Authors:V. K. OIKONOMOU, J. JOST Abstract: Advances in Complex Systems, Volume 23, Issue 02, March 2020. At a mixed Nash equilibrium, the payoff of a player does not depend on her own action, as long as her opponent sticks to his. In a periodic strategy, a concept developed in a previous paper [V. K. Oikonomou and J. Jost, Periodic strategies: A new solution concept and an algorithm for nontrivial strategic form games, Adv. Compl. Syst. 20(5) (2017) 1750009], in contrast, the own payoff does not depend on the opponent’s action. Here, we generalize this to multi-player simultaneous perfect information strategic form games. We show that also in this class of games, there always exists at least one periodic strategy, and we investigate the mathematical properties of such periodic strategies. In addition, we demonstrate that periodic strategies may exist in games with incomplete information; we shall focus on Bayesian games. Moreover, we discuss the differences between the periodic strategies formalism and cooperative game theory. In fact, the periodic strategies are obtained in a purely non-cooperative way, and periodic strategies are as cooperative as the Nash equilibria are. Finally, we incorporate the periodic strategies in an epistemic game theory framework, and discuss several features of this approach. Citation: Advances in Complex Systems PubDate: 2020-07-04T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219525920500058 Issue No:Vol. 23, No. 02 (2020)

Authors:DAMIEN CHALLET, ALESSANDRO PLUCHINO, ALESSIO EMANUELE BIONDO, ANDREA RAPISARDA Abstract: Advances in Complex Systems, Volume 23, Issue 02, March 2020. While wealth distribution in the world is highly skewed and heavy-tailed, human talent — as the majority of individual features — is normally distributed. In a recent computational study by Pluchino et al. [Talent vs luck: The role of randomness in success and failure, Adv. Complex Syst. 21(03–04) (2018) 1850014], it has been shown that the combined effects of both random external factors (lucky and unlucky events) and multiplicative dynamics in capital accumulation are able to clarify this apparent contradiction. We introduce here a simplified version (STvL) of the original Talent versus Luck (TvL) model, where only lucky events are present, and verify that its dynamical rules lead to the same very large wealth inequality. We also derive some analytical approximations aimed to capture the mechanism responsible for the creation of such wealth inequality from a Gaussian-distributed talent. Under these approximations, our analysis is able to reproduce quite well the results of the numerical simulations of the simplified model in special cases. On the other hand, it also shows that the complexity of the model lies in the fact that lucky events are transformed into an increase of capital with heterogeneous rates, which yields a nontrivial generalization of the role of multiplicative processes in generating wealth inequality, whose fully generic case is still not amenable to analytical computations. Citation: Advances in Complex Systems PubDate: 2020-06-03T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219525920500046 Issue No:Vol. 23, No. 02 (2020)

Authors:PAULO L. DOS SANTOS, JANGHO YANG Abstract: Advances in Complex Systems, Volume 23, Issue 02, March 2020. This paper considers patterns of organization in distributions of the rate of return on capital (RoC) realized by individual enterprises. It shows that large-sample cross sections of RoC across several European economies are persistently well described by the same functional form: Sharply peaked distributions with stretched-exponential tails. To account for this observation, the paper develops a systemic model of the competitive regulation of profitability by the pursuit of arbitrage profits latent in any heterogeneity across values of RoC. Under the model, the observed distributional forms embody two simple, emergent results of capital-market competition: The competitive maximization of aggregate arbitrage profits; and the endogenous formation of the cost of capital from individual measures of RoC, in the presence of dynamic entrepreneurial and monopolistic quasi-rents. The paper’s discussion defines a series of new, observable macroscopic measures of competitive performance in decentralized market economies. It also points to the aptness of understanding prices as parts of structures of generalized Marx–Sraffa “prices of production,” predicated on the characteristics of capital-market statistical equilibria; to a general theoretical approach to the regulation of certain economic quantities by arbitrage; and to the role the costs of informational gains play in shaping observable outcomes in the operation of certain types of goal-seeking, self-organizing systems. Citation: Advances in Complex Systems PubDate: 2020-05-27T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219525920500034 Issue No:Vol. 23, No. 02 (2020)

Authors:S. D. PRADO, S. R. DAHMEN, A. L. C. BAZZAN, M. MACCARRON, J. HILLNER Abstract: Advances in Complex Systems, Ahead of Print. Since the 1970s, scholars have begun to pay attention to the presentation of women in Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People, the main source for the early history of Britain (from the first century BC to the eighth century AD). Vastly different conclusions have been drawn, ranging from positivist approaches which saw the period as a golden age for women to rather more negative assessments, which argue that Bede suppressed the role of women. By analyzing the concept of communicability and relevance of certain nodes in complex networks, we show how Bede’s Ecclesiastical History affords women complex and nuanced social roles. In particular, we can show the independent importance of certain abbesses, which is a significant result and challenges much of the existing scholarship on Bede’s attitude to female power. Citation: Advances in Complex Systems PubDate: 2020-10-14T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S021952592050006X

Authors:ANITA MEHTA, JEAN-MARC LUCK Abstract: Advances in Complex Systems, Ahead of Print. We propose a model of the speech perception of individual words in the presence of mishearings. This phenomenological approach is based on concepts used in linguistics, and provides a formalism that is universal across languages. We put forward an efficient two-parameter form for the word length distribution, and introduce a simple representation of mishearings, which we use in our subsequent modeling of word recognition. In a context-free scenario, word recognition often occurs via anticipation when, part-way into a word, we can correctly guess its full form. We give a quantitative estimate of this anticipation threshold when no mishearings occur, in terms of model parameters. As might be expected, the whole anticipation effect disappears when there are sufficiently many mishearings. Our global approach to the problem of speech perception is in the spirit of an optimization problem. We show for instance that speech perception is easy when the word length is less than a threshold, to be identified with a static transition, and hard otherwise. We extend this to the dynamics of word recognition, proposing an intuitive approach highlighting the distinction between individual, isolated mishearings and clusters of contiguous mishearings. At least in some parameter range, a dynamical transition is manifest well before the static transition is reached, as is the case for many other examples of complex systems. Citation: Advances in Complex Systems PubDate: 2020-10-14T07:00:00Z DOI: 10.1142/S0219525920500083