Subjects -> GARDENING AND HORTICULTURE (Total: 37 journals)
Showing 1 - 20 of 20 Journals sorted by number of followers
Media, Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Landscape Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Landscape Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Mind Culture and Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Horticulture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Parallax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Vegetable Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Horticultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Horticultural Plant Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Scientia Horticulturae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annales Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscape Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sibbaldia: the International Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Landscape Studies     Open Access  
Dekoratyviųjų ir sodo augalų sortimento, technologijų ir aplinkos optimizavimas     Partially Free  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
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Number of Followers: 3  

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ISSN (Online) 2311-7524
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 296: The Stability of Important Fruit Traits
           in Strawberry in Queensland

    • Authors: Christopher Michael Menzel
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Information was collected on yield and fruit quality in ‘Festival’, ‘Fortuna’, ‘Red Rhapsody’, ‘Fronteras’, ‘Grenada’ and ‘Petaluma’ strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) in southern Queensland, Australia. Marketable yield was similar in the cultivars and ranged from 352 to 416 g/plant. Fruit were smaller in ‘Festival’ and ‘Grenada’ (21.3 or 23.7 g), intermediate in ‘Fortuna’ and ‘Red Rhapsody’ (25.0 or 24.7 g), and larger in ‘Fronteras’ and ‘Petaluma’ (27.6 or 27.8 g). Fruit soluble solids content (SSC) was lower in ‘Fronteras’, ‘Grenada’ and ‘Petaluma’ (6.9% to 7.2%) than in the other cultivars (7.4% to 8.3%). Fruit titratable acidity (TA) was lower in ‘Fortuna’ and ‘Fronteras’ (0.55% to 0.58%) than in the other cultivars (0.63% to 0.69%). The cultivars had similar estimates of stability for fruit weight (0.74 to 1.27) using the method of Finlay and Wilkinson (1963), where a cultivar with a value of one has average stability in a group. This suggests that the cultivars behaved similarly to changes in conditions over the season. The estimates of stability for SSC were lower than one or higher than one in some cultivars (0.45 to 1.75). The estimates of stability for TA were lower than one for some cultivars (0.33 to 1.33). None of the cultivars had high values of fruit quality and stable values of fruit quality for all the three traits. ‘Festival’ would be an acceptable parent in a breeding programme used to increase fruit SSC. In contrast, the other cultivars would be acceptable parents to increase fruit size. Efforts need to be made to develop cultivars with high and stable values of quality and that are suitable for production under global warming.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030296
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 298: Rapid Genetic Assessment of Carrot
           Varieties Based on AFLP Analysis

    • Authors: Arthur Domblides, Elena Domblides
      First page: 298
      Abstract: It is necessary to regard the biodiversity of carrot as a genetic source of useful and indispensable components for the human diet. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to discriminate eight carrot genotypes with different root colors. With the combination of enzymes Tru9I, PstI, and three sets of primer pairs corresponding to adapters joint to the restricted sites, 92 loci were produced, including 60 polymorphic ones. Each of the three primer sets showed high efficiency, according to estimations of PIC (0.34, 0.34, and 0.41), D (0.36, 0.67, and 0.67), Rp (5.5, 11.3, and 15), and HE (0.32, 0.49, and 0.49). The genetic distances were calculated using values of Nei’s coefficient. The most genetically similar were Chantenay Coeur Rouge and Colmar a Coeur Rouge at a distance of 0.12, whereas the most distant were Saint Valery and Purple Dragon at the highest distance of 0.34. Confirming its genetic identity, Purple Dragon and Gelber Goliath with purple and yellow roots were the most detached varieties from others at distances of 0.23–0.34 and 0.23–0.28, respectively. Male sterile Berlicum breeding accessions were well distinct from other orange-colored varieties at the highest distance of 0.30 from Deep Purple F1. Slight modifications including the facilitation of gel staining enables the wide use of the AFLP method for genetic diversity assessment in carrot breeding accessions.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030298
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 299: Foliar Calcium Effects on Quality and
           Primary and Secondary Metabolites of White-Fleshed ‘Lemonato’

    • Authors: Persefoni Maletsika, Vasiliki Liava, Eirini Sarrou, Vaia Styliani Titeli, Elpida Nasiopoulou, Stefan Martens, Evangelos Karagiannis, Katerina Grigoriadou, Athanassios Molassiotis, George D. Nanos
      First page: 299
      Abstract: ‘Lemonato’ is a Greek peach melting-flesh white-flesh cultivar with high nutritional value highly appreciated by the consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-harvest foliar calcium application on fruit quality, primary metabolite profile, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and phenolic profile of the ‘Lemonato’ peach, clone ‘Stamatis’. The experiment was conducted for two years, 2019 and 2020, in two commercial orchards at Kato Lehonia and Agios Vlasios regions, central Greece, where the ‘Lemonato’ clone ‘Stamatis’ is traditionally cultivated. The treatments were organic calcium (Ca), calcium–silicate in nanoparticles (Ca–Si), and calcium chloride (CaCl2). Foliar application of the different Ca formulations, commonly used as a horticultural practice, were not effective at improving the fruit quality characteristics in this clone, which is characterized by fruit softening during ripening. The study revealed the sugars and organic acid composition and phenolic profile of the ‘Lemonato’ peach, clone ‘Stamatis’. Peach fruit quality, primary metabolites, and phenolic compounds of the two orchards showed a different response to organic Ca and Ca–Si, indicating that genetic or environmental factors may also be involved. A higher concentration of organic Ca and CaCl2 increased the peach fruit phenolic compounds content and the total antioxidant activity, improving the fruit nutritional quality.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030299
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 300: Quality Improvement of Tomato Fruits by
           Preharvest Application of Chitosan Oligosaccharide

    • Authors: Jirong Zheng, Hao Chen, Tonglin Wang, Ghazala Mustafa, Lihong Liu, Qiaomei Wang, Zhiyong Shao
      First page: 300
      Abstract: Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a degradation product of chitosan, is easily accessible, highly bioactive, non-toxic, and well-soluble in water. The effects of COS on the qualitative attributes of tomato fruits were investigated in the current study. COS was administered to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ruixinghongniu) by foliar spray and root irrigation in alternate cycles at concentrations of 0.5 g·L−1 and 0.16 g·L−1, respectively. The experimental outcomes revealed that COS treatment promoted the coloring and softening of tomato fruits. Lycopene, vitamin C, fructose, and glucose levels increased by 49.0%, 25.4%, 30.2%, and 33.4%, respectively, in COS-treated ripe fruits compared to controls. The volatile metabolome showed that COS application also increased the release of ten volatiles correlated with consumer preference (1-penten-3-one, (E)-2-pentenal, (E)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-heptenal, 2-isobutylthiazole, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, and β-ionone), contributing to an improved tomato flavor. Moreover, increased transcript levels of genes participating in ethylene biosynthesis, perception, and response along with enhanced ethylene production were observed in COS-treated fruits, suggesting that COS may regulate tomato fruit quality via the ethylene pathway. Taken together, our results indicated that the pre-harvest application of COS could improve tomato fruit quality attributes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030300
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 301: Growth and Nitrogen Uptake by Potato and
           Cassava Crops Can Be Improved by Azospirillum brasilense Inoculation and
           Nitrogen Fertilization

    • Authors: Adalton Mazetti Fernandes, Jessica Aparecida da Silva, Juliana Aparecida Marques Eburneo, Magali Leonel, Francisca Gyslane de Sousa Garreto, Jason Geter da Silva Nunes
      First page: 301
      Abstract: Nitrogen (N) is the nutrient most taken up by potato and cassava crops and Azospirillum brasilense may contribute to the growth of these crops. Pot experiments evaluated A. brasilense and mineral N application on leaf N concentration, plant growth, and N uptake by potato and cassava grown under natural and disinfected soil. The rates of 2.8 × 108 colony-forming units mL−1 of A. brasilense combined with 0, 75, 150, and 300 mg dm−3 N or 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg dm−3 N were used for potato or cassava grown. At low N supply in natural soil, A. brasilense inoculation increased N concentration in potato leaves by 23–38%, without benefits to plant growth or N uptake. At unfertilized N treatments of both soils, A. brasilense inoculation increased cassava leaf N concentration by 25–33%, but an 11–32% increase in shoot biomass occurred in treatments inoculated and N supplied. Potato crops responded positively to mineral N supply, but cassava responded to fertilization only in disinfected soil. In disinfected soil fertilized with N, A. brasilense inoculation increased cassava N uptake by 27–40%. In contrast, in natural soil, A. brasilense minimized the negative effect of N excess on the tuber development of cassava. These results show that the use of A. brasilense is a more interesting alternative to improve N status and growth in cassava than in potatoes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030301
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 302: The First Complete Chloroplast Genome
           Sequence of Mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum) and Comparative
           Analyses with Other Vaccinium Species

    • Authors: Karla E. Rojas López, Carolina E. Armijos, Manuela Parra, María de Lourdes Torres
      First page: 302
      Abstract: Vaccinium floribundum, commonly known as mortiño, is a native high Andean wild species of cultural and economic importance. Genomic resources for V. floribundum are scarce, and a clear phylogenetic and evolutionary history for this species has yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to assemble the complete chloroplast genome sequence of this species and perform an in-depth comparative analysis with other Vaccinium species. The chloroplast genome of V. floribundum was obtained using Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT). The de novo assembly of the chloroplast genome of V. floribundum resulted in a 187,966 bp sequence, which contained 134 genes (84 Protein Coding Genes (PCGs), 42 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes). The comparative analysis of the V. floribundum chloroplast genome with other nine chloroplast genomes of the Vaccinium species suggested that a contraction/expansion event of the inverted repeat (IR) regions could have occurred, causing the relocation of psbA and rpl32 genes. Additionally, a possible loss of function of the ndhF gene was found. For the phylogenetic analysis based on 87 genes, the chloroplast genome of 19 species (including V. floribundum) was used and revealed that V. myrtillus could be a sister group of V. floribundum. Altogether, our findings provide insights into the plastome characteristics and the phylogeny of V. floribundum. This study describes the complete chloroplast genome sequence of V. floribundum as the first genomic resource available for an Andean species native to Ecuador.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030302
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 303: Seasonal Variations in the Starch
           Properties of Sweet Potato Cultivars

    • Authors: Thaís Paes Rodrigues dos Santos, Magali Leonel, Luciana Alves de Oliveira, Adalton Mazetti Fernandes, Sarita Leonel, Jason Geter da Silva Nunes
      First page: 303
      Abstract: Starch is widely used in the food and non-food industries, and this is related to its physicochemical characteristics. In the coming years, climate changes will become unpredictable, and these conditions may affect the process of starch biosynthesis and polymer properties. The sweet potato starch market has grown substantially in recent years and understanding the environmental impacts on starch characteristics will contribute to advances for the sector. Herein, the effects of the growing season on the structural, morphological, and physicochemical properties of sweet potato starches were evaluated. Sweet potato trials with two Brazilian cultivars (Canadense and Uruguaiana) were installed in the dry season (planting in March and harvesting in July) and rainy season (planting in October and harvesting in March). Regardless of the cultivar, starches isolated from plants grown in the rainy season have a more ordered structure, with higher gelatinization temperatures, thermal stability, and resistant starch content. Starches from plants grown in the dry season have a higher percentage of small granules with lower crystallinity and lower gelatinization temperatures. These findings can be useful as early knowledge of these changes can help the supply chain to better plan and target suitable markets for naturally modified sweet potato starches.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030303
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 304: The Effect of Potassium–Nitrogen
           Balance on the Yield and Quality of Strawberries Grown under Soilless

    • Authors: Amal Nakro, Ahmed Bamouh, Hajar Bouslama, Alberto San Bautista, Lamiae Ghaouti
      First page: 304
      Abstract: This research aims to evaluate the effect of the potassium–nitrogen balance on strawberry productivity and quality parameters in soilless conditions. A trial was conducted at the Agronomic and Veterinary Hassan II Institute glasshouse in Rabat, during the 2018–2019 crop year. The pot experiment began on November 13 using three different strawberry cultivars: Fortuna, San Andreas and Sabrina. Three nutrient solutions were tested by increasing the potassium–nitrogen balance during the growth stage and decreasing it during the fruit-production stage: S1 (1.3/2.0), S2 (2.6/1.0) and S3 (3.0/0.6). For all treatments, the total dose of fertilizing elements N, P, K, Ca and Mg was identical. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The results show that strawberry plants receiving a nutrient solution with a high K:N balance during the growth period and a low balance during the production period present the higher growth and fruit levels. Moreover, the nutrient solution with the 2.6/1.0 balance significantly increased the chlorophyll index by 8%, yield by 30% (7.9 t ha−1), total soluble solids and dry matter content by 14% and 15%, respectively, and improved taste and fruit shelf-life by 10% and 19%, respectively.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030304
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 305: Biological Activity of Combretum
           erythrophyllum: Antioxidant, Apoptotic, and Cytotoxic Activity of the Leaf
           and Stembark Extract

    • Authors: Sahejna Bantho, Yougasphree Naidoo, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Moganavelli Singh, Ayuvna Bantho
      First page: 305
      Abstract: Species of Combretum are highly valued in Africa due to the plethora of traditional medicinal uses they may offer and the medicinally important phytometabolites they are known to contain. Traditionally, C. erythrophyllum is used to treat bacterial infections, venereal diseases, abdominal pain, sores, infertility, and labour pains, while displaying, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, cytotoxic, and mutagenic activities. There are numerous published works available on the bioactivity of phytometabolites of the leaf extracts of C. erythrophyllum; however there have been limited or no studies published on the bioactivity of the stembark. Hence, this study aimed to provide a comparative analysis of the biological activity of the leaf and stembark extracts of C. erythrophyllum. The following characters were evaluated through the emanating study: total flavonoid and phenolic content, as well as the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptosis activities of the leaf and stembark extract. Methanolic extracts appeared to have the highest possible antioxidant potential among all of the tested extracts and displayed the lowest IC50 values (leaf 5.29 and stembark 4.29 µg/mL) when evaluated using the DPPH assay, the methanolic extracts appeared to quantify the largest amount of compositional phenolic content (1341.05 ± 4.4 mg/GAE/g). Methanolic extracts were the best performing, with the overall lowest IC50 values when tested against HeLa and HEK293 cells (leaf 54.53 µg/mL and stembark 18.30 µg/mL). A positive correlation between % inhibition and extract concentrations was noted for all of the assays. The extent/level of antioxidant activity was seen to be directly proportional to the flavonoid and phenolic content. Extracts with the highest total phenolic content appeared to display the strongest cytotoxic activity. This study integrated the use of fluorescence microscopy with acridine orange staining in order to accurately determine the viability of cells. A direct correlation was observed between the results obtained from the cytotoxicity and apoptosis assay. It may be concluded that the antioxidant properties, total phenolic, and total flavonoid content were directly proportional to the apoptotic and cytotoxic activity expressed by the tested extracts. Focus should now be placed on isolating phytocompounds of importance from the best performing extracts. The transformation of an isolate into a drug of pharmacological importance has yet to be appraised on a large scale. Therefore, further evaluation of this species and particularly the transformation of the isolates needs to be explored as this species has shown immense medicinal potential.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030305
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 306: Effect of Different Cultivation Patterns
           on Amomum villosum Yield and Quality Parameters, Rhizosphere Soil
           Properties, and Rhizosphere Soil Microbes

    • Authors: Butian Wang, Hongmei Chen, Peng Qu, Rong Lin, Suming He, Weifeng Li, Chuanli Zhang, Xuedong Shi, Yi Liu, Huabo Du, Yu Ge
      First page: 306
      Abstract: The forest–medicinal plant management system has benefited the commercial production of Amomum villosum. However, little is known about the influence of different forestlands on the cultivation of A. villosum. The present study investigated the potential differences in the A. villosum yield and quality parameters, rhizosphere soil properties, and rhizosphere soil microbiota between a rubber plantation (RP) and a natural secondary forest (NSF). No significant differences in yield or rhizosphere soil properties of A. villosum were observed between RP and NSF, although most of the A. villosum yield parameters, the rhizosphere soil physicochemical properties, and soil enzyme activities were higher in NSF than in RP. Furthermore, the 38 volatile components had significantly higher relative abundances in NSF than in RP. Furthermore, the alpha diversity indices for the microbiota communities in the A. villosum rhizosphere soil indicated that the richness of the bacterial and fungal communities was significantly higher in NSF than in RP. These findings suggest that NSF conditions may be more appropriate than RP conditions for growing A. villosum. The data generated in this study may be useful for increasing the production of high-quality A. villosum via the exploitation of natural environments.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030306
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 307: Physiological and Transcriptomic
           Analyses Reveal the Response of Medicinal Plant Bletilla striata (Thunb.
           ex A. Murray) Rchb. f. via Regulating Genes Involved in the ABA Signaling
           Pathway, Photosynthesis, and ROS Scavenging under Drought Stress

    • Authors: Hai Liu, Kaizhang Chen, Lin Yang, Xue Han, Mingkai Wu, Zhijun Shen
      First page: 307
      Abstract: Bletilla striata is a valuable Chinese herbal medicinal plant widely used in various fields. To meet the market demand for this herb, the tissue culture technology of B. striata was developed. However, drought stress has been a significant threat to the survival of cultivated B. striata. To further understand the underlying mechanisms of B. striata under drought stress, its response was investigated at the physiological and transcriptional levels. Our photosynthesis results show that the decline of the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) in B. striata leaves was mainly caused by nonstomatal limitation factors. Using transcriptomic analysis 2398, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that DEGs involved in plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075) were significantly altered, especially the abscisic-acid signaling pathway. The up-regulations of the serine/threonine protein kinase (SnRK2) and S-type anion (SLAH2) channels might lead to stomatal closure, which is the reason for decline of photosynthesis. Moreover, the downregulation of cytochrome b6 and photosystem I reaction center subunit III/IV might be the major reason for nonstomatal limitation. In addition, B. striata enhanced the ability of ROS scavenging via activating the gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in response to drought stress. Our study enhanced the understanding of B. striata in response to drought stress.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030307
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 308: Sustainable Use of CO2 and Wastewater
           from Mushroom Farm for Chlorella vulgaris Cultivation: Experimental and
           Kinetic Studies on Algal Growth and Pollutant Removal

    • Authors: Ivan Širić, Sami Abou Fayssal, Bashir Adelodun, Boro Mioč, Željko Andabaka, Archana Bachheti, Madhumita Goala, Pankaj Kumar, Arwa A. AL-Huqail, Mostafa A. Taher, Ebrahem M. Eid
      First page: 308
      Abstract: The potential use of carbon dioxide (CO2) and wastewater released from a mushroom farm for the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris microalga was investigated in this study. For this purpose, a microcontroller-based aided CO2 capture and mixing prototype was constructed for the cultivation of C. vulgaris under varying concentrations of mushroom farm wastewater (0 as control, 50 and 100%). The results showed that the constructed prototype was helpful to maintain desirable CO2 levels (6000 ppm) in the mushroom cultivation chamber with constant CO2 supply to algal culture, i.e., 0.6% at an airflow rate of 50 mL/min. After 16 days of algal cultivation, it was observed that the maximum significant (p < 0.05) algal biomass production of 2.550 ± 0.073 mg/L was recorded in 50% wastewater concentration followed by 100% and control. Also, the maximum removal of selected mushroom farm wastewater pollutants, such as total dissolved solids (84.00 ± 1.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (90.17 ± 2.42%), chemical oxygen demand (91.53 ± 0.97%), total nitrogen (86.27 ± 1.60%) and total phosphorus (94.19 ± 2.33%), was achieved in 50% concentration of wastewater treatment with maximum first-order rate constant (k) values. In addition, the algal growth kinetics results showed that the logistic model fit best compared to the modified Gompertz model, based on selected validation tools, such as experimental vs. predicted values, coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.9938), model efficiency (ME > 0.98) and root mean square error (RMSE < 0.03). The post-harvest characterization of algal biomass revealed that the proximate, biochemical, ultimate elements (carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) and structural properties were significantly higher in 50% treatment than those in 100% and control treatments. Therefore, the findings of this study are novel and provide significant insight into the synergistic use of CO2 and wastewater produced by mushroom farms for algal cultivation and biological wastewater treatment.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030308
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 309: Effects of Sewage Treatment Water Supply
           on Leaf Development and Yield of Tuberous Roots in Multilayered Sweet
           Potato Cultivation

    • Authors: Takahiro Suzuki, Masaru Sakamoto, Hiroshi Kubo, Yui Miyabe, Daisuke Hiroshima
      First page: 309
      Abstract: To develop a way to mass-produce sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) as an energy crop to replace fossil fuels, the effects of using a sewage supply as a fertilizer and heat source were investigated. When 25 pots planted with sweet potato vine seedlings were arranged in three layers and cultivated for 160 days from June to November by supplying treated sewage to the root zone, the yield of tuberous roots reached 19.5 kg m−2 due to the massive growth of leaves. In addition, when sweet potato seedlings were replanted in December and treated sewage was supplied to maintain the irrigation water temperature above 15 °C even in winter, overwintering cultivation was successful and 8.4 kg m−2 of tuberous roots were harvested in July. As a result, the annual production rate for 12 months increased to 25.3 kg m−2, about 10 times the national average of 2.4 kg m−2 for open-field cultivation. The results far exceed previously reported maximum production of resource crops, such as sugarcane and eucalyptus, suggesting that the mass production of sweet potatoes by supplying treated sewage could provide an alternative to fossil fuels on a large scale.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030309
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 310: Plant Growth and the Contents of Major
           Bioactive Compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Grown in Mississippi,
           United States

    • Authors: Zhiheng Xing, Guihong Bi, Tongyin Li, Qianwen Zhang, Patricia R. Knight
      First page: 310
      Abstract: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (danshen) is a traditional herbal medicine and has been widely used to prevent and treat cardiovascular and other diseases. Currently, the majority of medicinal plants, including danshen, used in the United States are imported from foreign countries, which often involves challenges such as inconsistency in contents of bioactive compounds and inadequate supply of high quality plant materials to meet market demand. The objective of this study was to evaluate plant growth and the contents of major bioactive compounds of three selected danshen cultivars and identify cultivars with the greatest potential for commercial production in Mississippi. Results showed that danshen plants can grow well in Mississippi and the three cultivars evaluated had similar growth indices, leaf SPAD values, photosynthetic activities, shoot and root dry weights, and root numbers, but differed in germination rates, maximum root lengths, and maximum root diameters. The major bioactive compounds in danshen root extracts, including tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, cryptotanshinone, and salvianolic acid B, were quantified with no significant difference in their contents among the three cultivars. Results from this study suggested that danshen has the potential to be grown as an alternative crop in Mississippi, USA.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030310
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 311: Variability of Nutritional, Antioxidant,
           and Textural Traits of a Collection of Snap Beans of Different Colors

    • Authors: Valeria Menga, Clara Fares, Ana Campa, Juan Jose Ferreira, Elena Bitocchi, Roberto Papa, Romina Beleggia
      First page: 311
      Abstract: A set of 54 snap bean lines grown under organic farming was characterized for different traits: pod color, pod cross-section shape, pod section width (PSW), protein content (PC), and sugar content (S). After cooking, the lines were analyzed for firmness and color parameters (CIE-L*, a*, b*). The snap bean lines were grouped based on pod cross-section shape and pod color into eight groups, and significant differences were observed among lines and groups for all the traits investigated. In particular, the yellow pods were harder than the other snap beans and less sweet due to the negative correlation between firmness and sugar content. Fourteen selected lines with contrasting firmness and belonging to different color groups were investigated for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity (TEAC) before and after domestic cooking. A general decrease was observed only for vanillic acid, quercetin, and apigenin-8-C-glucoside. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were detected in all samples with the highest values in the SBP042 line in both raw and cooked samples. Antioxidant activity decreased with cooking (average of 39%), but purple line SBP053 showed the lowest and no significant loss (3.1%). The results reported in this study could be useful to design specific varieties for different markets and purposes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030311
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 312: Pre- and Post-Harvest Infection of
           Pasteurized Pickles with Fungi and Their Pectinolytic Potential to Soften
           the Product

    • Authors: Anne-Katrin Kersten, Sabrina Scharf, Anna Jendro, Peter Meurer, Carmen Büttner, Peter Lentzsch
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Fungi and their enzymes have long been thought to cause the softening of pasteurized gherkins; however, the exact fungal species and timing of contamination are unknown. Ready-to-sell pickle jars and blossoms of growing gherkins were inoculated with DNA-sequenced fungi isolated from rotting gherkins to cause softening at various stages of production. Ready-to-sell gherkins inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium equiseti, Galactomyces geotrichum, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor fragilis, Plectosphaerella cucumerina, Alternaria sp., and Cladosporium sp. indicated a measurable texture reduction after pasteurization and 6 months of storage at room temperature. No texture changes were observed in gherkins infected during the growth phase. The fungi M. hiemalis, M. fragilis, and G. geotrichum tolerated the acidic-saline (approx. pH 4) environment in the jar for several days, thus the pectinolytic enzymes of these candidates were tested for heat and pH resistance. Although the measured endo-Polygalacturonase (PG) of M. fragilis had its optimum activity at pH < 4, all fungal enzymes were inactivated within 3 min at 80 °C corresponding to the pasteurization heat. Our study shows that conventionally occurring fungi and their enzymes have the potential to induce softening in pickles. Softening by these fungi is unlikely due to post- or pre-harvest contamination without any other influences.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030312
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 313: Sugar and Organic Acid Content Is
           Dependent on Tomato (Solanum Lycoperiscum L.) Peel Color

    • Authors: Magdalena Anđelini, Nikola Major, Nina Išić, Tvrtko Karlo Kovačević, Dean Ban, Igor Palčić, Mira Radunić, Smiljana Goreta Ban
      First page: 313
      Abstract: The sensory properties of fruit and vegetables are a result of taste and aroma caused by many volatile and nonvolatile compounds. The sum of organic acids (malic and citric acids) and soluble sugars (fructose and glucose), as well as their balanced combination and interaction, contributes to the characterization of the tomato flavour. The ratio of sugars and organic acids is the key to the sweetness and sourness of tomatoes. This study aimed to determine the sugar and organic acid content, as well as several physicochemical parameters, of eight tomato landraces from Croatia. All the parameters investigated differed between the tomato landraces. The PLS-DA analysis showed that the most important parameters in tomato landrace discriminatory character are malic acid, fructooligosaccharide content, citric acid, dry matter. The results obtained show a significant positive correlation between tomato dry matter and sugar content. At the same time, fructose and sucrose content is negatively correlated with the green to red hue of tomato peel, as well as positively with the blue to yellow hue, indicating that the sugar content increases with yellow color intensity. The blue to yellow hue of the peel color also positively correlates with citric acid content.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030313
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 314: Changes in Carbohydrates, Organic Acids,
           and Minerals at Different Development Stages of Hexachlamys edulis Fruit,
           a Wild South American Species with Horticultural Potential

    • Authors: Miriam Elisabet Arena, Ignacio Sebastián Povilonis, Virginia Borroni, Ethel Pérez, Néstor Pellegrino, Claudio Cacciatore, Silvia Radice
      First page: 314
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the patterns of the accumulation of carbohydrates, organic acids, and minerals at different development stages of Hexachlamys edulis fruit for its evaluation as a source of health-promoting compounds, which is necessary in order to be included in the Argentine Food Code. Additionally, the obtained results will allow for deciding the optimal time for consumption to receive a better flavour and a good contribution of the nutrients evaluated. The succinic acid concentration (the major organic acid) was high in unripe fruit (112.33 mg/g of the dry weight), then decreased to a minimum in medium ripe and ripe fruit (92.48 to 99.43 mg/g of the dry weight,), to increase again in overripe fruit (115.65 mg/g of the dry weight,). Sucrose increased significantly from 21.20 mg/g of the dry weight in unripe fruit to a maximum of 82.53 mg/g of the dry weight in ripe fruit. Glucose increased significantly from 95.59 mg/g of the dry weight in unripe fruit to a maximum of 163.13 mg/g of the dry weight in overripe fruit. Fructose followed the same behaviour, increasing significantly from 150.08 mg/g of the dry weight in unripe fruit to a maximum of 205.85 mg/g of the dry weight in overripe fruit. The starch concentration was at the maximum in unripe and medium ripe fruit (171.39 and 161.19 mg starch/g of the dry weight, respectively), to then decrease in ripe and overripe fruit (40.45 and 65.96 mg starch/mg of the dry weight, respectively). Maximum insoluble dietary fibre values were attained in unripe and medium ripe fruit (26.71 and 27.13 mg/100 g of the dry weight, respectively), to then decrease in ripe and overripe fruit (15.81 and 15.51 mg/100 g of the dry weight, respectively). Soluble dietary fibre oscillated between 9.03 and 11.26 mg/100 g of the dry weight during the development stages, although without significant differences. The mineral concentrations (Mg, K, Mn, and total cations) did not vary significantly during the different development stages. The obtained results allow us to consider H. edulis fruit as a promising natural source of sugars, organic acids, and minerals.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030314
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 315: Advances in the Strategic Approaches of
           Pre- and Post-Harvest Treatment Technologies for Peach Fruits (Prunus

    • Authors: Jin Song Shin, Han Sol Park, Ki Won Lee, Ji Seop Song, Hea Yeon Han, Hye Won Kim, Tae Jin Cho
      First page: 315
      Abstract: Peach (Prunus persica) is one of the representative climacteric fruits susceptible to environmental stresses, including microbial contamination. This article analyzed major findings from the literature on pre- and post-harvest technologies for maintaining the quality of peach fruit to figure out the strengths and limitations of each treatment strategy. The key implication from studies of pre-harvest agents directly applied to the fruit surface or supplemented as fertilizer was the application of a mixture regarding substances with diverse working mechanisms to prevent excessive use of the agent. The common objectives of previous research on pre-harvest treatments were not only the improvement in the quality of harvested fruit but also the storability during long-term refrigeration due to the short lifespan of peaches. In the case of post-harvest treatments, the efficacy was considerably affected by various determinant factors (e.g., a cultivar of fruit, the sort of technologies, and storage environments), and thus operating conditions optimized for peach fruit were described in this article. Whereas, although the combined treatment of technologies categorized into principles (physical, chemical, and biological approaches) has been adopted to achieve the synergistic effect, undesirable antagonistic effects (i.e., the inhibition of efficacies expectable from singular treatments) were also reported to highlight the importance for exploring adequate treatment conditions.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030315
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 316: Identification of Vitis vinifera L.
           Local Cultivars Recovered in Andalusia (Spain) by Using Microsatellite

    • Authors: Ana Jiménez-Cantizano, Anna Puig-Pujol, Rosa Arroyo-García
      First page: 316
      Abstract: In Andalusia (Spain), there are different wine regions that have a great recognized tradition. In these regions, the cultivation of the vine is ancient and there are still vineyards planted with local varieties of Vitis vinifera L. that have not yet been identified. The aim of this research study was to identify 49 accessions of grapevine collected in the districts of four provinces in Andalusia (Spain). All samples were genotyped with 20 microsatellite markers in order to ascertain the identity and analyze the genetic diversity of the collected material. In total, 30 different genotypes were obtained, 22 of them which were identified with named, known varieties by comparison to the Spanish or European microsatellite databases, and eight which are referred to as new genotypes. All loci were polymorphic, and a total of 159 alleles were detected, ranging from 4 to 12 alleles per locus, with an average allele number of 7.95. The overall observed heterozygosity was 0.763 and was slightly higher than expected (0.715), while the gene diversity per locus varied between 0.167 (VVIN73) and 0.967 (VVMD5). A dendrogram representing the genetic similarities among cultivars was depicted using the UPGMA method to investigate their relationships. The eight new genotypes identified in this research work could represent ancient local varieties in danger of extinction. These new cultivars may be used to determine original wines.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030316
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 317: Effect of Weed Competition on Growth of
           Container Grown Ornamentals Plants in Four Different Container Sizes

    • Authors: Yuvraj Khamare, Stephen C. Marble, Brian J. Pearson, Jianjun Chen, Pratap Devkota
      First page: 317
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the growth of two woody ornamental plants when subjected to different levels of weed competition in four different container sizes, representing different stages of production. Ligustrum (Ligustrum lucidum W.T.Aiton) and Japanese holly (Ilex crenata Thunb.) liners were potted individually into 3.8 L, 11.4 L, 24.7 L, and 56.8 L containers, respectively. Weed coverage of 0%, 50%, and 100% in each container size was maintained by surface sowing seeds of six common nursery weed species by volume, based on media surface area in each pot. Results showed that the shoot dry weight of ligustrum at 50% and 100% weed levels was reduced by 28% and 35%, 55% and 56%, 41% and 43%, and 12% and 14% in 3.8 L, 11.4 L, 24.7 L, and 56.8 L containers, respectively. The shoot dry weight of Japanese holly at 50% and 100% weed levels was reduced by 18% and 22%, 51% and 52%, 51% and 53%, and 40% and 53% in 3.8 L, 11.4 L, 24.7 L, and 56.8 L containers, respectively. Results indicate that weed competition at 50% and 100% weed level was similar across all four container sizes, and weeds remained competitive even in the larger container sizes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030317
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 318: Evaluation of Nursery Traits in Japanese
           Plums on Five Different Rootstocks

    • Authors: Tomáš Nečas, Jan Wolf, Eliška Zezulová, Ivo Ondrášek
      First page: 318
      Abstract: Climate change has a negative effect on the environment in which traditional fruit species are grown and, at the same time, offers the potential for cultivation of new species. Japanese plums derived from P. salicina Lindley are a fruit species that is slowly being introduced to the Czech Republic. Therefore, there are efforts to find ways to grow these varieties. In our experiment, selected nursery traits that are important for the production of Japanese plum saplings in the region of the Czech Republic were evaluated. The main evaluation criteria were scion affinity, sapling yield, and selected growth characteristics. The results show that the best affinity was achieved with the Adesoto (92.0%) and the Torinel (90.0%) rootstocks. Moderate levels of affinity were found for Brompton (84.2%) and St. Julien A (80.0%) rootstocks. Weak affinity was found only for the rootstock Wavit (52.7%). The economically significant trait is the yield of saplings; here, the highest yields were obtained with the Adesoto rootstock (88.4%) and the Japanese plum variety ‘Black Star’ (89.3%). Generally, the Adesoto and Torinel rootstocks proved to be the most suitable for use with Japanese plum varieties.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030318
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 319: Evaluation of Corn Stalk as a Substrate
           to Cultivate King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)

    • Authors: Yuanyuan Zhou, Zihao Li, Congtao Xu, Jinlong Pan, Haijun Zhang, Qingxiu Hu, Yajie Zou
      First page: 319
      Abstract: Corn is widely planted in China, but corn stalks have not been adequately utilized for a long time. Here, the potential of corn stalks to serve as an ingredient in the composition of substrates to cultivate king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Corn stalks were added to the matrix at a ratio of 10.5%, 21%, or 42% to replace sawdust or sugarcane bagasse in the typical matrix. Analysis of the mycelia growth rate, production days, agronomic traits, and nutrient content confirmed the feasibility of using corn stalk instead of sawdust and bagasse for the cultivation of P. eryngii. The samples grown on Y5 (without sawdust and bagasse) has more crude fiber (8.3%) and polysaccharide (5.05%) content compared to those of the control substrate (7.1% and 4.16%, respectively), moreover, it also conteined more zinc and calcium than others. Therefore, these findings indicate that corn stalks could be used as an alternative to sawdust and sugarcane bagasse for P. eryngii production, which would not only reduce costs and improve food quality, but also improve waste utilisation.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030319
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 320: Physiological Response of Four Widely
           Cultivated Sunflower Cultivars to Cadmium Stress

    • Authors: Dingquan Tan, Lingling Zhang, Sheng Zhang, Bei Cui
      First page: 320
      Abstract: Selection of sunflower varieties with greater cadmium (Cd) tolerance and detecting physiological variation under different Cd concentrations are important to study the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the phytoremediation of Cd. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in the Cd tolerance among four sunflower varieties (79−79, 363, 8361, ADT). Photosynthesis was determined using a Li−6400 XT portable photosynthesis system. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to detect the accumulation of Cd in different plant parts (leaf, stem and root). Subsequently, the Cd amount per plant, bio−concentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (TF) were calculated. Cd exposure caused a decline in photosynthesis in four sunflower varieties. The 79−79 species displayed the highest Cd concentrations in tissues and 363 displayed a higher BCF in aerial parts under Cd exposure among the four species. Under Cd stress, the total soluble sugars in roots remained unaffected in 363. Based on the results of this experiment, the cultivar of 79−79 and 363 were more tolerant to Cd when compared to the other sunflower cultivars ADT and 8361. The present investigation results indicate that 79−79 and 363 can be further applied in the field trials of phytoremediation practices in contaminated soil.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030320
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 321: Ectopic Expression of
           PgF3′5′H in Commercial Gypsophila paniculata Cultivar through
           Optimized Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    • Authors: Chunlian Jin, Dan Sun, Lulin Ma, Xijun Mo, Chunmei Yang, Fan Li
      First page: 321
      Abstract: Gypsophila paniculata is one of the most popular cut flowers in the world whose major cultivars are blooming white. As is well known, blue flowers could be generated via the overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3′5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) in species that naturally lack it. In this study, we established the regeneration and a genetic transformation system for the commercial cultivar ‘YX4’ of G. paniculata and introduced the F3′5′H of Platycodon grandiflorus (PgF3′5′H) successfully into ‘YX4’ using the established protocol. A total of 281 hygromycin (Hyg)-resistant plantlets were obtained, and 38 of them were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, indicating a 13.5% transformation efficiency. Shoot apex without meristem was more suitable for explant due to its high regeneration capacity, and the supplement of thidiazuron (TDZ) provided the most efficient promotion of adventitious bud induction, whereas the supplement of 6-Benzyladenine (6-BA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) did not affect much. Additionally, the combination of 1 day (d) pre-culture, 5 d co-culture, 10 min infection, 30 mg·L−1 additional acetosyringone (AS) supplement, and 10 mg·L−1 Hyg selection formed the optimized system for ‘YX4’ transformation. This reliable and efficient agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the valuable commercial cultivar ‘YX4’ will contribute not only to the creation and improvement of G. paniculata cultivars, but also to the function research of genes associated with important ornamental traits.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030321
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 322: Fusarium Species Associated with
           Diseases of Major Tropical Fruit Crops

    • Authors: Latiffah Zakaria
      First page: 322
      Abstract: Mango, banana, papaya, pineapple, and avocado are categorized as major tropical fruits grown for local consumption, export, and sources of income to the growers. These fruit crops are susceptible to infection by Fusarium in the field, and after harvest, it causes root rot, vascular wilt, stem rot, and fruit rot. Among the most common and economically important Fusarium species associated with diseases of major fruit are F. oxysporum and F. solani, which are prevalent in tropical regions. Other species include F. incarnatum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticilliodes. Most of these species have a wide host range and infect different parts of the plant. Due to the economic importance of these fruit crops, this review highlights the diseases and Fusarium species that infect fruit crops in the field as well as after harvest. Updated information on Fusarium species infecting major tropical fruit crops is important as disease management in the field and after harvest often relies on the causal pathogens. Moreover, major fruit crops are traded worldwide, and newly recorded species associated with these fruit crops are important for biosecurity purposes. Information on the diseases and causal pathogens may help to facilitate routine diagnosis and planning of suitable plant disease management methods.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030322
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 323: Effects of Exogenously Applied Copper in
           Tomato Plants’ Oxidative and Nitrogen Metabolisms under Organic
           Farming Conditions

    • Authors: Alexandre Alves, Rafael Ribeiro, Manuel Azenha, Mário Cunha, Jorge Teixeira
      First page: 323
      Abstract: Currently, copper is approved as an active substance among plant protection products and is considered effective against more than 50 different diseases in different crops, conventional and organic. Tomato has been cultivated for centuries, but many fungal diseases still affect it, making it necessary to control them through antifungal agents, such as copper, making it the primary form of fungal control in organic farming systems (OFS). The objective of this work was to determine whether exogenous copper applications can affect AOX mechanisms and nitrogen use efficiency in tomato plant grown in OFS. For this purpose, plants were sprayed with ‘Bordeaux’ mixture (SP). In addition, two sets of plants were each treated with 8 mg/L copper in the root substrate (S). Subsequently, one of these groups was also sprayed with a solution of ‘Bordeaux’ mixture (SSP). Leaves and roots were used to determine NR, GS and GDH activities, as well as proline, H2O2 and AsA levels. The data gathered show that even small amounts of copper in the rhizosphere and copper spraying can lead to stress responses in tomato, with increases in total ascorbate of up to 70% and a decrease in GS activity down to 49%, suggesting that excess copper application could be potentially harmful in horticultural production by OFS.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030323
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 324: Elucidation of Physio-Biochemical
           Changes in Citrus spp. Incited by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri

    • Authors: Ashok Kumar Mahawer, Anil Kumar Dubey, Om Prakash Awasthi, Dinesh Singh, Anil Dahuja, Amitha Mithra Sevanthi, Amrender Kumar, Amit Kumar Goswami, Nimisha Sharma, Jagdish Yadav, Amit Kumar Kesharwani, Abhijeet Shankar Kashyap, Aditya Kulshreshtha, Ravinder Pal Singh, Amrut Morade, Radha Mohan Sharma
      First page: 324
      Abstract: India is one of the leading citrus−producing countries, next to China and Brazil. Despite the sizeable production, especially of lemons and limes, India contributes meagerly to the world’s citrus market. Of the various factors responsible for the restricted quantum of citrus export, citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri pv. citri) is one of the leading serious causes and directly impacts the appearance of the fruits. Considering the extent of damage, the present study aimed to understand the impact of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xcc) on the physio−biochemical responses in contrasting Citrus spp. Two genotypes, each of three citrus species, namely Citrus aurantifolia (Pusa Udit and ALC−35), C. limon (Kagzi Kalan and Konkan Seedless), and C. paradisi (Redblush and Marsh Seedless), were artificially inoculated with Xcc (108 to 109 cfu/ mL) by the pinprick method. The physio−biochemical changes in the host were evaluated after 48 h post inoculation (hpi). The chlorophyll content (total, a, and b) degradation and reduction in leaf gas exchange parameters, such as photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), and intrinsic water−use efficiency (iWUE), were measured to a greater extent in susceptible than resistant genotypes. The microscopic observations also evidenced higher stomatal density with larger stomatal areas in susceptible genotypes, favoring the easier penetration of Xcc in host tissues than resistant species or genotypes. The higher activities of various antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and glutathione reductase (GR), the contents of soluble protein, and phenolics were measured in resistant genotypes in contrast to susceptible genotypes. The activities of phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were also higher in resistant genotypes, whilst the levels of ROS (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) production were enhanced in susceptible genotypes. Based on the host–pathogen interaction, the order of resistance in a descending manner was found as Kagzi Kalan, Marsh Seedless, Redblush, Konkan Seedless, Pusa Udit, and ALC−35. Further, the results will enhance the understanding of the pathogen mechanism during pathogenesis in resistant and susceptible Citrus species.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030324
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 325: Effects of Geographical Area and Harvest
           Times on Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Juniperus
           communis L. Pseudo-Fruits Extracts: A Statistical Approach

    • Authors: Diana Ionela (Stegarus) Popescu, Oana Romina Botoran, Ramona Cristea, Cristina Mihăescu, Nicoleta Anca Șuțan
      First page: 325
      Abstract: The beneficial effects of Juniperus communis L. extracts have been known for a long time. Therefore a scientific knowledge of the chemical profile leading to this bioactivity is required. The aim of this paper is to highlight the influence of geographical origin and harvest time on compositional elements of hydroalcoholic extracts of J. communis pseudo-fruits, but also on their antibacterial properties. The samples were collected from three mountainous area of Romania, during three consecutive months. The total polyphenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocâlteu method, ranging between 12.67 and 14.77 mg GAE/g DW. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was applied to identify fifteen phenolic compounds from the group of phenolic acids and flavonoids. The antibacterial effect was assessed on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. A good antimicrobial activity was achieved by the extracts of pseudo-fruits harvested during October and November from the Iezerele Cindrelului Botanical Nature Reserve. The obtained results denote a diverse composition of active principles in common juniper pseudo-fruits and moderate antibacterial activity dependent on the harvest time and geographical area.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030325
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 326: Polyphenolic Compounds and Biological
           Activities of Leaves and Fruits of Syzygium samarangense cv. ‘Giant
           Green’ at Three Different Maturities

    • Authors: Nuruljannah Suhaida Idris, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker, Zalilawati Mat Rashid, Ali Majrashi, Mekhled Mutiran Alenazi, Zanariah Mohd Nor, Ahmad Faris Mohd Adnan, Nashriyah Mat
      First page: 326
      Abstract: Syzygium samarangense cv. ‘Giant Green’ is an underutilised fruit that can be found in Malaysia and other Asian countries. Since this fruit is not fully commercialised, the information about its potential health benefits is limited. Thus, this study was carried out to determine the polyphenolic contents (total phenolic and total flavonoid) and biological activities (antioxidant, alpha-glucosidase and antibacterial assay) of ‘Giant Green’ leaves and fruits at different maturity stages. The young, mature and old leaves, and unripe, half-ripened and ripened fruits were analysed. The results showed that the young leaves increased the TPC and TFC by 35% and 41%, over the old leaves. Similarly, TPC and TFC contents were 37% and 54% higher in unripe fruits compared to the ripened fruits. In addition, young leaves exhibited the strongest scavenging activity towards DPPH, NO and ABTS radicals with IC50 values increasing 1.6-fold, 1.7-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively, over the old leaves. However, in fruit samples, only unripe fruits were able to inhibit more than 50% of radicals. A comparable trend was observed in alpha-glucosidase inhibitory assay whereas young leaves and unripe fruits recorded 81% and 99% increases in IC50 values, respectively, from young leaves to old leaves and unripe fruits to ripened fruits. Identically, young leaves also showed a significant effect in antibacterial assay with an inhibition zone increase of 19%, 36%, 32%, and 31% in S. aureus, E. faecalis, S. typhimurium and E. coli, respectively, over the old leaves. However, only unripe fruits were most effective against all tested bacteria while half-ripened fruits were only effective against E. faecalis with a 1.1-fold increase in the inhibition zone compared to unripe fruits. Ripened fruits were resistant to all of the bacteria. These results suggest that the young leaves and unripe fruits of ‘Giant Green’ cultivar of S. samarangense could be a potential candidate for the management of some diseases coming from harmful free radicals or bacterial infection.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030326
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 327: Thidiazuron Promoted Microspore
           Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Curly Kale (Brassica oleracea
           L. convar. acephala var. sabellica)

    • Authors: Jiaqi Zou, Xiao Zou, Zhichao Gong, Gengxing Song, Jie Ren, Hui Feng
      First page: 327
      Abstract: Curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica), the most common type of edible kale, characterized by providing rich nutrition and health care functions, is sought after and has been listed as top of the healthiest vegetables in recent trends, and has aroused the interest of breeders in cultivating new varieties. However, it usually takes more than six years to obtain a homozygous kale inbred line for commercial seed production through conventional breeding procedures due to its long growth and development period. The isolated microspore culture (IMC) technique could be a time-saving alternative method for producing doubled haploid (DH) lines that are genetically homozygous. In this study, we successfully utilize the efficient cytokinin thidiazuron (TDZ) to promote microspore embryogenesis and plant regeneration in two curly kale cultivars (‘Winterbor F2’ and ‘Starbor F2’). Compared with the control (0 mg/L TDZ), all tested TDZ concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mg/L) had no adverse effects on embryogenesis, and 0.2 mg/L TDZ had an optimal effect on embryo survival and plant regeneration of the two genotypes. For ‘Starbor F2’, 0.2 mg/L TDZ treatment achieved the highest embryogenesis rate (1.83-fold higher than the control group) and direct seeding rate (1.61-fold increase), and the lowest mortality rate. Likewise, 0.2 mg/L TDZ increased the embryogenesis rate of ‘Winterbor F2’ by 1.62 times, the direct seeding rate by 1.61 times, and the mortality rate fell to the lowest. A 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 0.2 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) can significantly promote the rooting of the regenerated seedlings. These results provide new insights into the practical application of the IMC technique in shortening the breeding cycle of kale.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030327
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 328: Essential Oil Yield, Composition, and
           Antioxidant Activity in Two Umbel Maturity Stages of Wild Carrot (Daucus
           carota L. ssp. carota) from Montenegro

    • Authors: Jelena Stanojević, Zoran S. Ilić, Ljiljana Stanojević, Lidija Milenković, Renata Kovač, Dragana Lalević, Ljubomir Šunić, Aleksandra Milenković, Dragan Cvetković
      First page: 328
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity during two different maturation stages of umbels with seeds(I stage: premature–waxy; and II stage: mature–fully ripening) of wild carrot (Daucus carrota var. carota) from the Montenegrin coast. A higher yield of carrot essential oil (CEO) was determined in mature, fully ripening umbels (1.96 mL/100 g p.m) than in premature umbels at the waxy stage (mL/100 g p.m). Thirty-three components were identified in premature umbels, with β-bisabolene (32.3%), 11-α-(H)-himachal-4-en-1-β-ol (27.9%), elemicin (10.1%), and α-longipipene (7.7%) being the main components. They were followed by α-pinene (3.7%), (E)-asarone (3.4%), (E)-anethole (3.2%), and β-himachalene (2.0%). Thirty-two components were identified in CEO from mature umbels, with β-bisabolene (41.0%), 11-α-(H)-himachal-4-en-1-β-ol(21.1%), elemicin (14.8%), andα-longipipene (5.7%) being the most abundant. These components were followed by (E)-asarone (3.9%), cis-α-bisabolene (2.4%), and β-himachalene (2.0%). The CEO isolated from mature umbelsshowed better antioxidant activity (EC50 value of 31.80 mg/mL) in comparison to the CEO isolated from premature umbels (EC50 value of 49.18 mg/mL) during the incubation time of 60 min. The degree of DPPH radical neutralization increased as the incubation time increased from 20 to 60 min. Therefore, our findings recommend that wild carrot could be harvested in the fully ripening stage when the umbel improves CEO yield and antioxidant activity, without the risk of seed shedding from the umbel and seed losses.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030328
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 329: Polyploid Induction and Karyotype
           Analysis of Dendrobium officinale

    • Authors: Yang Liu, Shan-De Duan, Yin Jia, Li-Hong Hao, Di-Ying Xiang, Duan-Fen Chen, Shan-Ce Niu
      First page: 329
      Abstract: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is an orchid with both medicinal and edible values and a high economic value. The wild resources of D. officinale are in an endangered state. Compared with the wild D. officinale, cultivated D. officinale exhibits inferior quality and a low content of medicinal components. Polyploid induction is a conventional breeding tool for genome doubling of species, which can effectively increase the total amount of plant components to improve the medicinal efficacy of D. officinale. In this study, D. officinale tetraploids were generated by treating the protocorms with colchicine. Morphological observations showed that tetraploids exhibited decreased plant size and leaf shape index and increased stem diameter. Cytological observations showed that the polyploid plants had larger stomata and a lower number of stomata per unit area compared with normal plants. The highest stomata variation of 30.00% was observed when the plant was treated with 0.3% colchicine for 24 h. Chromosomal observations showed that treatment of plants with 0.2% colchicine for 48 h resulted in the highest tetraploid induction rate of 10.00%. A total of 10 tetraploids were successfully obtained by inducing plant protoplasts with colchicine. The number of diploid D. officinale chromosomes was 38 with a base number of 19, and the karyotype formula was 2n = 2x = 38 = 24m + 14sm with a karyotype asymmetry coefficient of 60.59%, belonging to type 2B. The number of tetraploid D. officinale chromosomes was 76 with a base number of 19, and the karyotype formula was 2n = 4x = 76 = 58m + 18sm with a karyotype asymmetry coefficient of 60.04%, belonging to type 2B. This study determined the optimal mutagenesis treatment based on the chromosome observation results, investigated the relationship between the phenotype and ploidy level, and generated the polyploid germplasm of D. officinale, thereby laying the foundation for the breeding of new D. officinale cultivars enriched with compounds of medicinal value.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030329
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 330: Exploring Effects of Exogenous Selenium
           on the Growth and Nutritional Quality of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.
           capitata L.)

    • Authors: Li Yu, Qiangwen Chen, Xiaoli Liao, Xiaoyan Yang, Wei Chao, Xin Cong, Weiwei Zhang, Yongling Liao, Jiabao Ye, Hua Qian, Yang Zhao, Shuiyuan Cheng, Feng Xu
      First page: 330
      Abstract: Selenium (Se) is an important trace element in human and animal health. Approximately 0.5–1 billion people worldwide are facing Se deficiency which can result in various endemic diseases. Cabbage is one of the most popular vegetables and can accumulate Se through biofortification. Therefore, producing Se-enriched cabbage may be an effective method to alleviate Se deficiency. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of selenite application on the growth and nutritional quality of cabbage were investigated and the results showed that the growth of cabbage was promoted at low concentrations of selenite (0.1–0.4 mmol/L) but inhibited at high concentrations (0.8–1.6 mmol/L). Concentrations of 0.1–0.2 mmol/L of selenite induced the accumulation of primary metabolites (soluble proteins, soluble sugars, and free amino acids), representative secondary metabolites (ascorbic acid, glucosinolates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids), and important antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) activity to improve the nutritional quality of cabbages. In addition, a higher concentration (0.8–1.6 mmol/L) of selenite proved beneficial in the accumulation of total Se and representative organic Se in cabbages. The main organic Se species in cabbage were selenomethionine (SeMet), accounting for 12.10% of total Se, followed by selenocysteine (SeCys2), accounting for 2.96% of total Se. It is suggested that an appropriate dose of exogenous selenite could be selected for different production purposes in cabbage cultivation. These findings are helpful for us to deeply understand the effects of selenite on the growth and nutritional quality of cabbages and to provide reliable technical support for vegetable cultivation and Se biofortification.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030330
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 331: Temperature and Light Spectrum
           Differently Affect Growth, Morphology, and Leaf Mineral Content of Two
           Indoor-Grown Leafy Vegetables

    • Authors: Yun Kong, Joseph Masabni, Genhua Niu
      First page: 331
      Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effect of three commercial LEDs of different spectra with or without far red (FR) photons on the growth, morphology, and mineral content of two leafy vegetables under two temperatures (30 °C and 21 °C). The two leafy greens were ‘Cegolaine’ lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and ‘Petite Star’ pak choy (Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis). In each temperature, there were three light spectra: red and blue LED, and white LED with or without FR. All spectra of lights were adjusted to a total photon flux density of 250 μmol m−2 s−1 at the top of the plant canopy. Results indicated that temperature treatment had a significant influence on most measured parameters. When temperature increased from 21 to 30 °C, lettuce shoot fresh and dry weights increased by 30% and 53%, respectively, while those of pak choy increased by approximately 22%. For both species, plants at high temperature had a larger leaf area but lower mineral content compared to those at low temperature. The spectrum treatment had a minor or no effect on the measured traits. In conclusion, the 5% FR did not impact the yield or biomass of either crop and the plant responses to spectra varied with temperature and species. The two temperatures resulted in significant differences in growth, morphology, and leaf mineral content in both species.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030331
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 332: Bioassessment of Phylogenetic
           Relatedness and Plant Growth Enhancement of Endophytic Bacterial Isolates
           from Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Plant Tissues

    • Authors: Olawale Israel Omomowo, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
      First page: 332
      Abstract: Cowpea is of great importance to people in most tropical countries of the world. It is the preeminent indigenous African legume and a frontline option for meeting the nutritional protein demands of people and livestock. The use of an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic fertilizers and agro-pesticides has, in recent times, become an attractive research theme. Therefore, bioprospecting for effective endophytic bacteria isolates as potential bioinoculants for enhancing cowpea productivity makes this research a priority. In this study, cowpea tissues were used to isolate and characterize endophytic bacterial strains through morpho-genotypic techniques and then assessed for their in vitro growth promotion, as well as their in planta growth potential in chamber experiments. In all, 33 endophytic bacterial strains were authenticated by sequencing the 16S rRNA and through further bioinformatics analysis. Also, plant-growth promoting (PGP) genes and seed germination percentage improvements were confirmed in the endophytic bacteria isolates. The research findings highlight that the bacterial strains are molecularly diverse and some of the authenticated endophytic bacteria isolates are potential bioinoculants that can be applied in further studies to improve the agronomic productivity of cowpea plant.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030332
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 333: Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and
           Anti-Insect Properties of Boswellia carterii Essential Oil for Food
           Preservation Improvement

    • Authors: Petra Borotová, Natália Čmiková, Lucia Galovičová, Nenad L. Vukovic, Milena D. Vukic, Eva Tvrdá, Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski, Maciej Ireneusz Kluz, Czeslaw Puchalski, Marianna Schwarzová, Ladislav Bakay, Miroslava Kačániová
      First page: 333
      Abstract: Boswellia carterii, known as frankincense, is a fragrant medicinal plant. The essential oil from this plant is often used in traditional medicine or aromatherapy. Due to its positive properties, it has potential applications as an antimicrobial agent in medicine and the food industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, anti-insect, and antioxidant activities of frankincense essential oil (FEO). The composition of volatile compounds was determined by GC/MS, and the main components were found to be α-pinene (37.0%), α-limonene (19.8%), and p-cymene (6.3%). The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH and ABTS methods with the resulting inhibition of 73.88 ± 0.35% of DPPH radical (6.27 ± 0.17 TEAC) and 97.09 ± 0.48% of ABTS radical cation (5.21 ± 0.07 TEAC). The antimicrobial activity was the strongest against Candida species with inhibition zones in the range of 16.00–19.00 mm and MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of 11.72 and 12.58 μL/mL, respectively. The inhibition activity of the vapor phase was the highest against G+ and G− bacteria growing on a carrot with inhibition ranging from 65.14 to 93.67%. The anti-insect activity against O. lavaterae was determined as 100% at 100% concentration and 50% at 25% concentration. The degradation of biofilm was tested with MALDI-TOF MS, and changes in the protein profile were observed.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030333
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 334: Horticultural Activities Participation
           and College Students’ Positive Mental Characters: Mediating Role of
           Academic Self-Efficacy

    • Authors: Siyuan Guo, Tongyu Li, Binxia Xue, Xiuxian Yang
      First page: 334
      Abstract: In recent years, the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, irregular closed school life and frequent online teaching have negatively impacted the mental health and academic performance of many college students. Doing horticultural activities is an effective way to promote physical and mental health and enhance academic performance. This paper explores the relationship between horticultural activities participation, academic self-efficacy and positive mental characters under the perspective of disciplinary integration, with a view to promoting the mental health status and academic performance of college students and the application of horticultural therapy on college campuses. Questionnaires such as the Positive Mental Characters Scale for Chinese College Students (PMCS-CCS) and Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES) are used to investigate 160 college students from four universities in China. The results show that horticultural activity participation is significantly positively correlated with academic self-efficacy (r = 0.345; p < 0.01) and positive mental characters (r = 0.298; p < 0.01), and horticultural activity participation can positively affect positive mental characters (B = 0.135, p < 0.01). At the same time, academic self-efficacy has a partial mediating effect between horticultural activity participation and positive mental characters. Universities can actively carry out campus horticultural activities to enhance students’ horticultural activity participation, which in turn promotes academic self-efficacy and further enhances the positive psychological level of college students.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030334
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 335: GIS-Facilitated Seed Germination,
           Fertilization Effects on Growth, Nutrient and Phenol Contents and
           Antioxidant Potential in Three Local Endemic Plants of Crete (Greece) with
           Economic Interest: Implications for Conservation and Sustainable

    • Authors: Stefanos Hatzilazarou, Stefanos Kostas, Elias Pipinis, Ioannis Anestis, Evgenia Papaioannou, Vasiliki Aslanidou, Parthena Tsoulpha, Manolis Avramakis, Nikos Krigas, George Tsoktouridis
      First page: 335
      Abstract: This multidisciplinary study is focused on the conservation and sustainable utilization of Lomelosia minoana (Dipsacaceae; subsp. minoana and subsp. asterusica) and Eryngium ternatum (Apiaceae), three local endemic plants of Crete (Greece) with economic interest. Using Geographical Information Systems and open-source geodatabases, detailed ecological profiles were compiled to illustrate the abiotic environmental conditions prevailing in their wild habitats. We examined for the first time temperature effects (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) on seed germination and fertilization effects (INM, integrated nutrient management, and chemical fertilization compared to control) on growth parameters and nutrient content of leaves as well as their phenol content and antioxidant potential. L. minoana subsp. asterusica germinated better at 15 °C (61.25%), subsp. minoana at 10 and 15 °C (30% and 27.50%, respectively) while E. ternatum did not show significant differences. The seedling fertilization with INM resulted in 10–15-fold higher absorption of copper without toxicity compared with chemical fertilization and the control; INM was also superior to chemical fertilization in most of the macronutrients in leaves. The total phenol content and the antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts were positively affected by chemical fertilization in L. minoana subsp. minoana and E. ternatum. Both fertilization treatments almost equally affected the morphological and physiological characteristics of the examined taxa. In light of the above-mentioned and the research gaps bridged for the studied taxa, we re-evaluated and updated both the feasibility and the readiness timescale for their sustainable exploitation in economic sectors.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030335
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 336: Molecular Characterization, Population
           Structure Analysis, and Association Mapping of Turkish Parsley Genotypes
           Using iPBS Markers

    • Authors: Ömer Faruk Coşkun
      First page: 336
      Abstract: Parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill.) is a vegetable that has many benefits for human health, and its cultivation is increasing. In order to carry out breeding studies in parsley, genotypes should be characterized in terms of some characteristics. In this study, some phytochemical properties of 18 different parsley genotypes were revealed, and their genetic diversity was determined with the iPBS (Inter Primary Binding Site) marker system. In the study, the polymorphism rate was 31.9%, the mean PIC (Polymorphic Information Content) was 0.17, and the similarity coefficients were between 0.87 and 0.99. The number of subpopulations was determined as two, and 10 markers were detected at expression levels of 19–33% related to phytochemical properties. The results of this study show that there is a phytochemical and genetic variation in parsley. Parsley genotypes with certain phytochemical properties and genetic structures can be used more effectively in breeding programs.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030336
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 337: Vermicompost and Vermicompost Leachate
           Application in Strawberry Production: Impact on Yield and Fruit Quality

    • Authors: Ranko Čabilovski, Maja S. Manojlović, Boris M. Popović, Milivoj T. Radojčin, Nenad Magazin, Klara Petković, Dragan Kovačević, Milena D. Lakićević
      First page: 337
      Abstract: Recycling organic waste is most important for preserving natural resources. The research objective was to quantify the effect of the application of vermicompost and vermicompost leachate on the yield and quality of strawberries and compare it with a standard fertilization program with mineral fertilizers during a 3-year production cycle. Five fertilization treatments were studied: control—without fertilizer (Ø); vermicompost (V); vermicompost + foliar application of vermicompost leachate (VL); vermicompost leachate through fertigation and foliar application (L); and mineral NPK fertilizers (NPK). The application of V positively affected strawberry yield only in the first year. In all three years of fruiting, the highest yield was measured for NPK treatment. In the first year, fertilization had no effect on fruit quality, while in the second and third years, the application of leachate led to a significantly higher concentration of total soluble solids, total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity of the fruit, and a lower concentration of total acid. Strawberries are grown for a two- or three-year production cycle, so the application of V and VL cannot maintain the yield level as was with the application of mineral NPK fertilizers. The quality of strawberry fruit, however, can be improved significantly.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030337
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 338: In Vitro Screening for Salinity
           Tolerance in Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    • Authors: Stanislava Grozeva, Slavka Kalapchieva, Ivanka Tringovska
      First page: 338
      Abstract: Soil salinity is one of the abiotic stress factors gaining importance in recent years due to the changing climate and rising temperatures. This possesses a serious risk to food security worldwide and a range of adaptations and mitigation strategies are required. Crop improvement through breeding is a possible solution to overcome salinity stress. In this respect, a study was designed to screen a collection from garden pea accessions to salinity tolerance in in vitro conditions. We analyzed the effects of four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) on seed germination, seedling emergence, shoot and root lengths, and plant fresh weight in 22 garden pea genotypes. Data showed that more of the pea genotypes are able to tolerate 50 mM NaCl concentration. The increasing of salt levels to 100 and 200 mM NaCl caused a significant decrease in germination and reduced the length and weight of shoots and roots. Among the genotypes, varieties Uspeh 72, Paldin, and Flora 6 were highly sensitive to salinity stress, while varieties Prometey, Musala, and Zornitsa were distinguished as more tolerant. The results depicted that salinity treatments had a more negative effect on plant growth than on seed germination, which is probably due to the in vitro conditions in which the experiments were conducted. The studied accessions of garden pea were sensitive to salt stress; nevertheless, some tolerant accessions were identified.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030338
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 339: The Aroma Volatile in
           ‘Nanguo’ Pear: A Review

    • Authors: Zhuoran Zhang, Zepeng Yin
      First page: 339
      Abstract: The aroma of fruit is an important indicator that reflects the quality of its flavor. The ‘Nanguo’ pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) is a typical fruit in Liaoning Province, China, that has an attractive aroma during fruit ripening. Fruit volatile compounds are primarily composed of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. The primary characteristic volatile compounds of the ‘Nanguo’ pear are esters. The contents of aldehydes decrease, and the contents of esters increase as the fruit ripens. The aroma changes from ‘green’ to ‘fruity.’ Thus, it has been a favorite of consumers in China and throughout the world for its attractive aroma. This review systematically summarizes advances in the research methods, components, types and biosynthetic pathways of volatile compounds, and the factors that affect the aroma volatiles in the ‘Nanguo’ pear, particularly the regulation by hormones that has been studied in recent years and delineates the research problems and prospects. The aim is to provide critical information for further research on the qualities of fruit flavor and provide a more scientific basis to improve the quality of fruit flavor during the development and storage of the ‘Nanguo’ pear.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030339
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 340: Nitrogen Interactions Cause Soil
           Degradation in Greenhouses: Their Relationship to Soil Preservation in

    • Authors: Waleed Awadelkareem, Mohammed Haroun, Juanjuan Wang, Xiaoqing Qian
      First page: 340
      Abstract: Proper greenhouse fertilization is crucial for establishing high-quality yields, particularly as food demand grows. In this review, the effect of fertilizers, specifically nitrogen, on greenhouses and degradation caused by nitrogen interactions are critically evaluated based on a literature analysis. Nitrogen (N) fertilizers, which represent reactive or biologically accessible nitrogen in soil, are currently used in agricultural systems. Soil, water, and air are endangered by reactive nitrogen pollution. Increasing food demand causes a rise in N fertilizer use, which harms the environment and living organisms. In developing countries, more N is used per capita than in underdeveloped countries. Greenhouse agriculture accounts for 3.6% of total agricultural production. It was revealed that greenhouses in China often get 13–17 times as much nitrogen fertilizer as traditional farming. N was overused abundantly throughout the year, which led to soil acidity, nutritional imbalance, and secondary salinization. Studies on soil salinization and secondary salinization in China date back 70 years. This review attempts to draw attention to the soil damage in greenhouses caused by excessive nitrogen. Nitrate leaching and soil acidity received special attention in this review. Numerous eco-friendly techniques for avoiding soil degradation brought on by the execessive use of fertilizer are also discussed.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030340
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 341: Evaluation of the Effect of 1-MCP
           Treatment on Flesh and Surface Color of Selected European and Asian Plum
           Fruit Using Machine Vision

    • Authors: Nga Thi Thanh Ha, Thanh Tung Pham, Hoa Xuan Mac, Lien Le Phuong Nguyen, Zsuzsanna Horváth-Mezofi, Mónika Göb, Quang Duc Nguyen, László Baranyai, Tamás Zsom, László Ferenc Friedrich, Géza Hitka
      First page: 341
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate how 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment affects appearance of plum fruit. Fruit of ‘Angeleno’ and ‘Topend’ cultivars were treated with 625 ppb gaseous 1-MCP at 1 °C for 24 h after harvest. Samples without treatment, called control, and those subjected to the treatment were stored at 1 °C for 8 weeks (Topend) and 10 weeks (Angeleno). The subgroup of initial samples and those withdrawn from cold storage were also measured after 7 d storage at 20 °C. According to measured parameters of ethylene, CO2 production, firmness, and total soluble solids content, there was a clear difference between 1-MCP- treated and control samples for both cultivars. Color attributes of hue angle and saturation changed significantly during storage, especially for flesh color measured on fruit cut in half. The comparison revealed that saturation responded more sensitively to changes. Firmness correlated significantly with color attributes, and flesh saturation reached the highest value of Pearson’s correlation of r = 0.608 (p < 0.01) and Spearman’s rank correlation of ρ = 0.636 (p < 0.01). The specific plum color was also evaluated with a normalized blue value, which obtained significant linear correlation with firmness (r = −0.7414, p < 0.001). There was significant difference between cultivars in terms of surface color and its correlation with firmness as Pearson’s correlation obtained r = 0.833 (p < 0.001) for ‘Topend’ and r = 0.556 (p > 0.05) for ‘Angeleno’.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030341
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 342: Measuring the Impact of Relative
           Deprivation on Tea Farmers’ Pesticide Application Behavior: The Case
           of Shaanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang, and Anhui Province, China

    • Authors: Xiuling Ding, Qian Lu, Lipeng Li, Hua Li, Apurbo Sarkar
      First page: 342
      Abstract: Reducing chemical interaction within core farming tactics has gained much attention worldwide due to ever-increasing water, soil, and air pollution trends caused by various agricultural activities. Since, in the developing countries, tea is primarily produced conventionally, clarifying the impact of relative deprivation on the pesticide application rate of tea farmers is conducive to promoting the reduction of pesticides and the green development of the tea industry. Thus, based on extensive literature reviews, the study constructs a theoretical framework of relative deprivation and pesticide application rate by tea farmers. Moreover, the moderating effect of external intervention and behavioral factors has also been assessed. A data set of 786 tea farmers’ responses from Shaanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang, and Anhui provinces has been utilized to test, outline and validate the proposed framework. We utilized the Ordered Probit model to measure the psychological fluctuation of tea farmers. The results are as follows. (i) The more substantial their perception of relative deprivation, the more tea farmers tend to increase the application rate. (ii) In external interventions, the degree of government regulation can not only directly promote the reduction of pesticide application but also play a negative regulatory role between the relative deprivation and the amount of pesticide applied by tea farmers. Although the degree of community control can directly promote the reduction of pesticide application by tea farmers, its regulating effect is insignificant. (iii) Regarding behavioral ability, the management scale can directly promote the reduction of pesticide application by tea farmers, but its regulating impact is not significant. Thus, government should highlight the importance of organic and environmentally friendly tea cultivation and encourage tea farmers to reduce pesticide application. Along with the market regulation, point-of-sale testing and traceability of pesticide residues should continue to be consolidated, strengthened and improved.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030342
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 343: Differential Responses of Cherry
           Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) to Long-Term Heat Stress

    • Authors: Bo-Mi Park, Hyo-Bong Jeong, Eun-Young Yang, Min-Kyoung Kim, Ji-Won Kim, Wonbyoung Chae, Oak-Jin Lee, Sang Gyu Kim, Sumin Kim
      First page: 343
      Abstract: As global warming increases day/night temperatures as well as frequencies of heat waves, studying physiological responses in long-term heat stress is required for sustainable yield production in the future. In this study, effects of long-term heat stress on photosynthetic, morphological, and yield parameters of three cherry tomato accessions, HR17, HR22, and HR24, were evaluated. The experiment was conducted under two temperature greenhouse conditions, where temperature set-point for ventilation was 30 °C and 35 °C during the day for 57 days, respectively. Plants were harvested on the 35th days and 57th days after heat treatments, and their physiological and morphological characteristics and yield traits were measured. Under control conditions, HR17 and HR22 had 0.5–0.6 harvest index, while HR24 had 0.3 harvest index. On 35th days after heat treatment, although yield loss percentage of HR17 was high (43%), it produced the highest fruit yield among all three accessions. However, after longer heat treatment, HR24 produced the highest fruit yields among all accessions with the smallest yield loss (34%). Furthermore, yield loss was highly associated with reductions in nitrogen use efficiency and water content in plant body under heat stress. The results of this study will provide breeders with a new insight into selecting heat-tolerant genotypes in cherry tomatoes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030343
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 344: Effects of Different Irrigation Regimes
           and Nitrogen Fertilization on the Physicochemical and Bioactive
           Characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    • Authors: Susana Marlene Barrales-Heredia, Onécimo Grimaldo-Juárez, Ángel Manuel Suárez-Hernández, Ricardo Iván González-Vega, Jairo Díaz-Ramírez, Alejandro Manelik García-López, Roberto Soto-Ortiz, Daniel González-Mendoza, Rey David Iturralde-García, Ramón Francisco Dórame-Miranda, Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez
      First page: 344
      Abstract: The availability of water and nitrogen in the soil affect the metabolism of onion bulbs. The synthesis of metabolites and bioactive compounds are the most affected, along with the quality of the onion bulbs However, it is necessary to know the effects of different water levels and nitrogen fertilization to optimize the quality of the onion. The objective of this research was to study the effects of the different conditions of hydric stress and nitrogen fertilization during the development of onion (Allium cepa L.) crop, regarding its physicochemical and bioactive properties. Onions were grown using four available irrigation regimes (25, 50, 75 and 100%) and four doses of nitrogen fertilization (100, 150, 200 and 250 kg N ha−1). Onion without any treatment was considered as a control. The treatments low in irrigation and nitrogen fertilization increased the pH level (5.7 to 5.9) and bulb coloration in bright white/yellowish tones. An increase was observed compared to control in titratable acidity (0.13%) just in the nitrogen content, ascorbic acid (46%) and antioxidant capacity with DPPH (12.3%) and ABTS (93.7%). A decrease was shown in soluble solids (14.6%), firmness (3.5 kg cm−2), dry matter (6.6%), total phenols (50%) and FRAP (33.2%) values. Pyruvic acid remained constant (1.5 µmol g−1 FW). The onion bulb extracts showed an erythroprotective effect with a hemolysis inhibition percentage higher than 95%. Finally, the onions had low pungency, and were soft and extra sweet. The treatments with 25% usable humidity and nitrogen fertilization of 150 and 250 kg ha−1, favored the physical, chemical and bioactive quality of the onion bulb.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030344
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 345: Phylogeny, Expression Profiling, and
           Coexpression Networks Reveals the Critical Roles of
           Nucleotide-BindingLeucine-Rich Repeats on Valsa Canker Resistance

    • Authors: Yanan Cao, Hongqiang Yu, Dan Tian, E. Sun, Longgang Zuo, Daji Jiang, Cunwu Zuo, Ruiyi Fan
      First page: 345
      Abstract: Rosaceae is one of the major families in the plant kingdom with important economic value. However, many of them are attacked by Valsa canker, resulting in serious loss of production and profits. Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeats (NLRs) play a key role in the plant immune response as the largest class of resistance genes. Currently, we performed a genome-wide identification of NLR genes in Rosaceae and revealed some NLR genes in response to Valsa canker using multispecies bioinformatics including co-expression network analysis and RNASeq data. A total of 3718 NLR genes were identified from genomes of 19 plant species (include 9 Rosaceae plants) and classified them into 15 clades. The NLRs display species- and group-specific expansions that are derived from both the whole genome duplication and the tandem duplication. Additionally, the expression of some NLR members was low under normal growth conditions in various plant tissues, while significantly enhanced after the infection of Valsa canker. Furthermore, co-expression network analysis shows that the 13 NLR members were distributed in key nodes of differentially expressed genes which could be considered as promosing key regulators for the resistance of Valsa canker. Therefore, our findings provide a reference for the evolution of NLR genes in Rosaceae and the key regulators of Valsa canker resistance.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030345
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 346: Use of Bacteria Isolated from Berry
           Rhizospheres as Biocontrol Agents for Charcoal Rot and Root-Knot Nematode
           Strawberry Diseases

    • Authors: María Camacho, Berta de los Santos, María Dolores Vela, Miguel Talavera
      First page: 346
      Abstract: Strawberry is a high-value crop in Spain, where fruits for fresh consumption are produced off-season and exported to central and northern European countries. Soil-borne pathogens (SBP), such as Macrophomina phaseolina and Meloidogyne hapla, are widely spread in strawberry crops in Spain. The prevalence of these pathogens is a significant barrier to producing strawberries of premium quality and at profitable yields. The current ban on fumigant pesticides drives the search for alternative SBP control methods that can simultaneously control both SBP. Twenty-nine bacterial strains were isolated and identified from strawberry and blueberry rhizospheres and screened for plant growth promotion activities as well as for biocontrol potential on M. phaseolina and M. hapla. Two of these bacterial strains (Bacillus velezensis FC37 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC17), together with Brevibacterium frigoritolerans Hvs8 coming from IFAPA’s bacterial collection, were selected and evaluated in planta for their biocontrol potential on strawberry SBP diseases caused by M. phaseolina and M. hapla. The three tested bacterial strains reduced charcoal rot disease severity, crown incidence and severity, and petiole colonization by M. phaseolina. Root-knot nematode (RKN) symptoms were reduced by P. aeruginosa AC17 and B. velezensis FC37, but RKN reproduction was only reduced in plants inoculated with P. aeruginosa AC17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC17 showed the greatest potential as a biocontrol agent candidate to be included in integrated disease management programs to control the two most prevalent soil-borne pathogens of strawberry in Spain.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030346
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 347: Profile of Bioactive Compounds in Orange
           Juice Related to the Combination of Different Scion/Rootstocks, Packaging
           and Storage

    • Authors: Rafaelly Calsavara Martins, Sarita Leonel, Jackson Mirellys Azevedo Souza, Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima, Magali Leonel, Fernando Ferrari Putti, Gean Charles Monteiro, Patrícia Graosque Ülguim Züge, Gabriel Maluf Napoleão, Ricardo Figueira, Jaime Duarte Filho
      First page: 347
      Abstract: Citrus scion/rootstock combinations alter the concentration of bioactive compounds in orange juice. The shelf life of freshly squeezed juice can be maximized through packaging and storage. The profiles of ascorbic (AA), dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), and phenolic compounds were analyzed in juices of four sweet orange scions, Sanguínea de Mombuca (SM), Rubi (R), Lue Gin Gong (LGG), and Valência Delta Seedless (VDS), grafted onto ‘Rangpur’ lime (RL) and ‘Swingle’ citrumelo (SC) rootstocks. The juices obtained from the combination of the ‘Rubi’ orange in both rootstocks stood out by their higher concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA). Overall, all SC-grafted scions showed higher AA and DHAA and some phenolic compound concentrations. In all combinations, phenolic compounds showed the highest concentrations in the juices at the time of fruit extraction and decreased during storage. Dark packaging provided higher bioactive compounds in juices stored for longer periods. These findings can contribute to the diversification of scion/rootstock cultivars in order to increase the variety of orchards by choosing the best combinations for pasteurized orange juice with higher nutritional value.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030347
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 348: Biostimulation Effects of Seaweed
           Extract (Ascophyllum nodosum) on Phytomorpho-Physiological, Yield, and
           Quality Traits of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    • Authors: Lakshmi Subramaniyan, Ravichandran Veerasamy, Jeyakumar Prabhakaran, Anandakumar Selvaraj, Senthil Algarswamy, Kalarani M. Karuppasami, Kalaiselvi Thangavel, Sakthivel Nalliappan
      First page: 348
      Abstract: Biostimulants are innovative organic tools, which promote the growth, plant development, production, and quality of various crops without harming the environment; however, the effects of biostimulants on the production of tomato needed to be explored further under open field conditions. Based on this view, this study’s objective was to assess the impact of Kendal Root, a biostimulant-containing seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, and plant extracts on the phytomorpho-physiological, yield, and quality of tomato. Three doses of Kendal Root (2.5, 5.0, and 10 L ha−1) were given as soil drenching, and the results were compared with control. Generally, the Kendal Root treatments positively improved the growth, physiological, yield, and quality attributes of tomato. However, among the three different concentrations, Kendal Root 5.0 L ha−1 significantly improved the plant growth and physiological aspects of tomato, such as plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, SPAD value, and gas exchange parameters. Considering the yield traits, the Kendal Root 5.0 L ha−1 application significantly improved the tomato fruit number, yield per plant, and yield per hectare. Conversely, flower number per plant and average fruit weight was not remarkably improved by Kendal Root 5.0 L ha−1. Moreover, Kendal Root 5.0 L ha−1 positively improved the quality traits of tomato, including total soluble solids, ascorbic acid content, lycopene, and total sugars than the titratable acidity content of tomato fruits. Hence, the integration of Kendal Root biostimulant in tomato production could be an effective way to boost plant growth, production, and quality of tomato.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030348
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 349: Hydroponic Cultivation of Medicinal
           Plants—Plant Organs and Hydroponic Systems: Techniques and Trends

    • Authors: Hallam R. Atherton, Pomin Li
      First page: 349
      Abstract: Medicinal plants are a globally important resource for the treatment of disease and improvement of human health, and the only form of healthcare used by millions of people. Currently, the status of many medicinal species is threatened by overharvesting caused by increasing demand. While many species have been cultivated in soil, the resulting material often contains lower levels of medicinal compounds than that of wild-harvested plants. Hydroponic cultivation of medicinal plants may provide sustainable access, with research demonstrating increased secondary metabolite content in some species compared to both wild and soil-grown plants. There are a variety of hydroponic systems and techniques available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. As medicinal compounds are often localised within specific plant organs, selecting hydroponic systems that maximise the yield of the desired organs and metabolites is necessary. However, as of yet there has been no attempt to examine the literature with regards to the cultivation of specific plant organs of medicinal plants in hydroponics. This article explores the use of different hydroponic systems to cultivate medicinal plants and how the choice of system differs depending on the desired plant organ, as well as highlighting studies with novel outcomes that may provide value to the field.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030349
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 350: Influence of Different Liquid Spray
           Pollination Parameters on Pollen Activity of Fruit Trees—Pear Liquid
           Spray Pollination as an Example

    • Authors: Limin Liu, Ziyan Liu, Hu Han, Yulin Jiang, Xiongkui He, Yajia Liu, Dongsheng Wang, Xianping Guo, Zhao Liang
      First page: 350
      Abstract: Liquid spray pollination (LSP) is widely used in fruit tree pollination. However, the LSP parameters that affect the pollen activity are still unclear. In this study, three LSP parameters that mainly affect the pollen activity were studied: storage time of pollen suspensions, sprayer parameters and unmanned aerial vehicle sprayer (UAVS) downwash airflow. In addition, sprayer parameters include the recirculation device, pump type, spraying pressure, nozzle size and revolutions per minute (rpm) of the rotary atomizer (RA). The results showed that, with the exception of nozzle size and UAVS downwash airflow, the pollen activity was significantly influenced by LSP parameters. The mean pollen activity decreased by 20.20% when the pollen suspension was stored for 30 min compared to 0 min. The activity of pollen in the tank was dramatically reduced using the recirculation device. The mean pollen activity decreases as the pump production maximum pressure increases. The mean pollen activity decreased from 40.7% to 29.02% when the spraying pressure increased from 0.3 MPa to 2.5 MPa. Additionally, the mean pollen activity decreased from 44.25% to 14.14% as the rpm of RA increased from 3000 rpm to 14,000 rpm. Our study demonstrated that pollen activity would be ensured by appropriate LSP parameters. This study provides a reliable theoretical basis for optimizing and advancing pear LSP technology.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030350
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 351: Biocomposite Coatings Delay Senescence
           in Stored Diospyros kaki Fruits by Regulating Antioxidant Defence
           Mechanism and Delaying Cell Wall Degradation

    • Authors: Muhammad Shahzad Saleem, Shaghef Ejaz, Walid F. A. Mosa, Sajid Ali, Hasan Sardar, Muhammad Moaaz Ali, Sami Ullah, Hayssam M. Ali, Anna Lisek, Muhammad Akbar Anjum
      First page: 351
      Abstract: Climacteric rise in the rate of respiration and ethylene production in harvested persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruits leads to early onset of fruit tissue senescence. Therefore, this study was carried out to maintain the quality of stored persimmons by using edible coatings. For this purpose, Aloe vera gel was combined with food hydrocolloids, gum arabic or tragacanth gum, and applied on persimmon fruits that were stored for 20 days at 20 ± 1 °C and 80–85% RH. Biocomposite coatings, compared to control, remarkably reduced weight loss, decay incidence, respiration rate, ethylene production, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, H2O2 and superoxide anion content in stored fruits. The use of composite coatings inhibited colour change by reducing the accumulation of total carotenoids, maintained higher antioxidative enzymes activity and suppressed the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes, resultantly preserving cell wall components. Composite coated fruits exhibited the least change in biochemical attributes and higher sensory scores in comparison with non-coated fruits at the end of the storage period. In conclusion, Aloe vera gel/gum arabic was the most effective coating treatment before storing persimmons.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030351
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 352: Impact of Sodium Hypochlorite Applied as
           Nutrient Solution Disinfectant on Growth, Nutritional Status, Yield, and
           Consumer Safety of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Fruit Produced in a
           Soilless Cultivation

    • Authors: Maira Lykogianni, Eleftheria Bempelou, Ioannis Karavidas, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos A. Aliferis, Dimitrios Savvas
      First page: 352
      Abstract: Soilless crop production is spread worldwide. It is a cultivating technique that enhances yield quality and quantity, thus contributing to both food safety and food security. However, in closed-loop soilless crops, the risk of spreading soil-borne pathogens through the recycled nutrient solution makes the establishment of a disinfection strategy necessary. In the current study, sodium hypochlorite was applied to the recycled nutrient solution as a chemical disinfectant to assess its impact on plant growth, leaf gas exchange, fruit yield, tissue mineral composition, and possible accumulation of chlorate and perchlorate residues in tomato fruits. The application of 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg L−1 of chlorine three times at fortnightly intervals during the cropping period had no impact on plant growth or gas exchange parameters. Furthermore, the application of 2.5 mg L−1 of chlorine led to a significant increase in the total production of marketable fruits (total fruit weight per plant). No consistent differences in nutrient concentrations were recorded between the treatments. Moreover, neither chlorate nor perchlorate residues were detected in tomato fruits, even though chlorate residues were present in the nutrient solution. Therefore, the obtained tomatoes were safe for consumption. Further research is needed to test the application of chlorine in combination with crop inoculation with pathogens to test the efficiency of chlorine as a disinfectant in soilless nutrient solutions.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030352
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 353: Comparative Study on the Behavior of
           Some Old Apple Varieties before and after Their Grafting, with Potential
           for Use in Urban Horticulture

    • Authors: Olimpia Alina Iordănescu, Isidora Radulov, Ionuț Dascălu, Adina Berbecea, Dorin Camen, Manuela Dora Orboi, Cristian Constantin Călin, Tamara Edina Gal
      First page: 353
      Abstract: Urban horticulture has to respond to several challenges, including reducing the growth vigor of the scion/rootstock combination, adapting the cultivated species/variety to the pedoclimatic conditions—more varied in recent years, and increasing tolerance to diseases and pests that cause extensive qualitative and quantitative damage to fruit production. For this experiment, 15 old apple varieties were chosen, all known and cultivated in the Banat area, which were grafted on the MM106 rootstock. Several parameters were analyzed that can be used for a relevant classification for planting them in limited spaces, such as in a private garden. Our research started 10 years ago and has already resulted in a doctoral thesis that extensively presents the data taken from the initial biological material and the first two years after grafting the trees; the research continued and is still ongoing in the experimental orchard. From the multitude of aspects studied, we have chosen to present some results related to the vigor of the scion/rootstock combination, the quality of the fruits, their content in acidity as well as the behavior with respect to diseases and pests—results that can be useful to those who want to grow old apple varieties in their own garden. Growth vigor was reduced in most varieties, but the highest influence of the rootstock on growth was observed in the ‘Bănățenesc’ variety, followed by ‘Jonathan de Munte’ and ‘Caslere’. Grafting and agrotechniques had a positive influence on the fruit mass in all cultivars, except ‘Crețesc’, with an experimental average of 163.35 g, namely 60.56 g higher on average than that of the original biological material. After grafting, the SSC was between 10.05 °Brix in the ‘Curcubătoase’ variety and 18.48 °Brix in ‘Parmen Auriu’, with an experimental average of 14.96 °Brix. The fruit acidity oscillated between 0.13 g/100 g in ‘Florănești’ and ‘Pătul’ varieties and 0.46 g/100 g in ‘Domnesc’, with an experimental average of 0.25 g/100 g.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030353
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 354: Exogenous β-Aminobutyric Acid
           (BABA) Improves the Growth, Essential Oil Content, and Composition of
           Grapefruit Mint (Mentha suaveolens × piperita) under Water Deficit
           Stress Conditions

    • Authors: Soghra Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Reza Morshedloo, Farhad Behtash, Hasan Mumivand, Filippo Maggi
      First page: 354
      Abstract: Grapefruit mint, Mentha suaveolens × M. piperita, belonging to the Lamiaceae family, is an important medicinal plant with applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food, and nutraceutical industries. Environmental factors such as cold, salinity, and water deficit significantly impact the quantity and quality of the active compounds of medicinal plants. To examine the effects of drought stress and β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) as an elicitor on the biochemical characteristics and essential oil (EO) profile of grapefruit mint, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD) with two factor and three replications under greenhouse conditions. The first factor included field moisture capacity (FC) as the control (100% FC), mild (75% FC), moderate (55% FC), and severe water deficit stress (35% FC), while the second factor consisted of 0 (control plants without BABA), 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4 mM of BABA foliar application. Water stress and BABA application significantly affected the EO content and composition of grapefruit mint. The highest content of EO was observed in mild drought stress and BABA spraying at 1.6 to 2.4 mM, which increased by about 140% compared with the control condition. The EO components were identified using GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. Linalool (33.7–47.3%) and linalool acetate (31.2–52%) were the most abundant compounds. The highest content of linalool acetate was observed in severe drought stress (35% FC) with foliar application of BABA (1.6 mM), which increased by 33.86% compared with the control condition. However, the highest content of linalool was observed under normal irrigation with foliar application of 0.8 to 1.6 mM BABA. Based on the results, severe drought stress reduced the total chlorophyll and carotenoids by 81.76 and 64.6% compared with the control condition, respectively. Water stress and the foliar application of BABA significantly affected the activity of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, APX; guaiacol peroxides, GPX; and superoxide dismutase, SOD). The application of 1.6 mM BABA significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes under water stress conditions. Finally, our results showed that the application of BABA (mainly at 1.6 mM) can improve the grapefruit mint yield and EO profile under water stress conditions.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030354
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 355: Foliar Spraying of ZnO Nanoparticals on
           Curcuma longa Had Increased Growth, Yield, Expression of Curcuminoid
           Synthesis Genes, and Curcuminoid Accumulation

    • Authors: Salah Khattab, Mayyadah Abdullah Alkuwayti, Yun-Kiam Yap, Ahmed M. A. Meligy, Mohammad Bani Ismail, Fadia El Sherif
      First page: 355
      Abstract: ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) can be considered a highly efficient Zn source that has been widely used in agriculture to promote crop development and productivity. The turmeric (Curcuma longa) plant has several medical properties, and its rhizome is utilized as a spice in the food sector. In this work, C. longa leaves were sprayed with various concentrations of ZnO NPs to inspect their effect on growth, yield, and bioactive compound compositions. ZnO NPs considerably increased tumeric productivity, yield, and curcuminoid content versus the control treatment. The ZnO NPs concentration of 10 mgL−1 was found to be the optimum concentration for producing the highest C. longa yields, while the concentration of 40 mgL−1 promoted positive effects on photosynthetic pigments, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and curcumin contents. This demonstrates that ZnO nano-fertilizer promotes plant growth, yield characteristics, and curcuminoid component synthesis, and its application is therefore notably beneficial for progressive sustainable C. longa agriculture.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030355
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 356: Insecticide Efficacy against Earias
           Species Infestation of Okra and Residue Analysis of Chlorantraniliprole
           under Field Conditions in India

    • Authors: Sindhu Sheoran, Deepika Kalkal, Reena Chauhan, Krishna Rolania, Sushil Ahlawat, Amy-Marie Gilpin
      First page: 356
      Abstract: A field study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 10 recommended insecticides against Earias spp. on okra. Three okra plots (3 × 5 m2) were subjected to each of the 10 insecticidal sprays applied twice at an interval of 10 days. On the third, seventh, and tenth day after each spray, percent shoot and fruit infestation and yield were calculated. All insecticides significantly reduced shoot and fruit infestation compared to the control. However, chlorantraniliprole 18.5%SC was the most effective across all time points and resulted in the highest yield. A second field study, to determine the time till the maximum residue limit (MRL—0.3 mg/kg) and the limit of quantification (LOQ—0.01 mg/kg) for both fruit and soil exposed to either the recommended (125 mL/ha) or a double strength dose (250 mL/ha) of chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC was undertaken. MRL was reached on the same day following both doses. The LOQ was reached on the seventh and tenth day at recommended and a double strength dose, respectively. Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC provides effective control. However, Earias spp. resistance has been observed in other crops. Thus, constant monitoring in the field is needed to ensure its effectiveness.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030356
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 357: Marker-Assisted Selection of
           Male-Sterile and Maintainer Line in Chili Improvement by Backcross

    • Authors: Aatjima Na Jinda, Maneechat Nikornpun, Nakarin Jeeatid, Siwaporn Thumdee, Kamon Thippachote, Tonapha Pusadee, Jutamas Kumchai
      First page: 357
      Abstract: Cytoplasmic genic male sterility (CGMS) is a male sterility system that uses the maternal line for hybrid production, ensuring no obscurity of F1 seed purity and reducing the cost of hybrid seed production. Identification of the male sterility gene is important for plant improvement and classification when using the molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) method. This study aimed to produce a new maternal line (A-line) and its maintainer line (B-line) by transferring a male-sterile line (A-line) and its maintainer line (B-line) gene from another variety to restorer lines (C-line) to achieve future hybrid seed production. In the process, the CGMS line (A-line) and B-line transferred to C1 and C3 lines, which finally resulted in new A-line (BC2F2A1 × C1, BC2F2A1 × C3), and B-line (BC1F2B1 × C1, BC1F2B1 × C3), and then used the MAS method for detecting genes and pollen viability test in the newly improved lines. The results indicated that the 3336-last2-SCAR (1639 bp) and 4162-SCAR (1046 bp) DNA markers classified the Rf locus, and the CMS-SCAR130/140 marker confirmed the S or N cytoplasm. The BC2F2A1 × C1 and BC2F2A1 × C3 lines represented both male-fertile (SRf_) and male-sterile (Srfrf) progenies in a Mendelian ratio of 3:1. Moreover, stained pollen grains with 1% acetocarmine confirmed abnormal pollen in male-sterile plants. The molecular markers that detect maintainer lines (Nrfrf) are BC1F2B1 × C1-14, BC1F2B1 × C3-10, and BC1F2B1 × C3-11. The 3336-last2-SCAR (1639 bp) and CMS-SCAR130/140 markers successfully identified the male-sterile line (Srfrf) and maintainer line (Nrfrf), and 4162-SCAR (1046 bp) detected the presence of the RfRf or Rfrf genotype in chilies at the seedling stage. The use of these markers was highly accurate and confirmed the results at the early generation stage of a conventional breeding program. It can be concluded that the CGMS and maintainer gene in chilies were successfully transferred during early generation using the backcross method.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030357
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 358: Comparative Study of Cypripedium Plant
           Photosynthetic Characteristics from Changbai Mountain

    • Authors: Lifei Chen, Shuang Li, Ying Li, Yuqing Zhang, Yun Bai, Hao Cong, Wei Liu, Yunwei Zhou
      First page: 358
      Abstract: This study reports on extensive and in-depth investigations into the morphological, photosynthetic, and physiological indices of 10 different types of Cypripedium plant introduced from Changbai Mountain. It is an important prerequisite for the ex situ conservation of Cypripedium plants to provide new insights into their photosynthesis. This result can not only promote the production of vegetative plants but also promote the production of plants with lots of flowers and the physiological characteristics of Cypripedium plants for promoting the artificial introduction and cultivation of wild resources. A critical comparison of the results showed that high light intensity is one of the causes of the reduction in photosynthesis in the samples. Cypripedium macranthum had the most morphological advantages, while Cypripedium guttatum, the smallest plant type, had the lowest plant morphogenesis. Photoinhibition began daily at 12:00 pm and reached a second peak at 14:00 pm in all 10 types. C. macranthum, Cypripedium ventricosum, and Cypripedium calceolus had greater photosynthetic capacity than the other types. Using principal component analysis, the order of photosynthetic physiological characteristics of the 10 Cypripedium plants was CCMY > CVPP > CCRY > CMPP > CVRR > CSPY > CMWW > CMLL > CMDD > CGWW. These results lay the groundwork for future research on Cypripedium resource distribution and artificial conservation.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030358
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 359: Bibliometric Mapping of School Garden
           Studies: A Thematic Trends Analysis

    • Authors: Dante Castillo, Alejandro Vega-Muñoz, Guido Salazar-Sepúlveda, Nicolás Contreras-Barraza, Mario Torres-Alcayaga
      First page: 359
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the thematic trends in school garden studies over the past few decades, using a relational bibliometric methodology on a corpus of 392 articles and review articles indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection. The paper seeks to understand how researchers have studied the concept over the last few decades in various disciplines, spanning approximately eighty Web of Science categories. The results show that there is a critical mass of scientific research studying school gardens. The analysis shows the thematic trends in discussion journals, discussion terminology, and consolidates classic papers and some novel authors and papers. The studies and their theoretical trends lead to refocusing the analysis on the effects of school gardens beyond the educational, thanks to the contribution of authors from more than fifty countries engaged in the study of these activities. This work constitutes new challenges for this line of research, raising interdisciplinary research challenges between horticultural, environmental, technological, educational, social, food, nutritional, and health sciences.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030359
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 360: Virus-Induced Silencing of a Sequence
           Coding for Loricrin-Like Protein in Phytophthora infestans upon Infection
           of a Recombinant Vector Based on Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    • Authors: Rossella Labarile, Annamaria Mincuzzi, Roberta Spanò, Tiziana Mascia
      First page: 360
      Abstract: Phytophthora infestans is the oomycete responsible for late blight disease of Solanaceae that causes both yield and economic losses. With the aim of reducing plant wilt and high management costs mainly due to wide fungicide applications, alternative eco-sustainable control strategies are needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for gene function studies that can be accomplished by constitutive transformation or transient expression such as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) experiments. VIGS makes use of viruses to deliver sequences homologous to a target gene fragment and trigger RNAi. Indeed, a P. infestans ortholog of plant loricrin-like protein (LLP), named PiLLP, has been silenced using the direct infection of a recombinant vector based on the plant virus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-PiLLP-1056), aiming to reduce the oomycete sexual reproduction. For this purpose, the gene coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) present in the TMV-GFP-1056 vector has been replaced with an antisense construct obtained by fusion PCR of the PiLLP 5′-UTR and 3′-UTR sequences. Here, we show that RNAi can be expressed in the A1 mating type of P. infestans strain by VIGS using the direct infection of TMV-PiLLP-1056. We provide evidence that the recombinant vector can enter, replicate, and persist in mycelia of P. infestans where it induces the partial downregulation of the PiLLP transcript. Compared with the wild-type, the PiLLP-silenced A1 mating type had slower colony growth and a diminished virulence in detached tomato leaflets. This seems to be the first evidence of a constitutive gene downregulation of P. infestans using a recombinant vector based on a plus-sense RNA plant virus.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030360
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 361: Exploring the Relationship between
           Genomic Variation and Phenotype in Ornamental Pomegranate: A Study of
           Single and Double-Petal Varieties

    • Authors: Yan Huo, Han Yang, Wenjie Ding, Zhaohe Yuan, Zunling Zhu
      First page: 361
      Abstract: The double-petal varieties of ornamental pomegranate have higher ornamental value and garden development potential than the single-petal varieties but there has been no study on the genomic variation between them. This study aimed to determine the genomic variation between the two kinds of varieties and the relationship between the variation and phenotype by identifying the DNA variation of three single-petal varieties and three double-petal varieties using re-sequencing technology. The results showed that the variation number of each variety was in the order of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) > insertions and deletions (InDels) > structural variations (SVs) > copy number variations (CNVs). The number of SNPs and InDels in the double-petal varieties was significantly higher than that in the single-petal varieties, and there was no significant difference in the number of SVs and CNVs. The number of non-synonymous SNPs in the coding region (Nonsyn_CDS_SNPs) and InDels with a 3X length in the coding region (3X_shiftMutation_CDS_InDel) was significantly higher in the double-petal varieties than that in the single-petal varieties. The number of the two variants was strongly positively correlated with each morphological index that was related to the phenotypic difference between the two varieties. Nonsyn_CDS_SNPs and 3X_shiftMutation_CDS_InDel were enriched in the cell membrane system, cell periphery, and signal transduction, from which 15 candidate genes were screened. Our results provide genomic data for the study of the formation mechanism of the double-petal flower and lay a theoretical foundation for new variety breeding of ornamental pomegranate.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030361
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 362: A Water Stress–Tolerant Pepper
           Rootstock Improves the Behavior of Pepper Plants under Deficit Irrigation
           through Root Biomass Distribution and Physiological Adaptation

    • Authors: Ramón Gisbert-Mullor, Rodrigo Martín-García, Iva Bažon Zidarić, Nuria Pascual-Seva, Bernardo Pascual, Yaiza Gara Padilla, Ángeles Calatayud, Salvador López-Galarza
      First page: 362
      Abstract: The use of rootstocks tolerant to water stress in pepper crops is a complementary technique for saving irrigation water without affecting yields by means of particular rootstock physiological traits, which changes the scion’s perception stress. The present study aimed to analyze the morphological and physiological adaptation of the ‘Cuerno’ pepper cultivar grafted onto tolerant rootstock NIBER® subjected to capacitance sensor-based deficit irrigation. The stomatal conductance, relative water content and leaf water potential parameters were used to confirm the degree of crop stress. Leaf dry weight and root volume were higher in the grafted plants under the control irrigation and stress treatment conditions. Total fresh root biomass and root volume percentage of grafted plants under water stress were 24% and 33% higher, respectively, than the ungrafted plants. The grafted plants subjected to both water stress and control conditions had a higher marketable production than the ungrafted plants. The higher yields obtained using tolerant rootstocks were explained by the reduced blossom-end rot incidence.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030362
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 363: Transcriptome Analyses Reveal the Key
           Regulators of Tomato Compound Leaf Development

    • Authors: Guangwu Zhu, Chongtian Ma, Shuimiao Yu, Xueying Zhang, Jing Jiang, Xin Liu
      First page: 363
      Abstract: Leaves are one of the organs involved in plant assimilation and transpiration. Different leaf development processes can result in different leaf shapes. Tomato plants have typical compound leaves. It is helpful to explore the regulatory factors affecting the leaf development and morphogenesis of tomatoes to cultivate varieties with high photosynthetic efficiency. We used the typical tomato leaf shape mutants Petroselinum (Pts), Trifoliate (tf2), and Entire (e), which showed a gradual decrease in leaflet number and compound leaf complexity. Transcriptome sequencing was performed to analyze the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the 3 groups, which revealed 2393, 1366, and 1147 DEGs in Pts/VF36, tf2/CR, and e/AC, respectively. We found 86 overlapping DEGs among the 3 groups. In addition, we found that the mutation of Pts, tf2, and e affected not only leaf morphology but also the wax, fatty acid, and abscisic acid pathways during growth and development. An RT-qPCR analysis during leaf primordium development revealed three transcription factors (bHLH079, WRKY44, and WRKY76) and three hormone-regulated genes (IAA-amino acid hydrolase, Gibberellin2ox7, and Gibberellin20ox) that were differentially expressed in the transcriptome. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), we observed the leaf shape of VIGS plants and found that bHLH079, IAA-amino acid hydrolase, Gibberellin2ox7, Gibberellin20ox, WRKY44, and WRKY76 were the endogenous regulators influencing tomato compound leaf development. This study provides a promising direction for revealing the molecular regulation mechanism underlying compound leaf development in tomatoes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030363
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 364: Comparison of the Essential Oil Content,
           Constituents and Antioxidant Activity from Different Plant Parts during
           Development Stages of Wild Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    • Authors: Ljubomir Šunić, Zoran S. Ilić, Ljiljana Stanojević, Lidija Milenković, Jelena Stanojević, Renata Kovač, Aleksandra Milenković, Dragan Cvetković
      First page: 364
      Abstract: The study was conducted to determine fennel essential oil (FEO) yield, composition, and antioxidant activity during four different maturation stages of umbels with seeds (1st stage: immature-pasty; 2nd stage: premature-waxy; 3rd stage: mature-fully ripe; and 4th stage: seeds only), and leaves of wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare) from the Montenegro coast. The maximum oil yield was found in premature umbels at the waxy stage (4.76 mL/100 g p.m.) and in fully ripe umbels in the early fruiting stage (5.16 mL/100 g p.m.). Fully ripe seeds contained the lowest FEO (mL/100 g p.m.). The minimum FEO content was found in leaves (0.67%). (E)-anethole (64%), α-phellandrene (11.0%), and fenchone (4.8%) were found to be the main components of the essential oil from immature fennel umbels. (E)-anethole (72.3%), fenchone (9.6%) and methyl chavicol (9.5%) were found to be the main components of the essential oil from premature fennel umbels. (E)-anethole (71.6%), fenchone (10.7%) and methyl chavicol (10.3%) were found to be the main components of the essential oil from mature fully ripe fennel umbels. Fennel seeds were rich in (E)-anethole (75.5%) and fenchone (13.7%). FEO from fennel leaves contained (E)-anethole (32.5%), α-phellandrene (18.8%), p-cymene (17.3%), and β-phellandrene (10.3%) as the main compounds. The antioxidant activity of FEO decreases from leaves (12.37 mg/mL) to seeds (37.20 mg/mL). The degree of DPPH radical neutralization increased with the incubation time. Fennel umbels can be harvested before the fully ripe stage, i.e., at the waxy stage, which considerably reduces seed shedding and losses and increases the essential oil yield.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030364
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 365: The Impact of Irrigation Intervals and
           NPK/Yeast on the Vegetative Growth Characteristics and Essential Oil
           Content of Lemongrass

    • Authors: Nourhan Mahmoud, Mahmoud A. H. Abdou, Sabri Salaheldin, Wagdi S. Soliman, Ahmed M. Abbas
      First page: 365
      Abstract: The growth and quality of medicinal plants are greatly affected by environmental stress, with over half of the world’s agricultural land facing water shortages. This research was conducted over two seasons in 2018 and 2019 and aimed to investigate the influence of varying irrigation intervals and partial replacement of mineral fertilizers with biofertilizer (yeast) on the growth, yield, and essential oil content of lemongrass. The study also looked at the effect of the partial substitution of NPK fertilizer with yeast on lemongrass’s ability to withstand water deficit stress. The results showed that water deficit and reducing NPK levels led to a decline in growth characteristics and relative leaf greenness, which was accompanied by an increase in proline content and essential oil percentage. These findings suggest that lemongrass is sensitive to drought and requires adequate nitrogen fertilization. However, extending the irrigation intervals led to an improvement in essential oil content. To achieve high essential oil yield and maintain productivity while considering environmental factors, it is recommended to reduce mineral fertilizer to 50–75% NPK combined with biofertilizer, and space irrigation intervals every 10–15 days. Further research is needed to improve the growth of lemongrass in water-deficient conditions, particularly on newly reclaimed soils.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030365
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 366: Studies on the Molecular Basis of
           Heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana and Vegetable Crops

    • Authors: Saaya Shiraki, Kazumasa Fujiwara, Yoshiki Kamiya, Mst. Arjina Akter, Elizabeth S. Dennis, Ryo Fujimoto, Hasan Mehraj
      First page: 366
      Abstract: Heterosis is an important phenomenon for high-yield crop breeding and is utilized for breeding F1 varieties in horticultural crops. However, its molecular mechanism has not been elucidated, and compared to cereals, heterosis is less explored at the molecular level in horticultural crops. In this review, we compiled the new genetic and epigenetic studies on heterosis in horticultural crops. Because of the difficulty of predicting the level of heterosis from the parental genetic distance, molecular approaches are being used to study its molecular basis in horticultural crops. Transcriptome analyses in vegetables have identified photosynthesis-related genes as important in heterosis. Analysis of noncoding RNAs has suggested their involvement in regulating the heterosis of vegetative and fruit tissues. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis has revealed the association of heterozygosity of a specific locus or multiple loci with heterosis of vegetative and fruit tissues. A higher level of DNA methylation was noted in the heterotic F1 of Brassica rapa leafy vegetables, while the roles of other epigenetic modifications such as histone marks have not been explored.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030366
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 367: Micro-Tom Tomato Response to
           Fertilization Rates and the Effect of Cultivation Systems on Fruit Yield
           and Quality

    • Authors: Naoki Terada, Kalara Dissanayake, Chiharu Okada, Atsushi Sanada, Kaihei Koshio
      First page: 367
      Abstract: Fertilization is essential for the optimal growth and development of crops; however, the amount of fertilizer can cause positive or negative effects depending on its rate. In addition, the cultivation system plays a significant role in determining vegetative growth and fruit quality. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the Micro-Tom response to different fertilization rates (first experiment), and to assess the effect of three different cultivation systems on its growth, yield, and fruit quality (second experiment). The fertilization rates used were A) no fertilizer application control, B) 0.026 g L-1, C) 0.052 g L-1, D) 0.13 g L-1, E) 0.26 g L-1 standard, F) 0.52 g L-1, and G) 1.3 g L-1, and the cultivation systems were conventional, organic, and hydroponic. The results of the first experiment showed that plant growth and yield of Micro-Tom were highly influenced by the fertilization rate and Micro-Tom recorded the highest yield at 0.52 g L-1. In terms of the second experiment, the hydroponically grown Micro-Tom tended to accumulate amino acid, while organic and conventional systems showed more accumulation of sugars and organic acid; the highest yield was recorded in the hydroponic system. The yield obtained in the hydroponic systems was more than double that of the soil cultivation methods. The findings of this study can contribute to promoting the organic and hydroponic cultivation of tomatoes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030367
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 368: Effect of Chitosan and
           Micro-Carbon-Based Phosphorus Fertilizer on Strawberry Growth and

    • Authors: El-Saied E. Metwaly, Arwa Abdulkreem AL-Huqail, Saad Farouk, Genesia F. Omar
      First page: 368
      Abstract: High fertilization rates and pesticides are required for the intensive production of strawberries, which offer several therapeutic health benefits. Recently, chitosan (CHI), and phosphorus fertilizer based on Micro Carbon TechnologyTM (MCT-P) were applied to encourage strawberry sustainable production and enhance phosphorus-use efficiency. Field trials were conducted throughout 2020/2021 and 2021/2022, to evaluate the effectiveness of MCT–P and CHI in improving strawberry cv. Fortuna growth and yield as well as their quality. Foliar spraying of CHI and MCT-P considerably improved strawberry plant growth (i.e., plant height, secondary crown number per plant, leaf number and area per plant, and foliage fresh weight), photosynthetic pigment concentration (chlorophylla, chlorophyllb, and carotenoids), as well as its yield and quality (early fruit yield, total yield, average fruit weight, fruit firmness, fruit dry matter %, soluble solid content, total sugars (%), ascorbic acid, acidity, and anthocyanin). Compared to untreated plants, 1200 mgL−1 MCT-P and 1000 mg/L CHI supplementation was the most effective concentration for improving all studied characteristics. The interaction between CHI and MCT-P had a greater impact on all examined characteristics. It is recommended to spray strawberry cv. Fortuna with 1200 mg/L MCT-P plus 1000 mg/L CHI every two weeks, from 60 days after transplanting until two weeks before the end of harvesting season for the best fruit yield and quality.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030368
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 369: Evaluation of In Vitro and In Vivo
           Antifungal Activity of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles against
           Early Blight in Tomato

    • Authors: Madeeha Ansari, Shakil Ahmed, Muhammad Tajammal Khan, Najwa A. Hamad, Hayssam M. Ali, Asim Abbasi, Iqra Mubeen, Anum Intisar, Mohamed E. Hasan, Ihsan K. Jasim
      First page: 369
      Abstract: Silver nanoparticles have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to their antimicrobial activity and are used in water disinfection, wound healing, food packaging, and plant protection. This study tested the potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using the neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract against Alternaria solani causes early blight disease in tomato plants. The pathogen was isolated from infected tomato plants and identified using morphological and molecular features. The results showed significant variation among isolates. Isolates, Shk-1 and Ksr-1 were highly pathogenic, causing up to 80% disease incidence. The potential of silver nanoparticles against each isolate was determined using different concentrations of silver nanoparticles. During in vitro and in vivo experiments, the growth inhibition rate of the pathogen was 70–100% at 50 ppm. Lower concentrations of silver nanoparticles (5 and 10 ppm) increased phenolics, PO, PPO, and PAL production by more than 50% as compared to the untreated control. These defensive mechanisms clearly demonstrate the fungicidal potential of AgNPs and recommend their utilization in different crop protection programs.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030369
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 370: Significance of Soil
           Siderophore-Producing Bacteria in Evaluation and Elevation of Crop Yield

    • Authors: Siwen Zhang, Zishi Deng, Ali Borham, Yao Ma, Yi Wang, Jiawei Hu, Juanjuan Wang, Tsing Bohu
      First page: 370
      Abstract: Iron is a vital element for plant and microbial growth; yet, the major portion of iron in soils is in the form of (oxi-)hydroxides with limited bioavailability, resulting in decreased crop yield quality. In response to iron deficiency, soil microorganisms produce siderophores that transform insoluble iron into a soluble form that plants and microorganisms can use. The abundance and activity of siderophore-producing bacteria (SPB) might be used as a biological assessment index for the fertility status of cultivated land. In order to achieve this goal, it is critical to investigate the influences of SPB on plant growth and soil quality. In this study, we performed a mixed-effect model meta-analysis on 342 research studies that compared plant growth with and without SPB. The findings revealed that SPB increased plant growth significantly (up to 30%). The stimulating effects on plants followed the sequences of pant weight, plant height, and germination rate.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030370
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 371: Ovule Number and Flower Size in Pea
           (Pisum sativum L.): Variation, Heritability, and Correlation with Some
           Components of Productivity

    • Authors: Andrey Sinjushin, Olga Ash, Galina Khartina
      First page: 371
      Abstract: The seed yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.) depends on numerous environmental and genotypic factors. The ongoing climate changes draw one’s attention to genetics and variation of underexplored reproductive traits. This study focuses on ovule number (ON) and flower size expressed as a length of flag petal (FL), in terms of their heritability, variability, and correlation with 1000 seed mass (TSM), seed number per pod, and seed/ovule ratio. A set of pea accessions was planted over several years in field conditions. Some of these accessions were also grown in a glasshouse. The chosen values were scored on living plants or while harvesting seeds. Nonparametric statistical methods were applied. Heritability of ON and FL was studied in five hybrid F1/F2 combinations. We found a relatively low (ca. 0.5) broad sense heritability of both ON and FL. Among other traits, TSM and ON reproduced best over the years. FL exhibited no reproducible correlations with other traits and cannot be used as a predictor of productivity. Water deficit and heat stress reduce seed yield in pea due to both seed abortion and development of fewer ovules. The differential and heritable ability to retain ON may become a basis for breeding pea cultivars adapted to changing climate.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030371
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 372: Marketing Channel Preferences of Cut
           Flower Producers: A Case Study of Turkey

    • Authors: Zerrin Kenanoğlu
      First page: 372
      Abstract: This study aims to determine the preferred criteria of cut flower producers when choosing marketing channels, and the degrees of importance of these criteria. In this study, the levels of importance of the different marketing criteria used by cut flower producers and their marketplace preferences were analyzed using the analytic hierarchy process. The data used in this study were obtained from questionnaires completed by 82 cut flower producers in İzmir province. The most preferred marketing criterion for producers was payment guarantee, followed by ease of marketing and price. When producers’ marketplace preferences were ranked according to the different criteria, cooperatives ranked first, followed by wholesalers and exporters. The Tobit model was employed to reveal the socio-economic variables that affected the producers’ choices and the criteria considered in the analytic hierarchy process. It was established that cooperatives play an important role in marketing cut flowers and developing this sector in Turkey.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030372
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 373: Genome-Wide Analysis of MIKCC-Type
           MADS-Box Genes Reveals Their Involvement in Flower Development in Malus

    • Authors: Kun Ning, Wangxiang Zhang, Donglin Zhang, Yousry A. El-Kassaby, Ting Zhou
      First page: 373
      Abstract: MIKCC-type MADS-box genes are involved in floral organ identity determination but remain less studied in the Malus lineage. Based on the conserved domains of this gene family, we identified 341 genes among 13 species. Classification results showed that the MIKCC-type were generated later than the M-type, after the formation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. By phylogenetic analysis, three different groups were divided among 12 plant species, and one group was an ancestral MIKCC-type MADS-box homologous gene cluster from lower moss to higher flowering plants. Comparative analysis of these genes in A. thaliana and Malus lineages revealed a similar pattern evolutionary relationship with the phylogenetic analysis. Three classes of genes of the ABC model in A. thaliana had orthologous genes in the Malus species, but they experienced different evolutionary events. Only a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event was considered to act on the expansion of ABC-model-related genes in the Malus lineage. Additionally, the expression pattern of genes showed to be involved in flowering development stages and anther development processes among different M. domestica cultivars. This study systematically traced the evolutionary history and expansion mechanism of the MIKCC-type MADS-box gene family in plants. The results also provided novel insights for ABC model research of flower development in the Malus lineage.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030373
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 374: Evaluation of Removed and Recycled
           Mineral Nutrients in Italian Commercial Persimmon Orchards

    • Authors: Maurizio Quartieri, Greta Polidori, Elena Baldi, Moreno Toselli
      First page: 374
      Abstract: Persimmon is a typical fruit crop of the Mediterranean region and, since it is considered a minor species, little information is available on its nutrients need. In the present experiment, it was estimated the quantity of removed and recycled nutrients by Kaki Tipo and Rojo Brillante, the two main varieties of persimmon grown in Emilia-Romagna region (Po Valley, Italy). Plants from ten mature orchards were selected and harvested; organs (leaves in summer, fruits at harvest, abscissed leaves, roots and skeleton) biomass and mineral composition were determined. The yearly uptake of macronutrients was similar for the 2 varieties, accounting for (kg ha−1): N 89-91, P 10-11, K 79-91, Ca 132-162, Mg 22-26 and S 9. While K was mostly found in fruits, Ca and Mg were mainly partitioned to leaves. Among micronutrients, Mn and Fe showed the highest values (1.1–1.3 and 1.2–2.1 kg ha−1, respectively), followed by B (370 g ha−1), while Cu and Zn showed the smallest amounts (less 100 g ha−1). Nitrogen, Ca, Mg and S were those more recycled than removed, while K showed an opposite trend; among the microelements, the annual recycled fractions of B and Mn were higher than that removed.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030374
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 375: Transcriptomic Analysis of Salicylic
           Acid Promoting Seed Germination of Melon under Salt Stress

    • Authors: Miao Yan, Jiancai Mao, Ting Wu, Tao Xiong, Quansheng Huang, Haibo Wu, Guozhi Hu
      First page: 375
      Abstract: This study investigated how salicylic acid (SA) mediates the response of melon (Cucumis melo) seeds to salt stress using physiological and transcriptomic methods. The effects of SA on the antioxidant enzymes, osmoregulatory substances, and transcriptome of melon seeds under salt stress were investigated using sodium chloride (NaCl, 100 mmol·L−1) as the stress stimulant and SA + NaCl (0.25 mmol·L−1 + 100 mmol·L−1) as the alleviation treatment. The results showed that SA positively influences salt tolerance by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT) while decreasing proline content (Pro). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by transcriptome data analysis, of which 2958 were up-regulated, and 2157 were down-regulated. These genes were mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and plant hormone signal transduction, lipid metabolism (linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acid metabolism), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (phenylpropanoid pathway and flavonoid biosynthesis), and related pathways. Further analysis revealed that SA might alleviate salt stress by initiating a series of signaling pathways under salt stress, participating in lignin biosynthesis to improve cell wall stability, and positively regulating lipoxygenase (LOX) genes. These results provide valuable information and new strategies for future salt resistance cultivation and high melon yield.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030375
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 376: Identification, Biocontrol Activity, and
           Field Application Effect of Bacillus velezensis Yb-1

    • Authors: Bao Wang, Erfeng Li, Yang Lin, Tongbin Xiao, Xuncong Ji, Zhixiang Zhao, Wanrong Yan
      First page: 376
      Abstract: Colletotrichum capsici is one of the most important pathogens on chili peppers. Unreasonable application of chemical fungicides will lead to threats to human and animal health, environmental damage, and increased fungicide resistance to pathogens. As an alternative strategy, biological control has been paid more and more attention by academics. In this study, the Yb-1 strain was isolated from healthy cucumber leaves, which could significantly restrict the mycelium growth of C. capsici and Botrytis cinerea, with inhibition rates of 93.49% and 74.03%, respectively. Strain Yb-1 was identified as Bacillus velezensis by morphological features and 16S rRNA gene, gyrA gene, and gyrB gene sequence analysis. When pepper seeds were treated with different concentrations of bacterial suspension, we found that a medium-concentration treatment (104 CFU/mL and 105 CFU/mL) could promote seed germination and growth, while high-concentration treatments (108 CFU/mL) limited seed germination and growth. In addition, the root-irrigation method, acupuncture-leaf method, and leaf-cutting method were used to evaluate the safety of strain Yb-1 on peppers. The results indicated that Yb-1 did not affect the normal growth of peppers. The results of further field trials showed that the control effect of strain Yb-1 on pepper anthracnose was 59.45%. Thus, the strain B. velezensis Yb-1 has great biocontrol potential for pepper anthracnose and promotes plant growth.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030376
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 377: Vegetative Growth and Productivity of
           Potted Crocus sativus in Different Growing Media

    • Authors: Mohammed E. El-Mahrouk, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Hassan El-Ramady, Mayada Kadri Seliem
      First page: 377
      Abstract: Saffron (Crocus sativus) is the most expensive spice in the world and a valuable medicinal plant. In this study, the flowering, vegetative growth performance, and daughter corm formation of potted saffron were investigated in six growing media: loamy soil, silty soil, sandy soil, peatmoss, peatmoss + sandy soil, and peatmoss + foam. The highest values of the stigma fresh weight, the root weight, and the number and diameter of daughter corms were observed in plants grown in soil with a light texture, i.e., sandy soil or peatmoss + foam, although smaller daughter corms were produced by sandy soil-grown plants. Compared with loamy soil (heavy soil), the peatmoss + foam growing medium increased the leaf pigment levels and the number of leaves and daughter corms, and it produced the highest number of daughter corms with diameters of ≥2 cm. Compared with plants in other media, saffron plants grown in loamy soil had higher catalase and peroxidase activities but lower polyphenol oxidase activity. Overall, saffron could be cultivated and produced in growing media with various pH values (4.00–9.25), although a mixture of peatmoss and foam was the optimal growing medium for potted saffron production. These findings are beneficial for selecting the optimal growing media/soil for saffron cultivation in farmlands.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030377
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 378: Physiochemical Changes of European Pear
           cv. Conference and Asian Pear cv. Yali during Cold Storage

    • Authors: Pavel Híc, Jarmila Kožíšková, Petra Omastová, Josef Balík, Jan Goliáš, Miroslav Horák
      First page: 378
      Abstract: This study evaluated the physiochemical changes of one commercial European pear variety ‘Conference’ and one Asian pear variety ‘Yali’ during 60 days of storage at 1 °C. Content of organic acids, ethylene and formation of CO2 were determined using HPLC/UV-VIS and GC/FID and TCD detectors, respectively. This study presents an evaluation of the influence of the above-mentioned factors and long-term storage on quality parameters, including the antioxidant capacity of an important European and Asian pear cultivar. There was a significant effect of temperature on respiration rate in both varieties. Development of the respiration intensity had a similar course in European and Asian pears. The high values of CO2 production at the beginning of storage for the variety ‘Conference’ (14.08 mg·kg−1·h−1) and ‘Yali’ (23.37 mg·kg−1·h−1) were followed by a sharp decline of 80% and 83% at later stages of storage at 1 °C, respectively. Ethylene formation in fruit increased with storage time and was the highest after 60 days in cold storage, especially in ‘Yali’ (7.14 µL·kg−1·h−1). The results show the relation between ethylene formation and ripening-related fruit parameters. The ‘Yali’ variety showed negligible changes in soluble solids content and flesh firmness during storage ranging from 0.35 to 0.60 MPa. The most represented sugar determined enzymatically was fructose and malic acid was the dominant organic acid in pear fruit. Antioxidant activity determined using the FRAP and DPPH methods did not change significantly during 60 days of storage.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030378
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 379: The Application of Entomophagous and
           Acariphagous Species in Biological Protection Systems of an Apple Orchard
           (Malus domestica Borkh)

    • Authors: Vladimir Ismailov, Irina Agasyeva, Anton Nastasy, Maria Nefedova, Ekaterina Besedina, Alexandr Komantsev
      First page: 379
      Abstract: The systematic and long-term use of pesticides in fruit plantations leads to the formation of resistant pest populations. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of entomophages and acariphages for the protection of apple orchards. Against the dominant pest Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), Habrobracon hebetor (Say) was used, which was caught in the Krasnodar Territory using cassettes with caterpillars attractive to H. hebetor. To determine the most genetically high-quality population, an RAPD analysis was carried out from three Russian (Krasnodar, Stavropol, and Belgorod) and one Kazakh (Shymkent) populations of H. hebetor, which revealed a high level of DNA polymorphism and genetic diversity in the studied geographical populations of the cities of Krasnodar and Stavropol. The efficiency of the captured Krasnodar population of H. hebetor against C. pomonella was about 75%. To regulate the number of aphids Aphis pomi De Geer and Tetraneura caerulescens (Pass.), breeding reserves of the aphidophages Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Leis dimidiata Fabr., Cycloneda sangvinea L., and Aphidius colemani Vier. were established. The biological efficiency of the developed technique was 82.8–88.6%. The release of the acariphages Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) and Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesb.) on the apple tree showed effectiveness from 80 to 90% against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Panonychus ulmi (Koch). To study the possibility of simultaneous use of entomophages and insecticides, experiments were carried out to study the sensitivity of H. hebetor and H. axiridis to insecticides. When H. hebetor cocoons were treated with Insegar® and Atabron®, the ectoparasitoid emergence values were 98.4% and 100%, respectively. The survival of adult H. axiridis treated with Madex twin®, Atabron®, and Koragen® on the fifth day was 97.3%, 89.6%, and 81.9%, respectively. Based on the data obtained, it can be argued that it is possible to create favorable conditions for entomophages, which effectively regulate pest numbers in apple orchards.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030379
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 380: Identification and Expression Analysis
           of the bHLH Gene Family Members in Diospyros kaki

    • Authors: Weijuan Han, Qi Zhang, Yujing Suo, Huawei Li, Songfeng Diao, Peng Sun, Lin Huang, Jianmin Fu
      First page: 380
      Abstract: Basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) proteins belong to one of the largest families involved in plant growth, development, signal transduction, and secondary metabolism. Although bHLH genes have been previously identified in persimmon (Diospyros kaki), systematic studies have not been reported. A total of 59 bHLH family members have been identified from the “Xiaoguotianshi” persimmon transcriptome. These proteins were clustered into 12 groups from I to XII based on their phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana. Combined with the phylogenetic analysis, in silico expression patterns of five developmental stages, the protein–protein interaction analysis between DkbHLH and DkMYB proteins showed that the bHLH_Cluster-15548.1 protein sequence was identified to be highly similar to the AtGL3 (AT5G41315.1) protein, which is associated with flavonoid and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis. This study presents the systematic analysis of bHLH genes from D. kaki and provides valuable information for further research on the involvement of bHLH protein in anthocyanin biosynthesis.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030380
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 381: Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant
           Activity, and Cytotoxity of Wild-Growing and In Vitro Cultivated Rindera
           umbellata (Waldst. and Kit.) Bunge

    • Authors: Slađana Todorović, Marija Perić, Biljana Nikolić, Boris Mandić, Stefana Cvetković, Milica Bogdanović, Suzana Živković
      First page: 381
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze chemical composition and biological activity of wild- and in vitro grown Rindera umbellata. Explants were cultivated on 0.003–0.3 M sucrose, fructose, or glucose. HPLC-DAD for quantifying rosmarinic (RA) and lithospermic B (LAB) acids and GC-MS/FID for qualitative pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) detection were used. Antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS assays) and cytotoxicity (MTT test) were monitored. Identified PAs were 7-angeloyl heliotridane, lindelofine, 7-angeloyl heliotridine, 7-angeloyl-9-(+)-trachelanthylheliotridine, punctanecine, and heliosupine, with higher variability reported in wild-growing samples. Total phenolic contents (TPCs) were comparable in wild-growing and in vitro samples, but total flavonoid (TFC) and RA levels were multifold higher in in vitro samples. Notably, high concentration of LAB was detected in wild-growing roots. Amounts of 0.3 M and 0.1 M of sucrose were optimal for TFC and RA production, while maximal antioxidant activity was monitored in plants grown on 0.3 M sucrose. The MTT test indicated colorectal HT-29 as more sensitive than A549 lung adenocarcinoma and normal MRC-5 cells, showing selective sensitivity to wild-growing and 0.3 M sucrose samples. In conclusion, PAs in vitro, as well as TPC, TFC, RA, and LAB in both growing conditions were detected for the first time in R. umbellata.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030381
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 382: The Construction of Volatile Profiles of

    • Authors: Xia Wang, Xiongwei Li, Mingshen Su, Minghao Zhang, Yang Hu, Jihong Du, Huijuan Zhou, Xianan Zhang, Zhengwen Ye, Xuelian Yang
      First page: 382
      Abstract: Peach (Prunus persica L.) is an economically important fruit crop worldwide due to its pleasant flavor. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are vital factors for assessing fruit quality. Here, we constructed the VOC profiles for the top eight popular commercial peach cultivars produced in Shanghai by combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), odor activity value and gas chromatograph-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). Seventy VOCs were detected using GC-MS, of which twenty-three were commonly found in eight peach cultivars, including hexanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, 2-hexenal, butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, linalool, β-myrcene, D-limonene, 1-hexanol, 3-hexenol, 2-hexenol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, γ-octalactone, δ-decalactone, γ-hexalactone, γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone, β-ionone, 2-octanone, 2-ethyl furan and 2,4-ditert-butyl phenol. A total of 17 VOCs were screened on the basis of OAV ≥ 1 and the top 5 of this contribution were γ-decalactone, β-ionone, hexanal, 2-hexenal and linalool. Lactones had the highest OAV in HJML and terpenoids had the highest OAV in JC. JXIU had the lowest OAV of lactones and terpenoids. Based on the range of their OAV values, the flavor evaluation standard of Shanghai high-quality peach cultivars can be established, which is also a reference for breeding excellent offspring. Twenty-six VOCs were detected using GC-IMS, and the largest proportion were aldehydes. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Hikawa Hakuho (HH) and Jinchun (JC) were distant from the other samples, indicating that their volatiles were more distinct. These results provide a foundation for improving our understanding of aroma compositions in these high-quality peach cultivars, which might also provide a reference for future design breeding to improve fruit flavor.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030382
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 383: Fruit Quality of Satsuma Mandarins from
           Neretva Valley and Their Flavonoid and Carotenoid Content

    • Authors: Luna Maslov Bandić, Kristina Vlahoviček-Kahlina, Marija Sigurnjak Bureš, Katarina Sopko Stracenski, Nenad Jalšenjak, Goran Fruk, Ana Marija Antolković, Slaven Jurić
      First page: 383
      Abstract: Mandarins are the second most farmed citrus. Consumers demand a mandarin fruit that is both tasty and excellent in quality. The fruit quality, flavonoid profile, antioxidant capacity and total carotenoid content of five varieties (‘Zorica’, ‘Chahara’, ‘Kawano Wase’, ‘Owari’ and ‘Saigon’) of Satsuma mandarins grown in Neretva valley (Croatia) were determined. In this research, the distribution of bioactive compounds was different for mandarin juice, dry pulp residue and dry peels. Dry peels showed higher levels of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Total carotenoids were found to be in a greater concentration in dry pulp residue than in the dry peel. The highest levels of total carotenoids (543 μg β-carotene/g) were found in the dry pulp residue of ‘Owari’ and ‘Saigon’, while the lowest levels were in ‘Chahara’ (227.87 μg β-carotene/g). In dry mandarin peels, the highest levels of total carotenoids were in ‘Kawano Wase’ (227.58 μg β-carotene/g), and the lowest levels were in ‘Chahara’ (52.24 μg β-carotene/g). The most abundant component of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in mandarin dry peel was nobiletin, ranging from 0.204 mg/g (‘Chahara’) to 0.608 mg/g (‘Saigon’), followed by tangeretin, ranging from 0.133 mg/g (‘Chahara’) to 0.251 mg/g (‘Saigon’), and sinesestin (‘Zorica’), ranging from 0.091 mg/g to 0.353 mg/g (‘Saigon’).
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030383
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 384: Influence of Sheep’s Wool
           Vegetation Mats on the Plant Growth of Perennials

    • Authors: Susanne Herfort, Kerstin Pflanz, Marina-Sandra Larsen, Thomas Mertschun, Heiner Grüneberg
      First page: 384
      Abstract: Vegetation mats for horticulture and landscaping usually consist of coconut fibre and straw. They have hardly any available nutrients and serve only as a carrier material for plant growth. Water capacity is low. By incorporating raw sheep‘s wool, nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium, and sulphur can positively influence the nutrient content of the carrier material. Water storage and water holding capacity are increased by the wool. In this study, three different thick-layered vegetation mats with different proportions of sheep’s wool and coir fibres were developed for the pre-cultivation of perennials. The focus is on the evaluation of sheep’s wool as a carrier material compared to pure coconut fibre as well as the plant growth of the eight perennial species used (Achillea clypeolata ‘Moonshine’, Achnatherum calamagrostis ‘Algäu’, Anaphalis triplinervis, Aster dumosus ‘Prof. Anton Kippenberg’, Aster dumosus ‘Silberball’, Centranthus ruber ‘Coccineus’, Coreopsis verticillata, Salvia nemorosa ‘Rosakönigin’). The vegetation mats with sheep’s wool contained 230, 241, and 308 g nitrogen (N)/m2 and the coir mats contained 75 g N/m2. The water content ranged from 16.0 to 22.1 vol% for the sheep’s wool mats and 12.6 vol% for the coir mat at pF1 (is equal to matrix potential at −10 hPa). The air content ranged from 71.9 to 77.0 vol% for the sheep’s wool mat and 79.4 vol% for the coir mat at pF1. On all vegetation mats containing sheep’s wool, the overall impression of the perennials was better than in the control. Especially good were Asters. At the end of the trial, the assessment scores of Asters on the sheep’s wool mats were two scores higher than on the coir mat. Aster dumosus ‘Prof. Anton Kippenberg’ achieved an average plant height between 35.8, 35.8, and 36.5 cm on the sheep’s wool mats and 14.4 cm on the coir mat. Aster dumosus ‘Silberball’ yielded 41.3, 42.3, and 44 cm on the sheep’s wool mats and 26.7 cm on the coir mat. No significant differences regarding plant height between the different variants of sheep’s wool mats emerged. Therefore, these mats can be used as alternative planting concepts for landscaping.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030384
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 385: The Acetone Extract of Albizia lebbeck
           Stem Bark and Its In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities

    • Authors: Omer H. M. Ibrahim, Essam Y. Abdul-Hafeez
      First page: 385
      Abstract: To address the growing demand for natural sources of drugs, in addition to chemical ones, the present study aimed to explore the phytochemical and biological activity of acetone stem bark extract of Albizia lebbeck. The phytoconstituents of the derivatized acetone stem bark extract were analyzed using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), while the phenolic and flavonoid compounds were analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Six bacterial strains (Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Erwinia carotovora, Escherichia coli) and three fungal strains (Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium italicum, Fusarium oxysporum) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed against three cancer cell lines (PC-3, Caco-2, and MCF-7). Our findings indicated that the acetone extract of A. lebbeck stem bark was rich in fatty acids, with a predominance of oleic acid (19.2%). Additionally, eight phenolic acids, primarily cinnamic acid, and eight flavonoids, primarily chrysoeriol and hesperidin, were identified. It was found that the acetone extract of the A. lebbeck stem bark exhibited a high potential antibacterial effect against B. subtilis and S. marcescens and evident antifungal activity against F. oxysporum. Based on the calculated selectivity index, PC-3 cells were found to have the highest value (2.95), followed by Caco-2 cells (1.92) and MCF-7 cells (1.34). These results suggest the richness of A. lebbeck stem bark in phytochemicals with promising antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030385
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 386: Diagnostics and Description of a New
           Subspecies of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull from Western Siberia

    • Authors: Olga Cherepanova, Irina Petrova, Stanislav Sannikov, Yulia Mishchihina
      First page: 386
      Abstract: The article presents the results of the study of fifty populations of common heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull) collected throughout its range. A phased comparative analysis (genetic, biochemical, anatomical, morphological, and ecological) was carried out with the estimation of indicators that included two key populations—Zavodouspenskoe (Pritobolye, Western Siberia) and Luga (Baltic, Eastern Europe). It was concluded that heather growing in Western Siberia should be identified as a separate taxonomic group, giving it the status of a subspecies. The gene pool of Pritobolye populations (including Zavodouspenskoe) is represented by the completely dominant (100%) monohaplotype S, which is not found anywhere else. The heather plant growing in Zavodouspenskoe has a longer lifespan. It is distinguished by larger linear leaf dimensions (length 2.06 ± 0.09 mm), thicker cuticle (4.77 ± 0.33 μm), increased number of trichomes (18.98 ± 0.56), and a reduced number of stomata (13.60 ± 0.63) than that growing in Luga. The new subspecies differs in biochemical composition: twice less content of epicatechin (average 1.992 ± 0.005 mg g−1), three times more myricetin (average 2.975 ± 0.005 mg g−1), twice as much chlorogenic acid (average 2.763 ± 0.004 mg g−1). An ecological feature is that C. vulgaris does not grow in the swamps of Western Siberia and has a small population. This species has a high horticultural potential and requires protection as its population in Western Siberia continues to decline rapidly.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030386
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 387: Elucidating the Anatomical Features,
           Adaptive and Ecological Significance of Kopsia fruticosa Roxb.

    • Authors: Shakti Nath Tripathi, Manju Sahney, Arpita Tripathi, Praveen Pandey, Hanuman Singh Jatav, Tatiana Minkina, Vishnu D. Rajput
      First page: 387
      Abstract: Anatomical characteristics play a pivotal role in understanding the evolutionary relationship among various plant taxa and identifying species of pharmacological importance. Though the anatomical features of the family Apocynaceae have been widely recognized, there is limited research on the stem wood anatomy of Kopsia fruticosa, whereas nothing was previously known about its root wood anatomy. The present work describes and analyses its anatomy and correlates the anatomical features with the habitat and ecology of this plant. The oval shape of the young stem and the presence of unicellular trichomes, stone cells in the pith region, laticiferous canals, calcium oxalate crystals, and vascular bundles of two different sizes, viz., smaller in the broad, flattened region and more prominent on the two narrow sides, are remarkable features of the plant, which collectively may often be helpful in distinguishing K. fruticosa from other species of this genus. Apart from the previously known qualitative characteristics of the family Apocynaceae, the coalescence of pit aperture and storied pattern of vessels of K. fruticosa are newly observed features of the subfamily Rauvofiòideae. On the other hand, in the root wood, vessels are wider (33–64 μm), less frequent (about 53% more in the stem), and shorter, and the rays are larger (21–46 cells in height) and more frequent than those of stem wood; these are the valuable findings which strongly support the non-climbing nature of the studied plant. The vulnerability and mesomorphy indices for stem wood are 0.914 and 349, respectively, indicating plants’ adaptation toward a mesic habitat. The correlation of the anatomical traits of plants with the habitat and ecology represents their survivability in different situations. Consequently, anatomical features such as intraxylary phloem, vessel grouping, the storied pattern of vessels, the simple perforation plate, and intervascular vestured pits suggest that plants can tolerate drought. We firmly believe that the present study’s outcome can fulfil the research gaps of this hardy plant.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030387
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 388: Impact of GA3 on Sugar and Lipid
           Degradation during Annona x atemoya Mabb. Seed Germination

    • Authors: Carolina Ovile Mimi, Marília Caixeta Sousa, Patrícia Luciana Carriel Corrêa, Ivan De-la-Cruz-Chacón, Carmen Sílvia Fernandes Boaro, Gisela Ferreira
      First page: 388
      Abstract: Gibberellins act to overcome dormancy and increase the germination rate of seeds of several species, including the genus Annona. Considering that Annona seeds have a high lipid content and have few sugars, the degradation of such reserves from the application of gibberellins has not been described so far. This study aimed to evaluate how the application of different gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations acts on the sugar and lipid degradation pattern during the germination of atemoya seeds (Annona x atemoya Mabb.). Therefore, two experiments were carried out, one to evaluate the effect of GA3 on the germination process and another to evaluate the degradation of the reserves. To study the effect of GA3 on germinability, four treatments with GA3 concentrations of 0, 250, 500, and 1000 mg L−1 were used. To study the degradation of reserves, the four GA3 concentrations and five collection times were used (dry seed; seed with 1 day, 5 days, and 10 days of water acquisition; and seeds with primary root emission). Atemoya seeds showed an increase in germinability and changes in the sugar and lipid degradation pattern during the germination process in response to the treatments with GA3. Lipid and sugar degradation was observed from 24 h after seed immersion in GA3. The highest GA3 concentrations (500 and 1000 mg L−1) led to increases of 25% and 20%, respectively, in the germination rate, intensification of lipid degradation in seeds with primary root emission, and a decrease in sugar concentration until the 5th day.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030388
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 389: Identification of Causal Gene-Specific
           SNP Markers for the Development of Gynoecious Hybrids in Cucumber (Cucumis
           sativa L.) Using the PathoLogic Algorithm

    • Authors: Manikanda Boopathi Narayanan, Shobhana V. Gnanapanditha Mohan, Praneetha Subramanyam, Rajasree Venkatachalam, Kesavan Markkandan
      First page: 389
      Abstract: Although the genome sequence of cucumber is publicly available, only a limited number of functional markers are in store for developing gynoecious hybrids using Indian genotypes. This study reported novel SNPs and InDels in the exonic regions of genes involved in gynoecy using two parents and their hybrid with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) by generating 3.547 Gb of raw data. Using NSDC reference genome GCA_000004075.2, a total of 40,143, 181,008 and 43,612 SNPs were identified, among which 514 were polymorphic between male and female parents but monomorphic between the male parent and the hybrid (confirming hybridity). We further identified that, out of those 514 SNPs, 74 were within the exonic regions of the sex-specific genes. The most interesting functional marker in this study was SNP 2,13,85,488, identified in the gene CsaV3_6G037780 G3I-38214 on chromosome 6, encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase 1 (ACS1), which plays a key role in female flower production, as indicated in CuCyc with the PathoLogic algorithm. The InDel analysis also identified a variation inside the gene CsaV3_6G304050 G3I-37940, encoding histone lysine N-methyl transferase, involved in flowering and female gametophyte development. Thus, this study has identified gynoecy-specific functional markers; upon further validation, these markers will accelerate the evolution of gynoecious hybrids in India and global cucumber breeding programs.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030389
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 390: Optimization of Applied Irrigation Water
           for High Marketable Yield, Fruit Quality and Economic Benefits of
           Processing Tomato Using a Low-Cost Wireless Sensor

    • Authors: Antonio El Chami, Raffaele Cortignani, Davide Dell’Unto, Roberto Mariotti, Piero Santelli, Roberto Ruggeri, Giuseppe Colla, Mariateresa Cardarelli
      First page: 390
      Abstract: Water management is a key factor to optimize fruit quality and yield of processing tomatoes which are site-specific and influenced by environmental conditions e.g., soil, temperature, precipitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacity of a low-cost wireless soil moisture sensor in determining the irrigation level for optimizing the marketable yield, fruit quality and economic profit of processing tomato. A two-years (2017–2018) trial was conducted in open field, applying nine drip irrigation levels controlled by wireless soil moisture capacitance sensors. The irrigation levels were as follows: 13.2, 16.7, 25.4, 33.3, 50.0, 62.3, 82.5, 100 and 186.8% of water restitution based on soil moisture sensor readings. Because of the crop stress induced by heavy rainfalls occurring in 2018 growing season, total and marketable yields reached higher maximum values in 2017 than 2018. In 2017, total and marketable yields were maximized by supplying 92.8% and 96.2% of irrigation level, respectively. Moreover, 95.6% and 91.2% of irrigation level were necessary in 2018 to maximize total and marketable yield, respectively. In both growing seasons, marketable yield variation was due to changes of both fruit number and fruit mean weight. Total soluble solids of fruit juice linearly decreased by increasing the irrigation level with a more pronounced effect in the driest growing season (2017). Economic analysis demonstrated that 100% of irrigation level should be preferred by the Italian farmers since it maximized the operating margins of processing tomatoes in both years. To conclude, the use of the tested low-cost wireless soil moisture sensor is an effective tool to manage the level of irrigation and optimize the processing tomato yield and economic benefits for farmers.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030390
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 391: Stable Soil Moisture Alleviates Water
           Stress and Improves Morphogenesis of Tomato Seedlings

    • Authors: Ge Li, Huaiyu Long, Renlian Zhang, Patrick J. Drohan, Aiguo Xu, Li Niu
      First page: 391
      Abstract: Previous studies on soil water–plant relations have mostly focused on the soil water content (SWC), while the effect of soil moisture stability on plant growth has received surprisingly little attention. Potted tomato seedlings were used to examine the effect of stable soil moisture (SM) and fluctuating soil moisture (FM) on plant growth, development, and water use efficiency (WUE) in this study. The results showed that (i) soil moisture stability significantly affected the growth and development, photosynthetic characteristics, morphological traits, root morphology, and water physiological characteristics of seedling tomatoes, with SM being more conducive for most of these indices. (ii) SM improved the leaf WUE by reducing the content of abscisic acid in plants, regulating plant osmotic substances, maintaining a high gas exchange rate, and promoting plant morphology. (iii) SM could avoid water stress on tomato seedlings; even if the SWC of SM was equal to or lower than the SWC of FM, water stress would not occur under SM, whereas it would occur under FM. Overall, compared with FM, SM promoted beneficial plant morphology, maintained a high gas exchange rate, and did not induce water stress for tomato seedlings—ultimately improving WUE. This effect was more effective under low-SWC conditions than under high-SWC conditions. These findings provide a new perspective and theoretical basis for soil water–plant relations and indicate that SM has great potential in promoting plant growth and improving WUE.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030391
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 392: The Impact of Plant Growth Regulators
           and Floral Cluster Thinning on the Fruit Quality of ‘Shine
           Muscat’ Grape

    • Authors: Sujung Choi, Seunghyun Ban, Cheol Choi
      First page: 392
      Abstract: Plant growth regulators (PGRs) and floral cluster thinning are commonly used to improve grape yield and quality, but their effects on different fruit quality attributes in the ‘Shine Muscat’ are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of PGRs and floral cluster thinning on various fruit quality parameters such as the cluster weight, berry weight, diameter, shape, sugar and acid content, firmness, and residual feel of peel. Our results indicate that the gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) 25 mg/L + thidiazuron (TDZ) 5 mg/L treatment at full bloom and GA3 25 mg/L treatment at 12 days after full bloom showed the largest cluster weight, berry weight, and diameter, while the forchlorfenuron (CPPU)-treated group, with a more balanced effect on fruit skin and flesh firmness, had the highest proportion of a positive residual feel of the peel. Floral cluster thinning by 4 cm was found to be effective for promoting fruit growth and maintaining an appropriate sugar–acid ratio, while thinning by 5 cm resulted in a higher number of berries but smaller berry size and lower sugar–acid ratio. These findings can be useful for grape growers and researchers in optimizing PGR and floral cluster thinning treatments to improve grape yield and quality.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030392
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 393: Genome-Wide Identification of the Sweet
           Orange bZIP Gene Family and Analysis of Their Expression in Response to
           Infection by Penicillium digitatum

    • Authors: Peichen Han, Tuo Yin, Dengxian Xi, Xiuyao Yang, Mengjie Zhang, Ling Zhu, Hanyao Zhang, Xiaozhen Liu
      First page: 393
      Abstract: (1) Background: The sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is the most widely cultivated and productive citrus fruit in the world, with considerable economic value and good prospects for development. However, post-harvest storage and transport of the fruit are often affected by infestation by Penicillium species, leading to many losses. (2) Methods: In this study, the family of bZIP genes from the whole genome of sweet orange was identified and analyzed in detail in terms of gene structure, physicochemical properties, protein structure, conserved structural domains, chromosomal positioning, and promoter analysis using bioinformatic analysis, in addition to an analysis of the expression patterns of the fruit following Penicillium infection. (3) Results: In this study, 50 CsbZIP genes were identified from the sweet orange genome. In silico analysis showed that Cs_ont_3g005140 was presumably localized in the chloroplasts, while the rest of the family members were located in the nucleus. Phylogenetic trees of grape, apple, Arabidopsis, and sweet orange were constructed on the basis of evolutionary relationships and divided into 16 subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all CsbZIP family genes encode proteins containing the highly conserved Motif 1. Promoter prediction analysis showed the chromosomal positioning, and the covariance analysis showed that the 50 CsbZIPs were unevenly distributed on nine chromosomes, with 10 pairs of duplicated genes. In the analysis of expression patterns, 11 of the 50 CsbZIP genes were not expressed, 12 were upregulated, 27 were downregulated, and five of the upregulated genes were highly expressed. (4) Conclusions: In this study, two CsbZIP members were each closely related to two Arabidopsis thaliana genes associated with salt stress. The functions of the replicated and re-differentiated CsbZIP homologs (Cs_ont_1g027160 and Cs_ont_8g020880) divergee further, with one responding to inoculation by Penicillium and the other not doing so. Five genes associated with sweet orange in response to Penicillium infestation were initially screened (Cs_ont_3g000400, Cs_ont_3g003210, Cs_ont_5g007090, Cs_ont_5g011180, Cs_ont_8g020880). This study provides some theoretical basis for subsequent research into the response mechanism of sweet orange bZIP transcription factors under biotic stresses.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030393
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 394: Fruit Cuticle Composition in
           ‘Arbequina’ Olive: Time‒Course Changes along On-Tree
           Ripening under Irrigated and Rain-Fed Conditions

    • Authors: Clara Diarte, Anna Iglesias, Jordi Graell, Isabel Lara
      First page: 394
      Abstract: Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit and derived products play a pivotal role in the Mediterranean diet, to which they contribute their gastronomic value and their health-promoting properties. The fruit cuticle constitutes the interface between the plant and the surrounding environment, and it modulates relevant traits such as water loss, mechanical resistance, and susceptibility to pests and rots. Hence, a better knowledge of fruit cuticle properties and the impact thereupon of agronomic factors could help improving olive grove management. In this work, time‒course changes in fruit cuticle yields and composition were assessed during the on-tree ripening of ‘Arbequina’ olives obtained from irrigated or rain-fed trees grown at a commercial grove located in El Soleràs (Catalonia, Spain), where low annual rainfall occur together with cold winters and hot dry summers. Significantly higher wax contents were observed for rain-fed than for irrigated fruits, both in relative (% over total cuticle) and in absolute terms (from 231 to 840 µg cm−2 and from 212 to 560 µg cm−2, respectively, contingent upon the maturity stage), in agreement with their proposed role as a barrier against water loss. Compositional differences in cuticular waxes and in cutin monomers were also detected between irrigated and rain-fed olives, with major changes involving significantly higher loads per surface area of triterpenoids and ω-hydroxy fatty acids in the latter. In contrast to the load and composition of cuticular wax, no apparent impact of irrigation was observed on either total cuticle yields or cuticle thickness.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030394
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 395: Modelling Soil Water Redistribution in
           Irrigated Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina) Orchards in the Western Cape
           (South Africa)

    • Authors: Nebojša Jovanović, Nonofo Motsei, Munashe Mashabatu, Timothy Dube
      First page: 395
      Abstract: Japanese plum (Prunus salicina) farming in the Western Cape (South Africa) is an important industry for the export market and job creation and is a large water user; however, adequate information on water requirements of this crop is not available in this semi-arid area. The objective of this study was to determine seasonal plum water requirements for the purpose of water use planning and allocation. The study made use of experimental data from four fully bearing, high-yielding plum orchards (cv African Delight and Fortune) in two major plum production regions (Robertson and Wellington). Crop water requirements and the soil water balance were modelled with the physically based HYDRUS-2D model. Seasonal crop water requirements were estimated to be between 524 mm (cv Fortune in Wellington) and 864 mm (cv African Delight in Robertson). Initial basal crop coefficients (Kcb) ranged between 0.98 and 1.01, whilst Kcb for the mid-stage averaged between 1.11 (cv African Delight in Robertson) and 1.18 (cv Fortune in Wellington). Modelling scenarios indicated that soil water redistribution beyond the root zone continues at reduced rates after the soil dries to levels below field capacity. Irrigation management needs to be balanced with other farming practices to reduce leaching and impacts on water resource quality, as well as with the economics of the farm.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030395
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 396: Effects of Applying Nitrogen and
           Potassium on Lilium lancifolium Growth and Accumulation of Secondary
           Metabolites in Bulbs

    • Authors: Yunxia Wang, Hubai Bu, Han Wang, Ping Zhang, Lei Jin
      First page: 396
      Abstract: Lilium lancifolium is a plant resource used as both medicine and food because it is enriched with polysaccharides, polyphenol compounds, and saponins. Increasing the quality of Lilium species is based largely on improvement using methods such as selective breeding and proper fertilization. In this study, we investigated the different responses of L. lancifolium bulbs to treatment with nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) in Hoagland solution. A pot experiment was conducted with four N rates and five K rates under a completely random design. The agronomic traits, N and K contents, and concentrations of active compounds were determined in bulbs, including total phenols, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and saponins. L. lancifolium treated with N and K exhibited increases in the plant height, leaf number, and chlorophyll content compared with the control (N0 + K0). The bulb circumference increased by 17.41% under N2 (609.80 mg L−1) + K2 (523.34 mg L−1) compared with N0 + K0. Individual or combined application of N and K increased the total phenol, flavonoid, and saponin contents, especially under N2 + K3, with the highest increases of 1.87–2.93 times compared with N0 + K0. However, the individual application of N decreased the polysaccharide contents by 2.78–42.04%. Hoagland solution containing 443.24–572.87 mg L−1 N and 573.61–759.16 mg L−1 K is recommended to improve the active contents of bulb components based on regression analysis. Our results demonstrate that the combined application of N and K is important for obtaining high-quality L. lancifolium bulbs.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9030396
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2023)
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