Subjects -> GARDENING AND HORTICULTURE (Total: 37 journals)
Showing 1 - 20 of 20 Journals sorted by number of followers
Media, Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Landscape Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Landscape Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Mind Culture and Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Horticulture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Parallax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Vegetable Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Scientia Horticulturae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Horticultural Plant Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Horticultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Horticulture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscape Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sibbaldia: the International Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Landscape Studies     Open Access  
Dekoratyviųjų ir sodo augalų sortimento, technologijų ir aplinkos optimizavimas     Partially Free  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
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Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.441
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2211-3452 - ISSN (Online) 2211-3460
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Comparison of drought resistance of rootstocks 'M9-T337' and 'M26' grafted
           with 'Huashuo' apple

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      Abstract: Abstract Drought stress is one of the main limiting factors in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivation. Rootstock plays an important role in the drought tolerance of apple plants. ‘M.9-T337’ is a novel apple rootstock that was recently introduced and widely cultivated in China. In this study, we selected the new, widely promoted Chinese apple variety ‘Huashuo’ as the scion and grafted it onto ‘M.9-T337’ (HM9). Another combination, ‘Huashuo’/‘M.26’/Malus robusta Rehd. (HM26), served as the experimental control to analyse drought resistance in the two hybrids. We believe that this empirical approach is more representative than merely studying rootstock seedlings. After sustained drought stress for over 1 month, the leaf relative water content had decreased in both types of plants, but to a lesser extent in HM26 than in HM9. The SPAD values increased in both plants, but without significant difference. Drought stress reduced photosynthetic activity in both plants, and the net photosynthetic rate was higher in HM26 than in HM9. The observed changes in the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters indicated that drought had damaged the PSII activity centres of both plants, photosynthetic electron transfer was inhibited, and excessive excitation energy accumulated. However, compared to HM26, HM9 displayed lower maximal PSII quantum photochemical efficiency and potential PSII activity. Moreover, HM9 showed lower antioxidant enzyme activity than HM26 under drought stress. A membership function analysis confirmed that ‘M.9-T337’ was less drought resistant than ‘M.26’. Nevertheless, ‘M.9-T337’ could still recover after prolonged drought stress, indicating it also had good drought resistance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Tree vegetative and generative properties and their inter-correlations for
           prospective apple cultivars under two training systems for young trees

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      Abstract: Abstract Little information is available on vegetative and generative performance of apple cultivars during the early growth of trees in orchards. The aim of this five-year study was to evaluate 2 vegetative (trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) and tree height (TH)) and 7 generative parameters (tree yield (TY), fruit number per tree (FNT), crop load (CL), fruit diameter (FD), shape index (SI), fruit surface color (FSC) and fruit color intensity (FCI)) and their inter-correlations (Pearson correlation, regression analyses and PCA) for young apple trees, on 9 apple cultivars (‘Jugala’, ‘Galaval’, ‘Gala Venus Fengal’, ‘Gala Decarli-Fendeca’, ‘Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’, ‘Fuji September Wonder’, ‘Crimson Crisp (Co-op 39)’, ‘Jeromine’, and ‘Red Idared’) in a slender spindle training system (2597 trees ha−1) and on 4 apple cultivars (‘Wilton’s Red Jonaprince’, ‘Red Cap Valtod (S)’, ‘Early Red One’, and ‘Red Topaz’) in a super spindle training system (5194 trees ha−1) in Eastern Hungary. The strongest vegetative growth was observed in ‘Red Idared’, while the weakest was in ‘Early Red One’. Most ‘Gala’ mutants showed high yields in all years, except for ‘Galaval’. On the 6 year-old trees, the lowest tree yield was found in ‘Fuji September Wonder’ (8.2 kg tree−1), while the highest was found in ‘Gala Venus Fengal’ (35.8 kg tree−1). The lowest fruit number per tree (15 fruit tree−1) was found in ‘Jeromine’, while the highest (222 fruit tree−1) was in ‘Gala Venus Fengal’. The highest crop load was found in ‘Gala Venus Fengal’ (12.72 fruit per cm2 TCSA), while the lowest was in ‘Jeromine’ (2.13 fruit per cm2 TCSA). The smallest fruit diameter (66.3 mm) was recorded in ‘Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’, while highest (93.6 mm) was in ‘Red Idared’. The lowest shape index (0.73) was found in ‘Red Topaz’, while the highest (0.92) was in ‘Red Idared’. The majority of the cultivars reached very good fruit surface color (80–100%). The lowest fruit surface color (40%) was observed in ‘Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’, while the highest (100%) was in ‘Jeromine’ and ‘Early Red One’. The highest fruit color intensity was observed in most cultivars with the exception of ‘Jeromine’, ‘Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’ and’Fuji September Wonder’. In addition, correlation and regression analyses revealed strong and significant (p = 0.05) relationships between TH vs TCSA, TY vs TCSA, TH vs TY, TY vs FNT, and FCI vs FSC. PCA explained 87% of the total variance and PC1, PC2, PC3, and PC4 accounted for 33, 21, 20, and 13% of the variance, respectively, and correlated with TSCA, TH, TY and FNT; with FNT, CL and FS; with FSC and FCI; and with TH and SI, respectively. In conclusion, our study provides useful tree property data on prospective mutants/cultivars for growers/advisors in order to select the most suitable cultivars for establishing new orchards under climate conditions similar to central Europe.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Efficient in vitro regeneration of the endangered species Artemisia
           arborescens L. through direct organogenesis and impact on secondary
           metabolites production

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      Abstract: Abstract Tree wormwood (Artemisia arborescens L.; family Asteraceae) is an endangered medicinal and ornamental plant with industrial and ecological potentials. Here, we report an efficient micropropagation method for the in vitro regeneration of this species. Initiation culture was established from nodal segments in basic Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Shoot induction and elongation were assessed in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 0–1.5 mg/L) in combination with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA; 0–0.4 mg/L). The growth regulators combination of 0.5 mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L IAA gave the best result with a 100% shoot induction rate and morphologically stable vitroplants without callogenesis. The half-strength MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L indole 3-butyric acid (IBA) resulted in the highest rooting rate, the maximum root number, and the highest root length. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized with a 70% survival rate. The phytochemical analyses revealed enhanced total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the micropropagated plants compared to the mother plant. However, no significant fluctuations were recorded for the condensed tannins and essential oil contents between the micropropagated plants and the mother plant. The GC-MS analysis revealed that, except for some minor compounds which showed significant variation between the in vitro regenerated plants and the mother plant, contents of the main essential oil components were unchanged. This simple and rapid in vitro regeneration protocol through direct organogenesis could be applied both for ex situ and in situ conservation programs and for the sustainable production of tree wormwood bioactive phytochemicals.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • γ-Aminobutyric acid boosts chilling tolerance by promoting the methionine
           sulfoxide reductase-thioredoxin reductase system in peach fruit

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      Abstract: Abstract The effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on promotion of chilling tolerance and the methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR)-thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) system in peach (Prunus persica) fruit were investigated. The peaches were immersed in distilled water (as a control) and GABA solution followed by chilling treatment for 35 days. GABA treatment suppressed the augmentation of chilling injury (CI) index and weight loss rate, and the decline of firmness and total soluble solids content in peaches caused by chilling. The superoxide anion (O2·−) production rate, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and reactive oxygen species accumulation were also retarded following GABA application. GABA treatment elevated the activity and gene expression of methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) and MSRB. Moreover, the activity and gene expression of TrxR were enhanced by GABA application. Additionally, GABA treatment increased the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) content and decreased the oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) content, consequently boosting the NADPH/NADP ratio. Also, the activity and gene expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6GPDH) were promoted following GABA application. Thus, GABA treatment induced the MSR-TrxR system, consequently reducing CI in peaches.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Postharvest application of hydrogen peroxide affects physicochemical
           characteristics of tomato fruits during storage

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), acting as a ROS, on physical and biochemical properties of tomatoes was investigated. Tomato fruits at slight breaker stage were immersed in a series of solutions of H2O2 (0, 10, 100, and 500 mM) for 30 min and then stored at room temperature for 4 weeks. The 100 mM H2O2 treatment significantly increased fruit firmness and decreased water-soluble pectin and expression of cell wall related genes, polygalacturonase (SlPG) and pectate lyase (SlPL). There was no significant change in ethylene and respiration rates between any conditions. Moreover, increasing H2O2 concentration decreased proline content, and the lowest proline level was found in tomato fruits treated with 100 mM H2O2. These results suggested that the overall morphological and biochemical quality of tomato could be effectively maintained by 100 mM H2O2 treatment in postharvest storage conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Effect of light intensity and air velocity on the thermal exchange of
           indoor-cultured lettuce

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      Abstract: Abstract Heat and moisture transfer have a substantial influence on plant photosynthesis and productivity. Therefore, this study investigated the combined effect of light intensity (100, 200, and 300 μmol m−2 s−1) and air velocity (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 m s−1) on the sensible heat flux (Sh), convection regime (CR), and latent heat flux (Lh) of lettuce plants grown in a plant factory with artificial light. The growth, photosynthetic rate, and occurrence of tipburn in lettuce plants were also evaluated. The effect of light intensity and air velocity on the thermal exchange of indoor-cultured lettuce was achieved through their combined effect on conductance to heat and mass transfer. Stomatal conductance was found to be strongly correlated with light intensity, with a correlation coefficient of 73%. The boundary layer conductance was highly correlated with air velocity, with a correlation coefficient of 96%. Accordingly, the Sh and Lh increased by 41.0% and 46.9%, respectively, with an increase in light intensity from 100 to 300 μmol m−2 s−1, and by 33.2% and 30.4%, respectively, with an increase in air velocity from 0.25 to 0.75 m s−1. Air velocity had a greater impact on CR, and forced convection was dominant between lettuce plants and the surrounding air. During the dark period, a decrease in stomatal conductance was accompanied by a decrease in Lh, particularly as air velocity increased. The photosynthetic rate and fresh weight of lettuce plants were strongly correlated with light intensity, and increased by 60.9% and 54.7%, respectively, as light intensity increased from 100 to 300 μmol m−2 s−1. However, the occurrence of tipburn in lettuce plants was significantly related to light intensity, and the highest number of lettuce leaves injured with tipburn of 5 leaves/plant was observed at a light intensity of 300 μmol m−2 s−1. When air velocity increased from 0.25 to 0.75 m s−1, the occurrence of tipburn decreased by 87.3%. Our results reveal that there was an obvious interaction between light intensity and air velocity on the thermal exchange, growth, and occurrence of tipburn in indoor-cultured lettuce. This study provides valuable insights into the combinational regulation of light intensity and air velocity for improving the growth and marketability of indoor-cultured lettuce.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Ectopic expression of grape hyacinth R3 MYB repressor MaMYBx affects
           anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis and epidermal cell
           differentiation in Arabidopsis

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      Abstract: Abstract Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors regulate multiple developmental and metabolic pathways in plants. The anthocyanin-related R3 MYB repressor MaMYBx was previously identified in grape hyacinth (Muscari spp.), and its ectopic expression reduced the accumulation of anthocyanin in tobacco petals. However, whether the function of MaMYBx is conserved across plant species remains unclear. Here, we report that ectopic expression of MaMYBx regulates anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis and epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. MaMYBx overexpression in Arabidopsis decreased the accumulation of anthocyanin and PA by downregulating the late structural genes (AtDFR, AtANS, AtANR, and AtGST), some key regulatory factors of MBW complexes (AtPAP1, AtTT8, and AtGL3) and an R3 MYB gene (AtCPC) involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. In addition, MaMYBx also modulated trichome formation and root hair differentiation by downregulating MBW component genes (AtGL1, AtWER, and AtGL3) and their target gene AtGL2 and by upregulating several R3 MYB genes (AtTRY and AtTCL1). We further found that MaMYBx transgenic plants accumulated less anthocyanin than did wild-type plants under salt, osmotic pressure, cold, and nitrogen stresses. Moreover, the effect was even greater, and significantly less anthocyanin accumulated. In conclusion, these results implied functional conservation of MaMYBx in anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis pathways of Arabidopsis. Therefore, MaMYBx likely represents a new potential gene for the molecular breeding of horticulture and ornamental plants via the regulation of anthocyanin and PA.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Correction to: Effect of light intensity and air velocity on the thermal
           exchange of indoor-cultured lettuce

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      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Essential oil from Chrysanthemum boreale flowers modulates SNARE
           protein-linked mast cell response and skin barrier proteins and
           ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like lesions in mice

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      Abstract: Chrysanthemum boreale (CB) has diverse properties including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, and many attempts have been made to overcome it. However, the effects of CB flower essential oil (CBFEO) on AD has not been determined. This study investigated the potential effect of CBFEO on AD-related pathological events using in vitro and in vivo tests and predicted its related mechanism. CBFEO effects were tested using tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-treated human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 mast cells in vitro and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like mice in vivo. Proteins were analyzed by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, or immunohistochemistry. β-Hexosaminidase and histamine levels were measured by ELISA. Skin lesions were assessed using SCORAD scores. CBFEO reduced histamine and β-hexosaminidase released from mast cells. It also attenuated SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor) protein VAMP8 expression and binding of VAMP8 to SNAP23 and syntaxin 4 to SNAP23 in mast cells. In addition, CBFEO inhibited the down-regulation of skin barrier-related proteins (filaggrin and loricrin) by TNF-α in keratinocytes. Application of CBFEO to AD-like skin lesions in DNCB mouse model of AD reduced the severity of dermatitis lesions and the expression levels of filaggrin and loricrin in lesioned skin tissues. These findings suggest that CBFEO inhibits AD-like skin lesions in mice probably by interfering with the SNARE protein-associated mast cell degranulation and by enhancing the expression of skin barrier-related proteins. Therefore, CBFEO may be a potential functional material for AD treatment. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00393-4
       
  • In vitro selection and identification of a cold-tolerant variant in
           pineapple (Ananas comosus)

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      Abstract: Abstract Cold stress is an important factor limiting the growth and distribution of pineapple. Breeding cold-resistant germplasm is an effective way to cope with this problem. In vitro selection for the somaclonal variation using different selection agents has been used for crop improvement in stress tolerance. In this study, the pineapple cold-tolerant variant was developed through in vitro cold selection of somaclonal variations. Low temperature was used as the selected agent, and the extreme lethal condition for the in vitro pineapple cultures was determined to be 0 °C for 72 h. The morphology changes of the in vitro cultures during the cold selection were observed and analyzed. The cold-tolerant variant line was finally obtained through three consecutive selections with cold shock treatments, based on the established high-efficiency culture system for pineapple embryogenic calli. The genetic variations at the molecular level in the cold-tolerant variant were verified by ISSR analysis. The significantly improved cold tolerance in our selected variant was mainly reflected by the higher survival rate, increased proline content, and elevated SOD activity under cold stress compared to these qualities in the control plants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of in vitro selection for cold tolerance in pineapple. The cold-tolerant variant could be valuable for future pineapple breeding programs and for cold tolerance research.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00396-1
       
  • Cytomolecular analysis of repetitive DNA provides insight into the
           chromosome structure of Sisymbrium irio

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      Abstract: Abstract Sisymbrium irio (2n = 2x = 14) is a wild plant with traits that can offer economic and ecological benefits, yet it has received scant attention compared to its closely related species. There is no substantial genomic information generated from this species, thus highlighting the need for molecular cytogenetic analyses. The information provided from karyotypic investigation is essential for developing cytogenetic maps. In the present study, asymmetry/symmetry indexes classified S. irio as having a moderately symmetric karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) techniques were implemented as important cytogenetic tools for the direct detection of chromosomal targets and the study of the evolutionary relationship of crops. Repetitive DNA sequences such as ribosomal DNA (rDNA), C0t DNA, telomeric repeats, satellite repeats, and genomic DNA sequences were used as markers for the cytomolecular characterization of S. irio. The linked arrangement of 5 and 18 S rDNA units was found to be located at the terminal regions of the two chromosomes. Arabidopsis-type telomere repeats were detected in the terminal regions. Interestingly, labeled self-gDNA and C0t DNA hybridized in the pericentromeric and rDNA regions signifying the preferential distribution of the major repeats. Comparative GISH assays revealed the degree of genomic relationships among S. irio, Raphanus sativus, and Brassica diploids. The cytogenetic maps generated in this study are essential for understanding the genomic organization of S. irio and could be utilized for future validation of its genome assembly.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00391-6
       
  • Effects of red/blue versus white LED light of different intensities on the
           growth and organic carbon and autotoxin secretion of hydroponic lettuce

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      Abstract: Abstract Light is a crucial signal for plant growth, development, and secondary metabolism. Exploring the effects of light on autotoxin secretion in lettuce can be helpful for improving the utilization efficiency of the nutrient solution in plant factories. The effects of white light (WL) and the combination of red (R) and blue (B) light (RB, 4R:1B) at different intensities (150, 200, and 250 μmol m−2 s−1) on the growth and root exudates of hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were studied in a closed plant factory. The lettuce biomass and photosynthetic rate increased with the increasing light intensity, and the photosynthetic rate was significantly lower under WL than under RB at both 200 and 250 μmol m−2 s−1. Lettuce under WL had the longest root length and highest root surface area at 200 μmol m−2 s−1, while the root length, root surface area, and root volume under RB were the highest at 250 μmol m−2 s−1. Total organic carbon (TOC) content of root exudates in the nutrient solution based on shoot or root dry weight decreased with the increasing light intensity. With the increase in light intensity, the secretion of four autotoxins (benzoic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, and tannic acid) based on shoot dry weight and root dry weight decreased under WL. Compared with RB, WL significantly reduced the secretion of autotoxins at 250 μmol m−2 s−1. In conclusion, 250 μmol m−2 s−1 white light should be used for high lettuce yield, and it could also decrease the autotoxins in the nutrient solution and the occurrence of autotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00394-3
       
  • Postharvest chitosan application maintains the quality of spinach through
           suppression of bacterial growth and elicitation

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      Abstract: Abstract Consumption of leafy vegetables is highly recommended for meeting dietary requirements for antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. However, the short shelf life of leaves often compromises the nutritional contents and causes economic loss for farmers and sellers. Chitosan, a natural polymer obtained from seafood waste, has been proposed to improve plant qualities in the postharvest condition. In this study, the quality of spinach leaves following chitosan treatments was analyzed to test the capacity of chitosan to improve postharvest management of spinach. Specifically, harvested spinach leaves were dipped in distilled water, 1% (v/v) acetic acid, and 0.1 and 0.5% (w/v) chitosan. The leaves were then examined for morphological, physiological, and molecular parameters following each treatment on days 0 and 3 after incubation at room temperature with a 12/12-h photoperiod. Our results suggested that the application of 0.1% (w/v) chitosan solution to postharvest spinach delayed the decaying process, possibly due to the suppression of bacterial growth. The elicitation mechanism by chitosan involved proline accumulation, retaining chlorophyll, increasing expression of antioxidant genes (Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT), and decreasing ROS (O2− and H2O2) content. In conclusion, our results support the suggested role of chitosan treatment in maintaining quality of postharvest spinach by regulating the elicitation processes and limiting bacterial growth.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00397-0
       
  • Chlorogenic acid accumulation and related gene expression in peach fruit

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      Abstract: Abstract To reveal the molecular mechanism in the accumulation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in peach (Prunus persica) fruit during growth and development, CGA contents in the flesh of the three peach cultivars ‘Ruiguang 18’, ‘Heiyoutao’, and ‘Beijingyixianhong’ were determined. The expression levels of CGA metabolism-related genes were analyzed based on transcriptome data (RNA-seq). These candidate genes were then screened and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to verify their expression. The results showed that the content of total CGAs, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, in the flesh of ‘Ruiguang 18’ exhibited a decreasing trend during fruit development, and there was a great drop at maturity stage (P < 0.05). The three contents in ‘Heiyoutao’ increased first at stage S2 (P < 0.05) and then decreased significantly (P < 0.05). In ‘Beijingyixianhong’, they stayed stable in the early stages, then total CGAs and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid decreased significantly at the maturity stage (P < 0.05). RNA-seq transcriptome data analysis and qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that the accumulation of CGAs in fruit flesh was mainly affected by the expression of Prupe.3G100800 (PpHCT) and Prupe.3G107300 (Pp4CL), and their expression levels were highly consistent with total CGA content. Thus, we concluded that Prupe.3G100800 (PpHCT) and Prupe.3G107300 (Pp4CL) are the key genes for CGAs synthesis in peach flesh.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00399-y
       
  • Grafting-induced transcriptome changes and long-distance mRNA movement in
           the potato/Datura stramonium heterograft system

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      Abstract: Abstract Grafting potato into Solanaceae plants has been used as an efficient method to solve such problems as a short flowering period, low fruit setting rate, and sterility in potato crossbreeding. However, the molecular mechanisms governing grafting-induced phenotypic variations have not been elucidated. In this study, one potato cultivar and wild Datura stramonium served as scion (StS) and rootstock (DsR), respectively. Phenotypic analysis showed that the fertility of StS was visibly improved in comparison with self-grafted potato (St). Comparative transcriptome profiling revealed that 1490 differentially expressed genes were identified in StS compared with St, and some of these genes appear to be involved in pathways related to genome damage and genotoxic stress response. We reported the comprehensive identification of mRNA movement between DsR and StS, indicating that 111 transcripts of DsR were delivered to StS. Conversely, the 1968 mRNAs were transported from StS to DsR. Based on GO analysis, some of these mobile transcripts had a biological role in regulating pollen tube development and fruit morphogenesis. This work provides abundant transcriptome profile data for potato scions and reveals that three key transcripts moving from rootstock to scion may be responsible for improving the fertility of potatoes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00387-2
       
  • Increasing the functional quality of Crocus sativus L. by-product (tepals)
           by controlling spectral composition

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      Abstract: Abstract Crocus sativus L. is a crop grown for spice production, and large amounts of residues from the flowers are produced during the process. The underutilized by-product from saffron spice production, the C. sativus tepals, was investigated as a promising raw material of natural bioactive compounds using light spectrum manipulation in controlled environments. The plants were grown under either light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or natural light (NL, greenhouse). LED experiments were performed in controlled-environment chambers (120 µmol m–2 s–1of photosynthetically active radiation, 18 °C, 16-h photoperiod). The LED treatments used were as follows: (i) red ʎ = 660 nm (62%) and blue ʎ = 450 nm (38%) (RB); and (ii) red ʎ = 660 nm (50%), green ʎ = 500–600 nm (12%), and blue ʎ = 4 50 nm (38%) (RGB). Flower growth parameters, total phenols, total flavonoids, flavonols, flavonol glycosides, and antioxidant properties were measured in harvested tepals. Floral by-products from plants grown under the two LED treatments accumulated higher amounts of antioxidant compounds compared to those of plants grown under NL. The total flavonoids content was significantly enhanced in the RGB LED treatment, while the corolla fresh weight significantly declined in the same treatments. The higher content of bioactive secondary metabolites in plants grown under both RB and RGB light environments resulted in increased antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH free-radical scavenging capacity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power method. These results indicate that manipulation of LED spectra could boost secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity to obtain phytochemically enriched floral by-products with superior functional quality.
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00407-1
       
  • Tackling multiple bacterial diseases of Solanaceae with a handful of
           immune receptors

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      Abstract: Abstract Every year, despite the use of chemicals, significant crop loss is caused by pathogenic microbes. Plant innate resistance to pathogens depends on two sets of genetically encoded immune receptors that sense invaders and trigger signaling cascades leading to reinforcement of physical barriers and production of various antimicrobial compounds. In the past 30 years, the molecular cloning and characterization of plant immune receptors have deepened our understanding of the plant immune system and more importantly, have provided means to improve crop protection against devastating pathogens. Here, we review the molecular characterization of selected immune receptors that can detect multiple species of bacterial pathogens through an expanded recognition range, or through the detection of conserved pathogen activities or host targets. These recent structural and molecular insights about the activation of immune receptors provide the necessary framework to design their concomitant deployment in crops, in order to lower selective pressure on pathogen populations and prevent evasion from recognition. Hence, these few immune receptors emerge as high potential genetic resources to provide durable and environmentally safe protection against important bacterial diseases of solanaceous crops.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00415-1
       
  • Exogenous supplementation with sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor,
           mitigates the effects of salinity in Abelmoschus esculentus L. seedlings

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      Abstract: Abstract We investigated the protective role of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in ameliorating the detrimental effects of salinity in in vitro-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Okra seedlings were subjected to salinity treatments at three different NaCl concentrations (100, 150, and 200 mM), which caused a significant reduction in germination rate, shoot and root lengths, and shoot fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW). Further, salinity exposure had detrimental effects on the total chlorophyll content, proline content, electrolyte leakage (EL), relative water content (RWC), malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, and nitrate reductase activity in the seedlings. However, supplementation with SNP significantly improved the plant growth parameters including shoot and root lengths, shoot FW and DW, chlorophyll content, and proline accumulation. Among the tested concentrations, SNP at 100 and 150 µM significantly reduced the H2O2 content, MDA accumulation, and EL, and increased the RWC under salinity stress. SNP supplementation also resulted in increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Our results revealed the positive effects of SNP in alleviating salt stress through enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes and osmotic adjustment, which can be explored and applied for better growth and yield performance, especially in regions with high salinity.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00406-2
       
  • Assessment of genetic diversity of mandarin cultivars grown in major
           citrus regions of world using morphological and microsatellite markers

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      Abstract: Abstract Genetic diversity analysis of 46 commercially prominent mandarins grown in different countries was carried out based on molecular and fruit traits. Out of 110 SSR markers, 64 polymorphic markers amplified a total of 155 alleles. Twenty SSR primers revealed 20 unique alleles which generated DNA fingerprints in 17 genotypes. The Polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.13 (CIBE 5156) to 0.73 (CCSM 40), with an average value of 0.45 across all genotypes. The diversity analysis illustrating the genetic relationships classified the genotypes into four major clusters. The ‘Nagpur’ and ‘Mudkhed’ mandarins in cluster I were closely related as these showed the highest genetic similarity having a similarity coefficient of 0.99. In fruit traits, higher heritability (h2) was observed in fruit weight while the higher genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was estimated for a number of seeds demonstrating the magnitude of genetic variability in a population.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00404-4
       
  • Application of galactinol to tomato enhances tolerance to cold and heat
           stresses

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      Abstract: Abstract Galactinol, a galactosyl donor, is the key substrate in raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) biosynthesis pathways. Many studies proved that galactinol also regulates some defense-related genes to be transcribed as a sugar signal under biotic and abiotic stresses. There are four galactinol synthase (SlGolS) genes in tomato. In this study, SlGolS1, SlGolS2, and SlGolS4 responded to cold stress, especially SlGolS1 stems treated for 12 h and SlGolS4 stems treated for 24 h. Under heat stress, the expression levels of SlGolS1, SlGolS2, and SlGolS3, especially SlGolS1 and SlGolS2, increased in leaves, roots, and stems. When expressed in E. coli cells, SlGolS2 and SlGolS4 enhanced cold tolerance, whereas SlGolS1 and SlGolS3 improved heat tolerance. These results suggested that SlGolS family members played different roles in tolerance to cold and heat stresses. In addition, the application of galactinol or galactinol + α-galactosidase inhibitor (DGJ) improved the cold and heat tolerances of tomato plants, whereas the single application of DGJ had no effect. Interestingly, the applications of DGJ, galactinol, and galactinol + DGJ also affected the expression levels of SlRS, SlSTS, and SlAGAL under cold and heat stresses. These findings indicated that galactinol was involved in the biosynthesis pathways of RFOs as a galactosyl donor and regulated the expression levels of RFO biosynthesis and breakdown-related genes as a sugar signal under cold and heat stresses.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-021-00402-6
       
 
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