Subjects -> GARDENING AND HORTICULTURE (Total: 37 journals)
Showing 1 - 20 of 20 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annales Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Dekoratyviųjų ir sodo augalų sortimento, technologijų ir aplinkos optimizavimas     Partially Free  
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Horticultural Plant Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Horticulture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Horticultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Landscape Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Vegetable Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Landscape Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscape Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Media, Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Mind Culture and Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Molecular Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Parallax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Polish Journal of Landscape Studies     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Scientia Horticulturae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sibbaldia: the International Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
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Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2311-7524
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 613: Mandarin Essential Oils as an
           Alternative Method of Controlling the Fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.:
           Fr.) Keissler

    • Authors: Fernando Trevizan Devite, Fernando Alves de Azevedo, Marinês Bastianel, Evandro Henrique Schinor, Patrícia Marluci da Conceição
      First page: 613
      Abstract: Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a disease caused by the fungus A. alternata f. sp. citri, which results in lesions on the fruits, leaves, and branches of several mandarin varieties and their hybrids. Due to the high cost of fungicide application, alternative methods for controlling ABS need to be studied. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the use of essential oils (EOs) from different mandarin varieties to mitigate the effects of ABS. The inhibitory effect of different concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 μL·mL−1) of the EOs of Fremont IAC 543 mandarin, IAC 2019Maria mandarin, Murcott IAC 221 tangor, and Late IAC 855 willowleaf on the in vitro mycelial growth of the fungus A. alternata was evaluated. Additionally, the curative and preventive effects of these EOs on the ABS symptoms in detached leaves of Murcott IAC 221 tangor were also assessed. The EO of IAC 2019 Maria mandarin induced less mycelial growth, and consequently, a greater inhibition of the growth of the fungus A. alternata at a concentration of 16 μL·mL−1. This EO was more effective for control than the other oils tested. In the detached leaf experiment, both the curative and preventive treatments at a concentration of 16 μL·mL−1 showed lower values of disease severity.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060613
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 614: Breeding Short-Day Strawberry Genotypes
           for Cultivation in Tropical and Subtropical Regions

    • Authors: Israel Felipe Lustosa da Silva, Gabriel Danilo Shimizu, Eduardo Ladislau dos Santos, Lígia Erpen-Dalla Corte, André Ricardo Zeist, Sergio Ruffo Roberto, Juliano Tadeu Vilela de Resende
      First page: 614
      Abstract: The main strawberry cultivars grown in tropical regions originated from breeding programs developed in temperate countries, which limit the expression of their maximum productive potential when grown in warm climates. Additionally, strawberry cultivation in these regions depends almost entirely on imported strawberry young plants, increasing production costs. Obtaining adapted cultivars with a lower requirement for the accumulation of chilling hours is the main objective of breeding programs in the southern hemisphere. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate short-day strawberry genotypes, pre-selected based on yield and fruit quality components through multivariate analysis, for cultivation in tropical conditions. Two experiments were performed. In the first one, 36 pre-selected genotypes and their parents were assessed based on productive traits (total fruit mass, commercial fruit mass, and mean mass of commercial fruits), soluble solids content, and fruit firmness. For selection, multivariate analysis was applied using the genotype (ideotype) selection index and principal component analysis. In the second experiment, the fruit of the best-ranked genotypes, the parents, and the Camarosa and Dover cultivars were assessed for soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, and total anthocyanins. To identify the most promising genotypes, the data were analyzed using principal component analysis. The RVFS06CR-105, RVDA11CR-61, RVDA11CR-125, and RVCS44CR-130 were the most promising genotypes for cultivation in tropical conditions, based on yield and fruit quality components. The means found for these genotypes were higher than the commercial cultivars Dover, Camino Real, and Camarosa. The use of multivariate analysis was efficient in selecting the genotypes, with repeatability of information between the methods guaranteeing consistency in the information. The selected genotypes had higher yields than those used as the control, which is a promising result considering the independence in relation to genetic material, mainly in the expansion of the cultivation area in the tropical regions of the southern hemisphere. In addition, these genotypes are being evaluated in different tropical climate regions with the aim of validating them for submission to the registration and release process for farmers. Additionally, they are being used as a source of genes for crossings and new selections.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060614
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 615: Quality and Yield of Edible Vegetables
           from Landscape Design

    • Authors: Ana-Maria-Roxana Istrate, Mirela Cojocariu, Gabriel-Ciprian Teliban, Alexandru Cojocaru, Vasile Stoleru
      First page: 615
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of raised beds on crop production and quality in home gardens. The crops were grown using optimal management techniques and crop rotation principles based on organic farming. Three experimental versions were compared: V1 with 40-centimetre-high raised beds, V2 with 20-centimetre-high raised beds, and V3 with ground-level beds as the control. The results showed consistent dry weight and moisture content across all three versions for most vegetable varieties. The sweet pepper ‘Barbara’ stood out significantly, as V3 had the highest dry weight percentage (10.28%) and V2 had the highest moisture content percentage (93.40%). Nutrient analysis revealed no significant differences in lipid, ash, protein, nitrogen, or caloric value among the different versions of most vegetables. However, version V3 of the tomato ‘Tigerella’ showed the highest crude fibre content. Variations were observed in lycopene, ß-carotene, and calcium content among different versions of specific vegetables. Anti-nutritive compounds and average yield varied among the experimental versions for certain plant species. These findings have implications for dietary choices and can guide sustainable food production. It is recommended to consider raised beds, particularly V3, for cultivating sweet pepper ‘Barbara’, and further research is encouraged to explore the potential health benefits of version V3 of tomato ‘Tigerella’. These insights provide valuable vegetable science and nutrition information and can guide agricultural practices.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060615
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 616: Phytophthora in Horticultural Nursery
           Green Waste—A Risk to Plant Health

    • Authors: Kadiatou Schiffer-Forsyth, Debra Frederickson Frederickson Matika, Pete E. Hedley, Peter J. A. Cock, Sarah Green
      First page: 616
      Abstract: Phytophthora is a genus of destructive plant pathogens. Certain species are damaging to native ecosystems, forestry, and the horticultural sector, and there is evidence of their dissemination in plant imports. Horticultural nurseries are central nodes of the plant trade and previous studies have found a high diversity of Phytophthora associated with plant nursery stock. It was subsequently hypothesized that green waste disposal sites in nurseries could harbour diverse Phytophthora communities and act as a pathogen reservoir and conduit, facilitating further Phytophthora infection of nursery stock and its spread into the wider environment. This project identified Phytophthora species associated with green waste at three Scottish nurseries by sampling material from waste piles, water run-off from piles, and roots from discarded plants. Species were identified using a baiting method and sequencing of environmental DNA. Plant nursery green waste was shown to harbour diverse and varied Phytophthora species assemblages, with differences among nurseries reflecting biosecurity management practices. Eighteen Phytophthora species were detected in the samples, including the highly destructive pathogens P. ramorum and P. austrocedri. Results suggest that the improved management of waste, for example through effective on-site composting, is essential to reduce the risk of Phytophthora pathogens spreading from nurseries into the wider environment.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060616
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 617: Prediction Model for Breeding Hardy

    • Authors: Mehrdad Akbarzadeh, Paul Quataert, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, Stefaan P. O. Werbrouck, Emmy Dhooghe
      First page: 617
      Abstract: Key message. The success of interspecific hybridization in hardy geranium (Geranium sp.) can be predicted by considering the genetic distance between parental genotypes and using the logistic regression model developed in this study. Hardy geranium is a popular ornamental plant known for its architecture, hardiness, prolonged flowering, and diverse colors in leaves and flowers. In ornamental breeding, the pursuit of novel trait combinations is never-ending. Even in Geranium, certain combinations of valuable traits have not yet been achieved. Interspecific hybridization can increase diversity; however, success remains low due to pre- and postzygotic barriers. Crossing success can be predicted by response criteria such as pollen tube growth (tube_length), seed development (seed_dev), and seed setting (seed_set). Within a collection of 42 Geranium genotypes and during two consecutive breeding seasons (years), we evaluated tube_length, seed_dev, and seed_set for 150, 1155, and 349 crosses, respectively. These crosses varied in four parental differences (variables): chromosome number (Chrom), DNA/chromosome (DNA), style length (Style), and genetic distance expressed as the Jaccard distance (cJaccard = 1 − Jaccard). Using logistic regression models has confirmed that most often, the success rate decreased with increasing parental distance. The most consistent association was seen in seed_dev in combination with cJaccard. The model was used to predict the number of crosses necessary to have 10 successful crossing products by taking into account the uncertainty in the model. These findings provide valuable guidance for future planning of interspecific breeding experiments in Geranium. By incorporating the genetic distance between parental genotypes, breeders can enhance the efficiency and success of hybridization efforts.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060617
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 618: Effects of Light Intensity on Endogenous
           Hormones and Key Enzyme Activities of Anthocyanin Synthesis in Blueberry

    • Authors: Xiaoli An, Tianyu Tan, Xinyu Zhang, Xiaolan Guo, Yunzheng Zhu, Zejun Song, Delu Wang
      First page: 618
      Abstract: Plant anthocyanin is a secondary metabolite widely distributed in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of plants, and its synthesis is significantly affected by light intensity. To reveal the physiological response mechanism of anthocyanin synthesis in blueberry leaves at different light intensities, four light intensities (100% (CK), 75%, 50% and 25%) were set for the ‘O’Neal’ southern highbush blueberry as the experimental material in our study. The relationship between endogenous hormone contents, key enzyme activities, and variations in the anthocyanin content in blueberry leaves under various light intensities during the white fruit stage (S1), purple fruit stage (S2) and blue fruit stage (S3) of fruit development were studied. The results showed that the anthocyanin content of blueberry leaves increased first and then decreased, and decreased first and then increased with the increase in light intensity and development stage, respectively. The appropriate light intensity could significantly promote the synthesis of anthocyanin, and the anthocyanin content in leaves treated with 75% light intensity was 1.09~4.08 times that of other light intensity treatments. The content or activities of gibberellin (GA3), indoleacetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were significantly or extremely significantly correlated with the content of anthocyanin in leaves. This indicated that light intensity significantly promoted anthocyanin synthesis in blueberry leaves by affecting endogenous hormone contents and key enzyme activities in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway. This study lays a foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of light intensity regulating anthocyanin synthesis in blueberry leaves.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060618
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 619: Identification of Heat-Resistant
           Varieties of Non-Headed Chinese Cabbage and Discovery of Heat-Resistant
           Physiological Mechanisms

    • Authors: Jing Yu, Pengli Li, Song Tu, Ningxiao Feng, Liying Chang, Qingliang Niu
      First page: 619
      Abstract: Affected by global warming, continuous high temperature has a negative impact on plant growth and development and become a major constraint to crop production. Germplasm resource identification has become a research hotspot in many fields, and it is also necessary to establish effective identification methods. In this study, twenty Brassica rapa varieties were selected to investigate the physiological and biochemical characteristics under heat stress, explore the relationship between physiological response and the heat resistance mechanism, and select some typical heat-resistant and heat-sensitive varieties. The effects of photosynthetic electron transfer and antioxidant pathway on the heat resistance of Brassica rapa were identified. These findings will provide important guidance for the physiological regulation and identification method of heat stress in plants.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060619
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 620: Biochemical and Yield Component of
           Hybrid Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) Resulting from Full Diallel Crosses

    • Authors: Muhamad Syukur, Awang Maharijaya, Waras Nurcholis, Arya Widura Ritonga, Muhammad Ridha Alfarabi Istiqlal, Abdul Hakim, Sulassih Sulassih, Ambar Yuswi Perdani, Arya Yuda Pangestu, Andi Nadia Nurul Lathifa Hatta, Zulfikar Damaralam Sahid
      First page: 620
      Abstract: Chili (Capsicum annuum), economically important, is one of the world’s most popular horticultural plants. Functional biochemical components, such as polyphenol content, antioxidants, and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, are found in chili. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a chili hybrid that resulted through full diallel crosses for its yield components, total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidants, and α-glucosidase inhibitory (AGI) activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3-colorimetric assays were, respectively, used for TPC and TFC analyses. Using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) techniques, the antioxidant activity of a sample was determined. The bioassay of α-glucosidase inhibition was used to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of the sample. The twenty-five genotypes (hybrid and parent) have diverse yield components and biochemical contents. The highest fruit weight per plant was found in IPB074005 (1008.85 g). IPB114367 showed a high AGI (80.25%), antioxidant FRAP (43.42 µmol TE g−1 DW), TFC (3.97 mg QE g−1 DW), and TPC (37.51 mg GAE g−1 DW). These findings suggested that hybrid plants that suppress α-glycosidase and oxidative stress may prevent diabetes and its complications. This vital information could help design replacement drugs and diabetes diets.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060620
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 621: Biodegradable Food Packaging of Wild
           Rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia L. [DC.]) and Sea Fennel (Crithmum maritimum
           L.) Grown in a Cascade Cropping System for Short Food Supply Chain

    • Authors: Perla A. Gómez, Catalina Egea-Gilabert, Almudena Giménez, Rachida Rania Benaissa, Fabio Amoruso, Angelo Signore, Victor M. Gallegos-Cedillo, Jesús Ochoa, Juan A. Fernández
      First page: 621
      Abstract: The environmental impact of food products is significantly affected by their packaging. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effect of PLA (polylactic acid) film, as an alternative to petroleum-based bags, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut wild rocket and sea fennel grown in a cascade cropping system (CCS). To this end, wild rocket (main crop) was cultivated using either peat or compost as a growing medium. Sea fennel (secondary crop) was subsequently grown in a floating system with leachates from the primary crop as a nutrient solution. The leaves of both crops were harvested and packaged in OPP- (oriented polypropylene) or PLA-based bags and stored for 7 days at 4 °C. The leaves of wild rocket and sea fennel showed lower dehydration and lower respiration when compost was used as a growing medium or leachate. Wild rocket in compost increased in nitrate and vitamin C contents at harvest while leachates had scarce influence on their contents in sea fennel. After storage, regardless of the crop, no relevant detrimental changes were observed on leaves packaged with PLA, being a product microbiologically safer when compared to OPP. The bag type had almost no influence on most relevant phytochemical compounds. In conclusion, the use of a PLA-based film on minimally processed wild rocket and sea fennel leaves is a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based plastic for a short food supply chain.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060621
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 622: Brassinosteroids Improve Postharvest
           Quality, Antioxidant Compounds, and Reduce Chilling Injury in
           ‘Arrayana’ Mandarin Fruits under Cold Storage

    • Authors: Diego Alejandro Gutiérrez-Villamil, Helber Enrique Balaguera-López, Javier Giovanni Álvarez-Herrera
      First page: 622
      Abstract: ‘Arrayana’ mandarin is one of the most cultivated citrus species in Colombia, but this fruit has a short postharvest life and is sensitive to chilling injury (CI) during cold storage. Generating strategies that decrease CI to mandarin can reduce quantitative and qualitative losses postharvest. Brassinosteroids (BR) have been used as a sustainable technology to alleviate CI in fruits and improve postharvest quality. This study evaluated the effect of applying the 24-epibrasinolide analogue (EBR), at doses of 5 mg L−1; DI-31 analogue, at 5 and 10 mg L−1; and control, on the main physical and biochemical characteristics of ‘Arrayana’ mandarin stored at 4 °C for 40 days and, subsequently, 7 days at room temperature (shelf life). The application of EBR and DI-31 analogues reduced the appearance of CI in the exocarp of ‘Arrayana’ mandarin fruits by reducing electrolyte leakage, maintaining membrane integrity, and increasing antioxidant activity and phenol content at the end of cold storage and shelf life. This was especially pronounced with 5 mg L−1 of EBR. Similarly, the BR maintained the postharvest quality of mandarins by reducing weight loss, respiratory intensity, and chlorophyll degradation; increasing β-carotene; and maintaining titratable acidity and soluble solids. Our research reports, for the first time, CI tolerance in Arrayana mandarin using natural (EBR) and spirostanic (DI-31) analogues and illustrates the tolerance functionality of the DI-31 analogue on CI in the fruit postharvest.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060622
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 623: Biodegradation Rate of EDTA and IDS and
           Their Metal Complexes

    • Authors: Maria Beltyukova, Polina Kuryntseva, Polina Galitskaya, Svetlana Selivanovskaya, Vasiliy Brusko, Ayrat Dimiev
      First page: 623
      Abstract: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), when used as a main chelator for complex plant microfertilizers, causes many negative environmental effects; therefore, new compounds or new use of the known compounds to replace EDTA have been widely studied. In the present study, biodegradation rate, plant (Raphanus sativus) growth stimulation and ecotoxicity towards Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris of iminodisuccinic acid (IDS), considered as an alternative for EDTA in agriculture, has been investigated. It was demonstrated that IDS’ biodegradation rate over 28 days was 28.1%, which is 4.5 times higher than that of EDTA. Similar to EDTA, complexation with metals led to an increase in the degradation rate by 1.8-fold. The majority of compounds were degraded within first 7 days. The GI values for IDS implemented at concentrations of 100 mg/L (both in pure form and in combination with microelements) were 2.4–2.6 times higher than those of EDTA. The ecotoxicity index EC10 of IDS was estimated to be 2.0 g/L and 5.8 g/L towards D. magna and Ch. vulgaris which are 4.1- and 10-fold higher than those for EDTA, respectively. It can be concluded that IDS is a promising agent to chelate microelements used in plant nutrition.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060623
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 624: Chemical Profiling and Antioxidant
           Activity of Wild and Cultivated Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Essential Oil

    • Authors: Zoran S. Ilić, Žarko Kevrešan, Ljubomir Šunić, Ljiljana Stanojević, Lidija Milenković, Jelena Stanojević, Aleksandra Milenković, Dragan Cvetković
      First page: 624
      Abstract: Chemical profiling the sage essential oils (SEOs) from wild and cultivated (shaded or non-shaded) plants has been investigated. The yield of SEOs from wild plants (3.51 mL/100 g) was higher than that from cultivated plants(shaded plants: 3.20 mL/100 g and non-shaded plants: 2.56 mL/100 g).The main components of SEO from wild plants were cis-thujone (43.2%), camphor (17.6%), 1,8-cineole (13.8%), veridiflorol (3.8%) and borneol (3.4%).The chemical composition of SEO from cultivated plants included camphor > cis-thujone > 1,8-cineole. Net shading lowered the content of toxic cis-thujone in sage (23.5%) and is therefore recommended in order to achieve better quality of SEO compared to non-shaded plants (cis-thujone 28.3%).The thujone content of SEO from wild plants is much higher (43.2%), and this drastically reduces the quality of EO. Cultivated sage was found to have stronger antioxidant activity (shaded plants 6.16 mg/mL or non-shaded 7.49 ± 0.13 mg/mL) compared to wild sage plants (9.65 mg/mL). The isolated SEOs are good sources of natural antioxidants with potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060624
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 625: Physiology and Application of
           Gibberellins in Postharvest Horticultural Crops

    • Authors: Jingyu Zhang, Yuhao Cao, Jia Tang, Xujie He, Ming Li, Chen Li, Xiaolin Ren, Yuduan Ding
      First page: 625
      Abstract: Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones indispensable in regulating the growth and development of fruits. Recent studies have shown that GAs play important roles in delaying horticultural crop ripening and senescence, enhancing the internal and external quality of horticultural crops and resistance to stress and disease. We reviewed the role of GAs in the postharvest physiology of fruits in recent years. GAs are closely related to their ability to retard fruit senescence. GAs could effectively improve fruit storage quality and significantly increase flesh hardness, reduce respiration intensity, inhibit the release of endogenous ethylene, and effectively inhibit fruit softening and ripening. It can also improve the intrinsic and extrinsic quality of fruit storage by improving fruit shape, regulating color, delaying the reduction of soluble solids, promoting sugar accumulation, and delaying vitamin loss. GAs also play a role in postharvest biotic and abiotic stress resistance. The GA treatment effectively reduces the cold damage index, reduces the production and accumulation of superoxide anion(O2−), improves the antioxidant capacity of fruits, and maintains the integrity of cell membranes during low-temperature storage. Moreover, GAs could effectively control some postharvest fruit diseases. In conclusion, GAs play an important role in the physiological regulation of postharvest fruits and have important application prospects in postharvest fruits.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060625
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 626: Monitoring Role of Exogenous Amino Acids
           on the Proteinogenic and Ionic Responses of Lettuce Plants under Salinity
           Stress Conditions

    • Authors: Mostafa Abdelkader, Luidmila Voronina, Olga Shelepova, Mikhail Puchkov, Elena Loktionova, Nursaule Zhanbyrshina, Rakhiya Yelnazarkyzy, Aigul Tleppayeva, Alexander Ksenofontov
      First page: 626
      Abstract: Lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown under salinity stress conditions. Amino acids (histidine (His), lysine (Lys), phenylalanine (Phe), and threonine (Thr)) were individually applied to the seedlings to study their impact on the status of the photosynthetic pigments, ion absorption, proteinogenic metabolism, and peroxidase activity. Investigating the effect of exogenous amino acids on the metabolism processes showed their potential role in inducing salt stress tolerance in lettuce plants. Generally, a destructive impact on lettuce plant morphology was observed when the plants were exposed to salt stress. In contrast, the significant (p < 0.05) mitigation of salt stress was registered when EAAs were applied to the stressed seedlings while using Threonine and lysine enhanced the status of the plants under salinity stress. For the salt treatment, the maximum electric conductivity (580.2 μS/g) was reported while applying EAAs to stressed plants’ decreased EC, and the data ranged from 522 to 554 μS/g. EAAs decreased the chloride ions in the leaves by 23–30% compared to in the stressed plants. Additionally, the sodium contents were mitigated when the stressed plants were sprayed with EAAs. In contrast, applying EAAs enhanced the potassium uptake, and Thr gave the highest K+ contents (3022 μg/g). EAAs increased the chlorophyll content compared to the control except when histidine was applied, while the carotene contents significantly increased when histidine and phenylalanine were used. Endogenous amino acids are highly expressed in non-stressed lettuce plants compared to the stressed ones. Under salt stress conditions, the threonine usage increased the expression of proteinogenic amino acids except methionine and tyrosine. Compared to the salt-stressed plants, the peroxidase activity significantly decreased in the other treatments, which fell by over 32% when His, Lys, and Phe were applied.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060626
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 627: Citrus Specialization or Crop
           Diversification: The Role of Smallholder’s Subjective Risk Aversion
           and Case Evidence from Guangxi, China

    • Authors: Xinjian Chen, Mengyao Xia, Di Zeng, Xiaojun Fan
      First page: 627
      Abstract: Specialization may lead to higher income for small-scale farmers but comes with increased risks, while diversification can mitigate risks and foster agricultural sustainability. Considering the influences of complex risks and farmers’ subjective risk aversion, the decision for small-scale farmers to specialize in citrus cultivation or diversify with multiple crops remains uncertain. There is currently limited understanding of this issue among citrus smallholders in rural China. This study aims to fill this empirical gap by examining the impact of smallholder farmers’ subjective risk aversion on their choice between citrus monoculture and crop diversification. It utilizes a subjective risk assessment approach that incorporates farmers’ risk perceptions and risk attitudes towards citrus farming. Farm crop diversification is assessed through the utilization of both the count index and Shannon index. The empirical analysis employs survey data obtained from citrus growers in Guangxi, China, and applies an instrumental variable regression method with endogeneity consideration using the IV-Probit model and 2SLS model estimation. The results reveal that both risk perceptions and risk attitudes play important roles in citrus smallholders’ land allocation decisions. Specifically, citrus farmers who perceive higher risks and adopt risk-averse attitudes are statistically more inclined to engage in land use diversification practices, including the practice of growing citrus as well as other crops, which contributes to reducing the risks of citrus farming and promoting local environmental conservation. These results contribute to a better scholarly comprehension of the relationship between risk perceptions, risk attitudes, and crop diversification among small-scale citrus farmers. They provide valuable insights for enhancing the sustainability of land use systems with citrus farming while also emphasizing the importance of maintaining essential diversification in small-scale farming throughout the process of agricultural modernization.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060627
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 628: Effects of Low-Temperature Accumulation
           on Flowering of Prunus mume

    • Authors: Yuhan Zhang, Kaifeng Ma, Qingwei Li
      First page: 628
      Abstract: Low-temperature accumulation is one of the essential stages in the growth process of woody ornamental plants. In this study, two different low-temperature treatments, 6 °C and 10 °C, were used to analyze the effects of different low-temperature treatments on dormancy release and flowering of the ‘Gulihong’ plant using artificial low temperatures. Based on the experimental results, four typical early-blooming Prunus mume cultivars widely planted in Yangling area of Henan Province, China, including ‘Zaoyudie’, ‘Zaohualve’, ‘Nanjing gongfen’, and ‘Gulihong’, were selected as the experimental materials. The effects of low-temperature accumulation on the flowering characteristics of different cultivars were analyzed using a 6 °C artificial low-temperature treatment. The suitable cultivation temperature for early-blooming cultivars was screened to provide a theoretical basis for further exploration of P. mume bonsai cultivation techniques. The results showed that the flowering rate, flower diameter, flowering quantity, flowering uniformity, and bud development in the 6 °C treatment were significantly better than those in the 10 °C treatment. Furthermore, under 6 °C low-temperature treatment, the flowering rate and quality of different cultivars showed an increasing trend with the accumulation of low temperature, with ‘Gulihong’ exhibiting the highest flowering rate. Therefore, chill accumulation plays a significant role in promoting flowering quality.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060628
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 629: Comparative Evaluation of Different
           Extraction Techniques for Separation of Artemisinin from Sweet Wormwood
           (Artemisia annua L.)

    • Authors: Marija Banožić, Aleksandra Weronika Wronska, Martina Jakovljević Jakovljević Kovač, Krunoslav Aladić, Igor Jerković, Stela Jokić
      First page: 629
      Abstract: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) valorization is gaining importance due to the presence of the health-promoting bioactive compound, artemisinin. Considering the wide possible application of artemisinin drug formulations, new, greener technologies in their production are welcome. In this study, artemisinin was extracted from A. annua leaves using green extraction technologies (ultrasound-assisted extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction, deep eutectic solvent extraction and subcritical water extraction) in combination with green solvents. Artemisinin was present up to 3.21 µg/mgdw. Among the different green extraction techniques, HPLC data revealed supercritical CO2 (SCO2) extracts to exhibit the highest yield of artemisinin due to the solvent non-polar properties. Additionally, the volatile compounds profile of SCO2 extract was determined, with camphor (12.23%), arteannuin b (15.29%) and artemisia ketone (10.97%) as the most abundant compounds. Obtained results encourage the use of green extraction techniques for the separation of artemisinin and are expected to find potential in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food applications.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060629
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 630: Effects of Citric Acid and Humic-like
           Substances on Yield, Enzyme Activities, and Expression of Genes Involved
           in Iron Uptake in Tomato Plants

    • Authors: Fabián Pérez-Labrada, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado, Susana Solís-Gaona, Susana González-Morales
      First page: 630
      Abstract: Iron (Fe) deficiency is a common abiotic stress on plants growing in calcareous soils where low organic matter content, high carbonate–bicarbonate concentration, and high pH precipitate Fe in unavailable forms. Enzymatic activity is a mechanism for plants to access soil nutrients; enzymes such as H+-ATPase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and the intracellular enzyme ferric reduction oxidase (FRO) are involved in Fe absorption. The effects of the application of citric acid (CA) and humic-like substances (HLS) on the yield, H+-ATPase, PEPC, and FRO enzyme activity, and expression of LeHA1, LePEPC1, and LeFRO1 genes in tomato plants grown under calcareous soil were studied. CA and HLS improved the SPAD units and increased the number of harvested fruits and yield per plant. Temporary alterations in enzyme activity, which reduced PEPC and FRO activity in roots, were documented. In leaf tissue, CA resulted in lower expression of LeHA1 and LePEPC1 and the induction of LeFRO1 expression, whereas HLS application resulted in higher expression of LePEPC1 and LeFRO1. In roots, LeHA1 expression increased with HLS, whereas LePEPC1 and LeFRO1 showed lower expression with CA and HLS, respectively. The application of CA and HLS through a nutrient solution in combination with Fe-chelate can improve Fe nutrition in tomato plants potted in calcareous soil by inducing temporal alterations in PEPC and FRO enzyme activity and LeFRO1 and LeHA1 gene expression.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060630
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 631: Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Enhanced Growth
           of Tea Trees via Modulating Antioxidant Activity and Secondary Metabolites

    • Authors: Chen Chen, Jiaying Lai, Hong Chen, Fangyuan Yu
      First page: 631
      Abstract: Nano-fertilizer has been dubbed ‘the fertilizer of the 21st century’, and it is already being used extensively in agriculture. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have excellent biological properties and are expected to be an ideal choice for plant zinc fertilizer. Tea is one of the top three beverages in the world, and improving the quality of tea is a priority in its research field. In this study, different concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg·L−1) of ZnO-NPs were sprayed on tea leaves to investigate their effects on volatile aroma substances and biochemical aspects of tea leaves. The results revealed that various concentrations of ZnO-NPs had different effects on physiological indexes. The concentration of 150 mg·L−1 of ZnO-NPs enhanced chlorophyll content, while the 100 mg·L−1 concentration of ZnO-NPs promoted the accumulation of soluble proteins and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including a decrease in the content of malondialdehyde. In addition, the ZnO-NPs spray reduced the content of tea polyphenols. A total of 27 volatiles were identified under six treatments, with benzene being the common compound with an average content of 45.97%. Ethanolamine and cis-3-hexenyl acetate were the other two major compounds. It was concluded that the presence of ZnO-NPs improved the antioxidant system of teas, increased soluble protein content and provided better reactive oxygen species protection for plants, especially in the case of ZnO-NPs at 100 mg·L−1. We highlighted that ZnO-NPs application was a favorable way to improve tea trees growth.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060631
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 632: Water Productivity Indices of Onion
           (Allium cepa) Under Drip Irrigation and Mulching in a Semi-Arid Tropical
           Region of Colombia

    • Authors: César Augusto Terán-Chaves, Luis Montejo-Nuñez, Carina Cordero-Cordero, Sonia Mercedes Polo-Murcia
      First page: 632
      Abstract: Efficient water management is crucial for sustainable agriculture and water resource conservation, particularly in water-scarce regions. This study investigated the effect of different irrigation depths on onion (Allium cepa L.) yield and water use patterns in a semi-arid tropical region of Colombia, using a completely randomized design with five treatments. The treatments ranged from 0–100% of total available water (TAW), T1 (100% of TAW), T2 (80% of TAW), T3 (60% of TAW), T4 (40% of TAW), and T5 (20% of TAW). The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse during one growing season (2022–2023). The normalized water productivity (WP *), irrigation water productivity (IWP), consumptive water productivity, blue water footprint (WFblue), marginal water use efficiency (MWUE), and elasticity of water productivity (EWP), as well as some parameters of quality onion, were determined. The soil in the experimental field was classified as sandy loam; the results show that the WP * of onion is 17.42 g m−2, the water production function shows the maximum production will be achieved at a water application depth of approximately 943 mm, and beyond that, the biomass yield will decrease with additional water application, IWP values for onion ranged from 2.18 to 3.42 kg m−3, the highest Wfblue was in T5 (34.10 m3 t−1), and low Wfblue was T1 (20.95 m3 t−1). In terms of quality, treatment T1 had the most favorable effects on bulb weight, polar diameter, and equatorial diameter, while treatment T5 had the least favorable effects. The study highlights the importance of efficient irrigation on sandy loam soils to maximize yield and water use efficiency. It provides valuable data for evaluating the potential yield benefits of precision irrigation in the study area. Optimizing irrigation depth can significantly improve onion yield and water use efficiency in semi-arid regions.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060632
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 6 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 533: In Vitro Shoot Multiplication and
           Regeneration of the Recalcitrant Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) Variety
           Domaća Rukola

    • Authors: Nevena Banjac, Dijana Krstić-Milošević, Tatjana Mijalković, Mirjana Petrović, Tatjana Ćosić, Mariana Stanišić, Branka Vinterhalter
      First page: 533
      Abstract: Eruca sativa is known in traditional medicine for its therapeutic effects, while young plants are used as a salad or green food. Recently, the consumption of rocket has increased considerably, so it has become very important for breeders. Plant tissue culture provides a platform to overcome the problems in improving this species. In the present study, an efficient protocol for in vitro shoot regeneration and propagation of recalcitrant rocket variety Domaća rukola was studied. Murashige and Skoog (MS, 1962) medium containing 0.1 mg L−1 BA and frequent subculture over a period of three weeks proved to be optimal for shoot multiplication with a multiplication index of over 3 and only 8.72% of hyperhydrated shoots without necrosis. Different concentrations of 2,4-D, BA, or TDZ in combination with NAA, with or without the presence of AgNO3, were tested for de novo shoot organogenesis (DNSO) from seedling explants. The hypocotyl explants cultured on MS with a combination of TDZ1.0+NAA0.1+AgNO3 5.0 mg L−1 regenerated viable shoots with the highest rate (25.38%) and an average number of 2.18 shoots per regenerating explant. Somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos proved to be the best way to regenerate a recalcitrant rocket cultivar. The highest embryogenic efficiency was achieved in explants cultured on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L−1 2,4-D with a frequency of 76.64% and 5.13 mean number of regenerated somatic embryos per explant, which were further converted into normal plants. Additionally, in vitro-produced rocket shoots could serve as a possible promising source for the production of flavonoid kaempferol with proven antioxidant properties.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050533
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 534: Preharvest Multiple Applications of GABA
           Improve Quality Traits and Antioxidant Compounds of Pomegranate Fruit
           during Storage

    • Authors: José Manuel Lorente-Mento, Daniel Valero, Domingo Martínez-Romero, Fátima Badiche, María Serrano, Fabián Guillén
      First page: 534
      Abstract: GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid) is an amino acid with diverse effects on plant development, including delayed senescence in horticultural commodities. The main goal of this research was to investigate the impact of GABA applications to pomegranate trees on the ‘Mollar de Elche’ quality traits and antioxidant compounds during storage for 60 days at 10 °C. In the 2019 experiment, pomegranate trees received foliar sprays of GABA at 10-, 50- or 100-mM concentrations at three stages of fruit development. Pomegranates harvested from GABA-treated trees exhibited enhanced fruit firmness, titratable acidity, the red color of skin and aril, and higher levels of total phenolics and total and specific anthocyanins compared to those obtained from the control group. These quality traits were maintained at higher levels during 60 days of preservation at 10 °C, and the most important effects were observed for 100 mM dose. In a 2020 experiment, GABA was sprayed at a 100 mM dose, and results were confirmed, showing a retard of the ripening process in pomegranates from GABA-treated trees concerning controls for two months of storage and an extension of their shelf life (with optimal quality traits appreciated by consumers) from 30 to 60 days. Moreover, the increase in anthocyanin content due to GABA treatments resulted in redder fruits, which would appeal more to consumers and have improved health benefits.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050534
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 535: Effect of Foliar Application of Sodium
           Selenate on Mineral Relationships in Brassicaceae Crops

    • Authors: Nadezhda Golubkina, Marina Antoshkina, Ludmila Bondareva, Agnieszka Sekara, Erica Campagna, Gianluca Caruso
      First page: 535
      Abstract: The relationships of selenium (Se) with other elements in plants is important for producing functional food with high Se contents and a predicted quality. To unveil the peculiarities of the element interactions, eight botanical varieties of Brassica oleracea L. were grown in similar conditions with or without foliar application of sodium selenate. High varietal differences, elicited by the Se supply, were recorded with regard to the accumulation of the elements examined, except for Mg, P and Si. Cabbage florets (broccoli and cauliflower) were characterized by both the lowest total mineral content and number of elements showing content changes under the Se supply (7–8 out of 25), whereas in Savoy cabbage, the highest number of minerals displayed content changes (13–14 from 25). The Se treatment did not significantly interfere with the high correlation coefficients recorded between Sr–Ca, Co–Ni and Zn–Mg (0.824–0.952). The selenium biofortification value varied from 12 to 138 depending on the species and was inversely correlated with the Si accumulation in the control plants (r = −0.872, p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the correlation coefficients occurred due to the Se supply regarding Zn with P and Co, Ca with Co and Li, Li and V, and Na and Sn, while the V–Pb relationship was significantly enhanced. Among the 25 elements studied, Cr demonstrated the highest number of significant correlation coefficient changes (with K, Na, P, Si, Zn, Cu, Co, I, As, Pb, and V). The results of this research prove the variability of the element interactions under foliar Se treatments in Brassica oleracea plants and reveal, for the first time, an inverse correlation between the Se biofortification level and Si content in untreated plants.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050535
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 536: Low Nocturnal Temperature Alters Tomato
           Foliar and Root Phosphorus Fractions Allocation by Reducing Soil
           Phosphorus Availability

    • Authors: Qingwen Shi, Ru Ma, Zhouping Sun, Yufeng Liu, Hongdan Fu, Tianlai Li
      First page: 536
      Abstract: Low nocturnal temperature (LNT) is a major constraint for protected tomato production in China during winter and spring, which leads to tomato phosphorus (P) deficiency symptoms. The soil P fractions reflect soil P availability. The foliar and root P fractions reflect the adaptation strategies of tomatoes to LNT. However, the relationship between plant P fractions and soil P fractions under LNT is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a 40-day indoor incubation experiment with four nocturnal temperatures (15, 12, 9 and 6 °C). Tomato growth status, plant P fractions and soil P fractions were determined. Then, structural equation model (SEM) was used to analyze the direct and/or indirect effects of LNT on soil P fractions, plant P fractions and tomato shoot dry weight (SDW). The results showed that LNT decreased soil P availability by decreasing soil labile P and increasing soil moderately labile P. The foliar inorganic P, metabolite P, nucleic acid P and residual P were decreased under 9 and 6 °C. The root nucleic acid P and lipid P were decreased, while metabolite P was increased under 9 and 6 °C. Tomato foliar and root P fraction allocation was directly influenced by the increase in soil moderately labile P, while the decline in SDW was directly influenced by the decrease in soil labile P. In conclusion, LNT affects tomato P fractions allocation by reducing soil P availability, which limits the shoot dry matter production in tomatoes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050536
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 537: A Distance Measurement Approach for
           Large Fruit Picking with Single Camera

    • Authors: Jie Liu, Dianzhuo Zhou, Yifan Wang, Yan Li, Weiqi Li
      First page: 537
      Abstract: Target ranging is the premise for manipulators to complete agronomic operations such as picking and field management; however, complex environmental backgrounds and changing crop shapes increase the difficulty of obtaining target distance information based on binocular vision or depth cameras. In this work, a method for ranging large-sized fruit based on monocular vision was proposed to provide a low-cost and low-computation alternative solution for the fruit thinning or picking robot. The regression relationships between the changes in the number of pixels occupied by the target area and the changes in the imaging distance were calculated based on the images of square-shaped checkerboards and circular-shaped checkerboards with 100 cm2, 121 cm2, 144 cm2, 169 cm2, 196 cm2, 225 cm2, 256 cm2, 289 cm2, and 324 cm2 as the area, respectively. The 918 checkerboard images were collected by the camera within the range from 0.25 m to 1.5 m, with 0.025 m as the length of each moving step, and analyzed in MATLAB to establish the ranging models. A total of 2448 images of four oval watermelons, four pyriform pomelos, and four oblate pomelos, as the representatives of large fruit with different shapes, were used to evaluate and optimize the performance of the models. The images of the front were the input, while the imaging distances were the output. The results showed that the absolute error would be less than 0.06 m for both models and would linearly increase with a decrease in the distance. The relative error could be controlled at 5%. The results proved the proposed monocular method could be a solution for the ranging of large fruit targets.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050537
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 538: Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism
           Modulation on the Quality of Apple Fruits Inoculated with Penicillium
           expansum under Different Ambient pHs

    • Authors: Carelle Jimdjio Kouasseu, Xi Yang, Huali Xue, Yang Bi, Zhiguang Liu, Jihui Xi, Mina Nan, Dov Prusky
      First page: 538
      Abstract: Apple blue mold is a significant postharvest disease caused by Penicillium expansum. pH modification in colonized tissues leads to the production of organic substances, the modulation of enzymes, and then increases fungal pathogenicity. This study evaluated Penicillium expansum-inoculated apple fruits’ quality responding to pH treatments ranging from 2.5 to 8.5 and analyzed the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism modulation in inoculated apple fruits at the same pH. The results showed that the fruit quality of the firmness, total soluble solids, and titratable acid displayed a quick loss at pHs 5.0 and 7.0, compared with 2.5 and 8.5. Similarly, higher disease incidence was observed at pHs 5.0 and 7.0. Apple fruits infected with P. expansum at pHs 2.5 and 8.5 had less content of O2•−, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA); lower enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX); and greater cell membrane integrity than those at pHs 5.0 and 7.0. The analysis of the antioxidant enzymatic activities showed upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) at pHs 2.5 and 8.5 compared with those at pHs 5.0 and 7.0. Similar trends were shown in ascorbic acid and glutathione. These results support the hypothesis that inoculated apple fruits at pHs 2.5 and 8.5 improve resistance to P. expansum by modulating ROS metabolism, compared with pHs 5.0 and 7.0.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050538
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 539: Uncovering the Expansin Gene Family in
           Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): Genomic Identification and Expression

    • Authors: Xintong Xu, Yuying Wang, Xueqing Zhao, Zhaohe Yuan
      First page: 539
      Abstract: Expansins, which are important components of plant cell walls, act as loosening factors to directly induce turgor-driven cell wall expansion, regulate the growth and development of roots, leaves, fruits, and other plant organs, and function essentially under environmental stresses. In multiple species, many expansin genes (EXPs) have been cloned and functionally validated but little is known in pomegranate. In this study, a total of 33 PgEXPs were screened from the whole genome data of ‘Taishanhong’ pomegranate, belonging to the EXPA(25), EXPB(5), EXLA(1), and EXLB(2) subfamilies. Subsequently, the composition and characteristics were analyzed. Members of the same branch shared similar motif compositions and gene structures, implying they had similar biological functions. According to cis-acting element analysis, PgEXPs contained many light and hormone response elements in promoter regions. Analysis of RNA-seq data and protein interaction network indicated that PgEXP26 had relatively higher transcription levels in all pomegranate tissues and might be involved in pectin lyase protein synthesis, whilst PgEXP5 and PgEXP31 might be involved in the production of enzymes associated with cell wall formation. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results revealed that PgEXP expression levels in fruit peels varied considerably across fruit developmental phases. PgEXP23 was expressed highly in the later stages of fruit development, suggesting that PgEXP23 was essential in fruit ripening. On the other hand, the PgEXP28 expression level was minimal or non-detected. Our work laid a foundation for further investigation into pomegranate expansin gene functions.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050539
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 540: Molecular Identification and
           Characterization of UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) Multigene Family in

    • Authors: Xueqing Zhao, Yingyi Feng, Ding Ke, Yingfen Teng, Ying Chen, Renzeng Langjia
      First page: 540
      Abstract: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is regarded as one of the functional fruits because of its large amounts of secondary metabolites. The glycosylation processes mediated by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) play a decisive role in regulating secondary metabolite availability. In this study, a genome-wide search identified 145 UGT genes in pomegranate, and further phylogenetic analysis defined 17 distinct groups: A to P and R. PgUGTs were dispersed unevenly across all eight chromosomes. Duplication events analysis revealed that both segmental and tandem duplications were the main mechanisms leading to gene family expansions. The comparison of exon–intron patterns identified 53 intron-less genes. A total of 24 types of cis-acting elements related to hormone, stress, and developmental responses were predicted in the promoter regions. Expression analysis of PgUGT genes using RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) verification suggested that PgUGT genes were expressed at specific stages of fruit development, and different PgUGT members likely played different roles in specific fruit developmental stages. In an attempt to identify the UGTs involved in the glycosylation of flavonoids, 44 PgUGTs were putatively determined, and 5 well-defined orthologous groups (OGs) were characterized by the regioselectivity of these enzymes. These results provide significant insight into the UGT multi-gene family in pomegranate, and will be helpful to further elucidate their roles involved in secondary and specialized metabolism in pomegranate.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050540
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 541: Interaction Effects of Cultivars and
           Nutrition on Quality and Yield of Tomato

    • Authors: Oana-Raluca Rusu, Ionel Mangalagiu, Dorina Amăriucăi-Mantu, Gabriel-Ciprian Teliban, Alexandru Cojocaru, Marian Burducea, Gabriela Mihalache, Mihaela Roșca, Gianluca Caruso, Agnieszka Sekara, Vasile Stoleru
      First page: 541
      Abstract: Tomato is considered the most important vegetable crop worldwide. Improving the nutritional value of fruits must be based on sustainable production in terms of varieties and fertilization management. This study aimed to improve the nutritional value (total soluble solids, acidity, lycopene, β-carotene, polyphenols, macro and microelements) of two tomato varieties (‘Cristal’ and ‘Siriana’) under three fertilization types (NPK chemical fertilizer, chicken manure and biological fertilizer with microorganisms) for the greenhouse. Primary metabolism compounds do not vary significantly according to the type of fertilizer used. The results for the antioxidant compounds showed a better effect of biological fertilization compared to chemical fertilizer and control unfertilized. Thus, the antioxidant activity was improved by 28% compared to chemical fertilization, the lycopene content by 36% and β-carotene by 96%, respectively. The tomato fruits from the local cultivar (‘Siriana’) are richer in nutritional compounds such as rutin, regardless of the type of fertilization, which denotes a good ability to adapt to crop conditions. Tomato cultivars reacted positively to microbiological fertilization compared to chemical, thus producing nutritious fruits under sustainable management. Tomato fruits were richer in the quality of microelement contents.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050541
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 542: Effective Priming Techniques to Enhance
           Ghaf (Prosopis cineraria L. Druce) Seed Germination for Mass Planting

    • Authors: Fatima E. Hassan, Mohammed A. S. Alyafei, Shyam Kurup, Abdul Cheruth, Nabra Al Busaidi, Zienab F. R. Ahmed
      First page: 542
      Abstract: Seed priming is a cost-effective and efficient pre-sowing technique that promotes seed germination and plant growth under abiotic stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different priming treatments on breaking the dormancy of ghaf (Prosopis cineraria L. Druce) seeds. Furthermore, the effects of storage conditions and seed coating on seed germination were examined. Treatments with hot water, KNO3, KCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG), H2SO4, gibberellin (GA3), cytokinin benzyl adenine (BA), and H2SO4 + BA were investigated. Among all the tested treatments, seeds responded the best to the H2SO4 50% 2 min + BA (200 ppm) priming treatment in terms of germination uniformity and effectiveness. This treatment initiated germination 5 days after sowing and increased the germination percentage from 11.32% in the untreated seed to 83% and 100% in the primed ones after 5 and 20 days, respectively. The germination percentage and primary root length were shown to be more responsive to this combined treatment, followed by the H2SO4 50% 2 min+ BA 100 ppm. This treatment achieved the best result of 100% germination when the seeds were covered in a seed ball. Additionally, the treated seeds could be stored at room temperature or 4 °C for more than 10 days with no negative effect on the germination. Based on these findings, this treatment could be recommended to farmers and plant producers to boost the mass production of ghaf trees.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050542
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 543: Effect of Alginate-Based Edible Coating
           Containing Thyme Essential Oil on Quality and Microbial Safety of
           Fresh-Cut Potatoes

    • Authors: Sarengaowa Sarengaowa, Ke Feng, Yuanzheng Li, Ya Long, Wenzhong Hu
      First page: 543
      Abstract: Fresh-cut potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are a favorite product on account of their freshness, convenience, and health benefits. However, cutting causes potatoes to lose their protective tissue and suffer mechanical damage, which greatly increases the quality deterioration and safety risk of potatoes. The background microorganism and foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut potatoes might rapidly grow during transportation, processing, and marketing, and cause high health risks for consumers. In this study, the quality and safety of fresh-cut potatoes coated with an alginate-based edible coating containing thyme essential oil (AEC-TEO) was evaluated during a storage period of 16 days at 4 °C. Samples were coated with AEC-TEO at different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.35, and 0.65%, v/v). The quality characteristics of fresh-cut potatoes including color, weight loss, firmness, and sensory attributes were evaluated over 4 days. The viability of the background microorganism of fresh-cut potatoes and artificially inoculated bacteria involving Listeria monocytogenes (LM) was measured every 4 days. The research showed that treatment with AEC-TEO at a 0.05% concentration was the most beneficial for maintaining quality and inhibiting the microorganism of fresh-cut potatoes. The increase in L and firmness was 10.55 and 8.24 N, respectively, and the decrease in browning was 4.19 compared to that in the control. Sensory attributes represent an assessment between “indifferent” and “like a little”. The reductions in total plate counts, total coliform counts, yeast and mold counts, and Lactobacillus counts were 2.41 log cfu/g, 1.37 log cfu/g, 1.21 log cfu/g, and 2 log cfu/g, and Listeria monocytogenes decreased by 3.63 log cfu/g on fresh-cut potatoes after 16 days. Therefore, AEC-TEO effectively improved the quality of fresh-cut potatoes and, to a certain extent, prolonged their shelf life. This represents a potential application prospect for the preservation of fresh-cut potatoes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050543
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 544: Effect of Temperature and Storage Time
           on Some Biochemical Compounds from the Kernel of Some Walnut Cultivars
           Grown in Romania

    • Authors: Loredana Elena Vijan, Simona Giura, Ivona Cristina Mazilu, Mihai Botu
      First page: 544
      Abstract: Walnut kernels are appreciated not only for their mineral content, vitamins, proteins, and valuable lipids, but also for the presence of polyphenolic compounds and biogenic amines. The temperature and storage time effects on some biochemical compounds from kernels collected from eight walnut genotypes grown at the Fruit Growing Research and Extension Station (SCDP) Valcea, Romania, were studied. In general, the phenolic and carotenoid compounds followed opposite trends during short-term storage and in some cases in medium-term storage. In both cases, there was a reduction in concentration during long-term storage, which was more pronounced for carotenoids. The most efficient method for preserving the walnut kernel’s phenolic content was freezing. Keeping the walnut kernel at room temperature assured the smallest carotenoid content decrease. Depending on the walnut cultivar, the preservation of the walnut kernel can be extended to five months by storage at −20 to −18 °C without loss of phenolic compounds, while a period shorter than five months (but certainly longer than three months) could be recommended for storage at 3–4 °C. Keeping it at room temperature can be an option for a short period (about three months). None of the preservation methods was adequate if the losses recorded for carotenoids were taken into account.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050544
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 545: Evaluation of Aging Methods on the
           Surface Characteristics of Hydrochar and Germination Indices for Kale

    • Authors: Dengge Qin, Quan He, Seyed Mohammad Nasir Mousavi, Lord Abbey
      First page: 545
      Abstract: Hydrochar derived from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been recognized as a potential absorbent and horticultural substrate. However, its practical application has been limited due to its low adsorption capacity and negative effects on plant growth. To address these issues, three pre-treatment methods (water washing, microbial aging, and freezing-thawing aging) were employed to further improve the physical structure and chemical properties of hydrochar. A seed germination test with kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala D.C) was conducted to evaluate the phytotoxicity of modified hydrochars. The results showed that microbial aging considerably enhanced the physicochemical properties of the hydrochar. Specifically, under microbial aging, the bulk density of microbial-aged hydrochar (MHC) decreased by 8.1%, the porosity increased by 24.8%, and the water-holding capacity increased by 36.54% compared to fresh hydrochar (FHC). Moreover, the surfaces of MHC and freezing-thawing aged hydrochar (FTHC) were observed with rough and cracked surfaces and macro pore structures. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that the functional group’s intensities of the four hydrochar materials varied, and that MHC and FTHC had more oxygen-containing groups than the others. Additionally, the surface areas of MHC and FTHC increased by 318.64% and 238.98% compared to FHC, respectively. The seed germination test indicated the strong inhibitory effect of FHC, while MHC significantly (p < 0.05) improved the seed germination rate and root development. These findings suggest that among the different pre-treatment methods, microbial aging demonstrated the greatest potential for practical application in improving the physicochemical properties of hydrochar and promoting seed germination. This study opens up new avenues for further research on improving hydrochar and suggests that future studies should focus on optimizing the aging process.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050545
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 546: Biochemical and Nutraceutical
           Characterization of Different Accessions of the Apricot (Prunus armeniaca

    • Authors: Aurora Cirillo, Lucia De Luca, Luana Izzo, Marco Cepparulo, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Raffaele Romano, Claudio Di Vaio
      First page: 546
      Abstract: The name “Vesuvian apricot” refers to numerous varieties originating from the same production area at the foot of Vesuvius and with a long tradition of cultivation. The importance of the apricot fruit and its derivatives on human health is known thanks to the presence of several secondary metabolites, many of them being active as antioxidants. This study aims to analyze 12 vesuvian apricot accessions by means of chemical-physical (fruits weights, firmness, TSS, TA, pH, and color fruits) and nutraceutical analyses (acid organic and sugar content, antioxidant activities, and polyphenol content). All the accessions analyzed can be defined as superior-quality apricots because they had TSS values ≥ 13 and a pulp strength ≤ 1 kg/0.5 cm2. Another parameter used to express the quality of apricot fruits was TSS-F (soluble solids content-pulp hardness) which showed a value ≥ 12. The total sugar content ranged from 260.40 mg/g d.w in ‘VM’ to 744.59 mg/g d.w in ‘SC’. In all accessions analyzed the sugar content was in the following order: sucrose > glucose > fructose. The antioxidant activity showed a high variability between the different accessions. Our results show that the Vesuvian apricot accessions present a large range with different organoleptic characteristics and offer the possibility to choose according to consumer and processing preferences.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050546
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 547: The Dormancy Types and Germination
           Characteristics of the Seeds of Berberis koreana Palibin, an Endemic
           Species of Korea

    • Authors: Do-Hyun Kim, Sang-Geun Kim, Hayan Lee, Chae-Sun Na, Do-Hyung Lee
      First page: 547
      Abstract: Berberis koreana Palibin is an endemic plant native to Korea. In this study, we aimed to study the seed germination of this species using a water imbibition experiment, gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment (0, 10, 100, or 1000 mg·L−1), cold stratification (0, 2, 4, 8, or 12 weeks at 4 °C), move-along experiment, and phenology studies. In the water imbibition experiment, the weight of the seeds increased by more than 120% in 24 h. An analysis of the internal and external morphological characteristics of the seed revealed that the embryo was already fully grown from the fruit and did not grow thereafter. The final germination percentages for the cold stratification at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks at 4 °C were 12 ± 3.65, 32 ± 9.09, 59 ± 1.00, 59 ± 9.59, and 71 ± 1.91%, respectively. In the move-along experiment and phenology studies, a longer low-temperature treatment period resulted in a higher germination percentage. However, the GA3 treatment had little effect on the seed germination. Our results indicate that B. koreana exhibits an intermediate physiological seed dormancy.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050547
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 548: Effect of Light Intensity and Spectra on
           Inorganic Constituents in Vietnamese Coriander (Persicaria odorata (Lour.)

    • Authors: Kerstin Paschko, Nikolina Grabovac, Ina Pinker, Michael Henry Böhme
      First page: 548
      Abstract: With the aim of optimizing resources in regional production of nutritive valuable leafy vegetables, this study was conducted to obtain more knowledge regarding the interdependencies between light conditions and accumulation of inorganic constituents. The test plant, P. odorata, was cultivated in a climate chamber with fluorescent tubes as the main light source and daylight integrals (DLI) varying between 4.68 and 9.06 mol·m−2·day−1. The average DLI in greenhouse experiments was 41.55 mol·m−2·day−1. Light conditions were modified using additional LEDs (443, 515, and 629 nm) or by covering the plants with photoselective plastic films, leading to a lower DLI and modified light spectrum, especially by reducing the green spectral range. Contents of nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and iron, biomass accumulation, and water content were analyzed. In terms of particular light modifications, additional green (515 nm) and red (629 nm) LEDs showed reducing effects on nitrate content at both cultivation locations. Other inorganic constituents were affected differently depending on cultivation location. However, the calculation of average partial correlation coefficients enabled a more general statement. Increasing DLI correlated positively with contents of magnesium, nitrate, and potassium but negatively with contents of calcium and iron. Additionally, nitrate content correlated positively with the spectral range of 651–700 nm but negatively with the R:FR ratio. Consequently, a general recommendation related to the light conditions is not possible, as inorganic constituents were affected differently. Nevertheless, as the nitrate content in leafy vegetables is of high concern and was reduced by higher shares of green or red light, this might be one way to regulate nitrate content in leafy vegetables.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050548
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 549: Enhancing Short-Term Berry Yield
           Prediction for Small Growers Using a Novel Hybrid Machine Learning Model

    • Authors: Juan D. Borrero, Juan-Diego Borrero-Domínguez
      First page: 549
      Abstract: This study presents a novel hybrid model that combines two different algorithms to increase the accuracy of short-term berry yield prediction using only previous yield data. The model integrates both autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) with Kalman filter refinement and neural network techniques, specifically support vector regression (SVR), and nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) neural networks, to improve prediction accuracy by correcting the errors generated by the system. In order to enhance the prediction performance of the ARIMA model, an innovative method is introduced that reduces randomness and incorporates only observed variables and system errors into the state-space system. The results indicate that the proposed hybrid models exhibit greater accuracy in predicting weekly production, with a goodness-of-fit value above 0.95 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) values compared with non-hybrid models. The study highlights several implications, including the potential for small growers to use digital strategies that offer crop forecasts to increase sales and promote loyalty in relationships with large food retail chains. Additionally, accurate yield forecasting can help berry growers plan their production schedules and optimize resource use, leading to increased efficiency and profitability. The proposed model may serve as a valuable information source for European food retailers, enabling growers to form strategic alliances with their customers.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050549
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 550: The Adoption of Low-Input Turfgrasses in
           the Midwestern US: The Case of Fine Fescues and Tall Fescue

    • Authors: Sanchez Philocles, Ariana P. Torres, Aaron J. Patton, Eric Watkins
      First page: 550
      Abstract: Fine fescues (Festuca spp.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) are low-input turfgrass species that perform well under less water, pesticides, and fertilizers when compared to commonly cultivated species in the Midwestern US. There are numerous benefits in increasing the use of low-input turfgrasses: lowering resource usage, reducing maintenance costs, improving the landscape aesthetic, and contributing to residents’ health and general wellbeing. However, increasing the market share of these grasses requires an understanding of what influences buyers to purchase these turfgrasses. These grasses are usually purchased by consumers as seed; however, sod is a preferred method of establishment for many professional end users. To better understand the economic potential of low-input turfgrass sod, we surveyed sod buyers (landscapers, golf courses, sports turf managers) who purchased sod in 2020 to investigate (1) the factors impacting them to purchase low-input turfgrasses, and (2) the factors influencing the quantity purchased of low-input turfgrasses. The results from our model showed that larger businesses are the most likely to purchase low-input turfgrasses, and, once they purchase them, they tend to acquire a larger amount than their smaller counterparts. Landscaping businesses were more likely to purchase low-input turfgrasses, and factors such as availability, distance, drought, and shade tolerance impacted the decision to purchase low-input turfgrasses. Finally, turfgrass density, the ability to purchase directly from the sod grower, and availability impacted the amount of turfgrasses that buyers purchased.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050550
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 551: UV-A for Tailoring the Nutritional Value
           and Sensory Properties of Leafy Vegetables

    • Authors: Kristina Laužikė, Akvilė Viršilė, Giedrė Samuolienė, Rūta Sutulienė, Aušra Brazaitytė
      First page: 551
      Abstract: This study aims to expand the artificial lighting potential of controlled environment cultivations systems by introducing UV-A (~315–400 nm) wavelengths into the traditional, visible spectrum lighting, seeking to improve the nutritional and sensory value of cultivated leafy vegetables. The experiment was conducted in a closed climate-controlled chamber, maintaining 21/17 °C day/night temperature, ~55% relative humidity, and a 16 h photo/thermo period. Several genotypes of leafy vegetables, red and green leaf lettuce cultivars, mustard, and kale were cultivated under 250 µmol m−2s−1 basal LED lighting, supplemented by 385 nm UV-A or 405 UV-A/violet wavelengths for 1.1 mW cm−2 for 12 h photoperiod for the whole cultivation cycle. The results show that UV-A/violet light impacts on leafy vegetable growth, free radical scavenging activity, sugar, and phytochemical (α tocopherol, α + β carotenes, epicatechin, rosmarinic and chicoric acid contents) are species-specific, and do not correlate with untrained consumer’s sensory evaluation scores. The 405 nm light is preferable for higher antioxidant and/or sensory properties of kale, mustard, and green leaf lettuces, but both UV-A wavelengths reduce growth parameters in red leaf lettuce.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050551
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 552: Effects of Different Growth Hormones on
           Rooting and Endogenous Hormone Content of Two Morus alba L. Cuttings

    • Authors: Hanlei Chen, Youzhen Lei, Jiajia Sun, Mingyue Ma, Peng Deng, Jin’e Quan, Huitao Bi
      First page: 552
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the effects of different concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and indene-naphthaleneacetic acid (ABT-1) on the rooting and dynamic changes of the endogenous hormone content of Australian Mulberry (vegetable Mulberry) and Kirin mulberry (Fruit Mulberry) hardwood cuttings. As exhibited by the results, the rooting process of both vegetable mulberry and fruit mulberry could be divided into three stages, namely the initiation stage (1–18 days), the callus formation stage (18–28 days), and the adventitious root formation and elongation stage (28–48 days). The two treatments with 1000 mg·L−1 ABT-1 and 500 mg·L−1 ABT-1 achieved the highest rooting efficiencies of vegetable mulberry and fruit mulberry, significantly higher than those of other treatments (p < 0.01), with average rooting rates of 63.3% and 68.7%, and rooting efficiency indices of 25.3 and 34.3, respectively. During the rooting process, the contents of endogenous IAA and zeatin riboside (ZR) and the ratios of IAA/ABA and IAA/ZR presented a trend of decreasing before increasing, while the abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents exhibited a trend of increasing before decreasing, and the gibberellin (GA3), strigolactone (SL), and IBA contents showed a continuous decreasing trend. Hence, ABT-1 was effective in inducing the synthesis of IAA, IBA, JA, and SL, reducing the contents of ABA, ZR, and GA3, and promoting the rooting of vegetable mulberry and fruit mulberry cuttings. For fruit mulberry and vegetable mulberry cuttings, the optimal concentrations of ABT-1 were 500 mg·L−1 and 1000 mg·L−1, respectively, demonstrating applicability for the efficient propagation of Morus alba L. cuttings.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050552
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 553: Molecular Diagnostics in Tomato: Chip
           Digital PCR Assays Targeted to Identify and Quantify Clavibacter
           michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Ralstonia solanacearum in planta

    • Authors: Caterina Morcia, Isabella Piazza, Roberta Ghizzoni, Valeria Terzi, Ilaria Carrara, Giovanni Bolli, Giorgio Chiusa
      First page: 553
      Abstract: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) and Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) are important bacterial pathogens of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), are included in A2 list in the EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) region and are recommended for regulation as quarantine pests. The control of quarantine pathogens requires accurate and rapid detection tools. In this study, a method based on chip digital PCR (cdPCR) was developed to identify and quantify Cmm and Rs. The assays were tested on pure bacteria samples and on tomato samples naturally contaminated or spiked with bacteria DNA. For a better estimation of infection level in host plants, duplex assays that are able to simultaneously amplify plant and bacteria DNA were developed. The two cdPCR assays proposed can be used for the rapid and timely detection of this group of high-risk quarantine bacteria to prevent the spread of pathogens and the occurrence of disease in other areas.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050553
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 554: In Vitro Effect of Purple Amomum (Amomum
           longiligulare T.L. Wu) Extracts on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of
           Different Crop Species

    • Authors: Quyet V. Khuat, Elena A. Kalashnikova, Hai T. Nguyen, Vladimir I. Trukhachev, Rima N. Kirakosyan
      First page: 554
      Abstract: The ginger family member purple amomum (Amomum longiligulare T.L. Wu) is an important medicinal plant in Vietnam. Although there have been studies on the chemical composition of essential oils and extracts of purple amomum, as well as their antibacterial, antifungal, activating macrophages, and immune enhancement effects, there is still a lack of evaluation of the phytotoxicity of this plant. In this study, the total content of phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) in extracts of leaf, seed, pseudo-stem, rhizome, and root from purple amomum and the phytotoxic effect of these extracts against five test plant species, including four dicotyledonous: camelina (Camelina sativa Crantz), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Dubrava), and one monocotyledonous: onion (Allium cepa L. cv. Stuttgarter risen), were investigated. Results showed that the seed and leaf extracts had higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than the other two extracts (highest TPC value: 4.30 ± 0.03 mg GAE/mg dry weight of seed powder; highest TFC value: 1.32 ± 0.07 mg QE/mg dry weight of leaf powder). Furthermore, it was observed that the extracts of purple amomum inhibited seed germination and the growth of seedlings of all test plant species with different inhibition values. The general trend in all treatments showed that, when increasing the concentration of extracts from 0.10–0.20 mg/mL, the ability to inhibit seed germination, hypocotyl length, radicle length, fresh weight, and dry weight increased. Seed extract at a concentration of 0.20 mg/mL in most treatments showed the highest percentage inhibition of seed germination and growth of seedlings of the tested species. Onion was the most sensitive to purple amomum extracts among the five species tested. Based on these results, we conclude that extracts of different parts of the purple amomum exhibited phytotoxicity for the tested species. Further evaluation of the phytotoxic potential of the extracts on weed species and under field conditions is also recommended for the purpose of developing bio-herbicides for future weed management that are less toxic to the environment and human health.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050554
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 555: Effect of EC Levels of Nutrient Solution
           on Glasswort (Salicornia perennis Mill.) Production in Floating System

    • Authors: Esra Okudur, Yuksel Tuzel
      First page: 555
      Abstract: Halophytes have evolved to tolerate high salinity environments. The halophyte glasswort (Salicornia and Sarcocornia species) grows by the sea or in salty soils and can be consumed with pleasure. In this study, the cultivation of glasswort was studied by testing the effects of different electrical conductivity (EC) levels (10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mS cm−1) of a nutrient solution. Salicornia perennis Mill. was grown on floating systems in unheated greenhouse conditions. To adjust the different EC levels, sodium chloride was added to the Hoagland nutrient solution (EC: 2 mS cm−1). Plant growth and yield parameters, shoot color, evapotranspiration, and shoot nutrient content were determined. Among the tested EC levels, the highest plant height (33.56 cm), shoot (172.75 g) and root fresh weights (41.74 g), stem diameter (7.85 mm), and fresh biomass (2864.06 g m−2) were obtained from an EC level of 25 mS cm−1. There were no significant differences in shoot color excluding b* and chroma values. It was concluded that glasswort could be grown in hydroponic systems as a new crop and that an EC value of 25 mS cm−1 is the most appropriate for the cultivation of Salicornia perennis Mill. on floating systems.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050555
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 556: Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant
           Capacity of Several Blackberry (Rubus spp.) Fruits Cultivars Grown in

    • Authors: Adriana Ramona Memete, Ioan Sărac, Alin Cristian Teusdea, Ruben Budău, Mariana Bei, Simona Ioana Vicas
      First page: 556
      Abstract: Blackberry fruit (Rubus spp.) has a powerful antioxidant capacity due to the high levels of anthocyanins and other phenols it contains. In this work, we investigated the physico-chemical characteristics, the bioactive compounds (total phenols, flavonoids, and monomeric anthocyanins), and the antioxidant capacity of seven blackberry cultivars belonging to the Rubus fruticosus L. and Rubus laciniatus L. genera growing in the NW region of Romania. In addition, the wild blackberry cultivar from the same area was also evaluated. Anthocyanins from the blackberry fruit were extracted using SPE (Solid Phase Extraction), and the anthocyanin profile was identified and quantified using HPLC-PDA analysis. In terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, two of the cultivars examined stood out. The majority of anthocyanin found in blackberries was cyanidin-3-glucoside, with the highest amount recorded in the ‘Thorn Free’ cultivar at 329.26 ± 9.36 mg/g dw. Comparatively, ‘Loch Ness’ and ‘Thorn Free’ fruits exhibited total phenol contents of 1830.98 ± 13.55 and 1687.14 ± 62.41 mg GAE/100 g dw, respectively. Antioxidant capacities varied significantly among the eight blackberry cultivars, with cultivars ‘Loch Ness’ and ‘Thorn Free’ achieving high values in comparison to the others. The findings of the multivariate analysis also supported the experimental results. Knowing the phytochemical composition and antioxidant potential of different blueberry cultivars, one can use them as fresh, functional foods or for commercial purposes to produce products derived from fruits with a high concentration of bioactive components.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050556
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 557: Quality of Olive Oil Obtained by
           Regulated Deficit Irrigation

    • Authors: José Miguel García-Garví, Luis Noguera-Artiaga, Francisca Hernández, Antonio José Pérez-López, Armando Burgos-Hernández, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
      First page: 557
      Abstract: Olive oil is one of the basic products in the Mediterranean diet, and, due to its nutritional value, it is becoming more and more widespread in the world. Even though it has traditionally been a rainfed crop, farmers are currently transforming their plantations into super-high-density orchards to increase production. However, the increasingly acute drought in Mediterranean countries forces the establishment of water control mechanisms that allow restriction the contribution of water without undermining the properties of the products obtained. Under this concept, hydroSOS crops and products arose. This study aims to analyze the influence of the application of deficit irrigation on the olive oil obtained from the Arbequina and Arbosana varieties. The sensory parameters descriptive profile and consumers satisfaction degree were measured using trained and consumers’ panels, and the chemical parameters peroxide index, fatty acids, and volatile profile were analyzed using the methods from the International Olive Oil Council and gas chromatography. The experimental results showed that applying this type of irrigation leads to an oil that is more valued by consumers, with a higher concentration of aromatic compounds related with a greener aroma (hexanol, trans-2-hexen-1-ol, hexanal), a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and greater antioxidant capacity. Deficit irrigation strategies led to environmentally friendly olive oil with high acceptance by Spanish consumers.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050557
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 558: Molecular Aspects Revealed by Omics
           Technologies Related to the Defense System Activation in Fruits in
           Response to Elicitors: A Review

    • Authors: Esther Angélica Cuéllar-Torres, Selene Aguilera-Aguirre, Miguel Ángel Hernández-Oñate, Ulises Miguel López-García, Julio Vega-Arreguín, Efigenia Montalvo-González, Rosa Isela Ortiz-Basurto, Alejandra Chacón-López
      First page: 558
      Abstract: Fruit losses and wastage are mainly due to postharvest diseases; their control is reduced with pesticides. The excessive use of synthetic fungicides has caused harmful effects on human health and the environment, so it is therefore necessary to reduce their use. The development of new innocuous strategies has led to the use of compounds of natural or biological origin with the capacity to induce the plant defense system, which improves the fruit’s response against future pathogen attacks in addition to reducing the incidence of postharvest diseases. These compounds are known as “elicitors”. Although the use of molecular tools such as RT-qPCR or the measurement of the enzymatic activity of molecular markers makes it possible to determine the activation of the plant defense system in response to the application of an elicitor compound, in recent years, omics technologies such as the transcriptome, proteome, or metabolome have provided new and interesting information that helps to elucidate the molecular aspects involved in the activation of the plant defense system in response to the application of elicitors. This review summarizes recent advances in molecular aspects, highlighting the contribution of omics technologies to a better understanding of fruit defense mechanisms induced by different elicitors.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050558
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 559: Short-Term Conservation of Juglans regia
           L. via Synthetic Seed Technology

    • Authors: Valbona Sota, Carla Benelli, Matilda Myrselaj, Efigjeni Kongjika, Nazim S. Gruda
      First page: 559
      Abstract: Juglans regia L. is a crucial species as a forest tree and for its nutritional and medicinal values. It is also included in the list of endangered species in Albania and thus, there is a need to find methodologies to ensure its rapid regeneration and ex situ conservation. This research, investigated the regeneration of plantlets from synthetic seeds containing shoot tips of four native walnut varieties: ‘Përmet’, ‘Korçë’, ‘Peshkopi’, and ‘Tropojë’. First, in vitro-derived shoot tips from walnut seedlings are encapsulated using sodium alginate. After that, the regeneration potential of the encapsulated shoot tips and the influence of incubation conditions are evaluated. The synthetic seeds were incubated at either 25 °C or 8 °C, with and without dehydration treatment, in 0.5 M sucrose solution for 3 h. The synthetic seeds in both temperature regimes (25 °C and 8 °C) develop plantlets and provid conservation potential without the need for subcultures for 4 and 3.5 months, respectively. Furthermore, all walnut varieties incubated in these conditions achiev a high regeneration rates.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050559
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 560: Nutritional Value of Wild and
           Domesticated Sanguisorba minor Scop. Plant

    • Authors: Costanza Ceccanti, Tiane C. Finimundy, Lillian Barros
      First page: 560
      Abstract: Sanguisorba minor Scop. is a wild edible species distributed in the Mediterranean area and present in numerous traditional food recipes. In the present study, the assessment of nutritional value (ash, carbohydrates, fat, proteins, energy, free sugars, organic acids, tocopherols, fatty acid composition, and minerals) of wild and domesticated S. minor plants was performed. Results showed an increase in ash, protein, fat, organic acid, and α-tocopherol content after the plant’s domestication. Retention of free sugars, especially sucrose, was observed from wild plants to domesticated ones. However, the cultivated plants reported a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids than saturated molecules, and both wild collection and domestication maintained a low ω6/ω3 ratio, confirming the role of this species in the prevention of oxidative and inflammatory processes. This aspect is also suggested by the high α-tocopherol content, a vitamin known for its ability to scavenge free-radical species. Nevertheless, a high oxalic acid content was found in domesticated plants. However, the management of fertilization in open field cultivation can be robust in terms of organic acid and mineral (e.g., calcium) content. Indeed, the most representative macrominerals found in domesticated plants were Ca and Mg. The present study suggests a possible introduction of S. minor species in the human diet as a functional food or ingredient by virtue of its high nutritional properties and contents. Moreover, the management of fertilization and domestication might be a solution to maintain/enhance the nutritional profile of this wild species.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050560
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 561: Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Carbon
           Assimilation, Yield and Quality of Oriental Melon Cultivated in a Solar

    • Authors: Xintong Han, Yue Sun, Junqin Chen, Zicong Wang, Hongyan Qi, Yufeng Liu, Yiling Liu
      First page: 561
      Abstract: Since CO2 is the fundamental substrate for photosynthesis, fluctuating concentrations have a direct effect on plant growth and metabolism. Accordingly, CO2 enrichment within a certain range was found to improve photosynthesis, yields and the quality of plants. In order to further understand the underlying impact of CO2 enrichment, this study employed an open-top chamber growth box model with the following two treatments: control treatment (CO2 concentration: 380 ± 30 μL/L) and CO2 enrichment (1200 ± 50 μL/L). The effects on leaf carbon assimilation, fruit yield and quality were subsequently determined. The net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, dry matter accumulation and soluble sugar content in the oriental melon leaves increased significantly on day 5 of CO2 enrichment. Moreover, a significant increase in the activity of carbon assimilation-related enzymes Rubisco, RCA, FBPase and CA was also observed, with the upregulation of CmRubisco, CmRCA, CmFBPase and CmCA gene expression from day 15 of CO2 enrichment. Thus, the yield per plant and content of soluble sugars and soluble solids in the fruit also increased significantly. These findings suggest that CO2 enrichment has positive effects on oriental melon growth, increasing photosynthesis and the activity of photosynthetic carbon-assimilation-related enzymes and associated gene expression, thereby improving fruit yields and quality. These results provide a foundation for the CO2 enrichment of oriental melon cultivated in solar greenhouses in autumn/winter and winter/spring.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050561
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 562: Natural Products Obtained from
           Argentinean Native Plants Are Fungicidal against Citrus Postharvest

    • Authors: Norma Hortensia Alvarez, María Inés Stegmayer, Gisela Marisol Seimandi, José Francisco Pensiero, Juan Marcelo Zabala, María Alejandra Favaro, Marcos Gabriel Derita
      First page: 562
      Abstract: Natural products obtained from plants constitute an alternative to chemically synthesized fungicides, whose improper use might have caused the development of resistant fungal strains. In the present work, 40 products obtained from 20 native Argentinean plant species were tested against three citrus postharvest pathogens: Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, and Geotrichum citri-aurantii. Natural products were obtained by classical solvent extraction methods and the fungicidal evaluation was carried out by agar diffusion tests using commercial fungicides as negative controls and dimethyl sulfoxide as a positive one. The inhibition percentages were determined 7 and 14 days post inoculation of each fungus. Most of the products tested showed inhibition percentages higher than 50% for G. citri-aurantii, but only 20% of them were active against P. digitatum and P. italicum. The most promising products which inhibited (100%) the growth of at least one of the three phytopathogens were extracted from the following plants: Orthosia virgata, Petiveria alliacea, Funastrum clausum, Solanum caavurana, and Solanum pilcomayense. These products were tested over inoculated oranges and there were no statistically significant differences between the treatments with a commercial fungicide and the methanolic extract in the control of fruit rot. The products extracted from native plants have fungicide potential, but further studies are required.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050562
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 563: Managing Water Stress in Olive (Olea
           europaea L.) Orchards Using Reference Equations for Midday Stem Water

    • Authors: Marta Sánchez-Piñero, Mireia Corell, Alfonso Moriana, Pedro Castro-Valdecantos, María-José Martin-Palomo
      First page: 563
      Abstract: The irrigation surface of olive orchards has increased over recent decades. In zones affected, deficit irrigation scheduling is a must. The aim of this work was to study water stress management based on reference equations for midday stem water potential. An experiment was conducted over three seasons in Seville (Spain) from 2020 to 2022. A young hedgerow olive orchard (cv Manzanilla de Sevilla) was irrigated using three different treatments: Control (full irrigated), RDI, and Rainfed, in a completely randomized design (six replications). The midday stem water potential and leaf conductance were measured throughout the three seasons. Stem water potential was more sensitive to water stress than leaf conductance and showed a clearer impact and rehydration. Individual data of stem water potential were grouped according to leaf conductance reduction. The relationship of these stem water potentials and temperature or vapor pressure deficit was significant, linear, and aligned to published baselines. Scattering in these equations increased when the leaf conductance reduction was greater. These reference equations would be useful to define moderate water stress conditions in the most sensitive processes, such as vegetative or fruit growth. Definition of severe water stress conditions would be better established with constant values.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050563
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 564: Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Contribute to
           Growth, Nutrient Uptake, and Ornamental Characteristics of Statice
           (Limonium sinuatum [L.] Mill.) Subject to Appropriate Inoculum and Optimal

    • Authors: Morteza Sheikh-Assadi, Azizollah Khandan-Mirkohi, Mohammad Reza Taheri, Mesbah Babalar, Hossein Sheikhi, Silvana Nicola
      First page: 564
      Abstract: With the world’s population and pollutants on the rise, it is crucial to find sustainable and environmentally friendly solutions that increase production efficiency. Organic horticulture is an effective strategy for creating a harmless and sustainable crop production system. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been proposed as reliable biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture, and inoculum production is a rapidly expanding market. AMF can enhance plant nutrition and growth, but their efficacy varies depending on the plant species, inoculum type, and available P concentrations. This study evaluates the response of ornamental statice (Limonium sinuatum [L.] Mill.) to mycorrhizal inoculation (first factor) with Glomus mosseae (M1), G. intraradices (M2), or their mixture (M3), plus non-inoculation (M0), and varying available P concentrations (second factor) of 10 (control, P1), 20 (P2), and 40 (P3) mg kg−1 soil in greenhouse conditions in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Root colonization, growth parameters, some ornamental traits, and the absorption of P, N, K, Ca, Zn, and Fe were measured. Root colonization was estimated as 30–65% and was reduced approximately by 32.4% with increasing P concentration in the soil. The lowest colonization percentage was recorded in P3 (45.69, 39.31, and 30.18 for M1, M2, and M3, respectively). Statice plants were positively influenced by inoculation, especially with G. mosseae in moderately available P (P2), which was also confirmed by the results of the principal component analysis. Overall, inoculated plants exhibited better nutritional status, growth, and ornamental traits than non-inoculated plants. Furthermore, mycorrhization delayed the time to the flowering of statice by 12, 7, and 9 days in M1, M2, and M3, respectively, compared to non-mycorrhizal (M0) plants. In conclusion, mycorrhizal inoculation can improve the plant nutrition, growth, and ornamental value of statice by selecting appropriate inoculum and optimal P concentrations. The results of this study suggest that mycorrhizal inoculation can be effectively used in the future to increase the quantity and quality of statice production.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050564
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 565: Distinctive Features of the Orange Cane
           Blotch Disease Cycle on Commercial Blackberry (Rubus fructicosis)

    • Authors: Will H. Hemphill, Phillip M. Brannen, Elizabeth A. Richardson, Jonathan E. Oliver
      First page: 565
      Abstract: The high humidity and short, mild winters of the southeastern United States are conducive to many plant diseases including orange cane blotch (OCB), caused by the algal species Cephaleuros virescens (Cv). Since its discovery on blackberry, its presence has been associated with cane cracking, cane girdling, and yield loss. Research detailing the disease cycle on blackberry is limited and is largely inferred from the interactions of Cv with its other hosts. To further detail the disease cycle of OCB, diseased blackberry canes were examined by photography and microscopy. By combining observations made from photography and microscopy, key events in the disease cycle of OCB on blackberry were elucidated as they correspond to blackberry phenology. The alga was observed to be active for a majority of the season, only exhibiting apparent dormancy from December through mid-April, concurrently with blackberry. While it appeared that the presence of algal sexual reproductive structures did not coincide with emerged primocanes, asexual reproductive structures were observed during the period when primocanes emerged. All new infections on newly emerged primocanes appeared around mid-summer, indicating a single infection cycle per year for OCB. These findings provide a foundation for further study and the development of targeted management strategies for OCB.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050565
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 566: Hydric Behavior: Insights into Primary
           Metabolites in Leaves and Roots of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache
           Grapevine Varieties under Drought Stress

    • Authors: Miguel Tamayo, Laura Sepúlveda, Excequel Ponce Guequen, Pablo Saavedra, Romina Pedreschi, Alejandro Cáceres-Mella, Juan E. Alvaro, Italo F. Cuneo
      First page: 566
      Abstract: The classification of grapevine cultivars into isohydric and anisohydric categories depends on their ability to close stomata under conditions of low soil water availability or high atmospheric demand. This study aimed to compare the responses of Grenache, classified as isohydric, and Cabernet Sauvignon, classified as anisohydric, both grafted onto Richter 110 rootstock, and subjected to severe drought stress. Three cycles of drought stress were applied, followed by watering, while a well-watered treatment served as the control. Stomatal conductance and stem water potential were measured at predawn and midday during the drought cycles, and primary metabolites were analyzed in leaves and roots using gas chromatography. We found that Grenache had significantly higher stomatal conductance than Cabernet Sauvignon under both well-watered and water-stressed conditions. There were no significant differences in stem water potential between the two varieties, but the control treatment maintained a higher stem water potential at predawn and midday for both varieties. Primary metabolite analysis showed that both varieties accumulated sugars and polyols in their leaves and roots under drought stress, while organic acids were more abundant in leaves than in roots. Overall, the results suggest that the hydric behavior of grapevines depends on the intensity and duration of drought stress. In this study, both varieties exhibited near-isohydric behavior by regulating stomatal closure under drought stress. The metabolites identified in this study may serve as potential biomarkers of water drought stress in Grenache and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines under the conditions of this experiment.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050566
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 567: First Report of the Branched Broomrape
           (Phelipanche schultzii (Mutel) Pomel.) on Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare
           Mill.) in Morocco

    • Authors: Majda El Amri, Moez Amri, El Mostafa Kadir, Zine El Abidine Triqui, Slimane Khayi, Rachid Mentag
      First page: 567
      Abstract: Holoparasitic broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are a major biotic constraint limiting the production of important food crops. Parasitism caused by Phelipanche spp. is considered to be a serious threat, particularly in the Mediterranean region. In this study, the broomrape species collected from infested fennel fields in Sid L’Mokhtar in the Central West of Morocco was described and identified morphologically and molecularly. For molecular identification, 700 bp ITS regions were PCR-amplified from two representative individuals, OA and OY-4. The obtained sequences exhibited more than 99% similarity with the P. schultzii sequence (MT026593). In addition, maximum likelihood analysis placed our species with other referred P. schultzii in the same clade. Through molecular analysis, the broomrape species attacking fennel was identified as P. schultzii. This is the first record of the broomrape species P. schultzii parasitizing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare syn. Foeniculum officinale) in Morocco. Therefore, it should be considered that this parasite could spread to other cultivated fields causing severe yield losses, requiring urgent action through efficient control measures to avoid further spread of this parasitic weed.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050567
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 568: Effects of Cold Plasma and Ozone Water
           Treatment on Micronutrient Solubility

    • Authors: Dharti Thakulla, Paul R. Fisher
      First page: 568
      Abstract: Cold plasma and ozone sanitation of irrigation solutions can oxidize both microbes and non-target micronutrients because their high oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is a non-selective mode of action. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cold plasma and ozone treatment on oxidation of iron and manganese in nutrient solutions containing one of four iron chelates (iron-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Fe-EDTA), iron-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Fe-DTPA), iron-ethylenediamine-N,N′-bis(2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (Fe-EDDHA), and hydroxybenzyl ethylenediamine (Fe-HBED)). Nutrient solutions were recirculated through the cold plasma or ozone system until the ORP reached 700 mV. The concentrations of total dissolved iron, manganese, and chelated iron were measured before and after passing through the treatment systems. Both cold plasma and ozone oxidized chelates and decreased the solubility of iron and manganese. Cold plasma and ozone had similar effects on micronutrients, pH, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen at a standardized target ORP of 700 mV. Fe-EDTA was the most resistant chelate to oxidation. With Fe-EDTA, ORP increased more quickly, and the concentration of chelated Fe decreased less with the increasing ORP over time compared with Fe-DTPA, Fe-EDDHA, and Fe-HBED. The concentration of chelated Fe decreased by up to 80% for EDDHA at 700 mV compared with a 20% decrease for EDTA. The concentration of Mn decreased by up to 85% at 700 mV. The design of water treatment with cold plasma or ozone therefore requires consideration of secondary effects on micronutrients. The treatment dosage, flow rate, and nutrient solution at a particular grower operation are likely to affect the quantity of micronutrient fertilizer that needs to be supplemented following treatment. Use of Fe-EDTA is one strategy to reduce the loss of iron and increase residual ORP that is available for sanitation.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050568
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 569: The Complete Genome Sequence, Molecular
           Detection, and Anatomical Analysis of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus
           Infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    • Authors: Mohd Shakir Mohamad Yusop, Normawati Lanisa, Noraini Talip, Mohd Faiz Mat Saad, Azlan Abas, Murni Nazira Sarian, Hamizah Shahirah Hamezah, Sarahani Harun, Hamidun Bunawan
      First page: 569
      Abstract: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia and is widely cultivated as landscape planting across the nation. In 1995, Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) was reported for the first time in Malaysia. Until today, there have been no follow-up studies on the viral infection in the plant, yet the virus symptom of chlorotic spots has been observed throughout the Hibiscus population. Therefore, this study aimed to report the complete genome sequence of the HCRSV, validate a molecular detection tool for its diagnosis, and measure the impact of the virus symptom and infection in H. rosa-sinensis. This study reported the complete genome of the HCRSV through RNA sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis of the HCRSV isolated from different geographical sources and several other related viruses was performed to confirm its identity and classification. Additionally, primers based on the genome sequence were designed and used for RT-PCR to detect the presence of the virus in symptomatic leaves, further confirming the HCRSV identity and presence. Meanwhile, the impact of the virus was measured by examining the anatomical and morphological changes in the leaf structure of symptomatic samples. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine potential adaptations and comparisons between the leaf structures of healthy and infected samples, especially in the leaf lamina, petiole, and midrib cells. The results confirmed the complete genome sequence of the HCRSV, its molecular detection strategy, and the impact of the viral infection on Hibiscus leaves in Peninsular Malaysia. This study is beneficial for the management strategy of the virus and for protecting an important plant in the nation.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050569
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 570: Transcriptomic Analysis Revealed the
           Discrepancy between Early-Ripening ‘Geneva Early’ and
           Late-Ripening ‘Hanfu’ Apple Cultivars during Fruit Development
           and Ripening

    • Authors: Qianyu Yue, Jieqiang He, Xinyue Yang, Pengda Cheng, Abid Khan, Wenyun Shen, Yi Song, Shicong Wang, Fengwang Ma, Qingmei Guan
      First page: 570
      Abstract: Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) can be categorized into early-, medium-, and late-ripening cultivars based on the length of the fruit developmental phases. The lengthening of the apple ripening period has a direct impact on its economic worth and market competitiveness, although the underlying mechanism is mostly unclear. In the current study, the development and maturation of the early-ripening ‘Geneva Early’ (GE) and late-ripening ‘Hanfu’ (HF) cultivars of apple fruit were studied using transcriptomics to detect and identify the changes of differential genes. Results showed that the two varieties had different ripening periods, but in both, the development process of fruit ripening required cell division, cell expansion, starch accumulation, and secondary metabolite accumulation. In the early stages of fruit development (G1 to G2), the GE’s fruit size was larger than HF’s, and the GO analysis revealed an enrichment in genes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and carbon molecules. In G2 phase, the GE involved numerous regulatory factors of hormonal pathways, while in HF this phase was mainly enriched in the metabolism of sugars and carbohydrates. The results indicated that during GE development, the relevant genes regulating fruit development were expressed earlier than HF, which made fruit development enter the next development phase earlier, thereby shortening the fruit development phase. These findings contributed to an improved understanding of the molecular basis of apple ripening and provide a reliable reference for apple breeding using genomics.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050570
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 571: If Only You Could Catch Me—Catch
           Me If You Can: Monitoring Aphids in Protected Cucumber Cultivations by
           Means of Sticky Traps

    • Authors: Christine Dieckhoff, Rainer Meyhöfer
      First page: 571
      Abstract: Aphids are important pests in many greenhouse and field crops. For plant protection, early detection of relevant species and reliable assessment of population development throughout the season is mandatory to address countermeasures in time. In practice, coloured sticky cards or pan traps are frequently used as monitoring tools, but as well as the flight activity of focal insects, many other factors influence reliable interpretation of trapping data. Since monitoring data have been more and more integrated into automated decision support systems, soundness of insect count data and interpretation of results needs to be reviewed in more detail. Therefore, we investigated the applicability of yellow sticky traps for monitoring of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii in greenhouse cucumber crop. In separate greenhouse chambers, we infested cucumber plants with Aphis gossypii and installed several yellow sticky traps. Insects were counted on the plants and sticky traps on a weekly basis and number of insects were correlated. Our results indicate mismatches between trap catches and aphid population density especially early in the season, which most likely is related to immigration of winged aphids into the greenhouse. The following population build-up of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii on the cucumber plants correlated quite well with counts of alate cotton aphids on the sticky traps. In conclusion, trapping of winged aphids provides valuable information for integrated pest control in the greenhouse. Nevertheless, to avoid wrong interpretation the taxonomic identity of trapped aphids has to be confirmed at all times. Results are further discussed in the context of factors influencing aphid wing development and attraction to yellow sticky traps. Potential strategies to optimize aphid monitoring with coloured sticky traps are proposed.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050571
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 572: Temperature-Driven Selection of
           Predatory Mirid Bugs for Improving Aphid Control in Sweet Pepper Crops

    • Authors: Meritxell Pérez-Hedo, Virginia Pedroche, Alberto Urbaneja
      First page: 572
      Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that predatory mirid bugs may be an effective alternative for controlling aphids in sweet pepper greenhouses. This study examined the effect of three constant temperatures (18, 24, and 30 °C) on the life history traits of predatory mirid species Nesidiocoris tenuis, Macrolophus pygmaeus, and Dicyphus bolivari, preying on the aphid Myzus persicae nicotianae in sweet pepper plants. As the temperature increased, the survival rate decreased for M. pygmaeus and D. bolivari, while for N. tenuis, it was the opposite, and their survival increased. When considering all the biological traits studied together, the estimated intrinsic rate of increase (rm) decreased as the temperature increased for M. pygmaeus and D. bolivari. In contrast, the rate increased as the temperature increased for N. tenuis. These results suggest that M. pygmaeus and D. bolivari are better adapted to lower temperatures than N. tenuis, which is more adapted to warm temperatures. The implications of these results for improving the biological control of aphids in sweet pepper greenhouses through the use of mirid bugs are discussed in relation to different temperature regimes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050572
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 573: Yeast Mixtures for Postharvest
           Biocontrol of Diverse Fungal Rots on Citrus limon var Eureka

    • Authors: Rose Meena Amirthanayagam Edward-Rajanayagam, José Alberto Narváez-Zapata, María del Socorro Ramírez-González, Erika Alicia de la Cruz-Arguijo, Melina López-Meyer, Claudia Patricia Larralde-Corona
      First page: 573
      Abstract: Mexico is among the most important citrus fruit producers in the world. However, during storage, several problems related to fungi can arise. The most common fungal postharvest diseases detected on Citrus limon var Eureka (Italian lime) produced in the Tamaulipas state are green/blue mold (Penicillium spp.), fusarium rot (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum, among others), and anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.). In this work, we selected yeasts, occurring as the natural epiphytic mycoflora of lemons or from fermented traditional products, to be tested as part of a formulation for protecting stored lemons against fungal diseases. The best-performing yeasts, labeled as LCBG-03 (Meyerozyma guilliermondii), LCBG-30 (Pseudozyma sp.), and LCBG-49 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), were selected to test their compatibility and biocontrol performance against strains of Penicillium digitatum (AL-38), Fusarium sp. (AL-21), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (AL-13), and Epicoccum sorghinum (H3A). Based on their in vitro performance regarding the percentage of radial growth inhibition, both applied individually or as two yeasts mixed at equal cellular concentrations, the best combinations (containing M. guilliermondii formulated with either Pseudozyma sp. or S. cerevisiae) were selected with efficacies higher than 95% in both in vitro fungal radial growth rate inhibition and on stored lemon fruits. This work contributes to the search for compatible yeast combinations with the aim to diminish the fungal losses of citrus fruits using biocontrol for citrus postharvest protection.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050573
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 574: Can Soil Cover Affect the Performance,
           Yield, and Quality of Creeping Fresh Market Tomato Hybrids'

    • Authors: Alessandro Bandeira Dalbianco, Adalberto Santi, Regiane Cristina de Oliveira, Cristine Vanz Borges, Diego Fernando Daniel, Daiane Andréia Trento, Fernanda Lourenço Dipple, Rivanildo Dallacort, Santino Seabra Júnior
      First page: 574
      Abstract: Soil cover is a major factor in the cultivation of creeping tomatoes, especially for in natura consumption. This study aimed to determine the combination of a suitable tomato hybrid and soil cover, resulting in superior production performance and quality attributes of tomato fruits. Tomato hybrids (Fascínio and Thaíse) were cultivated on five soil cover types (uncovered soil, plastic mulch, sorghum, Sudan grass, and pearl millet). The data were submitted to a principal component analysis (PCA), considering all the variables, through Biplot graphical analysis. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed at the 5% significance level. For biomass production, pearl millet and Sudan grass were distinguished from the other soil covers, showing lower decomposition rates and, consequently, longer half-lives. Covering with plastic mulch provided higher total (111 t ha−1) and commercial (74.4 t ha−1) yields, regardless of the analyzed hybrid. According to the PCA, soil cover management influences the production and quality of tomato fruits, except for chemical and post-harvest characteristics, and maintains ideal levels for commercialization for all treatments. The Fascínio hybrid presented better production attributes, higher total and commercial fruit production per plant as well as fruits with larger sizes, especially when grown in plastic mulch cover. The Fascínio hybrid also presented fruits with higher levels of bioactive compounds (lycopene and β-carotene).
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050574
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 575: Genetic Characterization of the
           Norwegian Apple Collection

    • Authors: Liv Gilpin, Dag Røen, Marian Schubert, Jahn Davik, Kimmo Rumpunen, Kristina Alme Gardli, Stein Harald Hjeltnes, Muath Alsheikh
      First page: 575
      Abstract: Commercial fruit production in Norway is located at around latitude 60° north, demanding a careful choice of adapted cultivars. The most comprehensive collection of apple genetic resources in Norway is being kept in the Norwegian Apple Collection (NAC) at the Njøs Fruit and Berry Centre (NJØS). The collection contains around 350 accessions and was recently genotyped with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Curated SNP data were used for the assessment of structure and diversity, pedigree confirmation, and core collection development. In the following SNP analysis, we identified several duplicates and parent-child relationships. Across the geographic regions represented, the collection was equally diverse. Different methods for analyzing population structure were applied. K-means clustering and a Bayesian modeling approach with prior assumptions of the data revealed five subpopulations associated with geographic breeding centers. The collection has a distinct genetic structure and low relatedness among the accessions; hence, two core collections with 100 accessions in each were created. These new core collections will allow breeders and researchers to use the NAC efficiently. The results from this study suggest that several of the accessions in the Norwegian Apple Collection could be of high importance for breeding purposes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050575
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 576: Effects of Cerasus humilis (Bge). Sok.
           Rootstock on Peach Growth, Development, and Expression of Growth-Related

    • Authors: Xiuzhen Li, Yuhang Wang, Long Zhao, Sudan Chen, Yanhong Yuan, Tonglu Wei, Jie Geng
      First page: 576
      Abstract: Peach trees play an essential role as an economic crop in China. However, the increasing cost of labor has led to a decline in the benefits of peach cultivation. The use of dwarfing rootstock technology can increase planting density, reduce tree height, decrease labor requirements, and reduce production costs. The Cerasus humilis (Bge). Sok. is a promising dwarfing rootstock for peaches owing to its small tree size, abundant resources, strong resistance, and adaptability. In this study, we investigated the effect of Cerasus humilis rootstocks on peach growth and development, and related gene expression. We used Ruipan 4/Cerasus humilis and Ruipan 4/Amygdalus persica L. as experimental materials to measure the growth and fruiting characteristics of two-year-old Cerasus humilis rootstocks. In addition, we used bioinformatic methods to explore the effect of Cerasus humilis rootstock on peach growth gene expression. Our results showed that Cerasus humilis rootstocks can dwarf peach trees, reduce branches, increase pollen count and stigma receptivity, shorten spore development, and promote protein accumulation in the late stage of fruit maturity. The Cerasus humilis rootstock reduced the growth hormone content in peach trees while upregulating the expression of growth-related PpYucca5 and PpYucca2 genes. PpYucca6 expression was downregulated in the early stage of shoot growth and upregulated in the middle stage. By reducing the content of growth hormones, peach trees can be dwarfed, but their impact on fruit quality is minimal. These results indicate that Cerasus humilis is a suitable peach dwarfing rootstock and can provide a theoretical reference for the future breeding of peach dwarfing rootstocks.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050576
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 577: Investigation of Diversity by Analyzing
           the Polymorphism of SSR Markers and the Composition of Leaf and Fruit
           Essential Oils of 72 Mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    • Authors: François Luro, Mathieu Paoli, Elodie Marchi, Gilles Costantino, Félix Tomi
      First page: 577
      Abstract: The great genetic and phenotypic diversities characterize the mandarin species (Citrus reticulata). The present study aimed to evaluate a part of this diversity with molecular markers and through the composition of leaf (LEO) and fruit peel (PEO) essential oils. Seventy-two cultivars were chosen for this study to represent some wild and cultivated mandarins growing in the same orchards. The essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography (retention indices) and via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The low similarity of ‘Tachibana’ and ‘Korail tachibana’ with mandarins and other species suggested that they were pure mandarins but were not involved in the genesis of the cultivated forms. This distinction was also evident at the aromatic level with specific compounds or unusual proportions, such as δ-3-carene in PEO or β-phellandrene at 24.9% in ‘Korail tachibana’ LEO. ‘Kunembo’ and ‘Ben di gang ju’ were genetically and chemically identical, with a high proportion of myrcene (>20%) in their LEO. In general, the genetic diversity of SSR markers was higher than the chemical diversity. From the 72 accessions, 54 genotypes were identified, with only 8 aromatic profiles in PEO and 9 in LEO. This diversity of essential oils of mandarins offers new perspectives for the research and validation of new aromatic properties for food and cosmetic purposes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050577
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 578: Ectopic Expression of AGAMOUS-like 18
           from Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Delayed the Floral Organ Abscission
           in Arabidopsis

    • Authors: Fei Wang, Zhijian Liang, Zidi He, Xingshuai Ma, Jianguo Li, Minglei Zhao
      First page: 578
      Abstract: The regulation of abscission has a significant impact on fruit yield and quality. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying abscission, particularly identifying key genes, is critical for improving fruit crop breeding and cultivation practices. Here, to explore the key genes involved in litchi fruitlet abscission, the two closest homologs of AGAMOUS-like 15/18 (LcAGL15 and LcAGL18) were identified. During the litchi fruitlet abscission process, LcAGL15 expression was reduced, whereas LcAGL18 expression was increased at the abscission zone. The abscission of floral organs was unaffected by ectopic expression of LcAGL15 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, high expression of LcAGL18 significantly delayed the abscission process of floral organs, particularly the sepals. Overexpression of LcAGL18 in Arabidopsis consistently repressed the expression of abscission-related genes, including HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2), and cell wall remodeling genes at the abscission zone. Furthermore, LcAGL18 was localized in the nucleus and acted as a transcriptional inhibitor. Collectively, these results suggest that AGL18 homologs have conserved functions in Arabidopsis and litchi, and that LcAGL18 might function as a key regulator in litchi fruitlet abscission.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050578
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 579: Phytochemical Composition and Content of
           Red-Fleshed Grape Accessions

    • Authors: Lizhen Lu, Yingzhen Yang, Gan-Yuan Zhong, Zhenchang Liang, Lailiang Cheng
      First page: 579
      Abstract: Red-fleshed grapes are important breeding resources, and study of the content and composition of phenolic compounds in red-fleshed grapes is lacking. In this study, the profiles of phenolic compounds in the whole berry, flesh, and peel of thirteen red-fleshed grape (Vitis) accessions were determined for two consecutive years. The content of total phenolic compounds ranged from 4.795 to 29.875 mg g−1 FW (fresh weight) in berry, from 1.960 to 12.593 mg g−1 FW in flesh, and from 17.067 to 60.182 mg g−1 FW in peel. As expected, anthocyanins were the main phenolic compounds, accounting for 90.4, 89.4, and 94.1% of the total phenolic compounds in berry, flesh, and peel, respectively. Flavanols accounted for 36.2% of the non-anthocyanin phenolic compounds in berry, 35.3% in flesh, and 38.3% in peel. In comparison, flavonols accounted for about 11.6, 5.7, and 15.8% of the non-anthocyanin phenolic compounds in berry, flesh, and peel, respectively. Hydroxycinnamic derivatives were the most abundant non-anthocyanins and accounted for 53.8, 56.1, and 44.3% of non-anthocyanin phenolic compounds in these three tissues. The content of phenolic compounds in peel was significantly higher than that in flesh and whole berry. A significant variation in the content of total and individual phenolic compounds was observed among different red-fleshed grapes, suggesting that genetic background was an important factor affecting the accumulation of these phenolic compounds. This work represents the most comprehensive characterization of phenolic compounds profiles in red-fleshed grapes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050579
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 580: Biostimulants of Different Origins
           Increase Mineral Content and Yield of Wild Rocket While Reducing Nitrate
           Content through Successive Harvests

    • Authors: Christophe El-Nakhel, Spyridon A. Petropoulos, Ida Di Mola, Lucia Ottaiano, Eugenio Cozzolino, Youssef Rouphael, Mauro Mori
      First page: 580
      Abstract: Nowadays, biostimulant application is a sustainable practice with which to reduce inputs while maintaining crop yield and quality. Furthermore, the successive harvesting technique is also adopted to increase overall yield and reduce production costs in leafy vegetables. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was performed to compare four different biostimulants, (i) two from enzymatic hydrolysate of Fabaceae species, (ii) one made from betaine, alginic acid and caidrin, (iii) and another one made from alfalfa extract, algae and molasses rich in low-molecular-weight amino acids, in order to verify their ability to limit nitrate accumulation in wild rocket leaves while boosting yield and quantitative and qualitative components through successive harvests. Successive harvests increased the marketable yield of wild rocket by 41% on average compared to the first harvest, whereas biostimulants treatments increased the yield by 38% on average compared to the control. The SPAD index was increased due to successive harvesting and biostimulant application. While biostimulant application resulted in a 24% decrease in nitrates, it also caused a considerable increase in mineral content in wild rocket leaves. Both biostimulant application and successive harvesting showed promising results, and they could be suggested in leafy vegetable cultivation due to the boosted yield and quality.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050580
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 581: Non-Enzymatic and Enzymatic Antioxidant
           Responses of Hypericum perforatum L. Hairy Roots upon Photooxidative

    • Authors: Oliver Tusevski, Sonja Gadzovska Simic
      First page: 581
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant response of fifteen Hypericum perforatum L. dark-grown (HR1 A-HR1 O) and photoperiod-exposed (HR2 A-HR2 O) hairy root clones. Dark-grown HR1 clones were characterized with high biomass accumulation and up-regulated phenylpropanoid metabolism through phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)-mediated production of flavonoids, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins. These groups of phenolics showed superior hydrogen-donating capability and significantly contributed to the antioxidant capacity of dark-grown HR1 clones. Photoperiod-exposed HR2 clones showed green coloration with shoot regenerative potential and reduced biomass accumulation. Photoperiod exposition improved the production of hypericins, as well as ferrous chelating properties and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in HR2 cultures. Furthermore, HR2 clones were represented with enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes (guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase) that resulted in suppression of oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and malondialdehyde). These observations revealed the involvement of an efficient antioxidant defense system in the adaptive response of HR to photooxidative stress. Altogether, photoperiod-exposed H. perforatum HR2 clones were considered as a promising alternative for further scale-up production of naphthodianthrones that could be used in the pharmaceutical industry.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050581
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 582: Isolation of FLOWERING LOCUS C and
           Preliminary Characterization in the Floral Transition of Xinjiang
           Precocious Walnut

    • Authors: Qiang Jin, Rui Zhang, Liping Chen, Zhengrong Luo
      First page: 582
      Abstract: Walnut (Juglans regia L.) plants typically flower after eight to ten years of juvenile growth. Precocious germplasm, also known as early-flowering or early-mature genotypes, have shortened juvenile phases of one to two years and are therefore crucial for enhancing breeding efficiency. However, such precocious germplasms are very limited. Here, we isolated and characterized the key flowering-time gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the precocious walnuts of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Sequence alignment showed that Juglans regia FLC (JrFLC)contained a conserved MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE 1 (MCM1), AGAMOUS (AG), DEFICIENS (DEF), and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR (SRF) (MADS)-box domain. Analysis of an FLC–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein revealed that JrFLC was localized to the nucleus. Gene expression analysis showed that JrFLC was specifically expressed during the bud dormancy stage of precocious walnut, and that expression levels gradually decreased as the ambient temperature warmed. Exogenous JrFLC overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana delayed flowering and increased the total leaf number, suggesting a similar function of JrFLC as a floral repressor in walnut and in other plants. Together, these results showed that JrFLC played an important role in regulating the floral transition of Xinjiang precocious walnut. Further studies, including a detailed characterization of JrFLC, are expected to validate JrFLC as a strong target for genetic improvement in flowering time in walnut.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050582
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 583: Comparison of Growth Patterns and
           Metabolite Composition of Different Ginseng Cultivars (Yunpoong and K-1)
           Grown in a Vertical Farm

    • Authors: Ga Oun Lee, Seong-Nam Jang, Min Ju Kim, Du Yong Cho, Kye Man Cho, Ji Hyun Lee, Ki-Ho Son
      First page: 583
      Abstract: This study analyzed growth patterns, biological compounds, antioxidant properties, ginsenoside contents, metabolites, and the annual net production of ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘K-1’ to find the optimal harvesting time of ginseng sprouts. One-year-old ginseng seedlings were cultivated in a container-type vertical farm under a temperature of 20 °C, a humidity of 60%, and average light intensity of 46.4 µmol m−2 s−1 (16 h photoperiod). Growth patterns at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after transplanting (WAT) differed between cultivars. Regarding biological compounds and antioxidant properties, ‘Yunpoong’ took 5 WAT (43.59%; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazine-hydrate radical scavenging activity, 1.47 OD593nm; ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, 78.01%; 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity), and ‘K-1’ took 4 WAT (0.98 Re mg g−1; total flavonoid contents, 35.93%; DPPH) to show a high content. Two cultivars showed the highest total ginsenoside contents at 5 WAT. Most of the analyzed metabolites had a higher content in ‘Yunpoong’ than in ‘K-1’. In both cultivars, it was confirmed that the longer the growth period (3 − > 5 WAT), the lower the yield and the annual ginsenoside net production. Therefore, ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘K-1’ cultivars should be grown as ginseng sprouts in the vertical farms for approximately 3 WAT and 4 WAT, respectively.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050583
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 584: Research-Gap-Spotting in
           Plum–Apricot Hybrids—Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant
           Activities, and Health Beneficial Properties

    • Authors: Aneta Popova, Dasha Mihaylova, Svetla Pandova, Pavlina Doykina
      First page: 584
      Abstract: Plum–apricot hybrids are successful backcrosses of plums and apricots resulting in plumcots, pluots, and apriums. A topic search on plums, apricots, and plumcots shows that extensive information exists on the agro-morphology, genotyping, bioactive substances, and nutritive value of the genus Prunus, and plums and apricots, in particular. However, when search results for plum–apricot hybrids were evaluated for the period 2010–2023, only a few papers focused partially on the topic of their metabolomics. A database search (Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar) exposed that less than 10 articles/year appeared in Scopus on the topic of plum–apricot hybrids, 618 papers were found on Google Scholar (2010–2023), and only 2 results were found in PubMed for the same period using the same keywords. This shows the grand research opportunity and the need for providing a thorough chemical characterization of the existing plum–apricot hybrids. This review aims at schematizing the available information about plum–apricot hybrids (with reference to their parents), identifying the gaps about their bioactive compounds, antioxidant activities, and health beneficial properties, as well as pointing to future perspectives in terms of fruit hybrid characterization.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050584
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 585: Unraveling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
           Interactions in the Exotic Plant Nicotiana glauca Graham for Enhanced Soil
           Fertility and Alleviation of Metal Pollution

    • Authors: Hanane Dounas, Mohammed Bouskout, Hiba-Allah Nafidi, Abdulaziz Abdullah Alsahli, Mohammed Bourhia, Lahcen Ouahmane
      First page: 585
      Abstract: The harm that invasive species cause to the environment has received a lot of attention. It is therefore appropriate that the current research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of invasion by Nicotiana glauca Graham on soil fertility by looking at (i) its contribution to the mycorrhizal potential of the soil, (ii) its impact on soil richness and diversity in terms of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) community (iii), and its ability to modify the physicochemical characteristics in the invaded soil, specifically cleaning up heavy metal. The current study was conducted at Al Houz plain (Marrakesh region, Morocco), in heavily infested sites by N. glauca. The spores of AMF were isolated using the wet sieving process; the isolated spores were sorted for morphological features using a binocular microscope. The plant roots were thinned and colored before microscopic observation. The most probable number method was used to assess mycorrhizal soil infectivity. Heavy metal contamination in soils was characterized using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and the pollution load index (PLI) was utilized to assess and compare the level of heavy metal contamination at each station. The ability of N. glauca to reproduce was evaluated in order to support one of its invasive characteristics. The estimate indicated that each plant might produce more than three million seeds. This significant number guarantees the plant a great capacity for reproduction and invasion. The extra-significant mycorrhizal potential, which can take the form of spores, mycelium, or vesicles that can regenerate mycorrhizae, was discovered by conducting soil analysis in the rhizospheric soils of N. glauca. This research demonstrated the strong mycotrophic capability of N. glauca and the large mycorrhizal potential of soils. Between 4.85 and 305.5 mycorrhizal propagules were considered to be the most probable number (MPN) per 100 g of dry soil. Based on color, shape and size, AMF were classified into five morphotypes corresponding to five genera. The isolated taxa of AMF with the most diverse spores were Glomus, Rhizophagus, Paraglomus, Scutellospora, and Sclerocystis. The Glomus genus was found to have spores in significant quantity. Furthermore, N. glauca demonstrated a potential involvement in the phytoremediation of damaged soils, with a high pollution load index demonstrating a particularly high accumulation of heavy metals. N. glauca is a highly mycotrophic plant that can boost soil mycorrhizal propagule stock. N. glauca has also been demonstrated to be a phytoremediation plant capable of cleansing contaminated soils. As a result, N. glauca could be considered as a prospective candidate for application in phytoremediation of polluted soils.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050585
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 586: Overview of Melatonin’s Impact on
           Postharvest Physiology and Quality of Fruits

    • Authors: Syariful Mubarok, Erni Suminar, Adzkia Husnul Abidat, Citra Ayu Setyawati, Erik Setiawan, Adine Syabina Buswar
      First page: 586
      Abstract: Fruits are important horticultural commodities because they provide nutrients that help human health. Fruits are mostly consumed as fresh products; however, there are challenges in retaining the freshness, such as the rapid ripening process that triggers fruit deterioration and reduces fruit quality and nutrient content. The postharvest quality of horticultural crops is affected by pre-and postharvest treatment. Most farmers use chemical compounds and fungicides to prevent postharvest damage; however, this results in health hazards and environmental pollution. Melatonin can be used for maintaining and improving postharvest horticultural crops such as fruits. Melatonin is a new bioactive compound that is a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. It has been studied as an alternative to harmful chemicals used commercially in the postharvest management of fresh products. For human health, melatonin plays a regulatory role in circadian and seasonal rhythms, sleep, retinal functions, and the immune system. In plants, melatonin regulates many biological processes, particularly when plants have experienced abiotic stress, germination, aging, and growth. The effect of exogenous melatonin on fruit ripening has focused primarily on the relationship between melatonin and ethylene plant hormones. Many studies in recent years have discussed melatonin’s role in plants, particularly in delaying plant aging as an alternative way of increasing fruit shelf life. This review provides a comprehensive overview of melatonin biosynthesis in plants, factors that affect the content of melatonin in fruit, melatonin mechanisms in fruit ripening, the impact of melatonin on postharvest fruit quality, the effect of melatonin on postharvest quality, and the change in metabolite content of horticultural products, particularly fruits.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050586
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 587: Overexpression of RrGGP2 and RrDHAR
           Increases Ascorbic Acid Content in Tomato

    • Authors: Zeyang Liu, Tianzhi Rao, Richard A. Ludlow, Yali Yan, Min Lu, Huaming An
      First page: 587
      Abstract: Ascorbic acid (AsA) is the most abundant antioxidant in plants and is an important nutritional index for agricultural products. Some plants, such as Rosa roxburghii Tratt., contain exceptionally high levels of AsA, but are relatively unpalatable. In view of its role in human health, as well as plant growth and development, we examined the effects of two important AsA regulatory genes from R. roxburghii in tomato, with the aim of producing a crop of higher nutritional quality. RrGGP2 and RrDHAR were cloned from R. roxburghii fruit. The overexpression vectors were made using 35S promoters and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens to obtain the overexpression lines. A PCR and qRT-PCR verified that the two genes had been inserted and overexpressed in the tomato leaves and fruits. The results showed that the overexpression of RrGGP2 increased tomato leaf and fruit AsA content by 108.5% and 294.3%, respectively, while the overexpression of RrDHAR increased tomato leaf and fruit AsA content by 183.9% and 179.9%. The overexpression of RrGGP2 and RrDHAR further changed the expression of genes related to AsA metabolism, and the upregulation of one such gene, SlGGP, may have contributed greatly to the increase in AsA. Results here indicate that RrGGP2 contributes more towards fruit AsA accumulation in tomato than RrDHAR.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050587
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 588: Characterization, Evolutionary Analysis,
           and Expression Pattern Analysis of the Heat Shock Transcription Factors
           and Drought Stress Response in Heimia myrtifolia

    • Authors: Guozhe Zhang, Cuihua Gu, Yacheng Ye, Yu Zhao, Linxue Shang, Weili Shao, Sidan Hong, Jin Ma
      First page: 588
      Abstract: Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are among the most important regulators of plant responses to abiotic stimuli. They play a key role in numerous transcriptional regulatory processes. However, the specific characteristics of HSF gene family members and their expression patterns in different tissues and under drought stress have not been precisely investigated in Heimia myrtifolia. This study analyzed transcriptome data from H. myrtifolia and identified 15 members of the HSF family. Using a phylogenetic tree, these members were classified into three major classes and fifteen groups. The amino acid physicochemical properties of these members were also investigated. The results showed that all HmHSF genes are located in the nucleus, and multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed that all HmHSF proteins have the most conserved DBD structural domains. Interestingly, a special HmHSF15 protein was found in the three-dimensional structure of the protein, which has a conserved structural domain that performs a function in addition to the unique structural domain of HSF proteins, resulting in a three-dimensional structure for HmHSF15 that is different from other HmHSF proteins. GO enrichment analysis shows that most HmHSFA-like genes are part of various biological processes associated with abiotic stresses. Finally, this study analyzed the tissue specificity of HmHSF genes in different parts of H. myrtifolia by qRT-PCR and found that HmHSF genes were more abundantly expressed in roots than in other tissues, and HmHSF05, HmHSF12, and HmHSF14 genes were different from other HSF genes, which could be further analyzed to verify their functionality. The results provide a basis for analyzing the functions of HmHSF genes in H. myrtifolia and help to explore the molecular regulatory mechanism of HmHSF in response to drought stress.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050588
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 589: Differential Response of Olive Cultivars
           to Leaf Spot Disease (Fusicladium oleagineum) under Climate Warming
           Conditions in Morocco

    • Authors: Khaoula Habbadi, Ilyass Maafa, Abdellatif Benbouazza, Faiçal Aoujil, Hasnae Choukri, Salma El Iraqui El Houssaini, Ahmed El Bakkali
      First page: 589
      Abstract: Olive leaf spot (OLS), also called olive scab and peacock eye, caused by Fusicladium oleagineum, is a major disease that causes significant damage to olive trees. However, we still lack information about how cultivar and environmental factors influence disease development. In this study, evaluation of the incidence and severity on twenty olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.), maintained in an ex situ collection in Morocco, was carried out monthly during the period from March to July 2021. Biochemical parameters were also evaluated for each cultivar including leaf chlorophyll, polyphenols and flavonoid contents. Results revealed that the OLS incidence was highly correlated with severity (r = 0.94) and found to be related to climatic conditions and cultivars. The studied cultivars were classified into four major groups, i.e., susceptible, moderately susceptible, moderately resistant and resistant. Finally, our investigations revealed a partial relationship between resistance to the OLS disease and phenolic and flavonoid leaf contents, supporting the assumption of the potential involvement of such components in cultivar resistance to the disease. Overall, our work highlights the importance of characterizing olive cultivar resistance to OLS in driving the choice of the best varieties for an effective control of the disease in specific warming regions such as Morocco.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050589
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 590: Understanding Latinx Farmers in
           Pennsylvania to Meet Their Needs for Non-Formal Education

    • Authors: Ilse A. Huerta-Arredondo, Elsa Sánchez, John Ewing
      First page: 590
      Abstract: Latinx/Hispanic farmers are an underrepresented group with the largest number of farm operators in the US. However, agricultural educators have encountered challenges in identifying Latinx farmers in Pennsylvania and consequently, in meeting their needs. This study aims to contribute to improved agricultural programming by offering an exploratory overview of Latinx farmers in the Commonwealth, and to bring to light the experiences of Extension educators when working with Latinxs in the agricultural context. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with seventeen Latinxs at different stages of their farming journey, and with twelve educators with experience in agriculture programming and outreach to Latinxs. Latinx farmers discussed the characteristics, goals, challenges, and solutions of their farming operations. Educators discussed their motivations to serve Latinx farmers, the challenges they face in meeting their needs, and the implementation of targeted strategies for successful programming. Both groups discussed challenges they believe Latinx farmers face due to their ethnicity and provided recommendations to better serve the Latinx farming population. Based on the findings, agricultural educators could support Latinx farmers by developing statewide programming, including programming in Spanish, having employers allocate a percentage of educators’ responsibilities to connecting with this audience, creating a Latinx farmers’ network, partnering with organizations connected with Latinx farmers, participating in cultural competency training, and promoting stories of success. Our methodology and findings can be adapted to educators in other locations working with minority populations.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050590
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 591: Adaptogenic Preparations Enhance the
           Tolerance to Spring Frosts, Yield and Quality of Apple Fruits

    • Authors: Zoya Ozherelieva, Pavel Prudnikov, Andrey Nikitin, Anna Androsova, Anzhelika Bolgova, Anna Stupina, Oksana Vetrova
      First page: 591
      Abstract: The goal of the research is to study the effectiveness of the use of adaptogenic preparations of the Natural Plant Complex “White Pearl” line to increase the yield and quality of apples. The objects of the studies were the apple cultivar “Sinap Orlovsky” and adaptogenic preparations: phytomodulator “White Pearl Universal Antifreeze” and phytocorrector “White Pearl Drip Ca + Mg”. The experiment used the following variants: 1—control (foliar sprays with water); 2—foliar sprays with adaptogenic preparations: 1% solution of “White Pearl Universal Antifreeze” + 1% solution of “White Pearl Drip Ca + Mg”. As a result of the complex use of biological products, the yield was significantly increased by 1.7 times and the average fruit weight was increased by 20.3 g. The adaptogenic preparations increased the yield of marketable apple fruits by 14.8% and contributed to a 2.5-fold decrease in fruits affected by scald and a 2-fold decrease in bitter pitting. The adaptogenic preparations improved the taste qualities of “Sinap Orlovsky” fruits compared to the control by increasing the amount of sucrose by 25.6% and ascorbic acid by 20.5%. The conducted tests of adaptogenic preparations in apple plantations show the prospects of their use as additional techniques in traditional apple cultivation technologies.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050591
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 592: Synergistic Effect of a Plant-Derived
           Protein Hydrolysate and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Eggplant Grown in
           Open Fields: A Two-Year Study

    • Authors: Giuseppe Di Miceli, Lorena Vultaggio, Leo Sabatino, Claudio De Pasquale, Salvatore La Bella, Beppe Benedetto Consentino
      First page: 592
      Abstract: Plant biostimulants, such as plant protein hydrolysates (PHs) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM), are natural products capable of increasing the yield and quality of crops and decreasing the ecological impact of plant growing cycles. However, there is little research on the mutual application of different categories of biostimulants (microbial and non-microbial). The current study was conducted to examine the effects of “Trainer” PH application (0 or 3 mL L−1) and AM (R. irregularis) inoculation on the growth, yield, quality and nitrogen indices of ”Birgah” F1 eggplant cultivated for two years (2020 and 2021). Results revealed that the combined application of PH and AM significantly enhanced total and marketable yields, average marketable fruit weight and number of marketable fruits by 23.7%, 36.4%, 19.0% and 11.1% compared to non-treated plants (control), respectively. Moreover, biostimulants increased the soluble solids content (SSC), chlorogenic acid, total anthocyanins, K and Mg in the fruits by 16%, 4.6%, 6.4%, 8.6% and 23.9% compared to control plants, respectively. Interestingly, the mutual application of PH and AM improved fruit quality by reducing the glycoalkaloid concentration (−19.8%) and fruit browning potential (−38%). Furthermore, both biostimulants exerted a synergistic action, enhancing nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen uptake efficiency by 26.7% and 18.75%, respectively. On the other hand, productive and fruit-quality features were significantly influenced by the year due to remarkable differences in terms of maximum temperature between the first and second cultivation cycles. Overall, our research underlined that PH and AM can positively interact to improve the performance of eggplant cultivated in open fields.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050592
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 593: Trend Analysis of Different Climate
           Parameters and Watering Requirements for Hazelnut in Central Italy Related
           to Climate Change

    • Authors: Alessandra Vinci, Bruno Di Lena, Silvia Portarena, Daniela Farinelli
      First page: 593
      Abstract: In this study, the effects of climate change on the irrigation water requirement of hazelnut trees were investigated in Central Italy. The meteorological variables considered were precipitation, temperature, chilling units, and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in Central Italy. The hydrological variables were the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and the water requirement based on soil water balance. Climate data were collected from eight meteorological stations for the period 1974–2021, and ET0 was estimated by the Hargreaves and Samani equation. The SPI index was calculated for a four-month time scale corresponding to the hazelnut growing season (April–August). A statistical analysis of the trends of the variables considered was conducted. The results showed an increasing trend for temperature, ET0, and water requirements, while a decreasing trend was shown for the chilling units. No significant trends were detected for precipitation and SPI.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050593
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 594: Phenolic Potential of Olive Leaves from
           Different Istrian Cultivars in Croatia

    • Authors: Marija Polić Pasković, Nikolina Vidović, Igor Lukić, Paula Žurga, Valerija Majetić Germek, Smiljana Goreta Ban, Tomislav Kos, Lepomir Čoga, Tea Tomljanović, Sunčana Simonić-Kocijan, Dean Ban, Sara Godena, Igor Pasković
      First page: 594
      Abstract: For the first time the effects of different sampling periods and their interaction with five major autochthonous Croatian Istrian olive cultivars and the Italian cultivar ‘Leccino’ on the quantity and composition of olive leaf phenolic compounds and mineral nutrients were investigated. For that purpose, olive leaves were sampled in two collecting periods, in October and March, coinciding with the harvesting and pruning periods, respectively. All selected cultivars had a higher oleuropein leaf content in the pruning collecting period, with the highest levels noted for the ‘Leccino’ and ‘Buža’ cultivars. Cultivar significantly affected almost all the investigated phenols, with higher concentrations of these valuable compounds in the pruning than in the harvesting period. Differences observed in leaf mineral composition were closely related to the differences in phenolic profiles and were significantly affected by genotype. Some of the studied mineral nutrients, such as P, Cu and B, were found to be significantly correlated with the most abundant olive leaf phenolic compounds, oleuropein and verbascoside.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050594
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 595: Effect of Cognitive Style and Working
           Memory on Floral Design Ability

    • Authors: Hui-Shan Chan, Hui-Ying Chu, Miao-Tzu Lin
      First page: 595
      Abstract: Students were sampled from two universities in southern Taiwan from 1 September 2022 to 31 October 2022. This study examined the factors affecting the floral design ability of 125 university students by analyzing the relationship between demographic variables, cognitive styles, working memory, and floral design ability. The results revealed that the cognitive style, working memory, and floral design ability scores of the participants were 2.82 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.35), 5.06 (SD: 1.11), and 77.27 (SD: 5.43), respectively. Most participants were visual processors and demonstrated favorable scores for working memory and floral design ability. Floral design ability had a moderately positive correlation with cognitive style (r = 0.474, p < 0.000) and working memory (r = 0.521, p < 0.000). Both working memory and cognitive style were influential factors for floral design ability. Specifically, working memory exhibited a higher predictive power and explained 27.2% of the variance, whereas cognitive style only explained 10.3% of the variance. Therefore, teaching aids that improve working memory, such as computer games and picture cards, can be used as supplementary teaching aids in floral design education. Visual processors can be taught using more picture-based or photo-based teaching methods, whereas a list of operational procedures is more suitable for verbal processors.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050595
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 596: Photosynthesis, Biochemical and Yield
           Performance of Grapevine Hybrids in Two Rootstock and Trellis Height

    • Authors: Francisco José Domingues Neto, Adilson Pimentel Junior, Lenon Romano Modesto, Mara Fernandes Moura, Fernando Ferrari Putti, Carmen Silvia Fernandes Boaro, Elizabeth Orika Ono, João Domingos Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Tecchio
      First page: 596
      Abstract: The interaction between variety, rootstock, and trellis height is important for grapevine management, mainly for producing new varieties of grapes for juice and wine in new wine-growing regions with high production potential. Then, this study aimed to evaluate the rootstocks and trellis height influence on photosynthesis, biochemical, and yield performance for grapevine hybrids. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design using two factors, rootstocks (‘IAC 766’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’) and trellis height (until 1.6 and 2.0 m), evaluated for two grapevine hybrids (IAC 138-22 ‘Maximo’ and ‘BRS Violeta’). During grapevine flowering, it was evaluated photosynthesis and biochemical performance, for this, the gaseous exchanges were measured using the open system photosynthesis equipment with a CO2 analyzer and water vapor by infrared radiation, being net assimilation rate of CO2, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, carboxylation efficiency (Rubisco), and the flux density of photosynthetically active photons. At the stages of grapevine flowering and ripening berries were evaluated the antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)), total soluble proteins, chlorophylls, and SPAD. The interaction between rootstock and trellis heigh influenced varieties’ photosynthesis, biochemical, and yield performance. In conclusion under subtropical conditions, better photosynthesis, biochemical, and yield performance were observed when both cultivars were grafted on the ‘IAC 766’ rootstock. The ‘IAC 138-22 Maximo’ was trained until 2.0 and grafted on the ‘IAC 766’ rootstock, increasing grape production and photosynthesis efficiency. In addition, this variety was more productive than ‘BRS Violeta’.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050596
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 597: Evaluation of the Quality and
           Antioxidant Activity of Dehydrated Medicinal Herbs

    • Authors: Adna Prado Massarioli, Severino Matias de Alencar, Adriano Francisco Siqueira, Mariana Pereira de Melo, Igor Gomes Vidigal, Ana Lúcia Gabas Ferreira
      First page: 597
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the effects of drying in a forced-air oven or solar dryer on the drying rates, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, and antioxidant properties of rosemary, mint, common fennel, lemon grass, and basil. The drying rates of all herbs were higher in the forced-air oven in comparison to the solar dryer. According to results obtained for herbal properties after this different drying process, mint was less affected by both drying conditions. On the other hand, regardless of the method of drying used, all dried herbs exhibited similar antioxidant properties, mainly due to the presence of total phenolics. The antioxidant activities of oven-dried herbs ranged from 19.18 to 71.55% and increased in the order common fennel < lemon grass < mint < basil < rosemary, while the activities of sun-dried samples varied from 17.73 to 58.27% and increased in the order basil < common fennel < lemon grass < mint < rosemary. The results obtained demonstrate that the process of drying can alter the quality of an herbal product, implying that standardization of post-harvest steps is essential to ensure the consistency of an herbal product.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050597
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 598: Quality Evaluation of Mustard
           Microgreens Grown on Peat and Jute Substrate

    • Authors: Samar Min Allah, Rosanna Dimita, Carmine Negro, Andrea Luvisi, Alessio Gadaleta, Carlo Mininni, Luigi De Bellis
      First page: 598
      Abstract: Consumers appreciate microgreens for their vast variety of colors and flavors. Usually, they are grown employing peat, a substrate that is used in large quantities. In order to identify a more sustainable propagation protocol and to reduce the amount of peat consumed, alternative propagation protocols were evaluated. Jute is a biodegradable substrate with lower post-harvest costs because it does not leave particles on microgreens. This work evaluates the microgreen yield, flavor, texture, and phytochemical compounds when grown on jute. Green mustard (Brassica nigra) is one of the most popular microgreens. When growing these microgreens on jute (three repetitions), it was necessary to increase the frequency of irrigation and reduce the amount of water for each turn. In addition, the propagation time needed to be increased from 5 to 7 days. The tasters found no difference in flavor and only a slight difference in texture was observed when microgreens were grown on jute. The phenol and chlorophyll levels were unchanged, while carotenoid levels were slightly higher. Thus, the cultivation of green mustard on jute has a minimal impact on microgreens and leads to increased sustainability and reduced post-harvest costs.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050598
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 599: Estimating the Ripeness of Hass Avocado
           Fruit Using Deep Learning with Hyperspectral Imaging

    • Authors: Yazad Jamshed Davur, Wiebke Kämper, Kourosh Khoshelham, Stephen J. Trueman, Shahla Hosseini Bai
      First page: 599
      Abstract: Rapid ripeness assessment of fruit after harvest is important to reduce post-harvest losses by sorting fruit according to the duration until they become ready to eat. However, there has been little research on non-destructive estimation of the ripeness and ripening speed of avocado fruit. Unlike previous methods, which classify the ripeness of fruit into a few categories (e.g., unripe and ripe) or indirectly estimate ripeness from its firmness, we developed a method using hyperspectral imaging coupled with deep learning regression to directly estimate the duration until ripeness of Hass avocado fruit. A set of 44,096 sub-images of 551 Hass avocado fruit images was used to train, validate, and test a convolutional neural network (CNN) to predict the number of days until ripeness. Training, validation, and test samples were generated as sub-images of Hass fruit images and were used to train a spectral–spatial residual network to estimate the duration to ripeness. We achieved predictions of duration to ripeness with an average error of 1.17 days per fruit on the test set. A series of experiments demonstrated that our deep learning regression approach outperformed classification approaches that rely on dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis. Our results show the potential for combining hyperspectral imaging with deep learning to estimate the ripeness stage of fruit, which could help to fine-tune avocado fruit sorting and processing.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050599
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 600: A Comparative Analysis of the Grafting
           Efficiency of Watermelon with a Grafting Machine

    • Authors: Huan Liang, Juhong Zhu, Mihong Ge, Dehuan Wang, Ke Liu, Mobing Zhou, Yuhong Sun, Qian Zhang, Kai Jiang, Xianfeng Shi
      First page: 600
      Abstract: The rising age of the population in rural China and the labor intensity of grafting have resulted in a decrease in the number of grafters and a subsequent increase in their wages. Manual grafting can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for watermelon-grafted transplanting; thus, machine grafting will be an effective alternative. In order to accelerate the implementation of machine grafting in China, a comparative analysis between the automatic grafting machine (model 2TJGQ-800) and traditional hand grafting was conducted. The reliability and feasibility of machine grafting were evaluated through a comprehensive evaluation of the production capacity and grafting seedling quality. This study focuses on the grafting application of watermelon plug-tray seedlings. The scion and rootstock seeds were sown on 9 November 2022. Grafting experiments using an automatic grafting machine, skilled workers, and ordinary workers were conducted with the root-pruned one-cotyledon grafting method on 24 November 2022. The results showed that the machine grafting had a high uniformity and grafting speed. The grafting speed of the grafting machine was 774 plant·h−1 and 1.65–2.55-fold higher than the hand grafting. With training, workers can improve their grafting speed, but it will still be slower than machine grafting. In addition, there was no significant difference in the grafting survival rate between the machine grafting and hand grafting. However, using machine grafting, the success rate decreased from 100% to 90.07% and the rootstock regrowth rate increased from 18.44% to 72.69%. Incomplete rootstock cutting, clip supply failure, and grafting drop failure are the three main factors that result in machine grafting failure. In conclusion, the grafting machine has advantages in terms of grafting speed and uniformity. Upon improving the accuracy of the cutting mechanism and grafting success rate, it will be adopted by commercial nurseries.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050600
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 601: Variability in Productive and
           Biochemical Traits of Vicia faba L. Landraces from Apulia Region (South

    • Authors: Francesca De Cillis, Claudia Ruta, Cataldo Pulvento, Luigi Tedone, Giuseppe De Mastro
      First page: 601
      Abstract: The faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major) is a pulse that is garnering attention for its chemical composition, which makes it suitable for a healthy diet. The Apulian germplasm is rich in local accessions at risk of genetic erosion, which need evaluating and promoting. Thirteen Vicia faba local Landraces have been analyzed in relation to their productivity and their chemical and biochemical characteristics: their protein, total phenol, total flavonoid, condensate tannin and L-DOPA levels. The results showed great variability—above all in the thousand-seeds weight and in their content of proteins and L-DOPA. Among the accessions evaluated, the two collected from the most southern area of the region (FV12-FV10) were particularly promising—both for their good biochemical traits and, especially, for the higher L-DOPA content (0.46 and 0.49 g 100 g−1 d.m., respectively), even when expressed in terms of yield per plant (116.3 and 153.0 mg plant−1 d.m., respectively).
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050601
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 602: Analysis of Growth and Rhizosphere Soil
           Changes of Herbaceous Peony Treated with a Compound Microbial Agent under
           Contrasted Soil Conditions

    • Authors: Lijin Yang, Yajie Shi, Xiao Yang, Lingling Dong, Fuling Lei, Chengshu Zheng, Anqi Xie, Dongliang Zhang, Limin Sun, Xia Sun
      First page: 602
      Abstract: When used for ornamental purposes, the herbaceous peony is usually propagated by root ramets, but the replanting of divided seedlings in the original planting area results in poor growth and development. No research has reported on a compound microbial agent used for herbaceous peony. The purpose of this experiment is to provide a reference for low–cost soil improvement in production, promote the growth and development of herbaceous peony, and solve the problem of planting back obstacles. In this study, 3–year–old seedlings of herbaceous peony ‘Zifengyu’ were selected and planted into an ordinary garden and replanted soils. Four root irrigation treatments were conducted using the compound microbial agent ‘Junzhongjun’ to determine the physicochemical properties of rhizosphere soil, root physiology, and growth and development of ‘Zifengyu’ under different soil conditions. The growth and development of the aboveground parts of herbaceous peony were promoted by the treatment of the compound microbial agent in the following order: garden soil > sieved–root soil > unsieved–root soil. Root vigour was enhanced in the following sequence: sieved–root soil > unsieved–root soil > garden soil. The organic matter and available potassium in the rhizosphere soil of herbaceous peony increased, and the promotional effect in the sieved–root soil was significantly better than that in the other two soils. The results show that the compound microbial agent is low in cost and has a stimulating effect on the growth and development of herbaceous peony. In the process of production, the residual broken roots in the soil can be sieved and combined with the application of the compound microbial agent to further alleviate the barriers of replanting. The concentration and frequency of agent application should be further optimized at a later stage.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050602
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 603: Research on Chilling Requirements and
           Physiological Mechanisms of Prunus mume

    • Authors: Yuhan Zhang, Kaifeng Ma, Qingwei Li
      First page: 603
      Abstract: Low temperature plays a vital role in the growth and development of woody plants. In this research, based on the ability of artificial low temperatures to break dormancy, the Utah model was used to determine the chilling requirements (CR) of four early flowering Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Rosaceae) cultivars, which are widely found in the Henan area of China. In addition, changes in the carbohydrates, antioxidant enzyme activities, and endogenous hormone contents of the flower buds (FBs) of the above-mentioned P. mume cultivars were measured during the low-temperature storage process, and the physiological changes of the four cultivars during the low-temperature induction period were explored. The main research conclusions are as follows: (1) the CRs of ‘Gulihong’, ‘Nanjing gongfen’, ‘Zaoyudie’, and ‘Zaohualve’ were 408CU, 396CU, 372CU, and 348CU, respectively. All the P. mume cultivars belonged to cultivars with a low chilling demand. They also bloomed 4 months earlier, and (2) during the process of releasing dormancy at low temperatures, the contents of soluble sugar (SS) in the osmoregulation system of the four Prunus mume cultivars showed an upward trend, while the content of starch (ST) basically showed an opposite trend to the increase in chilling. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the FBs of each cultivar gradually decreased with the increase in cold and remained at a low level, while the peroxidase (POD) activity showed an opposite trend, and the dynamic changes of the catalase (CAT) activity generally showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. The content of abscisic acid (ABA) showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing as a whole. The changing trend of gibberellin (GA3) content was similar to that of ABA. In addition, it was found that before dormancy was released, the SS and Pro contents of cultivars with lower CRs and early FB germination were significantly higher than those of other cultivars with higher CRs and the contents of ST and SP were lower. The cultivars with higher CRs and late FB germination had higher ABA content, lower GA3 contents, and their enzyme activities were significantly higher than those of the cultivars with lower CR. Therefore, the changes in the content of various substances in FBs are related to the amount of cooling required by the cultivar and at what point the FBs germinate, and the changes in their contents can be used as one of the indicators for judging the dormancy process of FBs.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050603
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 604: Integrated Control of Scales on Highbush
           Blueberry in Poland

    • Authors: Małgorzata Tartanus, Barbara Sobieszek, Agnieszka Furmańczyk-Gnyp, Eligio Malusà
      First page: 604
      Abstract: In the past decade, the development of highbush blueberry production in Poland has been followed by the occurrence of new pests in the plantations, including scales. Since both the assessment of the populations of natural enemies present in a territory and the knowledge of the scale species present in the crop are crucial for the correct application of IPM strategies, a study was carried out to address these aspects and evaluate the efficacy of several active substances in controlling Parthenolecanium spp. in several highbush blueberry plantations. Specimens of adult larvae collected on several plantations were phylogenetically closely linked to two species, P. corni and P. fletcheri. However, considering the ecology and behavior of these species, it was concluded that the pest population was more likely to belong to P. corni. Analyzing the scale parasitoids’ community present in the different locations, it emerged that it was quite diversified, including species affecting both the initial and adult biological phases of the scales, with differences also in the population size and diversity, including both general or specialized parasitoids and predators. The different active substances tested in the efficacy trials, which included both synthetic and bio-based compounds, were suitable for controlling the scale infestation. However, the different efficacy observed between them, depending on season and location, could be interpreted taking into consideration the initial level of infestation. It is concluded that applying an IPM strategy that combines agronomical practices with the application of insecticides with different mechanisms of action, attentive to the benefit of protecting natural enemies, can result in satisfactory control of P. corni in highbush blueberry plantations.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050604
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 605: Quantification and Distribution of
           Primary and Secondary Metabolites in the Inner and Outer Parts of
           Strawberry Fruit

    • Authors: Kristyna Simkova, Robert Veberic, Metka Hudina, Nika Cvelbar Weber, Tina Smrke, Mariana Cecilia Grohar, Tea Ivancic, Massimiliano Pelacci, Aljaz Medic, Jerneja Jakopic
      First page: 605
      Abstract: The distribution of primary and secondary metabolites within a fruit can affect its nutritional and organoleptic quality, as fruit can vary in size and shape. This study investigated the differences in the distribution of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit of four strawberry cultivars (ˈAsia, ˈCleryˈ, ˈFredericaˈ, and ˈSandraˈ) that were collected at one harvest point. The study included an analysis of the individual sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and enzymes responsible for the degradation of phenolics. All of the studied cultivars showed a lower pH, higher total organic acid content, and lower glucose and fructose content in the outer part of the fruit. Differences were also observed in the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, which were always higher in the outer part. The absolute differences in the total phenolic content ranged from 3723 to 6154 mg kg−1 dry weight. Our results provide a basis for understanding the differences in the biosynthesis of these metabolites within this fruit and prove that it is essential to mix samples well before extractions to obtain results that are representative of the whole fruit.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050605
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 606: Evaluation of the Nutritional,
           Phytochemical, and Antioxidant Potential of Rourea minor Fruits: An
           Underutilized Species

    • Authors: Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy, Guggalada Govardhana Yadav, Sathish Shekhappa Kadapatti, Akarsha H. Pote, Ramalinga Jagali, Vidya Yarashi, Yaser Hassan Dewir
      First page: 606
      Abstract: The present study focuses on the nutritional, phytochemical composition, and antioxidant activities of the fruits of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston., an underutilized plant species. The ripened seeds contained 0.28%, 12.39%, 25.70%, 1.4%, and 3.4% of fat, protein, carbohydrate, ash, and fiber, respectively, whereas ripened pulp possessed 0.19%, 0.34%, 0.90%, 0.35%, and 0.98% of fat, protein, carbohydrates, ash, and fiber, respectively. The ripened seed and pulp were also rich in mineral elements and especially microelements. The pulp, when ripe, had high levels of microelements such as boron, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese with values of 25.98, 2523.56, 499.12, 33.62, and 40.30 µg/g DW, respectively. Phytate and oxalate content were comparatively higher in ripened seeds (6.91 and 31.88 mg/g FW) than in the pulp. Acetone, absolute methanol, water, and 70% methanol were used for the extraction of phytochemicals, and 70% methanol extract contained the highest phytochemicals. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and alkaloid content of unripe seeds was 180.47 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/DW, 68.95 quercetin equivalent (QE)/g DW, and 0.35 atropine equivalent (AE)/g DW, respectively, and that of unripe pulp was 8.21 mg GAE/g DW, 2.97 mg QE/g DW and 1.20 mg AE/g DW, respectively. All the extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activity, proved by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, following a similar trend to the phytochemical composition. The study concludes that Rourea minor fruits, both seeds, and pulp, could be an excellent source of nutrients, microelements, and antioxidants.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050606
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 607: Application of Cinnamaldehyde Solid
           Lipid Nanoparticles in Strawberry Preservation

    • Authors: Shangjian Li, Jiajia Chen, Yuntong Liu, Qinhua Zheng, Weijian Tan, Xiaolin Feng, Kexin Feng, Wenzhong Hu
      First page: 607
      Abstract: Strawberries are a popular food. However, the growth and reproduction of microorganisms on the surface of strawberries change their quality and may cause food poisoning. We compared the effects of solid lipid nanoparticles containing cinnamaldehyde (SLN-CA) and unencapsulated cinnamaldehyde on the freshness of strawberries stored for seven days. The impacts of SLN-CA at different concentrations on strawberry firmness, weight loss, rate of fruit rot, and sensory quality were investigated at 25 °C. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and malonaldehyde (MDA) and vitamin C contents of strawberry cell homogenates were measured during storage. The experimental results showed that SLN-CA treatment can effectively reduce the probability of decay in strawberries without causing excessive weight loss. SLN-CA can reduce softening, maintain a high level of SOD activity in cells, reduce the accumulation of MDA and consumption of organic acids, and improve the sensory characteristics of strawberries and thereby their shelf life. Therefore, SLN-CA is a promising preservation method to increase the shelf life and safety of strawberries.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050607
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 608: Effect of Temperature Variation and Blue
           and Red LEDs on the Elongation of Arugula and Mustard Microgreens

    • Authors: Yun Kong, Joseph Masabni, Genhua Niu
      First page: 608
      Abstract: Recent studies using LED lighting at low to modest intensity have indicated that compared with red light, blue light can promote plant elongation in many crops as a shade avoidance response despite varying sensitivity with light environments, plant species, and growth stages. Currently, there is limited understanding of how temperature affects the blue light-mediated plant response. To clarify this point, two microgreen species (arugula and mustard) were grown indoors under two light quality × two temperature treatments: red LED light (peak at 670 nm) and blue LED light (peak at 450 nm) at 18 °C or 28 °C. A photosynthetic photon flux density of 110 µmol m−2 s−1 and a photoperiod of 12 h d−1 were used for all treatments. After 6 to 8 days of treatment, at both temperatures, blue vs. red light promoted plant elongation, as demonstrated by a greater plant elongation rate, final plant height, and hypocotyl length, in arugula but not in mustard. Blue vs. red light also promoted some shade-avoidance responses such as decreased cotyledon size in both species and increased petiole length and dry mass partitioning to hypocotyls in arugula only. The elongation promotion in arugula by blue light was greater at 18 °C than at 28 °C, showing interactions between light and temperature on most plant traits. For mustard, plant elongation was promoted at 28 °C compared to 18 °C independent of light treatment, showing no interactions between light and temperature on most plant traits. These results suggest that the blue light-mediated elongation as a shade-avoidance response is not reversed by high temperature, despite the varying sensitivity with temperatures and species.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050608
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 609: Discrimination of Syzygium samarangense
           cv. ‘Giant Green’ Leaves at Different Maturity Stages by FTIR
           and GCMS Fingerprinting

    • Authors: Nuruljannah Suhaida Idris, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker, Zalilawati Mat Rashid, Ali Majrashi, Mekhled Mutiran Alenazi, Ahmad Faris Mohd Adnan, Khairil Mahmud, Nashriyah Mat
      First page: 609
      Abstract: ‘Giant Green’ is one of the Syzygium samarangense cultivars planted throughout Malaysia because it has great potential for benefitting human health. However, its variation in chemical compounds, especially in the leaves at different maturity stages, cannot be systematically discriminated. Hence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) coupled with chemometric tools were applied to discriminate between the different stages of leaves, namely, young, mature, and old leaves. The chemical variability among the samples was evaluated by using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) techniques. For discrimination, partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) was applied, and then partial least squares (PLS) was used to determine the correlation between biological activities (antioxidant and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory assay) and maturity stages of ‘Giant Green’ leaves. As a result, the PCA, HCA, and PLS-DA of the FTIR and GC-MS data showed the separation between clusters for the different maturity stages of the leaves. Additionally, the PLS result demonstrated that the young leaves showed a strong correlation between metabolite quantities and biological activities. The findings of this study revealed that FTIR and GC-MS coupled with chemometric analyses can be used as a rapid method for the discrimination of bioactive structural functions in relation to their biological activity.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050609
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 610: Volatile Composition and Aroma
           Description of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flowers from Albino Cultivars

    • Authors: Ying Gao, Yuhong Chen, Fang Wang, Jianxin Chen, Gensheng Chen, Yongquan Xu, Junfeng Yin
      First page: 610
      Abstract: Volatiles are important quality components in tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers. Albino tea plants are mutant tea plants with diverse abnormal metabolisms. However, whether the metabolisms of volatiles in tea flowers from albino cultivars are abnormal remains unclear. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and aroma evaluation were conducted to investigate the volatile composition and aroma of tea flowers from three albino cultivars (i.e., Baiye No.1, Huangjinya, and Yujinxiang) and one non-albino cultivar (i.e., Jiukeng). The results indicated that tea flowers shared the majority of volatiles but their relative abundances were different. Twelve differential compounds were screened out by partial least squares discriminant analysis. Linalool was the one with the highest relative abundance in three out of the four tea flowers, while acetophenone was the one with the highest relative abundance in tea flowers from Huangjinya. Aroma evaluation indicated that tea flowers from Huangjinya smelt sweetest among them. Partial least squares regression analysis revealed that acetophenone and (R)-1-phenylethanol were positively associated with the sweet smell, while methyl salicylate, 2-heptanol, (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, and 2-pentanol were positively associated with the green smell. The results enhance our understanding of the volatiles and aroma of tea flowers from albino cultivars.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050610
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 611: Analysis of the Spatial Dispersion of
           Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus on Surfaces in a Commercial Tomato
           Production Site

    • Authors: Jens Ehlers, Shaheen Nourinejhad Zarghani, Stefanie Liedtke, Bärbel Kroschewski, Carmen Büttner, Martina Bandte
      First page: 611
      Abstract: The tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) causes severe damage to tomato cultivars and has international economic importance. The harmful tobamovirus is easily mechanically transmissible and highly stable. An ongoing cultivation of infected tomato plants may lead to the spread of ToBRFV in and around the production area of the infested tomato farm. We conducted a study in which we collected a representative number of swab samples from various inanimate surfaces in greenhouses, packaging halls, and shared and private accommodations. In addition, numerous fabrics, such as outer clothing, bed linen, and items used by greenhouse workers, were tested. The infectivity of ToBRFV-contaminated surfaces was tested in bioassays using Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi NN and confirmed using DAS-ELISA. The proportion of ToBRFV-contaminated surfaces varied among locations, from 48.7% in greenhouses to 0% in offices with limited access to staff. Samples from shared accommodation and private accommodation were 18.4% and 3.6% ToBRFV positive, respectively. Clothing and protective items were found to be highly contaminated with ToBRFV, and even around the sleeping area, infective ToBRFV was detected in a few apartments. This study provides evidence for the first time on how and where infectious ToBRFV can be spread by humans beyond the production area. To avoid further dissemination, strict hygiene protocols are required to interrupt transmission routes.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050611
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
  • Horticulturae, Vol. 9, Pages 612: Algerian Fig Trees: Botanical and
           Morphometric Leaf Characterization

    • Authors: Fahima Abdelkader, Ziane Laiadi, Susana Boso, José-Luis Santiago, Pilar Gago, María-Carmen Martínez
      First page: 612
      Abstract: Leaf morphology in plants is very important in the evaluation of intraspecific variation. Indeed, the leaves of the fig tree (Ficus carica L.) present a great diversity of shape and size. The present study consists of the botanical, morphological, and morphometric characterization of the leaves of 26 local fig tree varieties cultivated in different areas of Bejaia (northeast Algeria). Our results indicate that the morphological parameters of the leaves allowed a good differentiation of the studied cultivars according to the descriptors (UPOV) among varieties and independent of their growing environment. Moreover, the method of morphometric description proposed in this paper allows the differentiation of varieties and the comparison among them in an objective way and by simple mathematical methods. This method demonstrates the existence of a very high percentage of polymorphisms within the studied varieties, but also their classification according to the number of lobes, the depth of the lateral sinuses, and the degree of openness of the angles performed by the main veins of the leaves. The Azougagh variety is characterized by wider angles, and, on the contrary, the Tassahlit variety has the least-open angles. None of the studied varieties presented “entire” leaves. The majority presented leaves with five lobes. The varieties Tilizwith, Tazarzourth, Avarkan, Tamkarkourth, and Inconnu B differed clearly from the rest by showing leaves with seven lobes and deep lateral sinuses. In contrast, the varieties Zarika, Baccor Blanc, Avarkan Lisse, and Avgaiti presented leaves with only three lobes. This is the first work on fig tree characterization using morphometric methods, which are shown to be complementary to the UPOV code and efficient in separating even the closed varieties. It will be interesting to extend these studies to larger scales and areas.
      Citation: Horticulturae
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9050612
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 5 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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