubukola Babalola
      First page: 498
      Abstract: The findings on the strategies employed by endophytic microbes have provided salient information to the researchers on the need to maximally explore them as bio-input in agricultural biotechnology. Biotic and abiotic factors are known to influence microbial recruitments from external plant environments into plant tissues. Endophytic microbes exhibit mutualism or antagonism association with host plants. The beneficial types contribute to plant growth and soil health, directly or indirectly. Strategies to enhance the use of endophytic microbes are desirable in modern agriculture, such that these microbes can be applied individually or combined as bioinoculants with bioprospecting in crop breeding systems. Scant information is available on the strategies for shaping the endophytic microbiome; hence, the need to unravel microbial strategies for yield enhancement and pathogen suppressiveness have become imperative. Therefore, this review focuses on the endophytic microbiome, mechanisms, factors influencing endophyte recruitment, and strategies for possible exploration as bioinoculants.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060498
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 499: Modulation of Light and Nitrogen for
           Quality-Traits Improvement: A Case Study of Altino Sweet Pepper

    • Authors: Fabio Stagnari, Nadia Ficcadenti, Anna Chiara Manetta, Cristiano Platani, Maria Assunta Dattoli, Angelica Galieni
      First page: 499
      Abstract: Local varieties are known to cope more efficiently with stressful and/or low-input conditions than cultivated ones by activating secondary metabolisms and, hence, are supposed to have higher nutraceutical potential. In this work, we investigate the effects of N and light, supplied at optimal and sub-optimal levels, on the fruit yield and quality of a local ecotype of sweet pepper, Altino, grown in the Abruzzo Region (Southern Italy). In 2017, two open-field experiments were carried out, comparing increasing N rates (0, 100 and 200 kg N ha−1, 0_N, 100_N and 200_N, respectively) and different percentages of shading and/or manipulations of the transmitted solar radiation, obtained through photoselective nets (red net, RN; black net, BN; unshaded Control). Both N and light were preconditions to obtain stable yields in terms of both fruit number and fruit weights. However, BN significantly reduced the number of sunscalded fruits (0.39 vs. 3.38 and 2.59 fruit plant−1 for BN, Control and RN, respectively), leading to lower waste. N deficiency favoured higher total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents in ripened fruits; on the other hand, shading significantly reduced TPC (−12.4%) in immature and TFC (−18.2%) in red fruits. The variations in nutraceuticals were also evaluated in terms of the variations of the single phenolic acids in fruits during ripening; the most interesting results were associated with light treatments. Further research should be directed to the in-depth study of nutrition regimes, in combination with other photoselective nets applications (i.e., pearl nets), that could be suitable for the Altino genotype to enhance the yield and nutraceutical potentials of its fruits.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060499
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 500: Physiological Study of the Efficacy of
           Archer® Eclipse in the Protection against Sunburn in Cucumber Plants

    • Authors: Iván Navarro-Morillo, Francisco Garcia-Sanchez, Jose Maria Camara-Zapata, Eloy Navarro-León, María José Izquierdo-Ramos, Begoña Blasco, Juan Manuel Ruiz
      First page: 500
      Abstract: Sunburn is an important issue affecting the yield of many crops, mainly in arid and semi-arid regions. Excessive solar radiation and high temperatures can reduce growth and cause leaf chlorosis, oxidative stress, and photosynthesis impairment. It is thus necessary to develop agricultural techniques to protect plants in a cost-effective and reproducible manner. A potential method is through the spray of protective compounds based on particulate films, such as those based on kaolin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of spraying the protective product Archer® Eclipse, created by Atlántica Agrícola S.A. (Alicante, Spain), on sunburn damage in a sensitive species such as the cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.). To evaluate the effects of sunburn on the plants, parameters related to biomass, leaf temperature, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress were analysed. Plants sprayed with Archer® Eclipse showed fewer sunburn symptoms and obtained 43% more shoot biomass than those that were not treated. In addition, plants sprayed with Archer® Eclipse showed 3 °C lower leaf temperatures, higher photosynthesis performance, 88% more water use efficiency, and 21% more chlorophyll concentration. Finally, plants treated with Archer® Eclipse presented 6% less accumulations of carotenoids and 67% less total phenols, but lower oxidative stress indicators. In conclusion, this study confirms the efficiency of Archer® Eclipse in protecting a sensitive vegetable plant such as the cucumber from sunburn-inducing conditions.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060500
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 501: Evaluation of Fungicides and Application
           Strategies for the Management of the Red Leaf Blotch Disease of Almond

    • Authors: Laura Torguet, Lourdes Zazurca, Guillem Martínez, Gemma Pons-Solé, Jordi Luque, Xavier Miarnau
      First page: 501
      Abstract: Red leaf blotch (RLB) of almond, caused by Polystigma amygdalinum, is an important foliar disease of this nut tree in the Mediterranean basin and especially in Spain. In recent years, the control of this disease has become a key factor in the management of Spanish almond orchards. The management of RLB is not easy due to intrinsic factors of the disease (e.g., long infection and latency periods) and the low number of registered fungicides in this country. From 2015 to 2019, different field trials were conducted in the Lleida region, NE Spain, to evaluate the efficacy of several fungicide products and of application strategies to control this disease. Systemic fungicides, which included fluopyram, trifloxystrobin, and mixtures of fluopyram + trifloxystrobin and pyraclostrobin + boscalid, performed better than contact and penetrant products and showed up to 90% control against RLB. However, the efficacy of the tested fungicides varied depending on the year. In terms of application strategies, when fungicide applications were conducted following specific meteorological conditions (after 15 days from >15 mm rainfalls with ≈10–15 °C as the minimum average temperature), their efficacy was comparable to that of calendar-based treatments (every 14, 21, or 31 days from petal fall) but with fewer applications (depending on the year, 2–4 applications as compared with 5–9 for calendar treatments).
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060501
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 502: Leaf Epidermal Morphology of Ten Wild
           Tree Peonies in China and Its Taxonomic Significance

    • Authors: Wenqing Jia, Yanli Wang, Qing Qi, Songlin He, Zhaorong Mi, Xiaopei Zhu
      First page: 502
      Abstract: This research reports for the first time the epidermal characteristics of 10 wild tree peonies belonging to the sect. Moutan group. The leaf micromorphology of 10 wild tree peonies—P. qiui, P. decomposita, P. jishanensis, P. ostii, P. delavayi, P. lutea, P. potanini, P. rockii, P. ludlowii and P. cathayana—were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The characteristics of the leaf epidermis were found to be constant at the species level, but variable among species. Patterns of anticlinal walls were slightly wavy to wavy, very wavy, and straight to curved. All studied tree peonies presented stomata only on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves. The stomatal apparatus was elliptical or rectangular. Stomatal density was highest on the abaxial surface in P. qiui (300.25 per mm2), and lowest in P. jishanensiss (198.41 per mm2). Stomatal Index was highest on the adaxial surface of P. potanini (27.30%), and lowest in P. ludlowii (18.35%). Trichomes were observed in four studied peonies, which appeared only on the abaxial surface of the leaves, and three basic types of trichomes were identified. The long conical trichomes were distinctive of P. jishanensis, and the flat-shaped trichomes were characteristic of P. qiui, P. rockii and P. cathayana, and commonly occurred in the intervenous region and leaf veins. Stomatal shape, stomatal density, anticlinal wall patterns and trichomes may be of great value and significance for the classification of wild tree peonies. The principal component analysis showed that the component 1, component 2 and component 3 were the most components and nearly 79% of the observed variation. The key to the identification of wild tree peonies based on trichomes and stomata diversity was provided.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060502
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 503: Gamma Radiation (60Co) Induces Mutation
           during In Vitro Multiplication of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex

    • Authors: María Karen Serrano-Fuentes, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino, Serafín Cruz-Izquierdo, José Luis Spinoso-Castillo, Jericó Jabín Bello-Bello
      First page: 503
      Abstract: In vitro mutagenesis is an alternative to induce genetic variation in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews), which is characterized by low genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to induce somaclonal variation in V. planifolia by gamma radiation and detect it using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Shoots previously established in vitro were multiplied in Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg·L−1 BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). Explants were irradiated with different doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy) of 60Co gamma rays. Survival percentage, number of shoots per explant, shoot length, number of leaves per shoot, and lethal dose (LD50) were recorded after 60 d of culture. For molecular analysis, ten shoots were used for each dose and the donor plant as a control. Eight ISSR primers were selected, and 43 fragments were obtained. The percentage of polymorphism (% P) was estimated. A dendrogram based on Jaccard’s coefficient and the neighbor joining clustering method was obtained. Results showed a hormetic effect on the explants, promoting development at low dose (20 Gy) and inhibition and death at high doses (60–100 Gy). The LD50 was observed at the 60 Gy. Primers UBC-808, UBC-836 and UBC-840 showed the highest % P, with 42.6%, 34.7% and 28.7%, respectively. Genetic distance analysis showed that treatments without irradiation and with irradiation presented somaclonal variation. The use of gamma rays during in vitro culture is an alternative to broaden genetic diversity for vanilla breeding.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060503
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 504: Effect of Temperature and Photoperiod
           Preconditioning on Flowering and Yield Performance of Three Everbearing
           Strawberry Cultivars

    • Authors: Rodmar Rivero, Siv Fagertun Remberg, Ola M. Heide, Anita Sønsteby
      First page: 504
      Abstract: Environmental control of flowering in everbearing strawberry is well known, while the optimal commercial raising conditions for high and continuous yield remains unsettled. We exposed freshly rooted plants of cultivars Altess, Favori and Murano to 9 °C, 15 °C, 21 °C and 27 °C, respectively, at two photoperiods for 4 weeks, and assessed flowering and yield performance. Long days at 15–21 °C enhanced flowering, while short days (SD), particularly at 27 °C, decreased flowering. Runner formation was enhanced by SD, being inversely related to flowering. Yields the next season were highest in plants exposed to 15–21 °C, whereas the seasonal harvest distribution varied. In concurrence with earlier reports, the size of the first fruit flush determined the magnitude of the second flush and the length of the off period when little fruit was produced. The large first fruiting flushes of plants exposed to 21 and 27 °C gave particularly long off periods and small second flushes. Moderate first flushes of plants from intermediate temperatures also resulted in a more evenly distributed harvest and the largest yields. Developing flowers and fruits are strong sinks for photosynthates; therefore, the size of the first fruit flush must be compromised to optimize fruit yield and seasonal crop distribution.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060504
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 505: Survey of Viruses Infecting Tomato,
           Cucumber and Mung Bean in Tajikistan

    • Authors: Yuan-Li Chan, Nurali Saidov, Li-Mei Lee, Fu-Hsun Kuo, Su-Ling Shih, Lawrence Kenyon
      First page: 505
      Abstract: Viral diseases are major constraints to tomato, cucumber and mung bean production in most areas where these crops are grown. To identify the viruses on the crops in Tajikistan, a field survey was conducted in 2019. Samples of cucumber, mung bean and tomato with virus-like symptoms were collected and the viruses present were diagnosed by RT-PCR and PCR. Across all the samples, a very high proportion of the samples were infected with viruses from the genera Cucumovirus and Potyvirus. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV; Cucumovirus) was very common in the collected samples of the three crops. As for Potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY) was detected in the collected tomato samples, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was identified in the collected cucumber samples, and Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) was detected in 53% of the mung bean samples. Over 68% of the collected samples were infected with two or more viruses, suggesting that mixed infections are common for the three crops. Due to the results that the most identified viruses for the three crops are transmitted by aphids, the management of aphids is extremely important for the production of tomato, cucumber and mung bean in Tajikistan.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060505
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 506: Sustainable Upcycling of Mushroom Farm
           Wastewater through Cultivation of Two Water Ferns (Azolla spp.) in
           Stagnant and Flowing Tank Reactors

    • Authors: Pankaj Kumar, Ebrahem M. Eid, Mostafa A. Taher, Mohamed H. E. El-Morsy, Hanan E. M. Osman, Dhafer A. Al-Bakre, Bashir Adelodun, Sami Abou Fayssal, Željko Andabaka, Madhumita Goala, Jogendra Singh, Sonika Kumari, Ashish Kumar Arya, Kyung Sook Choi, Vinod Kumar, Ivan Širić
      First page: 506
      Abstract: Nowadays, the increase in the wastewater generated from the mushroom cultivation sector has become a serious environmental pollution concern. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the efficiency of two water ferns (Azolla pinnata and A. filiculoides) in phytoremediation of mushroom farm wastewater (MFW) under stagnant and flowing tank reactor systems. For this, the laboratory scale experiments were conducted using five treatments, i.e., control (absolute borewell water), S50 (15 L borewell water + 15 L MFW: stagnant mode), S100 (30 L MFW: stagnant mode), F50 (15 L borewell water + 15 L MFW: flowing mode), F100 (30 L MFW: flowing mode), separately for both Azolla spp. After 15 days, A. pinnata and A. filiculoides significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the physicochemical parameters of MFW such as pH (18.87 and 18.56%), electrical conductivity (EC: 80.28 and 78.83%), total dissolved solids (TDS: 87.12 and 86.63%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD: 90.63 and 89.90%), chemical oxygen demand (COD: 86.14 and 85.54%), and total Kjeldahl’s nitrogen (TKN: 84.22 and 82.44%), respectively, in F100 treatment. Similarly, the highest growth and biochemical parameters of Azolla spp. were also observed while using absolute MFW treatment in a flowing tank reactor system. Moreover, out of the two tested growth kinetic models, the logistic model showed better fitness to the experimental data and prediction of critical growth parameters compared to the modified Gompertz model. The findings of this study are novel and suggest sustainable upcycling of MFW using plant-based treatment techniques with the production of high-quality Azolla spp. biomass.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060506
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 507: Preharvest Foliar Applications of Citric
           Acid, Gibberellic Acid and Humic Acid Improve Growth and Fruit Quality of
           ‘Le Conte’ Pear (Pyrus communis L.)

    • Authors: Walid F. A. Mosa, Nagwa A. Abd EL-Megeed, Muhammad Moaaz Ali, Hesham S. Abada, Hayssam M. Ali, Manzer H. Siddiqui, Lidia Sas-Paszt
      First page: 507
      Abstract: A two-year (2020-21) study was conducted to investigate the possibility of relying of ten-years old pear trees grown on sandy loam soil irrigated by drip on citric acid (CA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and humic acid (HA). The CA was applied at the concentrations of 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm, GA3 at 50, 100 and 150 ppm and HA at 3, 4 and 5%, whereas water spray was used as the control. The results of our study proved that CA, GA3 and HA improved the shoot length, shoot thickness, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll of pear as compared with the control. Moreover, they also positively increased the fruit set percentage and final yield of ‘Le Conte’ pear. The fruit weight, size and firmness were also improved under the influence of aforementioned treatments. The fruit soluble solids, total sugars, leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus and leaf potassium of pear were also enhanced as compared with the control. Additionally, spraying of GA3 at 150 ppm, as well as, HA at 5 and 4% were the superior treatments and showed the most significant impact on plant growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral content of pear. This study provides a basis for the future elucidation of HA-, GA3- and CA-modulated molecular mechanisms in pear, which can make a significant contribution in the scientific community.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060507
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 508: Somatic Embryogenesis: A Tool for Fast
           and Reliable Virus and Viroid Elimination for Grapevine and other Plant

    • Authors: Robert Olah, Mihaly Turcsan, Krisztina Olah, Eszter Farkas, Tamas Deak, Gizella Jahnke, Diana Agnes Nyitraine Sardy
      First page: 508
      Abstract: Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a widely used technique in plant biotechnology, and it can be a possible tool for virus and viroid elimination. This review highlights the advantages and limitations of production of pathogen-free plants using somatic embryogenesis. Beside the well-known meristem cultures, chemotherapy, thermotherapy and cryotherapy, SE is a very effective virus and viroid elimination method. Production of virus- and viroid-free plants is categorized based on the latest virus taxonomy. The available information on virus and viroid spread in calli and the effect of SE on morphological and genetic stability of the regenerated plants are presented in details. A number of factors which could affect the efficiency of this technique are also pointed out. Based on the collected and analysed data, SE can be a useful option for virus and viroid elimination.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060508
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 509: A Comparative Study between Vis/NIR
           Spectroradiometer and NIR Spectroscopy for the Non-Destructive Quality
           Assay of Different Watermelon Cultivars

    • Authors: Ayman Ibrahim, Hussein G. Daood, Márton Égei, Sándor Takács, Lajos Helyes
      First page: 509
      Abstract: In light of the great technological progress in non-destructive quality detection methods, sweetness is no longer the essential parameter in evaluating watermelon quality. There is an aspiration to determine physicochemical quality characteristics to enable us to select the best cultivars, agricultural practices, and harvest dates. In the present work, three different watermelon cultivars (Lady, Galander, and Style) were harvested at three consecutive harvest times. Two pieces were taken from each watermelon sample, one from the middle (part A) and the other from the ends (part B), to track the intensity of quality parameters inside the watermelon. Parts A and B were subjected to Vis/NIR spectroradiometer (475:1075 nm), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) (950:1650 nm), and high-performance liquid chromatography to assess the physicochemical quality. Calibration and prediction models were conducted using partial least squares regressions (PLS). The results indicated that the harvesting time significantly influenced the color and chemical parameters. Quality parameters concentrations markedly degraded towards late harvest. The highest concentrations of quality parameters were sighted for the middle zone (part A), especially in the Galander cultivar. Spectroradiometer achieved the best coefficient of prediction (R2P) ≃ 0.88 and 0.81 attached with the lowest value of the standard error of prediction (SEP) ≃ 0.03 and 1.06 for chroma (C*) and yellowness index (YI). However, the findings showed the superiority of the NIRS compared to the Vis-NIR method. The highest R2P was achieved by values 0.92, 0.91, 0.90, 0.89, 0.85, and 0.85 for lycopene, total carotenoids, vitamin C, β-carotene, γ-content, and TSS, respectively. It could be concluded that the NIRS has the ability to monitor the maturity development and determine the harvest dates practically and reliably.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060509
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 510: Effect of Flavonoid Dynamic Changes on
           Flower Coloration of Tulipa gesneiana ‘Queen of Night’ during
           Flower Development

    • Authors: Xueying Guo, Xueqing Fu, Xin Li, Dongqin Tang
      First page: 510
      Abstract: Tulipa gesneriana has rich cultivars with abundant flower colors; among them, black tulips have become precious cultivars for their rareness in nature. It is of great significance to understand its color formation mechanism for breeding new cultivars with a blackish flower color in the future. In this present study, petals at five developmental stages of Tulipa gesneriana ‘Queen of Night’ (shorted for ‘QN’), a typical black tulip cultivar, were collected to identity the flavonoid composition and compare the accumulation along with the flower development process, aiming to explore the metabolic mechanism of its flower coloration. By using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, three anthocyanins and nineteen anthoxanthins (including eighteen flavonols and one flavone) were detected in the petals of ‘QN’. The anthocyanins were identified as delphinidin 3-o-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-o-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-o-rutinoside, respectively. The main flavonols were identified as quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, naringin and their glycosides. The only one flavone substance was identified as an apigenin derivative. By comparing the content, anthocyanins were the most abundant substance in the petals of ‘QN’, and showed obvious regularity in the development process. With the flower opening, the anthocyanin content accumulated continuously, and reached the highest level at 3575.9 μg·g−1·FW at S5, accounting for 80% of the total flavonoids. Among them, delphinidin 3-o-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-o-rutinoside made the main contribution to the coloration of ‘QN’. The content of anthoxanthins increased first and then decreased, reaching the highest to 1114.8 μg·g−1·FW at S3. Quercetin and its glycosides were the most important flavonol substances in the petals of ‘QN’, accounting for more than 60% of the total anthoxanthins in the five stages. The content of a flavone identified was extremely low, suggesting a limited role in the flower color of ‘QN’. Taken together, the flower color presentation of ‘QN’ was closely related to the composition and accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols; anthocyanins were the main substances that determine the petal coloration of ‘QN’, and the high content of flavonols played a role of co-pigmentation with these anthocyanins.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060510
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 511: Production of Bacillus velezensis Strain
           GB1 as a Biocontrol Agent and Its Impact on Bemisia tabaci by Inducing
           Systemic Resistance in a Squash Plant

    • Authors: Ahmed Soliman, Saleh Matar, Gaber Abo-Zaid
      First page: 511
      Abstract: Pests represent a huge problem in crop production causing significant losses. Currently, biocontrol is utilized as an eco-friendly approach for controlling pests and reducing the shortage in crop production. In the current study, the production of a biocontrol agent, which was identified based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene as Bacillusvelezensis strain GB1 with GenBank accession No. OM836750, was carried out in the stirred tank bioreactor using a batch fermentation process. For the first time, B. velezensis strain GB1 was tested as a biocontrol agent with soil drench application (109 cfu mL−1) for management of Bemisia tabaci and induction of squash plant systemic resistance under greenhouse conditions. β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activity were measured in squash leaves at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. The influence of B. velezensis strain GB1 on population density, fertility, and hatchability of B. tabaci on squash plants was studied. The batch fermentation process of B. velezensis strain GB1 maximized the production of secondary metabolites and culture biomass, which reached a maximum value of 3.8 g L−1 at 10.5 h with a yield coefficient of 0.65 g cells/g glucose. Treatment with B. velezensis strain GB1 induced squash plants to boost their levels of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase enzymes. On the other hand, B. velezensis strain GB1 could significantly reduce the mean number of the attracted B. tabaci on squash plants. Additionally, whiteflies laid a lower mean number of 2.28 eggs/female/day on squash plants inoculated with B. velezensis strain GB1 compared to control. The percentage of B. tabaci egg hatchability declined by 5.7% in the B. velezensis-inoculated squash plants.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060511
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 512: Decreased Leaf Potassium Content Affects
           the Chemical Composition of Must for Sparkling Wine Production

    • Authors: Ana Peršurić Palčić, Ana Jeromel, Marija Pecina, Igor Palčić, David Gluhić, Marko Petek, Mirjana Herak Ćustić
      First page: 512
      Abstract: The must used to make sparkling wine has a low pH value and moderate sugar content, and its potassium content can have a strong influence. An excess of potassium often leads to an insufficient supply of magnesium, since potassium has a strong antagonistic effect on magnesium, and, consequently, to poorer photosynthesis and a poorer quality of the must. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of foliar fertilizers based on magnesium, phosphorus, and amino acids could reduce leaf potassium content, affecting the reductions in sugar content and pH value and increasing the total acidity of the must. A fertilizer trial with three replicates was conducted on the cultivar Istrian Malvasia (TCtrl—NPK, TMg—NPK + Agromag (6% MgO), TMgP—NPK + Agromag + Fosforo (30% P2O5) i TMgPBS—NPK + Agromag + Fosforo + Bio Prot) in a random complete block design. The NPK fertilizer was applied in the autumn. Foliar fertilization was applied three times during the growing season (31 May, 7 July, and 22 August 2014), and leaf samples were collected for leaf analysis before each application. The results show that foliar fertilization significantly reduced leaf potassium content, especially when treated with magnesium alone (treatment TMg). In addition, foliar fertilization significantly lowered the pH and increased the sugar content of the must. The results obtained in this research give a scientific contribution to the creation of fertilizer treatments for vines with a positive effect on the basic chemical composition of the base wine and provide a good basis for further research in reducing the use of certain enological practices during production.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060512
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 513: Early Response of ‘Mexican’
           Lime, ‘Fina’ Clementine Mandarin, and ‘Campbell’
           Valencia Orange on Selected Rootstocks Grown under Fertigation Practices
           in an Oxisol in Puerto Rico

    • Authors: Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá, Elvin Román-Paoli, Alejandro E. Segarra-Carmona, Consuelo Estévez de Estévez de Jensen, Dania Rivera-Ocasio
      First page: 513
      Abstract: In Puerto Rico, Huanglongbing (HLB), detected in 2009, continues to produce losses in orchards across the island. Efforts to produce clean propagation materials and select different combinations of scions and rootstocks to mitigate the disease have been a priority. In 2016, an experiment was established in Isabela in Coto clay series soils at 120 m to assess ‘Mexican’ lime, ‘Fina’ clementine mandarin, and ‘Campbell’ Valencia orange grafted in ‘Swingle’ citrumelo, ‘HRS 812’, and ‘HRS 897’. Tree growth parameters, tree fruit production, HLB incidences, and tree mortality were evaluated under a fertigation system. Higher fruit production was obtained with ‘Fina’ clementine mandarin and ‘Campbell’ Valencia orange when grafted in ‘HRS 812’ followed by ‘HRS 897’. ‘Mexican’ lime had higher fruit production when grafted in ‘HRS 897’. On the basis of total fruit production and HLB incidence, ‘HRS 812’ was outstanding, yielding fruits with higher values even though they were infected with HLB. Moreover, ‘HRS 897’ rootstock was demonstrated to be a potential rootstock for the Puerto Rico conditions.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060513
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 514: Effect of Treated Wastewater Irrigation
           on the Accumulation and Transfer of Heavy Metals in Lemon Trees Cultivated
           in Arid Environment

    • Authors: Albdaiwi, Al-Hawadi, Al-Rawashdeh, Al-Habahbeh, Ayad, Al-Sayaydeh
      First page: 514
      Abstract: The Middle East is considered as one of the driest regions of the world and the use of municipal-treated wastewater (TWW) for agricultural purposes is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous irrigation of TWW in lemon orchards on the accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in the soil, as well as their uptake and translocation to aerial parts of the trees. For this purpose, two lemon orchards were selected to be irrigated from two different water sources: TWW from a tertiary treatment plant and freshwater (SW) from Moses springs in Jordan. Continuous irrigation with TWW resulted in higher concentrations of nutrients and HM accumulation in the soil as compared to SW. However, HM accumulation in the soil was found to be within the acceptable range according to the standards of the WHO. On the contrary, the continuous irrigation with TWW resulted in the accumulation of HMs in plant parts when compared to SW irrigation; the fruits were clearly affected by the accumulation of high levels of Cd and Pb that exceed the maximum limits for the presence of HMs in plant tissues. The irrigation of lemon trees with TWW had a significant effect on the bioaccumulation factor and translocation factors (TF) of HMs into different lemon tree parts. Heavy metal accumulation coincided with high translocation rates to different tree parts, and this is considered to be a main challenge for long-term irrigation with TWW in arid environments.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060514
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 515: Morphological, Biochemical, and
           Physiological Response of Butterhead Lettuce to Photo-Thermal Environments

    • Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Munir, Muhammad Naeem Sattar
      First page: 515
      Abstract: Plants actively respond to changes in photoperiods, light intensities, and temperatures; an interplay of these three factors can result in increased biomass, growth, and improved plant morphology. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different photoperiods, light intensities, and day/night temperatures on the growth and quality of glasshouse-grown lettuce, as well as to determine the optimal photo-thermal conditions. Two separate experiments were conducted; in the first experiment, the effects of photoperiods (11, 14, and 17 h d−1) and light intensities (150, 200, 250, and 300 μmol m−2 s−1 PPFD) were investigated. In the second experiment, the effects of day/night temperature combinations (15/20, 20/20, 25/20, and 30/20 °C) were assessed. The highest growth, biochemical, and physiological attributes of lettuce were obtained either at 14 or 17 h d−1 + 200 and 250 μmol m−2 s−1 PPFD. Lettuce plants grown at a 20/20 °C day/night temperature also showed promising results compared to other temperature combinations. Based on a principal component analysis and factor analysis of mixed data analyses, most of the lettuce attributes showed a negative correlation with an 11 h d−1 photoperiod and a positive correlation with 14 and 17 h d−1 photoperiods. The most positive responsive attributes to higher light intensity were leaf fresh weight:root fresh weight ratio, root dry, and water use efficiency. An increase in the day/night temperature significantly affected the N, P, K, root fresh weight:leaf fresh weight ratio, E, Pn, and root dry weight. Our findings suggest that the growth, biochemical, and physiological attributes of lettuce significantly increased to a certain level of light intensity (200 and 250 μmol m−2 s−1 PPFD), photoperiod (14 and 17 h d−1), and day/night temperature (20/20 °C), referred to as an effective combination.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060515
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 516: Characterization of the Berry Quality
           Traits and Metabolites of ‘Beimei’ Interspecific Hybrid Wine
           Grapes during Berry Development and Winemaking

    • Authors: Yangfu Kuang, Chong Ren, Yi Wang, Gathunga Elias Kirabi, Yongjian Wang, Lijun Wang, Peige Fan, Zhenchang Liang
      First page: 516
      Abstract: The development of grape varieties with cold resistance can be an advantage for the wine industry. ‘Beimei’, an interspecific hybrid wine grape variety with cold resistance and pleasant rose aroma, is now extensively cultivated in China. In the present study, the berry quality traits and metabolites of ‘Beimei’ and other “Bei” varieties were characterized. The sugar (234 g/L–391 g/L) and acid (6.2–8.3 g/L) contents of ‘Beimei’ and four additional “Bei” varieties, i.e., ‘Beihong’, ’Beixi’, ’Beixin’, and ’Xinbeichun’ berries were smilar to that of traditional Vitis vinifera varieties. ‘Beimei’ grapes has the highest volatile compounds composition, especially the content of rose aroma compounds (2-phenyl-ethyl alcohol and neryl alcohol), which was significantly higher than that of the other “Bei” wine grape varieties. After fermentation, ‘Beimei’ wines showed improved quality, with a high resveratrol content (18 mg/L) compared to traditional Eurasian wines. In addition, the high content of main rose aroma compounds (acetic acid 2-phenylethyl acetate, phenylethyl alcohol, neryl alcohol and beta-damascenone) contribute to a pleasant rose aroma in ‘Beimei’ wines. In summary, these results indicate that ‘Beimei’ grapes could be used as a winemaking grape variety considering global climate changes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060516
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 517: Sustainable Management of Diseases in
           Horticulture: Conventional and New Options

    • Authors: Marco Scortichini
      First page: 517
      Abstract: To reduce the impact of chemical pesticides on the environment, there are relevant efforts to enhance the possibility of controlling plant diseases using environmentally friendly biocontrol agents or natural products that show pathogen control capacity. The European Union, FAO, and the United Nations largely promote and finance projects and programs in order to introduce crop protection principles that can attain sustainable agriculture. Preventive measures related to the choice of cultivars, soil fertility, integrated pest management (IPM), and organic farming strategies are still the basis for obtaining satisfactory crop yields and reducing classical pesticide utilisation through the application of commercially available and ecofriendly control agents. Effective pathogen detection at borders to avoid quarantine pathogens is mandatory to reduce the risk of future epidemics. New technical support for the development of sustainable pathogen control is currently being provided by forecasting models, precision farming, nanotechnology, and endotherapy. New biocontrol agents and natural products, disease management through plant nutrition, systemic resistance inducers, and gene-silencing technology will provide solutions for obtaining satisfactory disease control in horticulture. The “multi-stakeholder partnership” strategy can promote the implementation of sustainable crop protection.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060517
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 518: Effect of Covering Crops between Rows on
           the Vineyard Microclimate, Berry Composition and Wine Sensory Attributes
           of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) Grapes in a
           Semi-Arid Climate of Northwest China

    • Authors: Jing Peng, Wei Wei, Hao-Cheng Lu, Wu Chen, Shu-De Li, Jun Wang, Chang-Qing Duan, Fei He
      First page: 518
      Abstract: Covering crops was a commonly used viticultural technique to adjust the vineyard microclimate, thus affecting the grape and wine quality. In this two-year study, the purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) was used to cover the lands between rows in the vineyards located in the semi-arid Northwest China, Xinjiang. Results showed that the photosynthetically active radiation around the fruit zone and the temperature with the purslane covering treatment decreased. Compared with the clean tillage, covering purslane had lower TSS and higher TA in the grape berries, while lower alcohol content and higher TA was also found in their corresponding wines. Covering purslane treatment significantly increased the contents of anthocyanin and flavonol in the grapes and wines in the year 2018, but no significant effect on flavanols was observed in the wines. Norisoprenoids, esters, and C6 alcohols in the grapes and wines were increased in the purslane covering treatment, respectively. Additionally, compared to the clean tillage, the purslane covering treatment significantly improved the sensory value of the wines, especially the floral aroma and the complexity of the wines. This study helped us to better understand the feasibility of applying covering purslane in viticulture in the semi-arid climate of Northwest China.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060518
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 519: Effect of Salt Treatment on the Growth,
           Water Status, and Gas Exchange of Pyrus pyraster L. (Burgsd.) and Tilia
           cordata Mill. Seedlings

    • Authors: Viera Paganová, Marek Hus, Helena Lichtnerová
      First page: 519
      Abstract: Two-year-old seedlings of T. cordata and P. pyraster were exposed to salinity for 50 days, whereby each plant was subject to regular applications of a substrate solution containing 100 mM NaCl, amounting to a cumulative volume of 365 mL per plant. The adaptive reactions of the tree species in coping with salt stress were studied. The measured parameters were the growth and distribution of mass to organs, root to shoot mass ratio (R:S), content of assimilation pigments in the leaves, gas exchange parameters (gs, E, An), and water use efficiency (WUE). The relative increase in biomass was reduced under salt treatment for both species. A significant decrease in the total FW and DW was observed only for T. cordata, which deposited 4.5 times more Na+ ions in the plant tissues compared with P. pyraster. In P. pyraster seedlings, Na+ ions mainly accumulated in the root (75%), and their distribution was limited to aboveground organs. Thus, a balanced content of the assimilation pigments in the leaves was maintained under salt treatment. In the initial (osmotic) phase of salt stress, P. pyraster reduced water consumption and maintained a steady rate of photosynthesis (An) per unit area. T. cordata responded to salinity by regulating stomatal conductance and increasing water use efficiency (WUE). T. cordata was not effective in blocking salt intake and transported Na+ ions to the leaves. Due to the high cumulative salt content in the substrate, the water potential of the leaf tissues and the rate of photosynthesis significantly decreased in salt-treated T. cordata seedlings. The results document the important role of the root system in the resistance of woody plants and in ensuring their survival in conditions of excessive salinity. The investment in root growth improved the water supply of P. pyraster seedlings and enhanced the retention of salt ions in the root system, thus limiting their transfer to leaves.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060519
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 520: Automatic Pest Monitoring Systems in
           Apple Production under Changing Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Dana Čirjak, Ivana Miklečić, Darija Lemić, Tomislav Kos, Ivana Pajač Živković
      First page: 520
      Abstract: Apple is one of the most important economic fruit crops in the world. Despite all the strategies of integrated pest management (IPM), insecticides are still frequently used in its cultivation. In addition, pest phenology is extremely influenced by changing climatic conditions. The frequent spread of invasive species, unexpected pest outbreaks, and the development of additional generations are some of the problems posed by climate change. The adopted strategies of IPM therefore need to be changed as do the current monitoring techniques, which are increasingly unreliable and outdated. The need for more sophisticated, accurate, and efficient monitoring techniques is leading to increasing development of automated pest monitoring systems. In this paper, we summarize the automatic methods (image analysis systems, smart traps, sensors, decision support systems, etc.) used to monitor the major pest in apple production (Cydia pomonella L.) and other important apple pests (Leucoptera maifoliella Costa, Grapholita molesta Busck, Halyomorpha halys Stål, and fruit flies—Tephritidae and Drosophilidae) to improve sustainable pest management under frequently changing climatic conditions.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060520
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 521: Comparative Examination of
           Phytonutrients and Antioxidant Activity of Commonly Consumed Nuts and
           Seeds Grown in Vietnam

    • Authors: Trang H. D. Nguyen, Danh C. Vu, Sophie Alvarez, Khoa D. Nguyen, Thuong L. T. Nguyen, Nguyen N. Tuan, Nguyen T. Minh-Nguyet, Le N. Tam, Thi L. Ho, Xuyen T. Vo
      First page: 521
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine the phenolics, carotenoids, B-vitamins, and antioxidant activity of nuts and seeds grown in Vietnam. The concentrations of carotenoids and B-vitamins may vary among the nuts and seeds. Watermelon seed contained the highest level of lutein while pumpkin seed was the β-carotene richest sample. Sachi inchi and sunflower seed comprised considerable levels of vitamin B1, B6, and B9. The phenolic analysis revealed that cashew contained the highest total amount of flavonoids (466.04 μg/g), with catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 predominating over the other flavonoids. Likewise, chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids made up the highest total amount of phenolic acids in sunflower seed (1870.41 μg/g). Walnut appeared to possess the highest antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays. The correlation analysis indicated strong positive correlations between total phenolic content with DPPH and FRAP values. Principal component analysis graphically showed the distant positioning of cashew and sunflower seed, highlighting their significantly higher levels of phenolics. The findings of the study would be useful to improve nutrient database contents for flavonoids and phenolic acids as well as to promote the consumption of nut and seed products in Vietnam.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060521
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 522: Genome-Wide Characterization of Laccase
           Gene Family from Turnip and Chinese Cabbage and the Role in Xylem
           Lignification in Hypocotyls

    • Authors: Jing Wen, Yuanyuan Liu, Shuda Yang, Yongping Yang, Chuntao Wang
      First page: 522
      Abstract: The turnip and the Chinese cabbage belong to the Brassica rapa subspecies, yet they have evolved marked differences in morphology. The turnip has a distinct swelled taproot, while the Chinese cabbage has a big leafy head. The turnip’s taproot is developed mainly by the hypocotyl. To explore the taproot formation, we firstly compared the vascular structure of the hypocotyl during the early developmental stages of the turnip and the Chinese cabbage, finding that there were observable differences in the number of xylem cells and the cell-wall lignification in the hypocotyl vascular tissues after the transition from primary to secondary growth. Laccases (LAC) play an important role in lignification by polymerizing monolignols in the cell wall, however, it is not clear whether differences in the lignification levels in the hypocotyl xylem cell walls are related to the genetic variations of the LAC gene family, between the turnip and the Chinese cabbage. Therefore, we systematically characterized the LAC genes from the turnip and the Chinese cabbage, and 27 LAC genes were identified in each. These LAC genes can be divided into six groups, and each LAC in the turnip is closely adjacent to that in the Chinese cabbage. Gene structure, conserved motif, and chromosomal localization were highly conserved between the turnip and the Chinese cabbage. We also compared the expression pattern of the laccases in the different tissues and hypocotyl’s early development stage, and the results clearly showed the different profiles between the turnip and the Chinese cabbage. Following a comprehensive analysis of these results, we predicted that LAC17.1 and LAC17.3 are two candidate genes that participate in the regulation of lignin synthesis during taproot formation. Our results provide a valuable clue for uncovering the regulation mechanism of the lower lignification level in the turnip’s hypocotyl and fundamental information for further studies of the LAC gene family in Brassica rapa.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060522
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 523: Preharvest Spraying of CaCl2 Alleviates
           the Scape Bending of Gerbera ‘Harmony’ Flowers by
           Strengthening the Pectin Crosslinks through Ca2+ Bonds

    • Authors: Jiwon Park, Wan Soon Kim
      First page: 523
      Abstract: Scape bending is the primary cause shortening the vase life of cut gerbera flowers (Gerbera jamesonii ‘Harmony’). A previous study showed that this bending is closely related to the scape hardness, which is attributed to cell wall rigidity maintained by calcium ion bonds. In this experiment, the developing gerbera scape was sprayed with 0.5 and 1% calcium chloride to determine whether exogenous calcium directly influences scape hardness and whether it is related to pectin crosslinks. The calcium spray hardened the scape by 12% and efficiently reduced bending, thereby prolonging the vase life of the cut gerbera flowers. A 9% increase in calcium ions (Ca2+) was detected in the CaCl2-treated flowers compared to the control flowers. Additionally, the pectin content increased by up to 14% in the CaCl2-treated flowers as compared to that in the control. Pectins are the main polysaccharides of cell walls that impact plant tissue integrity and rigidity, with calcium ions acting as bonds for pectin crosslinking. Calcium treatment efficiently increased the content of total pectin in the cell walls and slowed the conversion of insoluble pectin (IP) to water-soluble pectin (WSP) during vase life. The results suggest that exogenously applied calcium increases the Ca2+ in cellular tissue and affects the pectin levels, which may aid in increasing the scape hardness by strengthening the calcium–pectin combination in cell walls.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060523
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 524: Microbiology and Quality Attributes of
           ‘Pione’ Grapes Stored in Passive and Active MAP

    • Authors: Kiyoshi Sato, Hidemi Izumi
      First page: 524
      Abstract: The quality of ‘Pione’ grapes was evaluated during passive and active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) storage. In the passive MAP study, ‘Pione’ grapes were packaged in two types of films with an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of either 440 mL/m2/d/atm (low OTR) or 1250 mL/m2/d/atm (high OTR) and stored at 25 °C or 10 °C. When the CO2 concentration in low and high-OTR films stored at 25 °C reached 10% and 3%, respectively, on day 2, grape berries showed lower bacterial counts in the low-OTR films than in the high-OTR films. At 10 °C, the packages approached an equilibrium of 12% CO2 in low-OTR films and 7% CO2 in high-OTR films during 8 days of storage, and no difference was observed in the bacterial counts between the two films. In an active MAP study, ‘Pione’ grapes were stored in low-OTR (440 mL/m2/d/atm) and high-OTR (1170 mL/m2/d/atm) films flushed with air or high CO2 (10%, 20%, and 30%) at 10 °C for 8 days. The CO2 concentration in active MAP with low-OTR films reached approximately 20% by the end of storage, while that with high-OTR films approached an equilibrium of 10% CO2 after 4 days of storage. The bacterial counts remained below the limit of detection until 4 days of storage in active MAP with high-OTR films. Although the fungal counts of berries were non-detectable or below the limit of detection in all active MAPs, Alternaria and Candida fungi and Chryseobacterium and Cutibacterium bacteria were found in the berries stored in active MAP. The firmness, soluble solid content, and surface color of the berries were not affected, regardless of the film type, in both passive and active MAP, and rachis browning due to high-CO2 injury was not observed in any samples in active MAP. These results indicate that passive MAP with low-OTR films or active MAP of 10–20% CO2 with high-OTR films at 10 °C were the optimum packing systems for ‘Pione’ grapes to control the physical and microbiological quality without high-CO2 injury, such as rachis browning.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060524
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 525: Nitrogen Fertigation Rate and Foliar
           Urea Spray Affect Plant Growth, Nitrogen, and Carbohydrate Compositions of
           Encore Azalea ‘Chiffon’ Grown in Alternative Containers

    • Authors: Tongyin Li, Xiaojie Zhao, Guihong Bi, T. Casey Barickman, Richard L. Harkess
      First page: 525
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the plant vegetative growth, flower production, nitrogen (N) concentration, and carbohydrate compositions of Encore® azalea ‘Chiffon’ when fertigated with five N rates—0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mM N—and grown in two types of containers, a black plastic and a biodegradable container, during one growing season. Foliar urea of 3% was applied to half of the plants in late fall to investigate its effect on plant N and carbohydrate concentrations. The paper biocontainers resulted in superior plant growth, increased plant size, dry weights, root length and surface area compared with the plastic containers with N rates of 10, 15, and 20 mM. The paper biocontainers also increased N uptake and carbohydrate concentrations mainly by increasing plant biomass. High N rates of 10 to 20 mM combined with urea spray and biocontainers generally resulted in the highest plant N concentrations. Foliar urea application in late fall tended to increase plant N concentration but decreased carbohydrates, including starch, glucose, fructose, and sucrose, to varying degrees, likely due to increased N assimilation. Fall foliar urea spray can be effective in improving the N status of azalea plants without affecting plant biomass.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060525
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 526: Vertical Greenery as Natural Tool for
           Improving Energy Efficiency of Buildings

    • Authors: Carlo Alberto Campiotti, Lorenzo Gatti, Alessandro Campiotti, Luciano Consorti, Patrizia De Rossi, Carlo Bibbiani, Rosario Muleo, Arianna Latini
      First page: 526
      Abstract: The European Construction Sector Observatory outlined that green building envelopes as green roofs and walls contribute to the reduction of energy demand and CO2 emissions due to the air conditioning in summer periods, and the mitigation of heat islands in urban areas. For this reason, the understanding about the contribution of urban greening infrastructures on buildings to sustainable energy use for air conditioning is urgent. This paper focuses on the analysis of a vertical surface provided with a Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch., a winter deciduous species, as green cover of a building, assessing the reduction of the solar radiation energy absorbed by the façade and, consequently, the heat flux (HF) transmitted into the internal ambient. This research shows that, in July, surface temperatures (STs) on the vegetated façade were up to 13 °C lower than on the unvegetated (bare) façade. Under the climate and environmental conditions of the green wall located at ENEA Casaccia Research Center, a saving of 2.22 and 1.94 kWhe/m2, respectively in 2019 and 2020, for the summer cooling electricity load, was achieved. These energy reductions also allowed the saving of 985 and 862 g CO2/m2 emissions, respectively, in 2019 and 2020. Ultimately, a green factor named Kv* was also elaborated to evaluate the influence of vegetation on the STs as well as on HFs transmitted into the indoor ambient and adapted to the case of a detached vertical green cover. Measurements of Kv* factor lasting three years showed the suitability of this index for defining the shading capacity of the vegetation on the building façade surfaces, which can be used to predict thermal gains and effects in a building endowed of a vertical green system.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060526
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 527: Successional Effects of No-Till Cover
           Cropping with Black Oat (Avena strigosa) vs. Soil Solarization on Soil
           Health in a Tropical Oxisol

    • Authors: Josiah Marquez, Roshan Paudel, Brent S. Sipes, Koon-Hui Wang
      First page: 527
      Abstract: Black oat (Avena strigosa) is a cover crop with great potential for weed suppression and erosion control while conserving soil moisture. Little is known about the potential of black oat for enhancing the soil food web structure and the ecosystem services in tropical Oxisols. Two-year field trials were conducted in Hawaii to compare three pre-plant treatments: (1) black oat (BO) as a pre-plant cover crop followed by no-till practice (previously managed by cover crop and cash crop rotation and conservation tillage for 7 years); (2) bare ground (BG) followed by conventional tillage (previously managed by conventional tillage and cash crop planting for 7 years); (3) conventional tilling of bare ground followed by soil solarization (SOL) (previously fallow with weeds for 5 years then summer solarization and cash crop planting for 2 years). Various soil properties and the soil food web structure using nematodes as soil health indicators were monitored throughout the subsequent corn (Zea mays) crops. SOL served as a negative control pre-plant treatment known to manage plant-parasitic nematodes but be destructive to the soil food web. No-till cropping with BO resulted in higher levels of volumetric soil moisture, field capacity, and soil organic matter, and supported a fungal-dominated decomposition pathway in trial I and more structured nematode communities than BG and SOL in trial II. This study provides evidence that no-till cover cropping with black oat improves the soil water conservation and soil food web structure following a continuous conservation tillage system in tropical Oxisols if the black oat biomass is high (36 tons/ha). However, no-till cropping with BO in Oxisol decreased the soil macroporosity and increased the soil bulk density, which were not favorable outcomes for water infiltration. On the other hand, SOL following conventional tillage was successful in generating lethal temperatures to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and increased water infiltration in both years but was destructive to the soil food web and reduced the soil organic matter and soil moisture in both years, even when solarization failed to generate lethal temperatures in the second year.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060527
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 528: Cloning and Functional Analysis of

    • Authors: Keke Fan, Yanjun Ma, Yanting Chang, Xiaomeng Hu, Wenbo Zhang, Yayun Deng, Mengsi Xia, Zehui Jiang, Tao Hu
      First page: 528
      Abstract: Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis M.Roem. (Chinese Narcissus) is a traditional and famous flower in China, and its corona shows a transition from green to yellow with the opening of flowers, which is of great ornamental value. To investigate the molecular mechanism of the corona color-forming in the Chinese Narcissus, in this study, a MYB gene was screened from the transcriptome of the corona by bioinformatics analysis methods, named NtMYB9. The expression level of the NtMYB9 gene was significantly higher in the corona than in the tepal, filament, ovary and leaf, and reached the highest level at the fourth period of complete coloration of the corona. The full-length sequence of the NtMYB9 coding region was cloned using the corona cDNA as a template. Sequence analysis revealed that NtMYB9 protein contained R2 and R3 domains, phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the NtMYB9 protein was most closely related to flavonol activators. Subcellular localization showed that NtMYB9 was localized in the nucleus. The overexpression of NtMYB9 gene into tobacco leaves and the expression level of seven enzyme genes related to the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were significantly up-regulated. The transient transformation of Petunia × hybrida (Petunia) and Phalaenopsis aphrodite (Phalaenopsis) significantly revealed that the NtMYB9 gene could turn flowers yellow. These results suggest that the NtMYB9 gene is involved in the positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in the Chinese Narcissus and may promote the synthesis of flavonols. In conclusion, these findings provide a valuable resource for further studies on the regulatory mechanism of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and they are also beneficial to the molecular breeding of Chinese Narcissus.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060528
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 529: Dynamic Changes of Fruit Physiological
           Quality and Sugar Components during Fruit Growth and Development of
           Actinidia eriantha

    • Authors: Junjie Tao, Mengting Wu, Xudong Jiao, Shuangshuang Chen, Dongfeng Jia, Xiaobiao Xu, Chunhui Huang
      First page: 529
      Abstract: ‘Ganlv 1’ is a new cultivar of Actinidia eriantha selected from the wild natural population, which has the advantages of moderate taste, high yield, easy peeling and high ascorbic acid (AsA) content. In this study, ‘Ganlv 1’ was used to explore the changes in fruit quality, soluble sugar components, sucrose metabolism-related enzymes activities and sucrose metabolism-related enzyme genes’ expression during the fruit’s development. The results showed that, except for AsA, the changes in the fruit quality index and fruit growth and development during the development of ‘Ganlv 1’ basically exhibited the same trend. The fruit shape index was different in the different development stages of the fruit, and tended to be stable with fruit growth and development. The dynamic changes of the dry matter content indicated that the best time for fruit harvest was about 160 days after full bloom. The main sugar components in the fruit were fructose, glucose and sucrose, and sucrose and glucose were the main sugars in the soft-ripening stage. The trend of sucrose accumulation, the activities of the sucrose metabolism-related enzymes and the expression of the sucrose metabolism-related genes indicated that 130–145 days after full bloom (DAFB) might be the critical period of sucrose metabolism. The results are of great significance for clarifying the developmental characteristics and dynamic changes in the sugar components in A. eriantha fruits, and lay a foundation for further studying of the mechanism of sugar metabolism in A. eriantha.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060529
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 530: Evolution of Oleuropein and Other
           Bioactive Compounds in Arbequina Olive Leaves under Different Agronomic

    • Authors: María Esther Martínez-Navarro, Cristina Cebrián-Tarancón, María Rosario Salinas, Gonzalo L. Alonso
      First page: 530
      Abstract: Oleuropein and other phenolic compounds contained in olive leaves give it the potential to be transformed from residue to co-product in an oil mill. However, the moment of the agronomic cycle in which their potential transformation is higher is not known in detail. Therefore, for the first time, a monthly study of the evolution of such compounds throughout an agronomic cycle is made (November 2019 to October 2020). Arbequina olive leaves were collected from three plots and the interactive effects of agronomic conditions were investigated, such as crop management (conventional and ecological), plantation framework (intensive and super-intensive) and location under different climatic conditions. The results showed that the main compound throughout the cycle was oleuropein and the highest levels occurred around the pruning season (February/March). Crop management and location affected the content of verbascoside and hydroxytyrosol, while plantation framework only influenced the flavonoid content. All compounds were affected by relative humidity and differential temperature, although hydroxytyrosol showed the highest correlation with the maximum temperature. The absorbance measurements by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry showed trends parallel to the oleuropein concentration measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, which suggests that this method could be useful to easily study the evolution of oleuropein in the oil mill.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060530
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 531: Effects of Cold Temperature and
           Acclimation on Cold Tolerance and Cannabinoid Profiles of Cannabis sativa
           L. (Hemp)

    • Authors: Andrei Galic, Heather Grab, Nicholas Kaczmar, Kady Maser, William B. Miller, Lawrence B. Smart
      First page: 531
      Abstract: Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a multi-use crop garnering newfound attention from researchers and consumers. While interest has emerged, a lack of substantiated research still exists regarding effects of adverse weather events on physiological health and secondary metabolite production of hemp. The aim of this experiment was to assess cold tolerance of hemp using the cultivars ‘FINOLA’ and ‘AutoCBD’. Effects of cultivar, plant age, cold acclimation, frequency of cold treatments, and intensity of cold treatments were all considered in regard to their influence on physiological stress, biomass, and cannabinoid profile. Few effects of sequential cold treatments were noted, and they were not moderated by cold acclimation, which tended to have negative effects across many responses. This detrimental effect of cold acclimation conditions was further observed in decreased total CBD % and total THC % compared to non-acclimated plants. These findings bear consideration when assessing the unpredictability of a changing climate’s effects on the heath and cannabinoid profile of hemp.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060531
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 532: Chrysanthemum CmHSP90.5 as a Tool
           to Regulate Heat and Salt Stress Tolerance

    • Authors: Xinhui Wang, Jianpeng Wu, Yue Wang, Yuhan Jiang, Fei Li, Yu Chen, Jiafu Jiang, Likai Wang, Zhiyong Guan, Fadi Chen, Sumei Chen
      First page: 532
      Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles in various stress conditions. In this study, CmHSP90.5, whose expression is induced by heat and salt, was cloned from a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) ‘Jinba’ and expressed in Arabidopsis. We found that CmHSP90.5 localized in the chloroplast. The heterologous expression of CmHSP90.5 weakened the heat tolerance of Arabidopsis and reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), indicating that CmHSP90.5-mediated heat stress sensitivity may be partially due to the regulation of active oxygen cleavage. The levels of expression of AtHSP101, AtHSP15.7, and AtHSP17.6C in CmHSP90.5-overexpressing plants decreased compared with those in wild-type (WT) plants under heat stress, indicating that these HSPs and CmHSP90.5 coregulate a plant’s heat stress tolerance. In addition, the salt stress tolerance of the CmHSP90.5-overexpressing Arabidopsis decreased compared with that of WT plants; CmHSP90.5-overexpressing plants showed increased Na+ levels and decreased K+ and proline levels compared with those of WT plants. Interestingly, the expression of stress-related genes, such as the Na+/H+ antiporter encoding gene SOS1, high-affinity K+ transporter encoding gene HKT1;1, and proline synthesis gene AtP5CS1, decreased in CmHSP90.5-overexpressing plants under salt stress compared with those expressions in WT plants. Our findings lay a foundation for understanding the roles of CmHSP90.5 in response to abiotic stresses in chrysanthemum.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060532
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 533: The Link between Mineral Elements
           Variation and Internal Flesh Breakdown of ‘Keitt’ Mango in a
           Steep Slope Mountain Area, Southwest China

    • Authors: Xiaowei Ma, Jianfang Wang, Muqing Su, Bin Liu, Bang Du, Yuehua Zhang, Liping He, Songbiao Wang, Hongxia Wu
      First page: 533
      Abstract: Internal flesh breakdown (IFB), a serious physiological disorder of mango fruit, causes significant economic losses in Southwest China. We investigated the extent of IFB in 100 mango orchards and how changes in the mineral nutrients of fruit flesh, leaves and soil affect IFB. We found that 76% of the mango orchards showed IFB symptoms, and the average IFB incidence was 10%. Fruit flesh with IFB showed higher average contents of N, P, K and Mg, lower average Ca content and higher average ratios of N/Ca, K/Ca and Mg/Ca. The leaves from orchards with IFB symptoms exhibited a remarkable increase in the average N and Mg contents. No significant difference was observed in the soil nutrient concentrations between orchards with and without IFB fruit. IFB incidence was significantly positively correlated with the N/Ca, K/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in the fruit flesh. However, when considering individual orchards with IFB symptoms, fruit flesh that exhibited breakdown symptoms had Ca content higher, lower than or equal to that of the healthy fruit flesh. There was a strong correlation between fruit flesh and leaf in the same mineral elements, but neither of them showed a significant correlation with soil. Considering the mango trees were cultivated on steep slopes, and fertilizer was applied at a fixed position, we hypothesized that long-term fertilization in the partial root zone led to the excess of N, K and Mg in soil, which reduced the total flesh Ca content or resulted in the abnormal cellular distribution of Ca in the flesh, and ultimately triggered IFB development.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060533
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 534: Influence of Vermicompost Application on
           the Growth of Vinca rosea valiant, Pelargonium peltatum L. and Pegasus
           patio rose

    • Authors: Aslihan Esringü, Metin Turan, Svetlana Sushkova, Tatiana Minkina, Vishnu D. Rajput, Alexey Glinushkin, Valery Kalinitchenko
      First page: 534
      Abstract: Vermicompost (VC) is a nutrient-rich material that is mixed with soil, and it is used in this study. Four different environments were created such as control (Soil:VC:100–0%), mix one (Soil:VC:70–30% w/w), mix two (Soil:VC:50–50% w/w), and mix three (Soil:VC:40:60% w/w), and three well-developed roses (Vinca rosea valiant, Pelargonium peltatum, Pegasus patio) seedlings were transferred to individual pots. Plant growth parameters, i.e., the number of flowers, plant height, stem diameter, chlorophyll reading value, fresh flower weight, and flower dry weight height, were compared with respect to control seedlings. The improvement in the number of flowers, plant height, stem diameter, chlorophyll reading value, fresh flower weight, and flower dry weight height by 264, 71, 58, 255, and 193% for Vinca rosea valiant rosea, 138, 12, 160, 13, 55 and 112% for P. patio rose, and 50, 14, 23, 8, 61, and 41% for P. peltatum, respectively, grown in soil mixed with VC as compared to control. As a result of the research, the optimum growth parameter values and chlorophyll Meter SPAD values were obtained from the mix-three mediums for all three roses species. These results showed that 40% soil and 60% VC application could be proposed as the most effective medium in ornamental plant production.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060534
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 535: Endophytic Yeasts for the Biocontrol of
           Phlyctema vagabunda in Apples

    • Authors: Ximena Sepúlveda, Diego Silva, Ricardo Ceballos, Silvana Vero, María Dolores López, Marisol Vargas
      First page: 535
      Abstract: Bull’s-eye rot, produced by Phlyctema vagabunda, is an important postharvest disease in apples. Current measures to control infection include synthetic fungicides, in addition to the application of copper hydroxide and potassium phosphite. However, growing public concern regarding fungicide residues in food has generated interest in developing non-chemical alternative control methods; biological control is one of the most promising alternatives. In this research, native endophytic yeasts were isolated and evaluated for the biocontrol of P. vagabunda in apples. The mechanisms of action involved were also determined. Our research found 2 isolates, Vishniacozyma victoriae EPL4.5 and EPL29.5, which exhibited biocontrol activity against P. vagabunda at 20 °C in apples, the incidence of bull’s-eye rot was reduced by 39% and 61%, respectively, and the severity of the disease was decreased by 67% and 70%, respectively, when apples were inoculated with these yeasts 24 h before applying the pathogen. The main mechanisms that could be involved in the observed biocontrol activity are the ability to form biofilms and the production of volatile organic compounds.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060535
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 536: Evaluation of Suitable
           Water–Zeolite Coupling Regulation Strategy of Tomatoes with
           Alternate Drip Irrigation under Mulch

    • Authors: Xiaolan Ju, Tao Lei, Xianghong Guo, Xihuan Sun, Juanjuan Ma, Ronghao Liu, Ming Zhang
      First page: 536
      Abstract: The water (W; W50, W75, and W100)–zeolite (Z; Z0, Z3, Z6 and Z9) coupling (W-Z) regulation strategy of high-quality and high-yield tomato was explored with alternate drip irrigation under mulch. Greenhouse planting experiments were used in monitoring and analyzing tomato growth, physiology, yield, quality, and water use efficiency (WUE). Suitable amounts of W and Z for tomato growth were determined through the principal component analysis (PCA) method. Results showed that tomato plant height (Ph), stem thickness (St), root indexes, leaf area index (LAI), photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), organic acid (OA), and yield showed a positive response to W, whereas nitrate (NC), vitamin C (VC), soluble solid (SS), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), fruit firmness (Ff), and WUE showed the opposite trend. The responses of Ci and Ff to Z were first negative and then positive, whereas the responses of other indexes to Z showed an opposite trend (except yield under W50). The effects of W, Z, and W-Z on tomato growth, physiological, and quality indexes and yield were as follows: W > Z > W-Z; the effects on WUE were as follows: Z > W > W-Z. The two principal components of growth factor and water usage factor were extracted, and the cumulative variance contribution rate reached 93.831%. Under different treatments for tomato growth, the comprehensive evaluation score F was between −1.529 and 1.295, the highest treated with Z6W100, the lowest treated with Z0W50. The PCA method showed that under the condition of alternate drip irrigation under mulch, the most suitable W for tomato planting was 100% E (E is the water surface evaporation), and the amount of Z was 6 t·ha−1.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060536
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 537: Analyses of Pepper Cinnamoyl-CoA
           Reductase Gene Family and Cloning of CcCCR1/2 and Their Function
           Identification in the Formation of Pungency

    • Authors: Dan Wu, Miao Ni, Xin Lei, Liping Zhang, Wei Zhang, Huangying Shu, Zhiwei Wang, Jie Zhu, Shanhan Cheng, Pingwu Liu, Honghao Lv, Limei Yang
      First page: 537
      Abstract: Cinnamoyl-CoA reductases (CCR) have a possible role in pungency formation of pepper because they can convert feruloyl-CoA, sinapoyl-CoA, and p-coumaroyl-CoA into lignin, which are also competitive precursors of capsaicin biosynthesis in phenylpropanoid metabolism. In this study, genome-wide CCR gene family, exon–intron structures, sequence homology, phylogenetic characterization, and promoters were analyzed in pepper. Two CCR genes were cloned from Capsicum chinense, their enzymic kinetic parameters and regulatory function were identified by heterologous expression, ectopic expression, and VIGS. In total, 38 genes were found as predicted CCRs or CCR-like proteins and were composed of 2–10 exons. The promoters of pepper CCRs contained growth, stress, hormone, and light-response elements. The affinity and catalytic efficiency of CcCCR1/2 to feruolyl-CoA was the highest. The analysis of metabolic substances showed that capsaicin content was negatively correlated with lignin and positively correlated with flavonoids. The highest expression of CcCCR1 was found in stems, the higher expression of CcCCR2 was found in stem and early fruit than other organs. CCR1, 2 had certain effects on capsaicin content by regulating related enzyme activity, CCR2 played a more important role in regulating pungency formation. Our results clarify the competitive mechanism between lignin and capsaicin biosynthesis and provide an explanation for spice regulation.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060537
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 538: Effects of Different Nozzle Orifice
           Shapes on Water Droplet Characteristics for Sprinkler Irrigation

    • Authors: Lin Hua, Yue Jiang, Hong Li, Longtan Qin
      First page: 538
      Abstract: In common irrigation systems, sprinklers are mounted with circular nozzles, but innovative noncircular nozzles can save water and energy by improving fragmentation in a low–intermediate pressure irrigation system. In order to investigate the effects of nozzle orifice shapes (circular, square, and equilateral triangular) on droplet characteristics, experiments using high-speed photography and water droplet spectrum measurement were performed. Using ImageJ to observe with the overlapped droplets and using the self-compiled programs of MATLAB to observe the morphology of droplets, we extracted the outlines of droplets. In addition, several empirical formulas for the prediction of droplets were obtained by way of a regression analysis of the experimental data. In particular, the shape coefficient of the nozzle orifice and the operating pressure of the nozzle were added to these formulas as variable factors to make them applicable to a variety of nozzles and working conditions. The results show that with the increase in shape coefficient, the jet atomization intensifies, and the droplets breaking from the jet will be dense and uniform. The velocity distribution of the droplets conforms to exponential functions (R2 > 0.7). The prediction formulas of diameter and kinetic energy were established with coefficients of determination exceeding 0.95. In low pressure conditions, the specific power multiplies at the end of spraying, and the maximum is proportional to the nozzle orifice coefficient. The impact-driven arm compensates for the disadvantage of the noncircular nozzles with the high irrigation-specific power, by producing a wider diameter gradient of droplets. Therefore, innovative sprinklers based on noncircular nozzles can be applied in a low–intermediate pressure system to increase water use efficiency, reduce energy consumption, and reduce costs.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060538
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 539: Quantitatively Unravelling the Impact of
           High Altitude on Oolong Tea Flavor from Camellia sinensis Grown on the
           Plateaus of Tibet

    • Authors: Peifen Chen, Jiarong Cai, Peng Zheng, Yugui Yuan, Wugyan Tsewang, Yuchun Chen, Xi Xiao, Jinmei Liao, Binmei Sun, Shaoqun Liu
      First page: 539
      Abstract: The plateaus of Tibet have a unique climate that poses a great challenge for local agriculture. To promote sustainable development in Tibet, an elite tea variety has been introduced. However, the modifications of tea flavors in response to the climate of the plateaus are unknown. In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other taste substances of tea planted in its original location (OOT) and in Tibet (TOT) were systematically analyzed and compared. The volatile components in TOT and OOT showed a slight difference, and principal component analysis revealed that the characteristic aroma compounds distinguishing tea grown in Tibet from tea grown in Guangdong were hotrienol and benzyl alcohol. In terms of taste substances, TOT exhibited higher levels of water extractable compounds, including polyphenols and amino acids, but lower levels of caffeine than OOT, which implies that TOT may taste better than OOT. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the changes in aroma and flavor profiles of tea induced by high altitude systematically, which will provide a basis for reference during the introduction and cultivation of tea crops to the plateaus of Tibet.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060539
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 540: The Subunit Nto1 of the NuA3 Complex Is
           Associated with Conidiation, Oxidative Stress Response, and Pathogenicity
           in Fusarium oxysporum

    • Authors: Erfeng Li, Jiling Xiao, Yuhong Yang, Bingyan Xie, Zhenchuan Mao
      First page: 540
      Abstract: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (FOC) is the dominant pathogen of vascular wilt disease on cabbage and other crucifers. Foc-Nto1 was confirmed to be the homologous protein of Nto1, a subunit of the NuA3 (nucleosomal acetyltransferase of histone H3) complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOC contains two races, race 1 and race 2. The functions of Nto1 in both races were investigated through functional genetics analyses. The Nto1-deleted mutants were decreased in conidium production and displayed increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. These mutants also had reduced virulence on cabbage. The study provided evidence that Nto1 is a potential metabolic- and pathogenic-related factor in F. oxysporum.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060540
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 541: Evaluation of Electrostatic Spraying
           Equipment in a Greenhouse Pepper Crop

    • Authors: Julián Sánchez-Hermosilla, José Pérez-Alonso, Patricio Martínez-Carricondo, Fernando Carvajal-Ramírez, Francisco Agüera-Vega
      First page: 541
      Abstract: Greenhouse vegetable production is of great importance in southern Europe. It is a cultivation system characterised by a high planting density and environmental conditions that favour the development of pests and diseases. Although alternatives to chemical pest and disease control have been used over recent years in greenhouse crops, it is still mostly plant protection products that are used to protect crops and prevent crop losses. Hand-held spraying equipment is mainly used to apply plant protection products to this type of crop. This equipment is technologically basic, offering low deposition efficiency in the plant canopy, high losses to the ground, and a high risk of worker exposure. In this context, it is important to utilise technologies that reduce the problems associated with using the conventional hand-held sprayers in greenhouses. This study evaluated the deposition and uniformity in the plant canopy and the losses to the ground when applying plant protection products with an electrostatic hand-held sprayer; the results were then compared with applications carried out using a conventional hand-held sprayer. For this purpose, a colorimetric method has been used based on the application of a tartrazine solution. The tests showed that the electrostatic spraying equipment increased the plant canopy deposition by 1.48 times that of the hand-held spray gun, resulting in a 48% reduction in the application rate. There was also a 1.78-times increase in deposition on the underside of the leaves and a 36.36% reduction in losses to the ground. In general, the electrostatic hand-held sprayer improves the effectiveness of the plant canopy deposition and reduces losses to the ground compared to the hand-held spray gun commonly used in pest and disease control.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060541
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 542: Effects of Edaphic Fertilization and
           Foliar Application of Se and Zn Nanoparticles on Yield and Bioactive
           Compounds in Malus domestica L.

    • Authors: Anay Montaño-Herrera, Yair Olovaldo Santiago-Saenz, César Uriel López-Palestina, Gregorio Cadenas-Pliego, Zeus H. Pinedo-Guerrero, Alma Delia Hernández-Fuentes, José Manuel Pinedo-Espinoza
      First page: 542
      Abstract: In this study, we evaluated the effects of edaphic fertilization with N, P, and K (150-50-80, 100-60-60, and without edaphic fertilization (SFE)) and foliar fertilization with nanoparticles (NPs) of Se and Zn (Se: 50 ppm, Zn: 250 ppm, and no nanoparticles (NP0)) on the yield and antioxidant compounds of apple fruits. We conducted this study in a 20-year-old commercial orchard. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design of nine treatments. The treatments with fertilization doses of 150-50-80 and 100-60-60, supplemented with Se and Zn NPs, generally increased the yield, sugar content, and ascorbic acid of the apple fruits. The SFE + NPZn treatment produced the highest increase (+193% compared with the control) in fruit yield. The SFE + NPSe and SFE + NPZn treatments led to higher contents of phenols and flavonoids, with maximum values of 7.6 mg GAE and 15.82 mg QE per gram of dry weight. These compounds presented a direct correlation with the antioxidant activity in the fruits. The foliar application of Se and Zn nanoparticles supplemented the soil fertilization with N, P, and K to improve the yield and bioactive-compound synthesis of the apple fruits.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060542
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 543: An Electrostatic Pest Exclusion Strategy
           for Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation

    • Authors: Koji Kakutani, Yoshinori Matsuda, Teruo Nonomura, Hideyoshi Toyoda
      First page: 543
      Abstract: Electrostatic devices generating an electric field (EF) are promising tools for greenhouse tomato cultivation. In these devices, an EF is generated in the space surrounding an insulated conductor (IC) that is charged by a voltage generator. Thus, a physical force is exerted on any insect that enters the EF, as a negatively charged IC (NC-IC) pushes a negative charge (free electrons) out of the insect body. The insect is polarized positively to be attracted to the NC-IC, and a grounded metal net (G-MN) repels the insect. This dual function of the apparatus (insect capture and repulsion) is the core of the electrostatic pest-exclusion strategy. In this study, we applied various innovative EF-based devices to evaluate their efficacy in greenhouse tomato cultivation. Our objective was to determine the optimal apparatus for simple, inexpensive construction by greenhouse workers. The results of this study will contribute to the development of sustainable pest-management protocols in greenhouse horticulture.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060543
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 544: The Influence of Harvest Moment and
           Cultivar on Variability of Some Chemical Constituents and Antiradical
           Activity of Dehydrated Chokeberry Pomace

    • Authors: Ivona Enescu Mazilu, Loredana Elena Vîjan, Sina Cosmulescu
      First page: 544
      Abstract: This paper’s aim was to study how the antioxidant activity and the level of certain phenolic complexes and carotenoids vary in the pomace obtained from the fruits of two cultivars of chokeberry at different times of harvest after reaching the stage of maturity. The influence of the cultivar, harvest moment, and the combined effect of these two factors on the antioxidant activity and the dehydrated pomace content in components with antioxidant potentials, such as total phenolics, total tannins, total flavonoids, lycopene, and β-carotene was analyzed. The methanolic extract from the pomace obtained from the ‘Melrom’ cultivar had the highest efficiency (92.14 ± 5.02%). The antiradical activity of the pomace was maximal (93.27 ± 4.32%) after the middle of the harvest season (3 September). The pomace obtained from the ‘Nero’ cultivar displayed superior levels of phenolic content (13,030.16 ± 1414.46 mg/100 g), flavonoids (4627.83 ± 509.63 mg CE/100 g), tannins (7458.56 ± 529.43 mg/100 g), and lycopene (1.171 ± 0.388 mg/100 g). The ‘Melrom’ cultivar presented superior content of β-carotene (0.313 ± 0.07 mg/100 g). On average, a positive significant correlation between radical scavenging activity with total phenolic content and β-carotene was observed. The combined cultivar × harvest moment effect was reflected in the variations in the total tannins content and the total flavonoid content, but also in the antiradical activity of the methanolic extracts. Dehydrated pomace from chokeberry fruit can be an important source of antioxidant biological compounds and can be used to make innovative foods.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060544
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 545: Surface Moisture Induces Microcracks and
           Increases Water Vapor Permeance of Fruit Skins of Mango cv. Apple

    • Authors: Thomas O. Athoo, Andreas Winkler, Willis O. Owino, Moritz Knoche
      First page: 545
      Abstract: Exposure to surface moisture triggers cuticular microcracking of the fruit skin. In mango fruit cv. apple, microcracking compromises postharvest performance by increasing moisture loss and infections with pathogens. This study reports the effects of exposing the fruit’s skin to surface moisture on the incidence of microcracking and on water vapor permeance. Microcracking was quantified microscopically following infiltration with a fluorescent tracer. Water mass loss was determined gravimetrically. Moisture exposure increased cuticular microcracking and permeance. During moisture exposure, permeance increased over the first 4 d, remained constant up to approximately 8 d, then decreased for longer exposure times. Fruit development followed a sigmoid growth pattern. The growth rate peaked approximately 103 days after full bloom. This coincided with the peak in moisture-induced microcracking. There were no increases in water vapor permeance or in microcracking in control fruit that remained dry. When experimental moisture exposure was terminated, microcracking and water vapor permeance decreased. This suggests a repair process restoring the barrier properties of the fruit skin. Histological analyses reveal a periderm forms in the hypodermis beneath a microcrack. Our study demonstrates that surface moisture induces microcracking in mango cv. apple that increases the skin’s water vapor permeance and induces russeting.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060545
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 546: Effect of Foaming Conditions on Foam
           Properties and Drying Behavior of Powder from Magenta (Peristrophe
           roxburghiana) Leaves Extracts

    • Authors: Nguyen Minh Thuy, Vo Quoc Tien, Ngo Van Tai, Vo Quang Minh
      First page: 546
      Abstract: In manufacturing food powders, foam-mat drying provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional drying methods. This study aimed to select the foaming conditions which support the subsequent drying of Magenta leaves extract. In the initial stage, concentrations of egg albumin (5 to 15%) as a foaming agent, xanthan gum as foam stabilizer (0.1 to 0.5%), and whipping time (2 to 8 min) were designed. Multiple regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (expansion volume and foam density) and three independent variables as an indicator of foaming capacity and foam stability. The multiple response optimization was applied to optimize the foam density and volume expansion. The optimum foam density (0.25 g/mL) and foam volume expansion (298.12%) were obtained at the optimum egg albumin and xanthan gum concentrations, and whipping time at 12.21%, 0.24%, and 5.8 min, respectively, indicating a stable foam structure. Experimental moisture loss data are fitted for five selected drying models. The mathematical models were compared according to three statistical parameters, such as coefficient of determination (R2), chi-square (χ2), and root mean square error (RMSE). Among the five mathematical models tested with experimental data, the Page model could be applied to describe the foam-mat drying process of magenta leaves extract. The highest value of R2 (99.54%), the lowest value of χ2 (0.0007), and RMSE (0.0253) were observed for a air drying temperature of 60 °C. The effect of temperature on diffusion is described by the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy of 100.21 kJ/mol. Effective moisture diffusion values ranged from 2.27 × 10−10 to 6.71 × 10−10 m2/s as the temperature increased. The effect of drying conditions on anthocyanin changes of magenta leaves powder was compared. The results showed that the highest quality of the sample was observed when the sample was dried at 60 °C.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060546
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 547: Antioxidant Properties of Tomato Fruit
           (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) as Affected by Cultivar and Processing

    • Authors: Annia Gonzalez Rivero, Anna J. Keutgen, Elke Pawelzik
      First page: 547
      Abstract: Tomatoes are the most consumed vegetables worldwide and a valuable source of several antioxidants. The consumption of tomato products from appropriate cultivars after suitable processing methods may significantly improve human diet. The purpose of this study was investigating the variations in the contents of the main antioxidants present in tomato fruits, in the new Cuban breeds and yellow varieties, as well as their changes during the processing to tomato puree and ketchup. The quality evaluation comprised the detection of lycopene, ascorbic acid and total phenolics and the analysis of their contribution to antioxidant capacity in selected tomato genotypes. Heating (90–100 °C/15 min) enhanced the content of lycopene and total phenolics in puree, resulting in an increment in antioxidant capacity, despite the reduction in ascorbic acid as a result of concentration processes. The conducted experiments revealed that cultivars ‘Vyta’ and ‘Cima’ are very suitable for industrial purposes due to their high dry-matter content of more than 9% fresh mass and high biological value. With respect to serving size, the best sources of antioxidants are fresh tomatoes, followed closely by tomato puree, irrespective of cultivar. However, the differences are mainly due to the edible portion size (200 g for fresh tomatoes and 60 mL for puree, respectively).
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060547
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 548: A One-Step Polyphenol Removal Approach
           for Detection of Multiple Phytohormones from Grape Berry

    • Authors: Xuechen Yao, Nongyu Xia, Xiao Meng, Changqing Duan, Qiuhong Pan
      First page: 548
      Abstract: Phytohormones play an important role in regulating the maturation process and the quality-related metabolite accumulation of fruits, and their concentration variation has always been concerned during fruit development. However, berry fruits, such as grape berries, are rich in a large number of secondary metabolites, which brings great challenges to the isolation and determination of hormones. In this work, we used grapes as experimental materials and proposed a solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocol to efficiently isolate multiple hormones from phenol-rich matrix using a mixture of dichloromethane, methanol and formic acid as eluent. A highly sensitive method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify a total of 11 plant growth regulators, including the recognized phytohormones, in grape pericarp and seed. The established method showed satisfactory precision (RSD < 11.3%) and linearity (R2 > 0.9980). The limits of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.001–0.75 ng/mL and 0.004–2.5 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery for the three levels of analytes spiked ranged from 63% to 118%, and the matrix effect was between 73% and 119%. Finally, the proposed method was applied to investigate the dynamic hormone concentration in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from different vineyards, and assess the changes in endogenous hormones in grapes after treatment with exogenous growth regulators. We found that the contents of IP, ABA and IAA in pericarp and IP, IAA, IBA and SA in seed were significantly down-regulated after 10 days of treatment with NAA concentrations of 10 mg/L and 40 mg/L. In conclusion, this method helps to elucidate the role played by phytohormones in the maturation process and the accumulation of quality-related metabolites in phenol-rich fruits.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060548
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 549: Effects of Shaking and Withering
           Processes on the Aroma Qualities of Black Tea

    • Authors: Jiazheng Lin, Zheng Tu, Hongkai Zhu, Lin Chen, Yuwan Wang, Yunfei Yang, Haowei Lv, Yan Zhu, Liaoyuan Yu, Yang Ye
      First page: 549
      Abstract: Combined withering and shaking processes are key steps in the formation of characteristic floral and fruity aromas in black teas. However, the effect of the sequencing of withering and shaking on volatile compounds and aroma formation in black tea has not been evaluated to date. This study used headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect volatile compounds in black teas after withering-shaking and shaking-withering processing. Five main differentially volatile components were screened out by partial least squares discriminant analysis and odor activity value analysis, which were 3-carene, geraniol, β-myrcene, τ-cadinol, and β-ionone. Additionally, sensory evaluation showed black tea produced by withering-shaking was fruitier, while shaking-withering produced a more floral tea. This study provides a theoretical basis for the discrimination of aroma characteristics of black tea processed by shaking, as well as a technical guide for the precise production of black teas with different floral-fruity aroma biases.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060549
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 550: Effects of Rhizobacteria Application on
           Leaf and Fruit Nutrient Content of Different Apple Scion–Rootstock

    • Authors: Ercan Yildiz, Mehmet Yaman, Sezai Ercisli, Ahmet Sumbul, Osman Sonmez, Adem Gunes, Mehmet Ramazan Bozhuyuk, Darius Kviklys
      First page: 550
      Abstract: The plant pomological characteristics and physiological behaviors of genotypes in modern apple cultivation could be different depending on the use of rootstock, changing growth ecology and application of biological control agents. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of rhizobacteria application on leaf and fruit nutrient contents in different apple scion–rootstock combinations. This study was carried out with seven standard cultivars (Scarlet Spur, Red Chief, Fuji, Jeromine, Galaxy Gala, Granny Smith, and Golden Reinders) budded on M.9 and MM.106 rootstocks. In the experiment, trees were sprayed by a nitrogen + phosphorus solvent rhizobacteria three times, with an interval of 15 days in the spring period. The effect of rhizobacteria application on leaf and fruit nutrient contents was statistically significant and provided generally significant positive contributions, except for leaf Mg content. Comparing both rootstocks, the positive effect of bacterial application was higher on the M.9 rootstock for leaf N and B content and fruit N and Fe content, and on the MM.106 rootstock for other nutrient content. While the effects of bacterial application on the basis of cultivars were generally positive, the highest positive contribution was made in leaf P content (10.7%) and fruit Mn content (32.1%) of the Fuji cultivar. Considering the total increase in nutrients in scion–rootstocks combination, rhizobacteria application had a positive effect on the leaf nutrient contents in Golden Reinders/MM.106, but not leaf K content. The highest increases in leaves of scion-rootstock combinations were determined as 4.0% in N content in Granny Smith/M.9, 14.1% in P content in Scarlet Spur/MM.106, 7.1% in K content in Fuji/MM.106, 4.4% in Ca content in Jeromine/M.9, and 14.0% in Mg content in Granny Smith/MM.106. The highest increase in fruit nutrient contents was between 4.9% (N content) and 13.5% (Ca content) for macro elements, and between 9.5% (Cu content) and 41.8% (Mn content) for microelements. The results of the present study may provide significant leads for further studies on this subject.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060550
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 551: Rhizosphere Acidification as the Main
           Trait Characterizing the Differential In Vitro Tolerance to Iron Chlorosis
           in Interspecific Pyrus Hybrids

    • Authors: Claudia Paola Mora-Córdova, Roser Tolrà, Rosa Padilla, Charlotte Poschenrieder, Marie-Helene Simard, Luis Asín, Pere Vilardell, Joan Bonany, Elisabet Claveria, Ramon Dolcet-Sanjuan
      First page: 551
      Abstract: Physiological responses of different interspecific Pyrus hybrids and an open pollinated Pyrus communis ‘Williams’ (Pcw) grown under in vitro culture conditions simulating lime induced chlorosis were studied. The hybrids were derived from crosses between the ‘Pyriam’ pear rootstock and four Pyrus species of the Mediterranean region, namely P. amygdaliformis Vill. (Pa), P. amygdaliformis persica Bornme. (Pap), P. communis cordata (Desv.) Hook. (Pcc), and P. elaeagrifolia Pall (Pe), all known for their higher field tolerance to iron-chlorosis than P. communis. Twenty hybrids and one open pollinated Pcw were micropropagated, and plantlets were in vitro characterized for their physiological responses to iron-deficiency conditions. Rooted plantlets were transferred to a culture medium with 2 µM Fe3+ DTPA and 10 or 20 mM NaHCO3. These physiological responses were scored at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days from the start of the in vitro assay. Leaf total chlorophyll content, the capacity of roots to acidify the medium, reduced iron, and exudates of phenolic acids and organic acids were analyzed in each media and time sample. Leaf chlorophyll levels for the clones derived from Pcc were the highest, especially under the highest bicarbonate concentration, followed by those derived from Pap and Pa. The higher chlorophyll content of Pcc clones were related with their higher capacity to acidify the media but not with their iron reduction capacity at the root level. On the other hand, hybrid clones derived from Pe showed a higher Fe3+ reduction ability than clones from all the other species during the whole assay but only when the bicarbonate concentration was lower. The exudation of phenolic acids by the roots was higher in Pcw than in the other species, and this response might explain why the total chlorophyll levels in Pcw clones are similar to those of Pe and Pa ones. These results with Pyrus spp. bring more evidence in support of the idea that iron reduction capacity at the root level is not directly related with a higher tolerance to iron deficiency caused by the high pH of calcareous soils. Instead, the ability to acidify the rhizosphere is the trait of choice for the selection of the pear hybrid clones better adapted to lime induced chlorosis. In addition, the in vitro assay to select the Pyrus clones for tolerance to iron chlorosis could be shortened to one week of culture in 10 mM NaHCO3, measuring the leaf chlorophyll level, acidification of the culture medium, and exudation of phenolic acids as the physiological responses to predict tolerance to lime-induced chlorosis.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060551
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 552: Trunk Injection as a Tool to Deliver
           Plant Protection Materials—An Overview of Basic Principles and
           Practical Considerations

    • Authors: Leigh Archer, Jonathan H. Crane, Ute Albrecht
      First page: 552
      Abstract: Trunk injection is a targeted delivery of pesticides, insecticides, nutrients, or other plant protection materials into the stem or trunk of woody plants as an alternative to spraying or soil drenching. Trunk injection has historically been used for disease and pest management of high-value forest tree species or ornamental plants when aerial applications are problematic due to spatial problems and health-related concerns. An interest in using the injection technique for protection of agricultural crops in commercial production systems has emerged more recently, where foliar applications and soil drenches have proven ineffective or pose environmental hazards. This review provides an overview of the basic principles of trunk injection and the plant physiological implications, its current use in commercial agriculture and other plant systems, and associated risks.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060552
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 553: Table-Grape Cultivation in Soil-Less
           Systems: A Review

    • Authors: Antonino Pisciotta, Ettore Barone, Rosario Di Di Lorenzo
      First page: 553
      Abstract: Table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered to be one of the most popular fruit crops in the world. Italy is the leading table-grape producer in the EU and is the main European exporting country. However, to stay competitive, new solutions and perspectives, including varietal renovation, are now needed in addition to the already well-established Italian table-grape production lines consisting of conventional open-field cultivation and greenhouse cultivation. One of these new perspectives is represented by the development of table-grape soil-less cultivation systems (TGSC) under greenhouse. In fact, TGSC systems are alleged to offer many advantages in terms of the advancement of berry maturity, extreme varietal flexibility, easier manipulation of the vegetative–reproductive cycle, higher yields of high quality extra-seasonal production, higher sustainability for reduced pesticides application, and higher use efficiency of water and fertilizers than conventional (soil-grown) cultivation. They can be also useful for overcoming soil- and rootstock-related problems. In this review, the opportunities offered by the recently developed table-grape soil-less cultivation systems are thoroughly examined and updated to the latest experimental and application findings of the sector’s research activity. A special emphasis is given to the evolution of the applied technical solutions, varietal choice, and environmental conditions for the aims of table-grape soil-less cultivation.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060553
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 554: Real-Time Detection of the Nutritional
           Compounds in Green ‘Ratuni UNPAD’ Cayenne Pepper

    • Authors: Kusumiyati Kusumiyati, Ine Elisa Putri, Jajang Sauman Hamdani, Diding Suhandy
      First page: 554
      Abstract: The detection of nutritional compounds is usually performed through laboratory analysis, which requires extensive planning, time, cost, and effort. Alternatively, visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy can be used to determine the presence of nutritional compounds in real-time. This study aimed to investigate the potential application of the Vis/NIR spectroscopy in the quantitative detection of nutritional compounds in green ‘Ratuni UNPAD’ cayenne pepper. Prior to the model development, 80 samples were prepared for the calibration set, while another 40 samples were provided for the prediction set. Subsequently, the parameters used to calculate the model accuracy included the coefficient of correlation in calibration set (Rcal), coefficient of correlation in prediction set (Rpred), root mean square error of calibration set (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD). The experimental results involving the total carotenoids showed good model indicators with Rcal, Rpred, RMSEC, RMSEP, and RPD at 0.94, 0.89, 1.29, 1.75, and 2.21, respectively. Additionally, the analysis of the water content indicated Rcal, Rpred, RMSEC, RMSEP, and RPD values of 0.86, 0.85, 0.59, 0.61, and 1.90, respectively, while that of capsaicin had Rcal, Rpred, RMSEC, RMSEP, and RPD values of 0.89, 0.90, 117.82, 115.62, and 2.29, respectively. The results showed that Vis/NIR spectroscopy can be used to detect the nutritional compounds in green ‘Ratuni UNPAD’ cayenne pepper based on total carotenoids, water content, and capsaicin parameters.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060554
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 555: Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory and
           Antioxidant Activities of Mango Fruit by Pre- and Postharvest Application
           of Salicylic Acid

    • Authors: Si Thu Win, Sutthiwal Setha
      First page: 555
      Abstract: Mango fruits have a high nutritional value and are beneficial to health. However, losses frequently occur after harvest, because they are perishable. Salicylic acid (SA) can be used to preserve fruit quality and maintain their nutritional contents. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of applications of 2 mM SA on the physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of mango fruit. For this purpose, mango fruits received preharvest (Pre SA) or postharvest applications of SA (Post SA), or their combination (Pre + Post SA); the fruits were stored at 13 °C for 20 days. Weight loss, decay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were maintained in SA-treated fruit. The Pre + Post SA treatment was superior in delaying fruit ripening, and maintaining lower soluble solids contents and higher total acidity. In addition, total phenolic compounds, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and free radical scavenging activity of anti-inflammatory substances (such as nitric oxide), as well as hyaluronidase inhibition, were higher in the Pre + Post SA treatment throughout storage. Therefore, both pre- and postharvest SA treatments are recommended for preserving the quality of mango fruit, such as Nam Dok Mai Si Thong, and for maintaining their nutritional properties for human health.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060555
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 556: Salicylic Acid Foliar Spray Enhanced
           Silybum marianum Growth and Yield, as Well as Its Chemical Constituents
           and Chalcone Synthase Gene Activity

    • Authors: Salah Khattab, Yun-Kiam Yap, Fadia El Sherif
      First page: 556
      Abstract: Silymarin, a secondary metabolite found mainly in the Silybum marianum L. fruits, has been associated with the hepatoprotective activity of the plant. Among various elicitors, salicylic acid, a “Generally Regarded As Safe” compound recognized by the Food and Drug Administration, is one of those being used in the induction and enhancement of valuable plant secondary metabolite production in various plant species. In this study, two concentrations (10−4 and 10−3 molar) of salicylic acid have been applied to the S. marianum plants as foliar spray to investigate their effects on plant growth and yield, as well as the production of its bioactive compound, silymarin. Our results indicated that both concentrations of salicylic acid increased the plant height, the number of branches, leaves, and capitula, as well as the dried weight of roots, aerial parts, and fruits. The enhancement effects in plant growth and yield were accompanied by an increase in photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll-a, b, and carotenoids as well as element contents such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The potential of salicylic acid as an elicitor for the enhancement of secondary metabolites in S. marianum was supported by the increase in silymarin’s major components, silybin (A + B), in the salicylic acid-treated plants. Concomitant expressions of CHS1, 2, and 3 genes that have been associated with the production of silymarin in S. marianum were also observed in the salicylic acid-treated plants. A lower concentration (10−4 M) of salicylic acid was found to be a better elicitor as compared with the 10−3 M salicylic acid. An increase of 3.4 times in capitula number and fruit dried weight as well as 2.6 times in silybin (A + B) contents were observed in plants sprayed with 10−4 M of salicylic acid as compared with the control.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060556
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 557: Antifungal Activity of Volatile Organic
           Compounds from Bacillus velezensis CE 100 against Colletotrichum

    • Authors: Vantha Choub, Sang-Jae Won, Henry B. Ajuna, Jae-Hyun Moon, Su-In Choi, Hyo-In Lim, Young Sang Ahn
      First page: 557
      Abstract: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the most prevalent phytopathogen, causing anthracnose disease that severely affects the production of various fruit trees, including walnut and jujube. In this study, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Bacillus velezensis CE 100 disrupted the cell membrane integrity of C. gloeosporioides and reduced the spore germination by 36.4% and mycelial growth by 20.0% at a bacterial broth concentration of 10%, while the control group showed no antifungal effect. Based on the headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) analysis, seven VOCs were identified from the headspace of B. velezensis CE 100. Out of the seven VOCs, 5-nonylamine and 3-methylbutanoic acid were only detected in the headspace of B. velezensis CE 100 but not in the control group. Both 5-nonylamine and 3-methylbutanoic acid showed significant antifungal activity against the spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with 100 µL/mL of 5-nonylamine and 3-methylbutanoic acid suppressed the spore germination of C. gloeosporioides by 10.9% and 30.4% and reduced mycelial growth by 14.0% and 22.6%, respectively. Therefore, 5-nonylamine and 3-methylbutanoic acid are the potential antifungal VOCs emitted by B. velezensis CE 100, and this is the first report about the antifungal activity of 5-nonylamine against C. gloeosporioides.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060557
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 558: Copper Stress Enhances the Lignification
           of Axial Organs in Zinnia elegans

    • Authors: Anastasia Tugbaeva, Alexander Ermoshin, Hada Wuriyanghan, Maria Maleva, Galina Borisova, Irina Kiseleva
      First page: 558
      Abstract: Zinnia elegans Jacq. is an ornamental plant, widely used in landscaping. Heavy-metal pollution in urban and rural areas is still increasing, which determines the actuality of studying plants’ reactions to pollutants. Zinnia was not sufficiently studied in this regard, so the aim of our research was to identify morphophysiological changes in this species under excess copper concentration in the soil. For this, we treated a growth substrate with 200 µM CuSO4 solution for 20 days. At the end of the treatment, several morphological, biochemical, and molecular genetic traits were evaluated: the root and the shoot size; the concentration of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA), as indicators of stress; the amount of the phenolic compounds and lignin; and the level of the expression of genes, which encoded their biosynthesis. The Cu amount in the substrate and zinnia organs was quantified using atomic-absorption spectroscopy; hydrogen peroxide, MDA, and phenolic compounds were determined spectrophotometrically, while the amount of lignin was determined according to Klason. Real-time PCR was used for estimation of the gene-transcription level. Lignin in tissues was visualized by fluorescent microscopy. In experimental plants, Cu accumulation was higher in the root than in the stem. This caused an increase in stress markers and a decrease in the root and stem lengths. For the first time for zinnia, it was shown that for several genes—4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), cinnamoyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and class III peroxidase (PRX)—the level of expression increased under copper treatment. The rise of the transcripts’ amount of these genes was accompanied by a thickening and lignification of the cell walls in the metaxylem vessels. Thus, the adaptation of zinnia to the excess Cu in the growth medium was associated with the metabolic changes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. As a result, the lignification increased in the root, which led to the accumulation of Cu in this organ and limited its translocation through the xylem to the stem, which provided plant growth.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060558
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 8, Pages 559: Breeding New Premium Quality Cultivars
           by Citrus Breeding 2.0 in Japan: An Integrative Approach Suggested by

    • Authors: Tokurou Shimizu
      First page: 559
      Abstract: Developing varieties with diverse features that satisfy varied commercial needs, improving overall fruit quality, and quickly releasing them, are prerequisites in citrus breeding. However, these three goals require trade-offs in conventional breeding, even with the application of the marker-assisted selection technique. Conventional breeding cannot achieve these three goals simultaneously and it has been regarded as a breeding trilemma. Integrating a genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) approach that relies on quantitative trait locus detection by genome-wide association study and genome-wide prediction of a trait by genomic selection using enriched marker genotypes enhances breeding efficiency and contributes to eliminating the trilemma. Besides these efforts, the analysis of the genealogy of indigenous citrus varieties revealed that many high-quality indigenous varieties were selected within a few generations. It suggested that selecting a new premium quality hybrid is possible by integrating it with the GAB technique and helps avoid the trilemma. This review describes how a new approach, “Citrus Breeding 2.0” works for rapidly developing new, premium quality hybrids and introduces three applications of this technique, specifically, rebreeding, complementary breeding, and mimic breeding based on the ongoing citrus breeding program in NARO, Japan.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060559
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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