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  Subjects -> STATISTICS (Total: 130 journals)
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Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.392
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1018-5895 - ISSN (Online) 1468-0440
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Evaluating traditional, dynamic and network business models: an
           efficiency-based study of Chinese insurance companies

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      Abstract: Abstract Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is extensively adopted to evaluate the relative efficiencies of a group of insurance companies from a multidimensional perspective. Selecting an appropriate DEA framework for insurance businesses, however, remains ambiguous. We use the slack-based measure (SBM) models in DEA to evaluate insurance efficiencies from four perspectives, namely, SBM, network SBM (NSBM), dynamic SBM (DSBM), and dynamic network SBM (DNSBM) frameworks. We present the applicability of DEA to 32 unique companies operating in the Chinese insurance industry over the sample period 2014–2018. Through analyses, we highlight key DEA results and related constraints in reaching the most appropriate performance benchmarks for evaluating insurance companies’ efficiencies. We find that building a network structure for insurance efficiency evaluation is necessary because of the superiority of NSBM and DNSBM results over those of the conventional SBM and DSBM models. After including dynamic effects, we find consistent results in the divisional and overall efficiencies. Overall, this study provides insight for insurance companies to implement more efficient and effective ways to evaluate their performances in terms of profitability and investment in a challenging business environment.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • The relationship between net promoter score and insurers’ profitability:
           an empirical analysis at the customer level

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the relationship between customer satisfaction and profitability at the level of the individual customer. In many industries, investigations detect a positive, decreasing relationship between customer satisfaction and firm profitability. The insurance industry has rarely been the object of such investigations. Pooser and Browne (2018) started this discussion by examining U.S. insurers at the firm level. We provide reasons why the positive satisfaction–profitability relationship might be reversed, particularly in the case of the insurance industry. We conduct an array of OLS regressions with customer-level data. Our results reveal a strong positive relationship between customer satisfaction and profitability. The effect is considerably large and also robust when investigating the effect of several customer characteristics on this relationship. We recommend that the increase in profitability is induced by a strong positive correlation between customer satisfaction and premium income, while satisfaction is not associated with the combined ratio.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Implications of bundled offerings for business development and competitive
           strategy in digital insurance

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      Abstract: Abstract The ubiquitous availability of interconnected digital devices does not only change the kinds of risks that can be insured and the way insurance companies work, it also facilitates the formation of bundled offerings across different industrial sectors, including insurance as well as other products and services. We identify two distinct patterns in which such bundles change value creation in the insurance industry, which we describe as sales bundles and value bundles. In the former, the objects of insurance become more specific and risks can be estimated more precisely, but insurance becomes an add-on to other offerings at the point of sale. In the latter, insurance is merged with other products and services in comprehensive value bundles in which the exact distribution of responsibilities remains flexible. Although huge effort is required to establish these value bundles and maintain their systemic infrastructures, they create many new opportunities for business development in the insurance industry.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Business environment, political risk, governance, Shariah compliance and
           efficiency in insurance companies in the MENA region

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      Abstract: Abstract Widespread political and economic changes over the past several decades have influenced MENA insurance firms’ business environment fundamentally. This study investigates the influence of business environment, political risk, governance and Shariah compliance on efficiency in the insurance market from 2007 to 2017 using unbalanced panel data from 125 listed insurance firms across MENA countries. The study emphasises that a less favourable business environment exerts pressure on insurance firms and also identified an improvement in efficiency over the sample period, which may be attributed to the role played by challenging business conditions in increasing efficiency. Further, the results showed that variability in general economic conditions and influence of governance indicators explain efficiency, while solvency has a multifaceted effect on efficiency. Finally, the study found that Islamic insurance’s relative failure to enhance efficiency may be attributable to its failure to establish a distinct identity or draw a clear line between its mode of operation and that of conventional insurance, as well as the issue of customer confidence. Overall, the study emphasises the importance of controlling business environmental conditions in cross-country efficiency studies.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Financial development, life insurance and growth: Evidence from 17
           European countries

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      Abstract: Abstract This study constructs a simple model to demonstrate that life insurance and financial development simultaneously affect economic growth. We provide empirical evidence on the model’s critical prediction. By analysing panel data for 17 advanced European countries from 1980 to 2015, the results show that the effect of private credit on real economic growth is negative in both the long and short run. The negative finance–growth nexus may be due to excessive financing in European countries. The financial crises that occurred during the study period may also have contributed to the negative effects. We find that an increase in the consumption of life insurance is a viable and long-term policy since life insurance penetration promotes long-term economic growth but is not obvious in the short term. Finally, life insurance development is a panacea in the finance–growth nexus since it not only helps moderate long-term real growth volatility but also absorbs the side effect of private credit on real economic growth.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Organisational structure, corporate governance and reinsurance decisions
           in the U.S. property-liability insurance industry

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates the impact of organisational structure and corporate governance on reinsurance decisions in the U.S. property-liability insurance industry. Our evidence shows that mutual insurers, mutual-owned stock insurers and stock insurers whose ultimate parent is publicly traded are likely to purchase more reinsurance from non-affiliated reinsurers than stock insurers closely held by managers. We also find that corporate governance significantly influences reinsurance purchases; specifically, CEO/chairperson duality is associated with lower reinsurance purchases while the percentage of independent directors on the board is positively (negatively) related to reinsurance purchases from non-affiliated (affiliated) reinsurers. Higher audit quality is associated with lower (higher) reinsurance purchases from non-affiliated (affiliated) reinsurers. Moreover, many interaction terms between organisational structure and corporate governance have significant effects on reinsurance decisions. Finally, we provide evidence that the Sarbanes–Oxley Act (SOX) has a substantial effect on the relation between organisational structure (corporate governance) and reinsurance decisions. The overall effect of SOX on reinsurance purchase from non-affiliated reinsurers is negative, implying that better investor protection results in higher risk taking and less risk shifting to outside reinsurers.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Choosing the highest annuity payout: the role of intermediation and firm
           reputation

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we analyse retirees’ decision-making from the different bids made available by life insurance companies in the Chilean annuity market. We find that choosing the highest annuity payout was positively (negatively) correlated with the advice given by independent brokers (sales agents and average years of education in the municipality) for a January 2008–May 2018 sample. We also found that retirees were willing to pay for firm reputation. In addition, people who are more likely to take a pension payout without consulting intermediaries are older, married, have a higher pension balance and purchase an immediate annuity. These findings are of interest to those seeking to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the annuity system.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Suspension of insurers’ dividends as a response to the COVID-19 crisis:
           evidence from the European insurance equity market

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      Abstract: Abstract The recent COVID-19 outbreak and significant increase in resulting global uncertainty poses many challenges to financial sectors. Many regulators took measures to safeguard the resilience of financial institutions by requesting postponements of dividend distributions until uncertainties about further development diminished. Specifically, on 2 April 2020, the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority issued a statement requesting that re/insurers suspend all discretionary dividend distributions and share buybacks aimed at remunerating shareholders. Although the goal was to strengthen the overall financial stability of the sector, it may have negatively influenced insurers’ equity prices in the short term. Hence, this paper empirically investigates this potential effect using an event study methodology. Although negative drops were observed in some cases, the obtained empirical results suggest that they were not statistically significant for the European insurers’ equity market when considering the event windows covering several days after the statement was published.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • The impact of tax-subsidized health insurance on health and out-of-pocket
           burden in China

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      Abstract: Abstract To achieve a tiered healthcare system in China, the government has beefed up efforts to encourage people to embrace private health insurance. One of the steps is to introduce tax-subsidized health insurance (TSHI) in 2015. This paper assesses whether TSHI is successful in improving health and easing financial burden. Using unique data from the Domestic TSHI Consumers Evaluation Survey in 2019 and Propensity Score Matching method, we find that TSHI has been effective in improving participants’ health status, but not in lowering out-of-pocket (OOP) burden. Besides, TSHI can increase the utilization of both inpatient and outpatient care, which provides a possible explanation for beneficial health effect. From an internal perspective, TSHI has the potential to reduce disparities in health and access to healthcare services. Our results provide implications on modifying the benefit design of TSHI to better complement basic medical insurance system and on reforming the current tax incentive policy to reach out a large number of low-income people.
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
       
  • Systemic importance of financial services and insurance sectors: a world
           input–output network analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract This study examines the systemic importance of the financial services sector in the global input–output network between 2000 and 2014. To measure the systemic importance of the financial services and insurance sectors of 13 major economies with the Financial Stability Board identified Globally Systemically Important Banks and Globally Systemically Important Insurers, we construct a local and global shock contagion index using the partial extraction technique in input–output analysis. We demonstrate how local supply reductions in the insurance or other financial services sectors can have a global spillover effect on GDP. We also find that the systemic importance of the financial services and insurance sectors varies over time depending on the size and structure of the economy in different economies (such as the U.S. and China). Additionally, we investigate the impact of simultaneous supply shocks that have originated in the insurance and other financial services (e.g., banking) sectors of different economies. Empirical evidence suggests that simultaneous supply shocks in the financial services sectors in certain economies could contribute to, at least a large portion of, economic downturns, as observed during the 2008 Global Financial Crisis.
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
       
  • The ILS loss experience: natural catastrophe issues 2001–2020

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      Abstract: Abstract “If there were no losses; there would be no premiums,” Insurance proverb. This paper analyzes the history of natural catastrophe Insurance-Linked Securities (ILS), or Cat Bonds (CB), from 2001 to 2020. Preliminary analyses summarize the annual character of issuance during that period, providing context for the principal focus of the paper, which is losses. A detailed loss record is provided, including why and when losses occurred. This record, when set against the historic issuance, allows us to address several important questions, unaddressed in the literature but constantly posed by practitioners. Does the cumulative loss over 20 years equal what catastrophe models led to us expect' Were the relative sizes of actual losses reflective of expected losses' Most importantly, does the loss record support the idea that natural catastrophe models are accurate and useful' This paper is the first to specifically address these fundamental forensic questions against the loss record. It thereby makes an important contribution to the growing literature about ILS markets.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • New technologies and data in insurance

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      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41288-022-00274-6
       
  • Examining insurance companies’ use of technology for innovation

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      Abstract: Abstract The insurance industry is innovating. Business models, services and processes are rapidly evolving, largely backed by technological developments. The particular historical context of COVID-19 provides a suitable case to understand the relevance of exploiting technology to react quickly to traditional and emerging risks. Focusing on the initiatives put in place by the most influential insurance companies at the global level, we have framed the innovation mechanisms in the industry, highlighting four rationales underpinning these initiatives (Adaption, Expansion, Reaction and Aggression), which differ according to the relevance of the technology in use and innovation to the portfolio of risks covered. Overall, it emerges that insurance companies have the room and capability to innovate, in many cases using technological applications to cover new and existing risks. While the initiatives studied concern the entire value chain, basic primary activities, such as product development, sales and claims management, show that innovation based on new or existing technology determines the success and competitiveness of the business.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41288-021-00258-y
       
  • Framework for open insurance strategy: insights from a European study

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      Abstract: Abstract While some consider open insurance to be a buzzword with more hype than substance, the underlying trend of open finance stimulates insurers to use digital technology to exchange data with third parties to realise process efficiencies and develop new products and channels. Based on a literature review and 30 interviews with industry experts in Europe, we define open insurance, identify its key drivers, and discuss the dimensions and performance impact of open insurance strategy. The combined insights can help executives develop a better understanding of open insurance and formulate an open insurance strategy that provides performance benefits to them, customers, and third parties.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41288-022-00264-8
       
  • Insurance and wearables as tools in managing risk in sports: Determinants
           of technology take-up and propensity to insure and share data

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      Abstract: Abstract Sports participants are actively adopting wearables to measure their performance but they can also be used to minimise and control risks. We investigate and compare the results of 272 runners and 265 soccer players to determine the current use of wearables as well as the propensity to purchase insurance services that are coupled with the wearable technology. This includes an inquiry into the factors that determine people’s readiness to share data with a potential insurance carrier. We use a Logit function to show that soccer players are more likely to purchase insurance as a means of protecting future income, especially at a younger age. We also find that perception of and experience with technology are key determinants of the use of wearables and the disposition to share insurance data for both cohorts. Wearables are also more likely to be adopted if offered at a lower pricing point. Finally, both cohorts are more likely to share their data with an insurer if they have a positive perception of the insurance industry and its products.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41288-021-00250-6
       
  • Explaining automated decision-making: a multinational study of the GDPR
           right to meaningful information

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      Abstract: Abstract The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) establishes a right for individuals to get access to information about automated decision-making based on their personal data. However, the application of this right comes with caveats. This paper investigates how European insurance companies have navigated these obstacles. By recruiting volunteering insurance customers, requests for information about how insurance premiums are set were sent to 26 insurance companies in Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Findings illustrate the practice of responding to GDPR information requests and the paper identifies possible explanations for shortcomings and omissions in the responses. The paper also adds to existing research by showing how the wordings in the different language versions of the GDPR could lead to different interpretations. Finally, the paper discusses what can reasonably be expected from explanations in consumer oriented information.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.1057/s41288-022-00271-9
       
  • The impact of digital finance on household insurance purchases: evidence
           from micro data in China

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      Abstract: Abstract Using panel data from the 2013, 2015 and 2017 China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) and the digital finance index developed by Peking University, this study examines the impact of digital finance on household insurance purchases and explores its mechanisms. The results indicate that digital finance can promote household insurance purchases by increasing residents’ financial literacy and their accessibility to internet financial services. A heterogeneity analysis reveals that digital finance has a more positive effect on the insurance purchases of households with fewer assets, lower income and located in less developed and rural areas. Regarding the type of insurance, digital finance enhances the purchase of property and life rather than health insurance. The regression results of household insurance purchases on the three dimensions of digital finance show that the breadth of coverage and depth of usage of digital finance have more significant impacts on household insurance purchases than digitalisation level. Robustness checks with different measures and samples, also addressing potential endogeneity using the instrumental variable approach, show the reliability of our findings.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1057/s41288-022-00267-5
       
  • Cyber risk and cybersecurity: a systematic review of data availability

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      Abstract: Abstract Cybercrime is estimated to have cost the global economy just under USD 1 trillion in 2020, indicating an increase of more than 50% since 2018. With the average cyber insurance claim rising from USD 145,000 in 2019 to USD 359,000 in 2020, there is a growing necessity for better cyber information sources, standardised databases, mandatory reporting and public awareness. This research analyses the extant academic and industry literature on cybersecurity and cyber risk management with a particular focus on data availability. From a preliminary search resulting in 5219 cyber peer-reviewed studies, the application of the systematic methodology resulted in 79 unique datasets. We posit that the lack of available data on cyber risk poses a serious problem for stakeholders seeking to tackle this issue. In particular, we identify a lacuna in open databases that undermine collective endeavours to better manage this set of risks. The resulting data evaluation and categorisation will support cybersecurity researchers and the insurance industry in their efforts to comprehend, metricise and manage cyber risks.
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.1057/s41288-022-00266-6
       
  • Managing customer satisfaction: digital applications for insurance
           companies

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      Abstract: Abstract Customer satisfaction management is increasing in importance within the insurance industry. In particular, to define a customer-oriented strategy, installing digital applications based on technologies, e.g. including artificial intelligence or cloud computing, ranks among the major strategic challenges. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to take an integrated perspective on managing customer satisfaction and the digital transformation. Towards this end, we identify and assess a set of digital applications, as a result of a comprehensive review of 106 academic papers and publications of the industry and supervisory authorities. We illustrate the opportunities to increase customer satisfaction and emphasise their impact on insurers at four major customer touch points: contract conclusion, contract modifications, the event of damage and further contacts. Our results are strategic measures to strengthen the position for sales and marketing, to simplify standard processes and to increase efficiency and interaction with the customer.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1057/s41288-021-00257-z
       
  • On the (future) role of on-demand insurance: market landscape, business
           model and customer perception

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      Abstract: Abstract Over the last decade, digitisation and individualisation have fostered the development of on-demand services in many industries. In the insurance sector, technological progress brings new possibilities on how risks can be insured. This paper studies on-demand insurance and thereby takes three perspectives. First, we define on-demand insurance and study the current market landscape of offerings, leading to a characterisation of the phenomenon. Second, we analyse the on-demand insurance business model, discuss how value is created, and develop a taxonomy of the dimensions among business model components. Third, we describe the awareness and interest of potential customers in Switzerland using novel data recorded from a recent consumer survey. Using the results from the market study, business model analysis, and customer survey, we discuss the (future) role of on-demand insurance, shedding light on the ongoing business model transformation in the insurance industry. We conclude that insurtech companies address emerging customer needs and that traditional incumbent insurers must innovate to keep their prominent role at the customer interface. While novelty and complementarity of on-demand insurance solutions bring value today, we expect that efficiency and customer retention will add more value in the future, especially once technology has matured and business model components are well-aligned.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1057/s41288-022-00265-7
       
 
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