Abstract: In this paper we study coupled fast-slow ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with small time scale separation parameter \(\varepsilon \) such that, for every fixed value of the slow variable, the fast dynamics are sufficiently chaotic with ergodic invariant measure. Convergence of the slow process to the solution of a homogenized stochastic differential equation (SDE) in the limit \(\varepsilon \) to zero, with explicit formulas for drift and diffusion coefficients, has so far only been obtained for the case that the fast dynamics evolve independently. In this paper we give sufficient conditions for the convergence of the first moments of the slow variable in the coupled case. Our proof is based upon a new method of stochastic regularization and functional-analytical techniques combined via a double limit procedure involving a zero-noise limit as well as considering \(\varepsilon \) to zero. We also give exact formulas for the drift and diffusion coefficients for the limiting SDE. As a main application of our theory, we study weakly-coupled systems, where the coupling only occurs in lower time scales. PubDate: 2021-04-30

Abstract: We consider the process of opinion formation, in a society where there is a set of rules B that indicates whether a social instance is acceptable. Public opinion is formed by the integration of the voters’ attitudes which can be either conservative (mostly in agreement with B) or liberal (mostly in disagreement with B and in agreement with peer voters). These attitudes are represented by stable fixed points in the phase space of the system. In this article we study the properties of a perturbative term, mimicking the effects of a publicity campaign, that pushes the system from the basin of attraction of the liberal fixed point into the basin of the conservative point, when both fixed points are equally likely. PubDate: 2021-04-29

Abstract: We study the Bernstein–Landau paradox in the collisionless motion of an electrostatic plasma in the presence of a constant external magnetic field. The Bernstein–Landau paradox consists in that in the presence of the magnetic field, the electric field and the charge density fluctuation have an oscillatory behavior in time. This is radically different from Landau damping, in the case without magnetic field, where the electric field tends to zero for large times. We consider this problem from a new point of view. Instead of analyzing the linear magnetized Vlasov–Poisson system, as it is usually done, we study the linear magnetized Vlasov–Ampère system. We formulate the magnetized Vlasov–Ampère system as a Schrödinger equation with a selfadjoint magnetized Vlasov–Ampère operator in the Hilbert space of states with finite energy. The magnetized Vlasov–Ampère operator has a complete set of orthonormal eigenfunctions, that include the Bernstein modes. The expansion of the solution of the magnetized Vlasov–Ampère system in the eigenfunctions shows the oscillatory behavior in time. We prove the convergence of the expansion under optimal conditions, assuming only that the initial state has finite energy. This solves a problem that was recently posed in the literature. The Bernstein modes are not complete. To have a complete system it is necessary to add eigenfunctions that are associated with eigenvalues at all the integer multiples of the cyclotron frequency. These special plasma oscillations actually exist on their own, without the excitation of the other modes. In the limit when the magnetic fields goes to zero the spectrum of the magnetized Vlasov–Ampère operator changes drastically from pure point to absolutely continuous in the orthogonal complement to its kernel, due to a sharp change on its domain. This explains the Bernstein–Landau paradox. Furthermore, we present numerical simulations that illustrate the Bernstein–Landau paradox. In Appendix 2 we provide exact formulas for a family of time-independent solutions. PubDate: 2021-04-28

Abstract: This study extends a prior investigation of limit shapes for grand canonical Gibbs ensembles of partitions of integers, which was based on analysis of sums of geometric random variables. Here we compute limit shapes for partitions of sets, which lead to the sums of Poisson random variables. Under mild monotonicity assumptions on the energy function, we derive all possible limit shapes arising from different asymptotic behaviors of the energy, and also compute local limit shape profiles for cases in which the limit shape is a step function. PubDate: 2021-04-28

Abstract: The first part of this paper is devoted to study a model of one-dimensional random walk with memory to the maximum position described as follows. At each step the walker resets to the rightmost visited site with probability \(r \in (0,1)\) and moves as the simple random walk with remaining probability. Using the approach of renewal theory, we prove the laws of large numbers and the central limit theorems for the random walk. These results reprove and significantly enhance the analysis of the mean value and variance of the process established in Majumdar et al. (Phys Rev E 92:052126, 2015). In the second part, we expand the analysis to the situation where the memory of the walker decreases over time by assuming that at the step n the resetting probability is \(r_n = \min \{rn^{-a}, \tfrac{1}{2}\}\) with r, a positive parameters. For this model, we first establish the asymptotic behavior of the mean values of \(X_n\) -the current position and \(M_n\) -the maximum position of the random walk. As a consequence, we observe an interesting phase transition of the ratio \({{\mathbb {E}}}[X_n]/{{\mathbb {E}}}[M_n]\) when a varies. Precisely, it converges to 1 in the subcritical phase \(a\in (0,1)\) , to a constant \(c\in (0,1)\) in the critical phase \(a=1\) , and to 0 in the supercritical phase \(a>1\) . Finally, when \(a>1\) , we show that the model behaves closely to the simple random walk in the sense that \(\frac{X_n}{\sqrt{n}} \overset{(d)}{\longrightarrow } {\mathcal {N}}(0,1)\) and \(\frac{M_n}{\sqrt{n}} \overset{(d)}{\longrightarrow } \max _{0 \le t \le 1} B_t\) , where \({\mathcal {N}}(0,1)\) is the standard normal distribution and \((B_t)_{t\ge 0}\) is the standard Brownian motion. PubDate: 2021-04-27

Abstract: We discuss a stochastic interacting particles’ system connected to dyadic models of turbulence, defining suitable classes of solutions and proving their existence and uniqueness. We investigate the regularity of a particular family of solutions, called moderate, and we conclude with existence and uniqueness of invariant measures associated with such moderate solutions. PubDate: 2021-04-24

Abstract: Gaussian noise channels (also called classical noise channels, bosonic Gaussian channels) arise naturally in continuous variable quantum information and play an important role in both theoretical analysis and experimental investigation of information transmission. After reviewing concisely the basic properties of these channels, we introduce an information-theoretic measure for the decoherence of optical states caused by these channels in terms of averaged Wigner-Yanase skew information, explore its basic features, obtain a scaling law, and derive a complementarity relation between the decoherence and the quantum affinity. As an application of the decoherence measure, we derive a convenient and sufficient criterion for detecting optical nonclassicality. The decoherence on some typical optical states caused by Gaussian noise channels are explicitly evaluated to illustrate the concept. PubDate: 2021-04-23

Abstract: We show that certain billiard flows on planar billiard tables with horns can be modeled as suspension flows over Young towers (Ann. Math. 147:585–650, 1998) with exponential tails. This implies exponential decay of correlations for the billiard map. Because the height function of the suspension flow itself is polynomial when the horns are Torricelli-like trumpets, one can derive Limit Laws for the billiard flow, including Stable Limits if the parameter of the Torricelli trumpet is chosen in (1, 2). PubDate: 2021-04-20

Abstract: This paper is devoted to the analysis of Lindblad operators of Quantum Reset Models, describing the effective dynamics of tri-partite quantum systems subject to stochastic resets. We consider a chain of three independent subsystems, coupled by a Hamiltonian term. The two subsystems at each end of the chain are driven, independently from each other, by a reset Lindbladian, while the center system is driven by a Hamiltonian. Under generic assumptions on the coupling term, we prove the existence of a unique steady state for the perturbed reset Lindbladian, analytic in the coupling constant. We further analyze the large times dynamics of the corresponding CPTP Markov semigroup that describes the approach to the steady state. We illustrate these results with concrete examples corresponding to realistic open quantum systems. PubDate: 2021-04-13

Abstract: Nonequilibrium information thermodynamics determines the minimum energy dissipation to reliably erase memory under time-symmetric control protocols. We demonstrate that its bounds are tight and so show that the costs overwhelm those implied by Landauer’s energy bound on information erasure. Moreover, in the limit of perfect computation, the costs diverge. The conclusion is that time-asymmetric protocols should be developed for efficient, accurate thermodynamic computing. And, that Landauer’s Stack—the full suite of theoretically-predicted thermodynamic costs—is ready for experimental test and calibration. PubDate: 2021-04-11

Abstract: This paper explores the predictability of a Bak–Tang–Wiesenfeld isotropic sandpile on a self-similar lattice, introducing an algorithm which predicts the occurrence of target events when the stress in the system crosses a critical level. The model exhibits the self-organized critical dynamics characterized by the power-law segment of the size-frequency event distribution extended up to the sizes \(\sim L^{\beta }\) , \(\beta = \log _3 5\) , where L is the lattice length. We establish numerically that there are large events which are observed only in a super-critical state and, therefore, predicted efficiently. Their sizes fill in the interval with the left endpoint scaled as \(L^{\alpha }\) and located to the right from the power-law segment: \(\alpha \approx 2.24 > \beta \) . The right endpoint scaled as \(L^3\) represents the largest event in the model. The mechanism of predictability observed with isotropic sandpiles is shown here for the first time. PubDate: 2021-04-08

Abstract: We are concerned with how the implementation of growth determines the expected number of state-changes in a growing self-organizing process. With this problem in mind, we examine two versions of the voter model on a one-dimensional growing lattice. Our main result asserts that the expected number of state-changes before an absorbing state is found can be controlled by balancing the conservative and disruptive forces of growth. This is because conservative growth preserves the self-organization of the voter model as it searches for an absorbing state, whereas disruptive growth undermines this self-organization. In particular, we focus on controlling the expected number of state-changes as the rate of growth tends to zero or infinity in the limit. These results illustrate how growth can affect the costs of self-organization and so are pertinent to the physics of growing active matter. PubDate: 2021-04-08

Abstract: We examine the duality relating the equilibrium dynamics of the mean-field p-spin ferromagnets at finite size in the Guerra’s interpolation scheme and the Burgers hierarchy. In particular, we prove that—for fixed p—the expectation value of the order parameter on the first side w.r.t. the generalized partition function satisfies the \(p-1\) -th element in the aforementioned class of nonlinear equations. In the light of this duality, we interpret the phase transitions in the thermodynamic limit of the statistical mechanics model with the development of shock waves in the PDE side. We also obtain the solutions for the p-spin ferromagnets at fixed N, allowing us to easily generate specific solutions of the corresponding equation in the Burgers hierarchy. Finally, we obtain an effective description of the finite N equilibrium dynamics of the \(p=2\) model with some standard tools in PDE side. PubDate: 2021-04-07

Abstract: It has been established that the inclusive work for classical, Hamiltonian dynamics is equivalent to the two-time energy measurement paradigm in isolated quantum systems. However, a plethora of other notions of quantum work has emerged, and thus the natural question arises whether any other quantum notion can provide motivation for purely classical considerations. In the present analysis, we propose the conditional stochastic work for classical, Hamiltonian dynamics, which is inspired by the one-time measurement approach. This novel notion is built upon the change of expectation value of the energy conditioned on the initial energy surface. As main results, we obtain a generalized Jarzynski equality and a sharper maximum work theorem, which account for how non-adiabatic the process is. Our findings are illustrated with the parametric harmonic oscillator. PubDate: 2021-04-05

Abstract: In this paper, we present new estimates for the entropy dissipation of the Landau–Fermi–Dirac equation (with hard or moderately soft potentials) in terms of a weighted relative Fisher information adapted to this equation. Such estimates are used for studying the large time behaviour of the equation, as well as for providing new a priori estimates (in the soft potential case). An important feature of such estimates is that they are uniform with respect to the quantum parameter. Consequently, the same estimations are recovered for the classical limit, that is the Landau equation. PubDate: 2021-04-05

Abstract: We study completely separable states of the Lohe tensor model and their asymptotic collective dynamics. Here, the completely separable state means that it is a tensor product of rank-1 tensors. For the generalized Lohe matrix model corresponding to the Lohe tensor model for rank-2 tensors with the same size, we observe that the component rank-1 tensors of the completely separable states satisfy the swarm double sphere model introduced in [Lohe in Physica D 412, 2020]. We also show that the swarm double sphere model can be represented as a gradient system with an analytic potential. Using this gradient flow formulation, we provide the swarm multisphere model on the product of multiple unit spheres with possibly different dimensions, and then we construct a completely separable state of the swarm multisphere model as a tensor product of rank-1 tensors which is a solution of the proposed swarm multisphere model. This concept of separability has been introduced in the theory of quantum information. Finally, we also provide a sufficient framework leading to the complete aggregation of completely separable states. PubDate: 2021-04-02

Abstract: We present a three-lane exclusion process that exhibits the same universal fluctuation pattern as generic one-dimensional Hamiltonian dynamics with short-range interactions, viz., with two sound modes in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class (with dynamical exponent \(z=3/2\) and symmetric Prähofer-Spohn scaling function) and a superdiffusive heat mode with dynamical exponent \(z=5/3\) and symmetric Lévy scaling function. The lattice gas model is amenable to efficient numerical simulation. Our main findings, obtained from dynamical Monte-Carlo simulation, are: (i) The frequently observed numerical asymmetry of the sound modes is a finite time effect. (ii) The mode-coupling calculation of the scale factor for the 5/3-Lévy-mode gives at least the right order of magnitude. (iii) There are significant diffusive corrections which are non-universal. PubDate: 2021-04-01

Abstract: In this paper we investigate the long-time behavior of the subordination of the constant speed traveling waves by a general class of kernels. We use the Feller–Karamata Tauberian theorem in order to study the long-time behavior of the upper and lower wave. As a result we obtain the long-time behavior for the propagation of the front of the wave. PubDate: 2021-03-31

Abstract: We construct a new mesoscopic model for granular media using Dynamical Density Functional Theory (DDFT). The model includes both a collision operator to incorporate inelasticity and the Helmholtz free energy functional to account for external potentials, interparticle interactions and volume exclusion. We use statistical data from event-driven microscopic simulations to determine the parameters not given analytically by the closure relations used to derive the DDFT. We numerically demonstrate the crucial effects of each term and approximations in the DDFT, and the importance of including an accurately parametrised pair correlation function. PubDate: 2021-03-27