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  Subjects -> STATISTICS (Total: 130 journals)
Showing 1 - 151 of 151 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Data Analysis and Classification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Annals of Applied Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Applied Categorical Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of Mathematics & Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bernoulli     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Building Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
CHANCE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Statistics & Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Current Research in Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Decisions in Economics and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Demographic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Electronic Journal of Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ESAIM: Probability and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Extremes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Handbook of Numerical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Handbook of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances -     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Statistical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Trade by Commodity Statistics - Statistiques du commerce international par produit     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Algebraic Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Business & Economic Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.664, CiteScore: 2)
Journal of Combinatorial Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Computational & Graphical Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Interactive Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nonparametric Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Probability and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Risk and Uncertainty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Statistical and Econometric Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Statistical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Statistical Software     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 13.802, CiteScore: 16)
Journal of the American Statistical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72, SJR: 3.746, CiteScore: 2)
Journal of the Korean Statistical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C (Applied Statistics)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A (Statistics in Society)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (Statistical Methodology)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Theoretical Probability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Time Series Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Law, Probability and Risk     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Lifetime Data Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Mathematical Methods of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Measurement Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Modelling of Mechanical Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Monte Carlo Methods and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Monthly Statistics of International Trade - Statistiques mensuelles du commerce international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Multivariate Behavioral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Optimization Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Optimization Methods and Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Probability Surveys     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Queueing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Research Synthesis Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Review of Economics and Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
Review of Socionetwork Strategies     Hybrid Journal  
Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Sankhya A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sequential Analysis: Design Methods and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Significance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sociological Methods & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
SourceOCDE Comptes nationaux et Statistiques retrospectives     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOCDE Statistiques : Sources et methodes     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Bank Profitability Statistics - SourceOCDE Rentabilite des banques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Insurance Statistics - SourceOCDE Statistiques d'assurance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SourceOECD Main Economic Indicators - SourceOCDE Principaux indicateurs economiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Measuring Globalisation Statistics - SourceOCDE Mesurer la mondialisation - Base de donnees statistiques     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Monthly Statistics of International Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD National Accounts & Historical Statistics     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD OECD Economic Outlook Database - SourceOCDE Statistiques des Perspectives economiques de l'OCDE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SourceOECD Science and Technology Statistics - SourceOCDE Base de donnees des sciences et de la technologie     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Statistics Sources & Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Taxing Wages Statistics - SourceOCDE Statistiques des impots sur les salaires     Full-text available via subscription  
Stata Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Statistica Neerlandica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Statistical Communications in Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal  
Statistical Inference for Stochastic Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Statistical Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Statistical Methods and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Statistical Methods in Medical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Statistical Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Statistical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Statistical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Statistics & Probability Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Statistics & Risk Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Statistics and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Statistics and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Statistics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196)
Statistics, Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Statistics: A Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Stochastic Models     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stochastics An International Journal of Probability and Stochastic Processes: formerly Stochastics and Stochastics Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Teaching Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Technology Innovations in Statistics Education (TISE)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TEST     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The American Statistician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
The Annals of Applied Probability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Annals of Probability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
The Annals of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
The Canadian Journal of Statistics / La Revue Canadienne de Statistique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Computational Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Building Simulation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.839
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1996-8744 - ISSN (Online) 1996-3599
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • A simulation-based method for air loop balancing and fan sizing using
           uncertainty and sensitivity analysis
    • Abstract: Two main tasks of commissioning an air-side HVAC system are to verify the fan capacity and to balance the air loop. Simulations can be of assistance to these two tasks. However, the models used in the simulation will inevitably have some uncertainties, especially for the models of the pressure loss components. This paper proposes to use uncertainty analysis to obtain the adjustment instructions for tuning the dampers and the fan pressure value for sizing the fan on a virtual testbed implemented in Modelica. An air-side system with eight terminals, ten dampers and seven junctions is taken as the use case. 24 correction factors for the pressure loss coefficients (PLC) (10 for the dampers, 14 for the junctions) are taken as the inputs for the uncertainty analysis. 1000 samples of the correction factors are generated by using the Latin Hypercube Sampling method. The proportional balancing method is adopted to determine the positions of the damper so that the designed terminal flow rates could be met. The fan pressure value is also determined accordingly. The distributions of the dampers’ positions and fan pressure can be used to guide the balancing work and fan sizing in practice. In addition, the sensitivity analysis reveals that the position adjustments and fan pressure results are more sensitive to the uncertainties of the dampers’ PLCs. When the uncertainty level of the dampers’ PLC is reduced from ±40% to ±10%, the ranges of the damper’s positions will be significantly narrowed down to less than 15%, and the 95th percentiles of the fan pressure will drop from 116Pa to 38Pa, which shows the practicality and benefit of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0471-7
  • Modelling the effect of urban design on thermal comfort and air quality:
           The SMARTUrban Project
    • Abstract: More than half of the world population lives nowadays in urban areas and that’s the reason why the quality of the urban environment has become a key issue for human health. In this context, it is important to estimate and document any action that contributes to improving thermal comfort and air quality. The aim of this paper is to present a system for the design of urban spaces developed in the framework of the SMARTUrban project. Such a system aims at giving a strategic tool to administrators and design professionals for sustainable management and urban planning. SMARTUrban is a prototype of an urban space design software that estimates the effect of design modification or of new design on thermal comfort, carbon sequestration and air pollutant removal.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0490-4
  • Studies and evaluation of bioclimatic comfort of residential areas for
           improving the quality of environment
    • Abstract: The topical issues of computational and experimental studies of wind effects of residential complexes in Moscow are reviewed on the examples of project building objects for verification of design solutions. The continued development of scientific school of architecture and construction aerodynamics is presented as well as its research on the aeration, urban air quality and pedestrian comfort. The results are various comfort criteria actually used in most affluent countries as a guide in the design of apartment houses. As a research method, physical modeling in a wind tunnel and numerical modeling in specialized software complexes are considered. Studies were conducted on the basis of Educational-Scientific-Production Laboratory for Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Test Building Constructions (ESPLab AATBC ) using the Large Research Gradient Aerodynamic Tunnel. The results of a comprehensive computational and experimental study of the effect of wind on urban areas are used to develop design solutions (landscaping and urban greening and others) for integrated land improvement to compensate for bioclimatic discomfort.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0495-z
  • A new mathematical model for multi-scale thermal management of data
           centers using entransy theory
    • Abstract: Based on entransy theory, this paper proposes a new mathematical model for multi-scale data center thermal management. A comparison of heat transfer optimizing is made first, using exergy/entropy method and entransy dissipation, to verify the fitness of entransy theory. Based on which, a complete model of entransy dissipation for data center heat transfer is built, from CPU level to data center room level, with detailed computational derivation. Specifically, the calculating method of entransy dissipated by undesired air mixing has been derived, which can give quantitative evaluation on air mixing to the entire thermal performance of data center. A case study of a CFD simulation and a CRAC retrofitting engineering have been performed to verify the entransy model. In the case study, the temperature penalty caused by undesired air mixing is calculated using the entransy analysis model and testified by the retrofitting test, which directly reduces the free cooling potential and decrease data center energy performance. This entransy theory based model offers a new method to better optimize the thermal management and gives specific measures to improve the thermal performance of data centers.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0479-z
  • Calculating the geo-climatic potential of different low-energy cooling
    • Abstract: Energy consumption for space cooling is growing rapidly, increasing the need for alternative low-energy solutions. Passive cooling dissipative systems, based on heat dissipation through heat sinks (air, water, ground, …), can constitute a valid alternative to mechanical cooling at least to reduce the hours in which auxiliary cooling energy is needed. Nevertheless, these solutions are very locally specific and need, from early-design phases, devoted analyses to choose the ones that best fit the local climate. This paper reports an approach to calculate the geo-climatic cooling potential of different heat sinks based on the “virtual” effect that passive cooling systems are expected to have on external air conditions. This approach is based on the elaboration of morphed cooling-degree-day indexes which have been calculated in relation to the effect of comfort and structural ventilation, direct evaporative cooling, and earth-to-air heat exchangers. For each passive solution a devoted simplified model is introduced. Finally, each model is applied on a set of 20 locations in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0481-5
  • Numerical study on the effect of elevator movement on pressure difference
           between vestibule and living room in high-rise buildings
    • Abstract: In this study, we experimentally and numerically investigated the effect of elevator movement on the pressure difference between vestibule and living room regulated by the smoke control system in a high-rise building. The elevator and smoke control systems using supplied pressure dampers are considered one of the most important systems for safe evacuation. However, the pressure field and flow rate are strongly disrupted by elevator movement. Thus, they can affect the performance of smoke control systems and hinder evacuation. The experimental results of this study are used to validate the results of the numerical study when elevator is moving at low speed or is stationary. Then, the effect of elevator movement on the pressure difference between the vestibule and living room, which is controlled by the smoke control system, is investigated numerically using ANSYS CFX. The elevator speed is increased from 10 to 70 m/s, corresponding to the real elevator speed increase of 1.5 to 10 m/s based on Reynolds similarity. It is found that the higher the elevator speed, the greater the pressure difference between the vestibule and living room. This shows that the airflow rate should be actively changed by considering the location of the elevator and its speed. The empirical correlation between elevator movement and pressure difference is derived.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0477-1
  • Pyrolysis model for predicting the fire behavior of flexible polyurethane
    • Abstract: Numerical simulations capable of predicting the behavior of fire in the built environment are of increasing importance in environment design and safety analysis. The study of polyether polyurethane foam (PUF) is important as it is one of the most abundant materials present in the built environment and poses significant risk of fire and toxic gas. Several attempts to develop pyrolysis models for PUF have been made over the past decade with limited accuracy in replicating experimental result. Observations of PUF decomposition has led to a proposed model describing its kinetics, thermo-physical properties and fuel representation in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) environment. The proposed model describes the physical observations and addresses many of the limitations of previous models. The model is validated with an array cone calorimeter experiments on different size specimens for two types of PUF. The purpose of this paper is to further improve the PUF pyrolysis model so that it can be applied in larger simulations of varying geometrical fuel arrangements.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0484-2
  • Data mining based framework to identify rule based operation strategies
           for buildings with power metering system
    • Abstract: Operation strategies influence the building energy efficiency. In order to enhance the building energy efficiency, it’s necessary to adopt proper operation strategies on building equipment. Thus, the identification of existing operation strategies is necessary for the improvement of operation strategies. A data mining (DM) based framework is proposed in this paper to automatically identify the building operation strategies. The framework includes classification and regression tree (CART), and weighted association rule mining (WARM) method, targeting at three types of rule based control strategies: on/off control, sequencing control (for equipment of the same type), and coordinated control (for equipment of different types). The performance of this framework is validated with power metering system data and manual identification results based on on-site survey of three buildings in Shanghai. The validation results suggest that the proposed framework is capable of identifying building operation strategies accurately and automatically. Implemented on the original software named BOSA (Building Operation Strategy Analysis), this framework is promising to be used in engineering field to enhance the efficiency of building operation strategy identification work.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0472-6
  • Impacts of HVACR temperature sensor offsets on building energy performance
           and occupant thermal comfort
    • Abstract: Many advanced systems and data analysis methods are introduced into building science to realize the building automation and smart buildings. They are highly dependent on the information and data obtained from building sensor networks. In this technical flow, it is considerably important to understand the impacts of sensor errors on building energy systems, including Heating, Ventilation, Air-conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVACR), and mechanisms behind that in developing the reliable sensing environments and applying sensing technologies. Especially, temperature sensor errors have the great impacts on the system control and the application performance connected with the building systems; However, it is more challenging to calibrate the erroneous temperature sensors using a recent novel sensor calibration method (virtual in-situ sensor calibration). Nevertheless, few studies have concentrated on the impacts of temperature sensor errors through HVACR systems and they still lack the quantitative results and the understanding of how the temperature errors affect building energy performance and thermal comfort in the previous studies. Thus, this study investigates and characterizes the various impacts of temperature errors in HVACR using building energy simulation with the individual and combined error cases. The analysis includes the changes in the energy consumptions, system operation, system performance, and occupant unmet set-point hours by error location and error size.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0475-3
  • Importance-driven approach for reducing urban radiative exchange
    • Abstract: In the context of large scale urban heat transfer simulation, the prediction of radiative flux at short and long wave spectra is a step necessary to obtain accurate results. From a computational perspective, this task is expensive because realistic conditions require calculations in many sensors, considering multiple radiation bounces, and evaluating many hundred daylighting conditions. Radiosity-based approaches are adequate methods for processing the large number of diffuse surfaces that are usually present in city models. However, the high memory consumption of these algorithms turns them inefficient for handling big geometries, and therefore ray tracing techniques are commonly used. In this article we present a study on using the importance concept to improve the performance of radiosity calculations at the urban scale. The algorithm is able to consider diffuse and specular materials, and it proves to be a viable alternative to ray tracing. Since most of the information contained in big city models is not needed for simulating a selected zone of interest, the computational requirements can be reduced drastically. Several experiments are conducted to test the approach, and promising results are reported.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0482-4
  • Augmented Ensemble Calibration of lumped-parameter building models
    • Abstract: The dynamic integration of building retrofit investment tools and linear power systems optimisation tools requires the development of simplified linear building energy models which are representative of different Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) options. Ensemble Calibration is a methodology which identifies linear building energy models as functions of ECMs for opaque building envelope components. The methodology uses Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), a heuristic optimisation algorithm, to minimise the calibration error between model predictions and suitable baseline data. The Ensemble Calibration methodology cannot model fast building thermal response characteristics, such as glazing parameters (e.g., thermal transmittance and solar transmittance) or air leakage parameters (e.g., infiltration rate), as functions of transparent envelope ECMs. The standard PSO algorithm widely explores the solution space while attracting all particles (i.e., candidate model solutions) to the best solution at each iteration. Fast building response parameters are significantly altered during the early iterations of the PSO algorithm, thus having a negative impact on the overall calibration process. Therefore, the glazing and infiltration parameters are not correctly identified in an Ensemble Calibration framework and calibration accuracy of the building models suffers as a result. The current paper addresses this issue through the augmentation of existing Ensemble models using supplementary retrofit parameter functions for non-opaque ECMs. The paper also proposes a simplified infiltration model which emulates improvements in air tightness associated with the addition of ECMs while enabling other air tightness measures to be included as ECMs. The proposed methodology is applied to the Ensemble Calibration of two EnergyPlus archetype models representative of the detached housing stock and mid-floor apartment stock in Ireland. The augmentation algorithm results in the accurate calibration of linear building energy models for different ECM configurations (i.e., ECM combination options), while providing considerable computational advantages. The proposed methodology enables the use of glazing and infiltration scenarios in an Ensemble Calibration framework, thus enhancing the representativeness of the methodology for the integrated analysis of ECM investment planning under future electrified space heating scenarios.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0473-5
  • Study of the effect of green quantity and structure on thermal comfort and
           air quality in an urban-like residential district by ENVI-met modelling
    • Abstract: This study quantifies the influence of green spaces on microclimate and PM10 concentration in a typical residential district of Nanjing (China) by employing the CFD-based and microclimate model ENVI-met 4. Five green indices, related to quantity and structure of vegetation, are employed to investigate the impact of different types (grass, shrub and tree) and layouts of a green space located in the center of the residential district under an average Nanjing summer day. Results show that the thermal comfort (expressed by the mean radiant temperature MRT and the predicted mean vote PMV) is slightly enhanced with increasing green quantity, especially trees, even though more trees may increase the wind blocking effect with a consequent slight increase of pollutant concentration. In this regard, a single patch of trees located in the central part of the green space is preferable. The green indices are shown to be useful for studying the relationship between green space morphology, microclimate and air quality in cities.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0498-9
  • The discussion on the mystery season of a historical painting “Qing Ming
           Shang He Tu” by the thermal comfort analysis method
    • Abstract: Qing Ming Shang He Tu, also known by its English name as the “Along the River during the Qingming Festival”, is one of the most famous paintings in China to describe the human’s daily life in the capital city Bian Liang (also known as Dong Jing and Kai Feng city today) of Northern Song dynasty. It captures the environment and activities of the city and rural area on both banks of River Bain including architecture, street networks and arrangements, commercial trading activities, characters, transportation, etc. There is a lot of debates about the season described in the painting, most of which is attributed to the spring tomb sweeping festival, to reflect the two words “Qing Ming” in the name of the painting. However other scholars thought some scenes in the painting also show that this is not the scene appearing in the spring, so the season in the painting should be autumn. In addition to the studies in history and in the painting, this study, from a scientific perspective, reproduces the scene model in “Qing Ming Shang He Tu”, through CFD, simulating the environmental conditions of spring and autumn, to discuss the mystery about the season in “Qing Ming Shang He Tu” by thermal comfort analysis method.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0469-1
  • Modeling and matching performance of a hybrid-power gas engine heat pump
           system with continuously variable transmission
    • Abstract: Based on the steady-state efficiency of the engine and the motor and characteristic curve of Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery, an energy management strategy is proposed for a coaxial parallel hybrid-power gas engine heat pump (HPGHP) with V-belt continuously variable transmission (CVT) by using logic threshold approach to control the dynamical transitions between the various operation modes. The torque distribution between engine and motor, and CVT ratio are regulated through predetermined optimal operation lines of hybrid powertrain system in different operations. The results demonstrate that the energy management strategy can satisfy heat pump demand performance and reduce gas consumption effectively, as well as keep battery state of charge (SOC) in reasonable range. The average thermal efficiency of driving system in three main operating modes is 3.8%, 1.9% and 2.5% higher than that of multi-stage transmission system respectively, indicating that the system has better energy saving performance.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0480-6
  • Impact of indoor-outdoor temperature differences on dispersion of gaseous
           pollutant and particles in idealized street canyons with and without
           viaduct settings
    • Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed to investigate flow and pollutant dispersion in a 2D street canyon of aspect ratio H/W = 1. Different from other works, the combination of the presence of viaduct and indoor-outdoor temperature differences ΔT is investigated for different approaching wind velocities. For larger wind velocity (2 m/s, Froude number Fr~3.06–12.24) the typical clockwise vortex leads to higher concentrations of both gas and small particles at the leeward side of the street and in the leeward-side rooms; the vortex is enhanced under large ΔT (20 K) improving the dispersion of pollutants. For smaller velocity (0.5 m/s, Fr~0.19–0.77) the appearance of an anti-clockwise vortex leads to a strong accumulation of gas and particles at the windward side and in the windward-side rooms under low ΔT (5 K); increasing the ΔT raises the dispersion of pollutants with consequent lower concentrations in the rooms (up to an average of 67% with respect to the isothermal case for gaseous pollutants), but accumulation close to the ground level at both windward-side and leeward-side rooms. In the presence of viaduct, together with the main vortex above the viaduct which causes concentrations increasing from low-level to high-level leeward-side rooms, two vortices are generated below it. Still ΔT = 20 K improves the dispersion of pollutants, leading up to a maximum of about 30% lower gaseous concentrations in the rooms. In general, lower concentrations of gas and particles are found for larger velocity, indicating that the mechanical turbulence dominates over the buoyancy effects, which become crucial for smaller velocity. This study confirms previous findings that viaducts may improve pollutant dispersion under large velocity if only one viaduct-level pollutant source exists and indoor-outdoor ΔT conditions can mitigate street air pollution.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0476-2
  • Experimental and computational investigation of outdoor wind flow around a
           setback building
    • Abstract: In recent days, the behaviour of wind flow around the buildings receives more interest among urban planners, architects, researchers and wind engineers. Hence, these wind flow patterns are assessed extensively using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, as it re-creates the atmospheric and wind tunnel environment following the turbulence parameters. This paper presents a logical assessment using IDDES (Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model in CFD for predicting wind pressure coefficients and flow features on and around a 300:1 scaled setback tall building model at 0° and 90° AOI (Angle of Incidence) under open terrain condition. The computation is based on gird sensitivity study and validation with Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel (BLWT) experiment measurements. The evaluation shows that the downdraught and downwind effects are suppressed by the increasing wind pressure distribution along the height. The results demonstrate that IDDES can reproduce wind pressure coefficients and aerodynamic coefficients of the setback building accurately. The maximum deviation of the wind pressure coefficients (Cp rms) is found to be 12% in CFD when compared with wind tunnel measurements. Besides, the CFD simulation demonstrates the wind flow distribution patterns, size of re-circulation, wake separation zones and velocity profiles in a three-dimensional plane which are quantified concerning the width of the building.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-019-0514-8
  • Large eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion in a naturally
    • Abstract: In the present article, the flow field and passive gaseous pollutant dispersion in a naturally cross-ventilated isolated single-zone model building have been investigated. The large eddy simulation (LES) approach has been applied together with three different sub-grid scale (SGS) models, namely, wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE), dynamic Smagorinsky-Lilly model (DSLM), and standard Smagorinsky-Lilly model (SSLM). The flow and passive scalar concentration fields have been compared with available experimental data. It is demonstrated that the three SGS models predict similar flow field. Also, it can be observed that the mean concentration field results obtained from the WALE sub-grid scale (SGS) model are in better agreement with the experimental data than those of DSLM and SSLM by about 8% and 5%, respectively. Moreover, the CPU time required for the computations by the WALE and SSLM models was almost 20% less than that of DSLM, making WALE a more suitable SGS model than the other two models for the prediction of flow and concentration fields in an isolated building. Furthermore, contributions of convective flux and turbulent diffusion flux to the pollutant transportation have been studied. It has been shown that although the convective flux is the main mechanism, the two fluxes have a significant influence on pollutant transportation and distribution.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-019-0525-5
  • Modeling transient particle transport by fast fluid dynamics with the
           Markov chain method
    • Abstract: Fast simulation tools for the prediction of transient particle transport are critical in designing the air distribution indoors to reduce the exposure to indoor particles and associated health risks. This investigation proposed a combined fast fluid dynamics (FFD) and Markov chain model for fast predicting transient particle transport indoors. The solver for FFD-Markov-chain model was programmed in OpenFOAM, an open-source CFD toolbox. This study used two cases from the literature to validate the developed model and found well agreement between the transient particle concentrations predicted by the FFD-Markov-chain model and the experimental data. This investigation further compared the FFD-Markov-chain model with the CFD-Eulerian model and CFD-Lagrangian model in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The accuracy of the FFD-Markov-chain model was similar to that of the other two models. For the two studied cases, the FFD-Markovchain model was 4.7 and 6.8 times faster, respectively, than the CFD-Eulerian model, and it was 137.4 and 53.3 times faster than the CFD-Lagrangian model in predicting the steady-state airflow and transient particle transport. Therefore, the FFD-Markov-chain model is able to greatly reduce the computing cost for predicting transient particle transport in indoor environments.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-019-0513-9
  • Performance-driven optimization of urban open space configuration in the
           cold-winter and hot-summer region of China
    • Abstract: Urbanization has led to changes in urban morphology and climate, while urban open space has become an important ecological factor for evaluating the performance of urban development. This study presents an optimization approach using computational performance simulation. With a genetic algorithm using the Grasshopper tool, this study analyzed the layout and configuration of urban open space and its impact on the urban micro-climate under summer and winter conditions. The outdoor mean Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was applied as the performance indicator for evaluating the quality of the urban micro-climate. Two cases—one testbed and one real urban block in Nanjing, China—were used to validate the computer-aided simulation process. The optimization results in the testbed showed UTCI values varied from 36.5 to 37.3 °C in summer and from −4.9 to −1.9 °C in winter. In the case of the real urban block, optimization results show, for summer, although the average UTCI value increased by 0.6 °C, the average air velocity increased by 0.2 m/s; while in winter, the average UTCI value increased by 1.7 °C and the average air velocity decreased by 0.2 m/s. These results demonstrate that the proposed computer-aided optimization process can improve the thermal comfort conditions of open space in urban blocks. Finally, this study discusses strategies and guidelines for the layout design of urban open space to improve urban environment comfort.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-019-0510-z
  • Numerical investigation of the influence of heat emitters on the local
           thermal comfort in a room
    • Abstract: In this paper a numerical analysis of the effect of heat emitter characteristics on the local indoor thermal comfort condition in a room is presented. A dynamic model, able to evaluate the 3D distribution of the mean radiant temperature in the whole volume of a thermal zone is developed. The model allows a fast evaluation, in terms of computational time, of the view factors associated to the inner points of a room thanks to the use of the MATLAB Contour Double Integral Formula (CDIF) routine. The new tool has been used in order to obtain, by means of a series of dynamic yearly simulations, a comparison among different heat emitters (i.e. in-slab radiant floor, in-slab radiant ceiling, lightweight radiant ceiling, radiator, radiant vertical wall and all-air systems) in terms of 3D distribution of the local operative temperature in a room. The knowledge of the 3D distribution of the operative temperature enables the local analysis of the indoor thermal comfort conditions established in the room during the year. The local Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) distribution within the room is calculated for each considered configuration. The results allow to quantify how the reduction of the maximum surface temperature of the emitters, which can be experienced when the envelope thermal insulation is increased, can create more uniform indoor thermal conditions by reducing the differences existing among the heat emitters.
      PubDate: 2019-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12273-019-0506-8
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