Subjects -> GARDENING AND HORTICULTURE (Total: 37 journals)
Showing 1 - 20 of 20 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annales Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Horticulture     Open Access  
Concrete Garden     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Corps et culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Dekoratyviųjų ir sodo augalų sortimento, technologijų ir aplinkos optimizavimas     Partially Free  
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Horticultural Plant Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Horticulture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Horticultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Landscape Architecture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Vegetable Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia     Open Access  
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Landscape Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscape Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Media, Culture & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Mind Culture and Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Parallax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Polish Journal of Landscape Studies     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas     Open Access  
Science as Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Scientia Horticulturae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sibbaldia: the International Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture     Open Access  
Studies in Australian Garden History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.441
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 12  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2211-3452 - ISSN (Online) 2211-3460
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2655 journals]
  • FISH mapping of rDNA and telomeric repeats in 10 Senna species
    • Abstract: Plants of the genus Senna (Fabaceae) are valued for industrial and medicinal properties that have spurred crop improvement through breeding programs. However, there is very little chromosomal data for this genus, limiting the potential for cytogenetics and genomics research. Here, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to perform a comparative analysis of 10 Senna spp. karyotypes (2n = 28 except S. tora with 2n = 26). We detected differences in the distributions of rDNA gene clusters and Arabidopsis-type telomeric repeats (TTTAGGG)n. Only one 5S rDNA pair was detected in all species, but we observed more interspecies variation for 45S rDNA: four pairs in S. didymobotrya, S. spectabilis, and S. viarum; two pairs in S. candolleana; and one pair in S. bauhinioides, S. multiglandulosa, S. occidentalis, and S. tora. In both S. leandrii and S. sulfurea, 45S rDNA distribution was hemizygous. While all chromosomes possessed telomeric signals in the terminal region, this signal was also present in the interstitial regions of all S. tora chromosomes and, less obviously (fewer chromosomes, weaker signals), in S. occidentalis. These preliminary data demonstrate interspecific karyotype variation that reveals Senna genome dynamics. Our results facilitate cytogenetic mapping of other major repeats, thus contributing to an improved understanding of Senna genome structure and evolutionary history.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0115-y
  • Phylogeny and genetic variation in the genus Eranthis using nrITS and cpIS
           single nucleotide polymorphisms
    • Abstract: The relationships among species in the genus Eranthis Salisb. were investigated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the nuclear DNA internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 region (nrITS) and the chloroplast trnL-trnF interspacer region (cpIS). Phylogenetic relationships based on the nrITS and cpIS were inferred with posterior probabilities with STRUCTURE analysis and the neighbor-joining method. Two major clades from nrITS and cpIS were consistent with species with yellow sepals in E. hyemalis, E. cilicica, E. longistipitata and the hybrid E. ×tubergenii; and white sepals in E. sibirica, E. longituba, E. albiflora, E. stellata, E. pungdoensis, E. byunsanensis, and E. pinnatifida. The phylogenetic tree of nrITS formed more subclades than the tree of cpIS, which suggested that nrITS SNPs are useful molecular markers for phylogenetic studies in the genus Eranthis. Only the SNPs of cpIS in E. pungdoensis accessions had a deletion at positions 259–420, and the posterior probability values (PPVs) assigned E. pungdoensis to population 4, which suggested that E. pungdoensis is different from E. byunsanensis. Therefore, E. byunsanensis and E. pungdoensis are considered to be true-to-type based on q-values because the PPVs were greater than 0.9 in both species based on the STRUCTURE analysis of nrITS SNPs. Significant genetic variation in E. stellata collected in Goesan-kun and Mt. Mugap, Korea indicated a potential gene flow among closely related E. byunsanensis, E. pinnatifida, E. sibirica, and E. stellata that could be due to geographic proximity in their distributions. E. stellata from Mt. Mugap showed mixed PPVs for E. stellata and E. byunsanensis, therefore, E. byunsanensis might be a possible hybrid origin for E. stellata collected from Goesan-kun and Mt. Mugap.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0113-0
  • In vitro propagation of a useful tropical bamboo, Thyrsostachys siamensis
           Gamble, through shoot-derived callus
    • Abstract: We established a protocol for mass propagation of Thyrsostachys siamensis Gamble in vitro culture via callus formation. Single node cuttings were placed in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with benzyl adenine (BA) concentrations ranging from 0 to 44.40 μM. Although multiple shoots formed in all BA treatments, optimum shoot formation occurred at 11.10 μM BA. The MS medium for optimum callus induction from the multiple shoots contained 11.3 μM of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.65 μM kinetin, and 1.96 μM indole-3-yl-butyric acid (IBA). The highest number of shoots regenerating from the callus was obtained in MS medium containing 11.1 μM N6-BA and 3.43 μM IBA. Shoot clusters of 3–5 shoots were rooted on MS medium supplemented with 26.85 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid for 3 weeks, and were then transferred onto MS medium without plant growth regulators for 1 week. This protocol can be used for gene manipulation in a breeding program, germplasm preservation, and mass propagation of the bamboo.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-00119-z
  • Elucidation of headspace volatilome in Polianthes tuberosa flower for
           identifying non-invasive biomarkers
    • Abstract: To date, no volatilome study has used the dynamic headspace method, based on adsorption–desorption principle, to investigate the chemical divergence of floral fragrance in Polianthes tuberosa L. (cv. Calcutta Single). This study proposes a suitable adsorbent/solvent combination to analyze emitted volatiles from this flower, allowing for a qualitative, and tentatively quantitative, floral volatilome using a holistic approach. Here, 13 different adsorbent/solvent combinations were used to determine the total emitted volatilome, from in situ and plucked flowers, using headspace and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Several adsorbent/solvent combinations were explored to optimize trapping the most diverse range of volatile organic compounds in a single attempt. A mixture of porous polymers (Porapak or Tenax) with graphite or charcoal were best when combined with dichloromethane as the eluting solvent. Among the two solvents, dichloromethane showed better desorption efficiency than hexane. For better elucidation of any specific chemical group, suitable adsorbent and solvent should be chosen properly or the quantity or quality of the volatilome captured would be compromised. Three distinct classes of volatile organic compounds were categorized: aromatics, terpenes, and fatty acid derivatives. Maximum diversity, along with quantity, was found with the aromatic group. Total chemical divergence of volatilome from in situ and freshly plucked flowers was similar. Benzyl salicylate, methyl 2-amino benzoate, germacrene D, farnesal, farnesyl acetate, and delta decalactone may be considered biomarkers for the origin of P. tuberosa floral scent.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0116-x
  • Analysis of triacylglycerides, carotenoids and capsaicinoids as disposable
           molecules from Capsicum agroindustry
    • Abstract: Capsicum is currently one of the highest value vegetable crops due its richness in vitamins and antioxidants and is frequently commercialized as fresh fruit, dry crushed pepper, paprika oleoresin or pepper paste. The chemical content comprises carotenoids, flavonoids, lipid molecules like fatty acids, triacylglycerides and capsaicinoids as its principal chemotaxonomic markers. However, triacylglycerides and carotenoids are no frequently taken into analytical spectrometric methods due to nonvolatile and extreme low polarity properties. Those molecules are usually extracted and commercialized as oleoresin, and there are gaining attention because it helps to combat nutrient deficiencies. This study monitors the behavior of the pungency value in two real industrial productive crops of Capsicum frutescens (tabasco) and Capsicum annuum (cayenne) during a complete harvest period. A comparison of chemical carotenoid and triacylglycerides profile was carried out by UPLC–PDA–ESI–MS between Capsicum frutescens (tabasco), Capsicum chinense (habanero), Capsicum annuum (jalapeño), and Capsicum annuum (serrano) in two different ripening stages. The authors’ main finding is a strong correlation between plant age and pungency level independent of the size and dehydration state of the fruits. The major carotenoid content was founded in red Tabasco variety, and 12 triacylglycerides and 10 esterified carotenoids are reported along the all fruits treated. Our results present an important and alternative finding for agro-industrial chili pepper producers and marketers who need to better understand the behavior of the pungency value as the principal quality feature, and to discover added-value chemicals like TAG and carotenoids in their products.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0111-2
  • Evaluation of relative toxicity caused by deicing agents on
           photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, and the osmoregulatory system in
           creeper-type plants
    • Abstract: Addressing the deterioration effects due to chlorine salt use as an anti-freezing agent to prevent the deposition of ice on roads during heavy snowfall is a serious issue to protect the ecosystem. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effects caused by deicing agents on three different creeper plant species that commonly grow on roadsides, such as Trachelospermum asiaticum, Euonymus fortunei, and Gelsemium sempervirens. The two chlorine salts calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) were applied to plants either as a splash or spray in different concentrations at different intervals. After 6 days of treatments, the results suggested that application of both CaCl2 and MgCl2 affected the chlorophyll content and physiological processes of the creepers in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis of oxidative stress related parameters such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide content showed that both CaCl2 and MgCl2 affected redox homeostasis. While the application of deicing agents induced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, they also decreased the content of ascorbate and proline, which are efficient osmolytes, in the dose-dependent manner. Nevertheless, comparatively oxidative stress induced by CaCl2 is higher than the MgCl2 in all three creeper-type plants included in our analysis; still the frequent application and higher concentration of both deicing agents interrupt the growth of roadside vegetation. Despite the relative toxicity of the deicers, T. asiaticum was affected lesser than E. fortunei and G. sempervirens.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0117-9
  • Night interruption light quality changes morphogenesis, flowering, and
           gene expression in Dendranthema grandiflorum
    • Abstract: We investigated the effects of the quality of light used for interrupting the night period, termed the night interruption light (NIL), on morphogenesis, flowering, and the expression of photoperiodic genes in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) cultivar ‘Gaya Yellow’, a qualitative short-day (SD) plant. Plants were raised in a closed-type plant factory under white (W) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) providing a light intensity of 180 μmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetic photon flux density, under a condition of long-day (LD, 16 h light/8 h dark), short-day (SD, 10 h light/14 h dark), or SD with a 4-h night interruption (NI) provided by 10 μmol m−2 s−1 PPF green (NI-G), blue (NI-B), red (NI-R), far-red (NI-Fr), or W (NI-W) LEDs. Plants grown in the LD condition were the tallest. The SD, NI-B, and NI-Fr conditions induced flowering. Phytochrome A (phyA) and cryptochrome 1 (cry1) were expressed at high levels in plants in NI-B, NI-Fr, and SD conditions. These results suggest that the NIL quality has significant implications on morphogenesis, flowering, and the expression of photoperiodic genes. Flowering was positively affected by the expression of phyA, cry1, and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), whereas it was negatively affected by the expression of phyB and anti-florigenic FT/TFL1 (AFT).
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0114-z
  • Growth and phenolic compounds of Crepidiastrum denticulatum under various
           blue light intensities with a fixed phytochrome photostationary state
           using far-red light
    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the red (R)-to-blue (B) ratio of light on the growth and phenolic compounds of Crepidiastrum denticulatum under a phytochrome photostationary state (PSS) for growth in a plant factory with artificial light (PFAL) using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Three-week-old C. denticulatum seedlings were transplanted into a PFAL where the air temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration, and light period were set at 20 °C, 60%, 1000 μmol·mol−1, and 16 h, respectively. Three controls were used with different ratios of R to B light without supplemental FR light: 8:2, 7:3, and 6:4 (based on chip number; 130 µmol·m−2·s−1 photosynthetic photon flux density). For the treatments, the same R to B light ratios as in the controls were used but supplemented with FR light, plus a treatment with only R light supplemented with FR, set to a PSS of 0.71. Growth characteristics and total phenolic and individual phenolic contents were measured after a 6-week treatment. When the R light ratio increased, shoot dry weight, leaf length, leaf width, and leaf area increased regardless of supplemental FR light, and the R8B2 with FR light treatment was the most effective, with significantly higher values (1.6–2 times) than the control. FR irradiation did not have any negative effect on total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and chicoric acid per unit dry weight (g); thus, the R8B2 with FR treatment had significantly higher total phenolic and individual phenolic contents per shoot (43% and 52–62%, respectively). Thus, supplemental lighting with FR LEDs was found to be effective to enhance the growth and bioactive compounds of C. denticulatum in a PFAL installed with a R and B lighting system, and the effectiveness could be changed by the RB ratio, with 8:2 considered the proper ratio.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0112-1
  • Biological features of flowers influence the fertility of Lonicera spp.
    • Abstract: Fertility experiments were carried out on a plantation of haskap berries (40 cultivars) in southern Poland. Based on the observation of phenological phases, the cultivars were divided into three groups with similar overlapping periods of full flowering: the earliest comprising 11 cultivars; the moderate-early, 17 cultivars; and the latest, 7 cultivars. The attractiveness of cultivars for pollinating insects was evaluated on the basis of flower biometric measurements. Flowers are more diverse in length than in width of the sympetalous corolla, with the pistil always being longer than the corolla, which is conducive to effective insect pollination. A pollen viability coloring test and germination capacity on agar medium were used to assess pollen quality. Despite very high pollen viability (on average, 90%), the percentage of germinating pollen was very low and ranged from 3.3 to 34.5%. Pollen yields for each cultivar were calculated based on the number of pollen grains in the flowers. The cultivars differed significantly in terms of the number of pollen grains in the flowers. The cultivar “Morena” was characterized by the highest number of pollen grains (45,375), while the cultivar “Fialka” had the lowest (2750). Microscopic observations of pollen tube overgrowth through the style of the pistil after open pollination and self-pollination allowed for calculation of the pollen germination index (PGI) used to assess the fertility of the cultivars. Self-pollinated cultivars with a PGI < 2 were characterized by self-incompatibility. It was found that among the 40 cultivars studied, only the “Docz Velikana” cultivar exhibited PGI > 2, which proves the self-fertility tendency of this cultivar.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0110-3
  • Endogenous hormone levels and activities of IAA-modifying enzymes during
           adventitious rooting of tree peony cuttings and grafted scions
    • Abstract: During rooting of both cuttings and grafted scions of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) cultivar ‘Fengdanbai’, the anatomical structure, the contents of endogenous hormones (indole acetic acid, IAA; zeatin, ZT; gibberellin, GA3; and abscisic acid, ABA), and the activities of IAA oxidase (IAAO), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were observed. The results showed that the rooting processes in cuttings and grafted scions were similar, but that the critical period of rooting in cuttings was earlier than in grafts (cuttings: 18–20 days; scions: 38–40 days). IAA content showed a direct correlation with rooting, with the peak value appearing as the adventitious roots were breaking through the epidermis in both cuttings and grafts (cuttings: 20 days; scions: 38 days). ZT and GA3 promoted adventitious rooting, and ABA inhibited it. The peak values of the IAA:ABA and IAA:ZT ratios appeared at the same time as the IAA peak (cuttings: 20 days; scions: 38 days), which indicated that these values were closely related to the occurrence of adventitious roots. Changes in the activities of IAAO, POD, and PPO, which modify IAA levels, indicated that there were no direct relationships between these three enzymes and adventitious root formation in cuttings or grafts. These results provide a basis for further study of adventitious root formation in the ornamental tree peony.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-00121-5
  • Optimization of temperature and light, and cultivar selection for the
           production of high-quality head lettuce in a closed-type plant factory
    • Abstract: Two separate experiments were conducted to identify suitable cultivars, to optimize light and temperature, and to understand the heading process in order to produce high-quality crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in a closed production environment. Three commercial crisphead lettuce cultivars (‘Adam’, ‘Manchu’, and ‘Sensation’) were grown on deep flow technique beds in a closed-type plant factory under three different fluorescent light intensities [150, 200, and 250 µmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)] and two temperature conditions. The plants were grown until 60 days after transplantation (DAT) under the high [22/18 °C (0–30 DAT) → 18/16 °C (30–60 DAT)] and low [18/16 °C (0–30 DAT) → 18/14 °C (30–60 DAT)] temperature conditions, with 50 ± 10% relative humidity and a 12-h day length. Growth parameters, including head formation rate and tip burn incidence, were measured in all experiments. All cultivars exhibited significantly higher growth rates in the 250 µmol m−2 s−1 light intensity compared to lower light intensities under both temperature conditions, and showed a cultivar-specific difference in the growth pattern at different light intensities. Our cultivation trials suggest that ‘Sensation’ is ideal for production in closed-type plant factory systems at 250 µmol m−2 s−1 PPF due to its stable head formation and superior head quality. Under the high temperature condition, head formation was only observed in two cultivars, ‘Sensation’ and ‘Adam’, while all cultivars showed head formation in the low temperature condition. The initiation of head formation began at the 8–10 true-leaf stage around 20 DAT, and then apparent head formation was observed around 30 DAT, followed by an increase of head density until harvest (60 DAT). Tip burn symptoms were observed throughout the experiment, with higher values in the high temperature condition. The results of our study suggest that good head formation can be achieved under high light intensities ( ≥ 200 µmol m−2 s−1 PPF) and low temperature [18/16 °C (0–30 DAT) →  18/14 °C (30–60 DAT)] in crisphead lettuce grown in a closed-type plant factory.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0118-8
  • Characteristics and pro-health properties of mini kiwi ( Actinidia arguta
    • Abstract: Actinidia arguta (mini kiwi) is a variant of the fuzzy kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) commonly found in stores. The fruits of various kiwi varieties are valued for their strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The fruit of A. arguta is characterized by a rich chemical composition, palatable flavor, medicinal properties, and low caloric content, making them a valuable component of a healthy diet. Their advantage is the ability to eat the fruit with the peel, unlike fuzzy kiwis. Actinidia fruits are a rich source of vitamins, especially vitamins C and B8, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and antioxidants. The total content of polyphenols in the fruit of A. arguta can be as high as 360 mg 100 g−1 fresh weight. Consumer studies show that the fruit has been highly evaluated not only for its taste but for its appearance as well. There is increasing interest in frost-resistant and pest-resistant cultivars worldwide. This article discusses our current knowledge about the potential health benefits of A. arguta consumption and topics for further study.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0107-y
  • Distinguishing two genetic factors that control yellow fruit color in
    • Abstract: Carotenoids are tetraterpenes (40-carbon isoprenoids) derived from the five-carbon isoprene units, isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP). These molecules are the major determinants of fruit pigmentation in many plant species, including tomato. The IDP isomerase (IDI) catalyzes the isomerization of IDP to DMADP. Phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyzes the dimerization of two diterpenes from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, which is the rate-limiting step in carotenoid biosynthesis. Mutations in the tomato PSY1, yellow flesh, are widely used for breeding yellow tomatoes. We report a series of allelic variations in yellow flesh, and in the newly identified apricot, which has yellow fruit as a result of a mutation in IDI1. In HPLC analysis, both the cultivars showed yellow ripe fruits that lacked carotenoids. However, unlike wild type and yellow flesh, apricot mutants had reduced carotenoid levels in flowers. The allelic variations in yellow flesh were determined to have a deletion in the promoter region and a nonsense mutation in the PSY1 gene, whereas apricot contained a ‘T’ insertion that resulted in premature termination codon in the IDI1 gene. DNA markers to identify allelic variations in two yellow flesh and three apricot mutant lines were developed. These markers and germplasms would be useful for breeding yellow tomatoes.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0093-0
  • Salicylic acid improves drought-stress tolerance by regulating the redox
           status and proline metabolism in Brassica rapa
    • Abstract: Salicylic acid (SA) has been regarded as the important phytohormone in improving abiotic stress tolerance. However, the physiological mechanisms on drought stress tolerance remain largely unknown. To investigate the role of SA in drought-stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) with regard to cellular redox control and proline metabolism, Chinese cabbages were pretreated or untreated with SA for 7 days, then grown under well-watered or drought-stressed conditions for 14 days. The osmotic potential and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased in the drought-stressed plants; however, the negative effects of drought on these parameters was substantially ameliorated in the SA-pretreated plants. Drought stress resulted in increased O2−, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the non-SA pretreated plants relative to the SA-pretreated plants. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase were highly activated in drought-stressed plants, whereas these substances were further activated in the SA-pretreated plants under drought stress. Drought stress resulted in a significant decrease of the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and reduced/oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH/NADP) ratios, whereas plants pretreated with SA had levels similar to those in the well-watered plants. Under drought conditions, SA pretreatment significantly increased proline content by up-regulating the expression of genes encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CSA and P5CSB) and down-regulating the expression of the gene encoding proline dehydrogenase (PDH) compared to non-SA pretreated plants. These results indicate that a pretreatment with SA improves drought-stress tolerance by maintaining redox homeostasis and activating proline biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0099-7
  • Exploring the genomic resources of carrot for cross-genera transferability
           and phylogenetic assessment among orphan spices and vegetables of Apiaceae
    • Abstract: Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a member of the Apiaceae family that includes economically important medicinal, ornamentals, seed spices and vegetables. However, the genomic resources in these crops are limited compared to carrot, which is enriched with a number of molecular markers that are publicly available. Hence, we studied the usefulness of the 30 carrot molecular markers for eight different genera composed of five seed spices/condiments and three vegetables. The study revealed the transferability of these carrot markers and the genetic diversity across the genera for respective loci were compared by phylogenetic assessment using an un-rooted neighbour joining tree (NJ) and principle coordinate analysis (PCoA). An average of 66.66% amplification with a total of 73 alleles from 30 loci was observed across eight crops with an average of 3.39 alleles/loci. The average polymorphic information content was 0.50, the effective number of alleles was 2.92, gene diversity was 0.56 with a highest fixation index of 0.82 observed among 18 polymorphic markers. These results indicate the practical use of these markers in the respective crops. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis grouped the eight crops into three clusters, but the PCoA identified four groups in which carrot was out grouped and kept the other cluster composition intact. Comprehensive study of these eight crops with many more molecular markers would help to understand the evolutionary relatedness for distant hybridization among Apiaceae family members to either transfer genes of interest or to create novel crops.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0101-4
  • Genetic diversity of kiwifruit ( Actinidia spp.), including Korean native
           A. arguta , using single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from
    • Abstract: Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of kiwifruits (Actinidia spp.). Using single nucleotide polymorphisms detected by GBS, phylogenetic tree and population structure were constructed for 89 kiwifruit accessions including Korean native A. arguta. The kiwifruit accessions were clearly divided into two groups in the phylogenetic tree. These groups were characterized by the presence or absence of hairs on pericarp. In the population structure analysis, the peak of delta K was detected at K = 5, suggesting that the 89 kiwifruit accessions were divided into five clusters. Each cluster represented A. chinensis, A. deliciosa, A. eriantha with wild accessions, female A. arguta, and male A. arguta. The result of the population structure supported the genetic background of each accession. We also performed genetic diversity analysis of A. arguta accessions. Consequently, A. arguta accessions were characterized by sex and 13 A. arguta accessions, occupying 33.3% of the total collection, were selected as a core set for use as germplasm to develop disease and cold stress resistant cultivars in future kiwifruit breeding programs. These results suggest that GBS approach is suitable for genetic diversity analysis of kiwifruits. Moreover, our results could be applied in kiwifruit breeding program to develop disease and cold stress resistant cultivars using Korean native A. arguta. Particularly, the developed Korean native A. arguta core set will be used as breeding materials for crop improvement strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0106-z
  • Effect of supplemental blue light intensity on the growth and quality of
           Chinese kale
    • Abstract: The influence of blue light on the growth and quality of vegetables is controversial, since both positive and negative effects have been observed on different varieties of vegetables and most research has been conducted with a combination of light spectrums. In this work, we investigated the effects of supplemental blue light intensity on growth, nutritional quality, and health-promoting compounds of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) using only blue (460 nm) light-emitting diodes 10 days before harvest in a greenhouse under ambient light conditions. Four blue-light treatments were conducted (0, 50, 100, and 150 μmol m−2 s−1, named T0, T50, T100, and T150, respectively) with 12 h (6:00–18:00) of light treatment per day. The growth of Chinese kale plants was improved by supplemental blue light. The fresh and dry weights of Chinese kale plants were significantly higher under T50 and T100 than those in the other treatments. The content of chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll increased significantly under T50, and the content of carotenoids increased significantly under T150. The contents of soluble sugars and free amino acids were significantly increased under the blue light treatments. The nitrate content decreased with increasing blue light intensity, while the anthocyanin content increased. The contents of vitamin C in T50 and total phenolic compounds in T150 were significantly higher than in T0. The flavonoid contents were significant higher in T50 and T150, and significantly lower in T100. Our results show that blue light can influence the growth and quality of Chinese kale and 50 μmol m−2 s−1 of supplemental blue light might be the most feasible light intensity for Chinese kale production.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0104-1
  • Optimal conditions for spore germination and gametophyte and sporophyte
           production in the autumn fern Dryopteris erythrosora
    • Abstract: Dryopteris erythrosora (D. C. Eaton) Kuntze is used as an ornamental horticultural crop and landscaping plant, and it is a plant with high development value as an herbal medicine, but there are few studies to proliferate a large amount of plants. This study aimed to determine a suitable method for spore germination, gametophyte proliferation, sporophyte formation, and seedling production in D. erythrosora. Spore germination rate was highest in 1/2 × Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (92.8%). A suitable medium for prothallus proliferation was selected based on gametophytes produced from germinated spores. A 1 × MS medium was most effective for gametophyte proliferation and active organ formation; moreover, 1 × MS medium containing 1% sucrose without activated charcoal was the most effective growth condition for inducing gametophyte growth and development. The suitable culture soil composition for sporophyte formation was investigated by varying the ratio of horticultural substrate, peat moss, perlite, and decomposed granite. We found that a 2:1 (v:v) mixture of horticultural substrate and perlite accelerated sporophyte formation (155 units). Furthermore, suitable seedlings and transplants for sporophyte seedling growth were determined by varying the ratio of horticultural substrate and decomposed granite, as well as plug tray cell size. For sporophyte seedlings, the greatest growth in root length (92.9 mm) and the most aerial and underground fresh weight (234.1 and 40.3 g, respectively) were observed in a mixture of horticultural substrate and decomposed granite at a 1:2 (v:v) ratio. Our results using tissue culture technology will be provided as a mass production method for substantial industrialization of D. erythrosora plants.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0097-9
  • Effects of tomato and potato heterografting on photosynthesis, quality and
           yield of grafted parents
    • Abstract: Grafting has been widely used to improve quality, yield, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Tomato/potato heterografting combines two different species to create a new variety that can harvest tomato fruits and tubers from scions and rootstocks, respectively. This could be an optimal agricultural technique for improving yield and utilizing nature resources effectively, but the growth and development of rootstocks and scions after grafting are rarely described. The present study aimed to determine the effects of tomato/potato heterografting on the physiological characters, quality and yield of fruits and tubers and study the changes in photosynthetic capacity of tomato scion grafted to potato rootstock. In this study, the Zhongyan988 (ZY988) tomato cultivar four potato cultivars, Lishu6 (LS6), Qingshu9 (QS9), Hezuo88 (HZ88) and Diantongshu1 (DTS1), served as grafting parents and ungrafted tomato and potato plants were used as controls. Intergeneric grafting between tomato and potato was an effective agricultural approach that improved the yield per unit area on existing cultivated land. Under normal growth conditions, grafting had no significant effect on the photosynthetic capacity of the tomato leaves. Some characteristics related to the tomato fruit quality were improved by the potato rootstocks, including vitamin C (Vc), total soluble solids and soluble sugars; however, the titratable acidity content decreased in these grafted plants. The tomato fruit size and fruit number were affected by grafting. Grafting produced more fruit with lower average weight per fruit. Grafting had a significantly promoted tuber sprouting during the harvest period and decreased the tuber number per plant. Furthermore, the starch content and Vc level in the potato tubers were significantly decreased after grafting, but the reducing sugar content significantly increased. Scion and rootstock changes caused by grafting may be related to the accumulation and distribution of photosynthetic products and scion-rootstock interactions.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0096-x
  • The establishment of a DNA fingerprinting database for 73 varieties of
           Lactuca sativa capitate L. using SSR molecular markers
    • Abstract: Head lettuce originating near the Mediterranean coast was introduced to China in the fifth century. It is difficult to identify different varieties of head lettuce due to their close genetic relationships. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) technology is a practical method that has been widely used in variety identification, fingerprint construction and genetic diversity analysis. In this paper, 23 pairs of SSR primers were selected to identify and analyse 73 varieties of head lettuce. The results identified a total of 117 mutated alleles detected in 23 loci, with the number of each loci ranging from 2 to 11, with an average of 5.1 mutated alleles per locus. Additionally, 152 genotypes were detected in 23 loci, with an average of 6.6 genotypes per locus derived from a range of 2–13. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.071 to 0.702, with an average of 0.499. The selected primer pairs could clearly reflect the genotypic diversity level of the 73 head lettuce varieties tested, and can be used in the detection and analysis of the head lettuce varieties. The results of our sequence analysis also showed that these 73 varieties of head lettuce could be effectively identified by a combination of 19 primer pairs even though the genetic similarity among the 73 varieties ranged from 0.647 to 0.991, with an average of 0.798. Based on a capillary electrophoresis platform, a DNA fingerprinting database of 73 head lettuce varieties was established.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13580-018-0102-3
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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