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  Subjects -> STATISTICS (Total: 130 journals)
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Demographic Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.235
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1435-9871
Published by Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Segmented assimilation and mobility among men in the early 20th century
           (by Christina Diaz, Jennifer Lee)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      Segmented assimilation theory asserts that children born to immigrants experience divergent paths of incorporation. While some exhibit substantial gains in well-being, others may fare worse than US-origin whites or their own parents. It is certainly true that contemporary immigrants find themselves living in a different context than those who arrived in the United States during the early 20th century. However, it remains an empirical question whether the incorporation process has suddenly become segmented.
      METHODS
      We select five of the top European sending regions to ask whether socioeconomic outcomes varied between immigrant-origin populations between 1910 and 1930. We use the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series Multigenerational Longitudinal Panel to link men over a 20-year period. Logistic regression is used to predict probabilities of school enrollment in 1910 among US- and immigrant-origin youths. We then rely on a series of OLS specifications to predict the socioeconomic standing of these men in 1930 as well as differences in father–son status. We also compare relative rates of occupational mobility across country of origin.
      RESULTS
      We find evidence of intergenerational mobility as well as convergence in economic success. Though some immigrant-origin groups fare better than others (e.g., the Irish and those from the United Kingdom versus Italians and Germans), our results largely align with classical theories of assimilation. To the extent that segmented assimilation occurs, it emerges in the especially low levels of attainment among German-origin youths.

      PubDate: Thu, 02 Feb 2023 00:00:00
       
  • The Human Multiple Births Database (HMBD): An international database on
           twin and other multiple births (by Catalina Torres, Arianna Caporali,
           Gilles Pison)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      The frequency of twin births has increased dramatically since the 1970s in nearly all developed countries. This upsurge poses a public health challenge because multiple pregnancies are associated with higher health risks and other disadvantages for both the children and the parents. A better understanding of the variation and trends in twinning and other multiple rates is therefore urgently needed.
      OBJECTIVE
      The Human Multiple Births Database (HMBD) provides open access national statistics on multiple births for numerous countries.
      METHODS
      HMBD data come from the vital statistics system of each country included. We use annual counts of births by plurality to estimate the twinning and multiple birth rate for each year. All procedures performed on the input data are documented.
      RESULTS
      The HMBD provides the annual number of deliveries by multiplicity, the twinning rate, and the multiple rate. As of January 2023, 25 countries are included. For each country, data go back as far into the past as possible and extend until the most recent year with available data. Definitions and other specificities of each country’s data (e.g., the treatment of stillbirths in the statistics) are provided in the metadata.

      PubDate: Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00
       
  • Solo living in the process of transitioning to adulthood in Europe: The
           role of socioeconomic background (by Jana Klimova Chaloupkova)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      In recent decades, patterns of transition to adulthood have undergone substantial changes, including an increase in people living solo after leaving the parental home. However, the extent to which solo living after leaving the parental home is a transitory state, quickly followed by union formation, or a relatively long-term state in the pathways to adulthood, and how long-term solo living is socially stratified are all questions that remain unanswered.
      OBJECTIVE
      To fill this gap, this study focuses on home-leaving pathways that have unfolded over a 5-year period after leaving home. It explores the association between socioeconomic background (parental education) and the long-term, solo-living, home-leaving pathways of young men and women across 29 European countries.
      METHODS
      Using European Social Survey Round 9 (2018) data, this study applies a competing trajectory analysis, which combines sequence analysis to identify home-leaving patterns with event history analysis, in order to analyse their association with parental education.
      RESULTS
      The occurrence of solo-living pathways varies considerably across Europe: both short-term and long-term solo-living pathways are the highest in Northern Europe. Long-term solo-living pathways are associated with being in education and with high levels of individual and parental education. The effect of parental education does not differ systematically across European countries and does not differ between genders.

      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jan 2023 00:00:00
       
  • Parental status homogeneity in social networks: The role of homophilous
           tie selection in Germany (by Daniel Lois, Oliver Arránz Becker)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      Previous studies find that members of social networks tend to influence each other regarding the likelihood and timing of births. However, less evidence exists as to whether and how individuals actively select their network ties according to parental status. Hence, we explicitly study both the discontinuation of existing ties and formation of new ties.
      OBJECTIVE
      We study network selection regarding parenthood status based on large-scale panel data on social networks in Germany.
      METHODS
      Our analyses are based on data from waves 2 and 4 of the German Family Panel (Pairfam, up to N = 36,352 ego–alter relationships). We use a record linkage procedure to match network persons longitudinally and estimate multilevel random and fixed-effect multinomial regression models.
      RESULTS
      We find weak evidence that young children increase the likelihood that existing social network relationships are discontinued and strong evidence that young children decrease the likelihood that new network relationships are initiated. Further, we find homophily effects regarding parental status in that both childless respondents and parents who recently had a child are less likely to dissolve ties to alters with the same parental status, respectively. Among women, homophily in parenthood status also increases the likelihood of establishing a new social network relationship.

      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2023 00:00:00
       
  • Interpreting changes in life expectancy during temporary mortality shocks
           (by Patrick Heuveline)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      Life expectancy is a pure measure of the mortality conditions faced by a population, unaffected by that population’s age structure. The numerical value of life expectancy also has an intuitive interpretation, conditional on some assumptions, as the expected age at death of an average newborn. This intuitive interpretation gives life expectancy a broad appeal. Changes in life expectancy are also routinely used to assess mortality trends. Interpreting these changes is not straightforward as the assumptions underpinning the intuitive interpretation of life expectancy are no longer valid. This is particularly problematic during mortality ‘shocks,’ such as during wars or pandemics, when mortality changes may be sudden, temporary, and contrary to secular trends.
      OBJECTIVE
      This study aims to provide an alternative perspective on what changes in life expectancy measure that remains applicable during mortality shocks.
      CONCLUSIONS
      Returning to two different models that the period life table may represent, I show that a difference in life expectancy is typically interpreted from the synthetic cohort model as the difference in mean longevity between different birth cohorts. However, it can also be interpreted from the stationary population model as a measure of premature mortality in a death cohort. The latter, less common interpretation makes more sense for temporary declines in life expectancy induced by mortality shocks. The absolute change in life expectancy is then an age-standardized value of the average lifespan reduction for people dying during the mortality shock.

      PubDate: Fri, 06 Jan 2023 00:00:00
       
  • Educational selectivity of native and foreign-born internal migrants in
           Europe (by Miguel González-Leonardo, Aude Bernard, Joan García-Román,
           Antonio López-Gay)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      It is well-established that internal migration is selective, particularly with respect to age, educational attainment, and nativity status. However, the interplay between education and immigrants’ origin remains largely unknown. Thus, it is unclear how the educational selectivity of internal migration varies by nativity status.
      OBJECTIVE
      We establish the educational selectivity of internal migrants in 12 European countries, paying attention to variation between native and foreign-born populations born in and outside the European Union.
      METHODS
      We use microdata from the European Union Labour Force Survey (2015–2019) and run a series of multivariate binomial logistic regressions to estimate the likelihood of changing NUTS-2 region of residence by educational attainment.
      RESULTS
      Our results confirm a positive association between tertiary education and internal migration, except for in Slovenia, Greece, and the Czech Republic. On average, completing tertiary education increases the likelihood of migrating internally by close to 3 times, compared with less than 1.5 times for secondary education. In half the countries, secondary education displays either a negative or no association with internal migration. We find evidence of a strong positive selectivity of tertiary-educated foreign-born populations, who are on average twice as likely to migrate internally than the native-born with comparable education, except in Hungary, where immigrants are less likely to migrate internally.
      CONCLUSIONS
      By redistributing skills within a country, immigrants are integral to the effective functioning of labour markets.

      PubDate: Tue, 20 Dec 2022 00:00:00
       
  • The COVID-19 pandemic’s unequal socioeconomic impacts on minority groups
           in the United States (by Weiwei Zhang, Deepthi Kolady)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      Socioeconomically disadvantaged groups disproportionately reported experiencing adverse circumstances resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic’s socioeconomic impacts. Overarching factors associated with differentiated risks in the United States include race and ethnicity.
      OBJECTIVE
      We aim to examine: (1) the differentiated risk of experiencing adverse circumstances by race and ethnicity in the United States and (2) the trend in adverse outcomes and racial/ethnic differences in the past two years.
      METHODS
      The study utilized 49 data cycles from the Household Pulse Survey from April 2020 to September 2022. The outcomes are adverse experiences, including loss of employment income, food scarcity, housing insecurity, and unmet needs for mental health services. The racial and ethnic groups are non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic other minorities, and Hispanic. We compared weighted percentages of the total population and racial and ethnic groups reporting having experienced adverse circumstances during every data collection period.
      RESULTS
      We found that except for non-Hispanic Asians, racial and ethnic minorities were more likely to report loss of employment income, food scarcity, housing insecurity, and unmet needs for mental health services. Prevalence estimates by race/ethnicity for each cycle illustrated the persistent racial/ethnic disparities from April 2020 to the present.
      CONCLUSIONS
      The adverse socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic tended to be disproportionately higher for most racial and ethnic minorities compared to non-Hispanic Whites, and this trend continues.

      PubDate: Mon, 19 Dec 2022 00:00:00
       
  • The Spanish flu and the health system: Considerations from the city of
           Parma, 1918 (by Matteo Manfredini)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      The gravity of the Spanish flu has been often associated with inadequate health systems. However, few studies have used health data effectively in their analysis of epidemics.
      OBJECTIVE
      To analyze the role of hospitals in an Italian town during the Spanish flu and its effect on the risk of dying at home.
      METHODS
      Individual-level information from the Permission of Burials was used to evaluate the impact of the epidemic on city hospitals. A logistic model was used to estimate the odds of a home death in order to elucidate possible sociodemographic mechanisms linked to hospital saturation issues.
      RESULTS
      During the epidemic the odds of dying at home increased by 29% overall, driven especially by an increase in home deaths among the poorest social groups. However, the well-off maintained the highest odds of dying at home throughout 1918.
      CONCLUSIONS
      Hospitals facilitated the spread of the epidemic in the city and contributed to its high mortality level. The increase in the odds of dying at home for the poorest was likely associated with hospital saturation, which conversely does not appear to have affected the well-off. In fact, this social group already had very high levels of home deaths in the pre-epidemic period.

      PubDate: Fri, 16 Dec 2022 00:00:00
       
  • Adolescent fertility and high school completion in Chile: Exploring gender
           differences (by Viviana Salinas, Valentina Jorquera-Samter)

    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE
      This study has two objectives: first, to estimate the effect of adolescent fertility on high school completion for Chilean adolescents, considering selectivity due to socioeconomic background and prior academic achievement, and, second, to explore the gender differences that exist in this effect.
      METHODS
      We use propensity score weighting and regression adjustment to estimate the average treatment effect on the treated groups. We employ a rich dataset built on several administrative sources, covering a cohort of students attending publicly funded schools from 2011 to 2018.
      RESULTS
      Considering the samples of men and women separately, we find that a teenage girl who experiences adolescent fertility is 13% less likely to complete high school, whereas the corresponding probability for a teenage boy is only 3%. As compared to boys, girls who experience adolescent fertility also have higher probabilities of delayed high school graduation and dropping out of school.
      CONCLUSIONS
      Our analyses indicate that the detrimental effect of adolescent fertility on high school completion is larger for girls than boys in Chile, after taking into consideration the selectivity due to socioeconomic origin and prior academic performance.

      PubDate: Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00
       
  • Does race response shift impact racial inequality' (by Jerônimo
           Muniz, Stanley R. Bailey)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      Previous research posits that racial reclassification, or response shift, may confound measures of racial earnings inequality. However, this claim has not been systematically tested.
      OBJECTIVE
      We measure racial response shift in Brazil and examine its impact on white-to-nonwhite earnings inequality between survey waves over ten years at nine-month intervals.
      METHODS
      We use individual-level linked data from the 2002–2012 Monthly Employment Survey, involving Brazil's six largest metropolitan areas (n = 400,046). We describe the level and pattern of racial reclassification across time and by income rank. We then decompose racial inequality into two components (income and population ratios) to examine the impact of racial response shift on estimates of racial inequality and to construct analytic counterfactuals.
      RESULTS
      Results reveal that 16% of our sample shifted their racial responses between survey waves. Nonetheless, we show that this level of response shift had no substantial impact on estimates of income inequality. We explain the counterintuitive results by demonstrating how bidirectional racial classification flows – lightening and darkening – countervail each other due to their similar income profiles and racial reclassification rates.

      PubDate: Fri, 09 Dec 2022 00:00:00
       
  • Gender and educational inequalities in disability-free life expectancy
           among older adults living in Italian regions (by Margherita Moretti, Cosmo
           Strozza)

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND
      Italy’s life expectancy at age 65 is one of the highest in Europe, but its disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) is not so high. To understand this diverging pattern of longevity and health it is essential to consider indicators accounting for both mortality and morbidity, and to analyse the gender, social, and geographical inequities characterising them.
      OBJECTIVE
      The aim is to quantify the gender, social, and geographical inequalities in DFLE among Italian older adults and analyse the age-specific contribution of mortality and morbidity to those inequalities.
      METHODS
      This study draws on census-linked mortality data and disability prevalence for the years 2012–2014. DFLE at age 65 in Italian regions is computed by gender and educational attainment using the Sullivan method. Age-specific mortality–morbidity contributions to the gender and educational gaps in DFLE are calculated using the stepwise decomposition method.
      RESULTS
      Although at the national level older women and men share similar DFLE, these estimates hide important geographical and social inequalities. Women’s health disadvantage completely outweighs their life expectancy advantage, resulting in lower DFLE. Educational inequalities in health are far more dramatic than those in mortality and the disadvantage in DFLE accumulates over education and region of residence.
      CONCLUSIONS
      In Italy notable differences in DFLE are found between genders and between educational groups, suggesting the need for better health policies aimed at reducing inequalities.

      PubDate: Thu, 08 Dec 2022 00:00:00
       
 
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