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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 161 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS ES&T Water     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Limnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Agua y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
altlastenforum Baden-Württemberg e.V., Schriftenreihe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquaculture and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquaculture, Fish and Fisheries     Open Access  
Aquasains     Open Access  
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AWWA Water Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Discover Water     Open Access  
e-Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan     Open Access  
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Water     Open Access  
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
Inland Waters     Hybrid Journal  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Water Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal and Hydraulic Structures (JCHS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecohydraulics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of South Carolina Water Resources     Open Access  
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Enggano     Open Access  
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural and Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
npj Clean Water     Open Access  
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Opflow     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ribagua : Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access  
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Soil Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Water Cycle     Open Access  
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Water Research X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 91)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Water-Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
wH2O : The Journal of Gender and Water     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal  
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Water Policy     Hybrid Journal  
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Irrigation Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.771
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-1319 - ISSN (Online) 0342-7188
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Improving the spatiotemporal resolution of remotely sensed ET information
           for water management through Landsat, Sentinel-2, ECOSTRESS and VIIRS data
           fusion

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      Abstract: Abstract Robust information on consumptive water use (evapotranspiration, ET) derived from remote sensing can significantly benefit water decision-making in agriculture, informing irrigation schedules and water management plans over extended regions. To be of optimal utility for operational usage, these remote sensing ET data should be generated at the sub-field spatial resolution and daily-to-weekly timesteps commensurate with the scales of water management activities. However, current methods for field-scale ET retrieval based on thermal infrared (TIR) imaging, a valuable diagnostic of canopy stress and surface moisture status, are limited by the temporal revisit of available medium-resolution (100 m or finer) thermal satellite sensors. This study investigates the efficacy of a data fusion method for combining information from multiple medium-resolution sensors toward generating high spatiotemporal resolution ET products for water management. TIR data from Landsat and ECOSTRESS (both at ~ 100-m native resolution), and VIIRS (375-m native) are sharpened to a common 30-m grid using surface reflectance data from the Harmonized Landsat-Sentinel dataset. Periodic 30-m ET retrievals from these combined thermal data sources are fused with daily retrievals from unsharpened VIIRS to generate daily, 30-m ET image timeseries. The accuracy of this mapping method is tested over several irrigated cropping systems in the Central Valley of California in comparison with flux tower observations, including measurements over irrigated vineyards collected in the GRAPEX campaign. Results demonstrate the operational value added by the augmented TIR sensor suite compared to Landsat alone, in terms of capturing daily ET variability and reduced latency for real-time applications. The method also provides means for incorporating new sources of imaging from future planned thermal missions, further improving our ability to map rapid changes in crop water use at field scales.
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
       
  • Evaluating different metrics from the thermal-based two-source energy
           balance model for monitoring grapevine water stress

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      Abstract: Abstract Precision irrigation management requires operational monitoring of crop water status. However, there is still some controversy on how to account for crop water stress. To address this question, several physiological, several physiological metrics have been proposed, such as the leaf/stem water potentials, stomatal conductance, or sap flow. On the other hand, thermal remote sensing has been shown to be a promising tool for efficiently evaluating crop stress at adequate spatial and temporal scales, via the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI), one of the most common indices used for assessing plant stress. CWSI relates the actual crop evapotranspiration ET (related to the canopy radiometric temperature) to the potential ET (or minimum crop temperature). However, remotely sensed surface temperature from satellite sensors includes a mixture of plant canopy and soil/substrate temperatures, while what is required for accurate crop stress detection is more related to canopy metrics, such as transpiration, as the latter one avoids the influence of soil/substrate in determining crop water status or stress. The Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model is one of the most widely used and robust evapotranspiration model for remote sensing. It has the capability of partitioning ET into the crop transpiration and soil evaporation components, which is required for accurate crop water stress estimates. This study aims at evaluating different TSEB metrics related to its retrievals of actual ET, transpiration and stomatal conductance, to track crop water stress in a vineyard in California, part of the GRAPEX experiment. Four eddy covariance towers were deployed in a Variable Rate Irrigation system in a Merlot vineyard that was subject to different stress periods. In addition, root-zone soil moisture, stomatal conductance and leaf/stem water potential were collected as proxy for in situ crop water stress. Results showed that the most robust variable for tracking water stress was the TSEB derived leaf stomatal conductance, with the strongest correlation with both the measured root-zone soil moisture and stomatal conductance gas exchange measurements. In addition, these metrics showed a better ability in tracking stress when the observations are taken early after noon.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Pre- and post-harvest evapotranspiration, carbon exchange and water use
           efficiency of a mature peach orchard in semi-arid climate

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      Abstract: Abstract Better knowledge of the evapotranspiration and carbon exchange of fruit trees is needed to optimize the trade-off between water use and carbon assimilation and to better understand the role of agriculture in the biogeochemical cycles. In this work, we measured water and carbon fluxes with eddy covariance and transpiration with sap flow in a drip-irrigated peach orchard of 70% ground cover located in southern Spain for 2 years. The empirically measured crop coefficient (Kc) under good watering conditions in the summer ranged from 1 to 1.1. The daytime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) flux of the orchard averaged 30 g CO2 m2 day−1 during the period of maximum activity in July. The daytime ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) of the orchard reached a minimum in late June, flattened around 4 g CO2 L−1 throughout the summer, and increased in autumn, but was unaffected by fruit removal or post-harvest irrigation reduction imposed by the farm (30% reduction). The response of instantaneous peach ecosystem WUE to VPD was also investigated. Both Kc, NEE, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased sharply after harvest. Transpiration data from some purposely over-irrigated experimental trees demonstrated that the post-harvest alterations we found were not caused by fruit removal, but are result of mild water stress originated by the irrigation reduction. Hence, the often-observed alterations in water relations after harvest in well-watered trees were not observed in this experiment. This work adds insight on peach irrigation efficiency and on the contribution of orchards to agricultural carbon budgets.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • Sensitivity to water deficit of the second stage of fruit growth in late
           mandarin trees

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      Abstract: Abstract In citrus fruits, phases I and II of fruit growth are sensitive to water deficit, and for this reason, deficit irrigation (DI) has been usually restricted to the final ripening phase. However, the optimal timing and intensity of stress during sensitive phases have not been clearly defined. The main objective was to determine the sensitivity of the second stage of fruit growth to water deficit in adult mandarin trees, and to explore the suitability of different soil and plant water status indicators, including the leaf-scale spectrum, according to the water stress level. Four irrigation treatments were tested: a control (CTL) irrigated at ~ 80% of ETc during the entire crop cycle, and three irrigation suppression treatments, in which no water was applied during the end of phase I and the beginning of phase II (DI1), the second half of phase II (DI2), and phase III of fruit growth (DI3), respectively. Phase II of fruit growth can be considered as a non-critical phenological period until the fruit reaches approximately 60% of its final size, with the application of a water deficit using an irrigation threshold of midday stem water potential of − 1.8 MPa, and a cumulative water stress integral close to 28 MPa day. The novel visible infrared ratio index (VIRI) showed a high sensitivity for trees subjected to moderate and severe water stress and can be complementarily used to estimate on a larger temporal and spatial scale the plant water status. Wavelengths in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region allowed differentiation between non-stressed, moderately, and severely water-stressed trees, and can be considered as an initial basis for determining the water status of mandarin trees at various stress intensities by remote sensing.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • Phytotoxic effects of treated wastewater used for irrigation on root
           hydraulic conductivity and plant growth of maize seedlings (Zea mays L. PR
           32w86)

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      Abstract: Abstract Maize seedlings (Zea mays L. PR 32w86) were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution mixed with treated wastewater (TWW) or with dialyzed treated wastewater (DTWW) obtained after the dialysis process with a cutoff at 6000–8000 Da. Within 70 min of exposure, pressurized water flow through the excised roots was reduced massively by 46% (for primary TWW, after physical treatment) and 22% (for secondary TWW, after biological treatment). In contrast, with primary and secondary DTWW, it was only slightly decreased by 22%. On the other hand, cell wall pore sizes of these roots were little reduced: by (14–27%) for primary and secondary TWW and (6–9%) for primary and secondary DTWW. Primary and secondary effluents after either TWW or DTWW affected root elongation severely by (58–76%), while reduced leaf growth rate by (26–70%) and transpiration by (14–64%). The fresh and dry plant’s weight in soil growth was also significantly affected but not with secondary DTWW. These results appeared simultaneously to involve phytotoxic and physical-clogging consequences. First, the inhibition in hydraulic conductivity through live roots (i.e., phytotoxic, and physical effects) after exposure to secondary DTWW was 22%, while through killed roots accepted after hot alcohol disruption of cell membranes (i.e., physical effects only) was only by 14%. Second, although DTWW affected root elongation severely by 58%, cell wall pore sizes of the same roots were little reduced by 6%. We conclude that large molecular weight fraction, which remained after the dialysis process, may have produced physical and phytotoxic effects on root water permeability and plant growth.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • A review of trends in the use of sewage irrigation technology from the
           livestock and poultry breeding industries for farmlands

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      Abstract: Abstract Sewage from large-scale livestock and poultry breeding can be used to irrigate farmland, which is an effective measure to treat sewage in a cost- and energy-efficient manner and to ensure the sustainable use of water resources. However, sewage irrigation can negatively impact soil, groundwater, and human health due to low water quality, and studies addressing the advances in technology and risk evaluation of sewage irrigation have practical significance. This paper summarizes the three main aspects of this issue: sewage treatment technology, safe sewage irrigation technology, and risk and safety evaluation of the irrigation process. The main progress and problems associated with sewage irrigation technology are summarized, and future directions in sewage irrigation technology development are discussed. Finally, methods are proposed to address the specific problems that should be considered in the design of irrigation systems, such as the selection of the irrigation equipment, sewage irrigation scheduling, and the most appropriate evaluation method and index system to assess the ecological risk.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Water productivity of passion fruit under different forms of propagation
           and soil-based irrigation management criteria

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      Abstract: Abstract To reduce the risks of water scarcity and guarantee food security for present and future generations, it is essential to increase the water productivity in irrigated agriculture. This increase can be achieved by adopting irrigation management (IM) techniques that avoid insufficient or excessive water application. IM aims at maintaining the soil water status within a range ideal for crop development which is usually defined by an upper and lower threshold of matric potential. The effect of different upper and lower thresholds of matric potential in drip irrigation management on the fruit yield and water productivity of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims, BRS Gigante Amarelo) propagated by seed and cuttings was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The passion fruit plants were grown in fiberglass reservoirs, each with a surface area of 1.44 m2 and height of 0.60 m, filled with sandy-loam soil. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 4 factorial scheme: two forms of propagation (seed and cuttings) and four critical upper limits of soil water matric potential (− 6, − 10, − 20, and − 33 kPa) were used to calculate the volume of water to be applied in irrigation by drip at a fixed frequency. Soil hydraulic properties were obtained through inverse modeling with Hydrus—1D and soil water content was determined using Time Domain Reflectometry—TDR. The number of fruits per plant and per hectare, fruit yield per plant and per hectare, water productivity as a function of the mass of the fruits, and as a function of the mass of the endocarp (pulp with seeds) were evaluated. The different forms of vegetative propagation did not affect fruit yield and water productivity. On the other hand, the upper matric potential thresholds impacted the number of fruits per plant, fruit yield, and water productivity. We recommend that a potential range centered on − 10 kPa with upper and lower thresholds between − 6.95 and − 19.85 kPa should be used for yellow passion fruit irrigation management.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Responses of infiltration and evaporation to amounts and distribution
           characteristics of the residual plastic films within agricultural soil

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      Abstract: Abstract In arid and semi-arid regions, plastic film mulching is important for improving crop yield and quality, but incomplete recovery of the plastic film results in the accumulation of shattered residual plastic film (RPF) after crop harvest, which further affects infiltration and evaporation, thus reducing crop water use efficiency. Herein, we investigated the effects of RPF amounts (0–1320.0 kg ha–1) and RPF distribution patterns (evenly residual film, ERF; decreasing residual film, DRF) on soil water content, infiltration rate, wetting front migration and evaporation. The results showed that the amount of RPF significantly affected soil infiltration, and the infiltration rate and wetting front migration depth decreased with the increase of RPF amount. Soil water content increased in topsoil (0–15 cm) but decreased in deep soil (15–30 cm) with increasing the RPF amount. Soil infiltration and wetting front transport were blocked by RPF with the increase of soil depth, and thus soil water content decreased with soil depth after infiltration. From another aspect, soil total evaporation decreased significantly with increasing the amount of RPF, and DRF treatments inhibited soil evaporation more significantly than those of ERF. The fitting model results for infiltration rate (Kostiakov), wetting front migration (power function), and total evaporation (Rose) were appropriate, while the fitting accuracy decreased with increasing the RPF amount. The results of linear fit indicated that 396.0 kg ha–1 could be used as a threshold for the RPF amount in the soil, beyond which it could result in the accumulation of heat in the shallow soil and hurt the crop. This study could provide a theoretical reference for the environmental management of plastic film residues in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Evaluating crop coefficient and associated processes in a drip irrigation
           with different color of biodegradable film mulching

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      Abstract: Abstract Biodegradable film mulching (BFM) has been developed as an alternative to conventional plastic film mulching (PFM) to reduce residual plastic film in soil. However, there remains insufficient knowledge of the effect of the disintegrated area of biodegradable film on the crop coefficient (Kc), particularly for different colors of biodegradable film. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in Kc and its components under different types (biodegradable film and plastic film) and different colors (transparent and black) of agricultural film mulching using the dual Kc method. A 2-year experiment was conducted during the 2018 and 2019 growing seasons to calibrate and validate the dual Kc method. There was good agreement between the estimated Kc and observed Kc under different mulching treatments, with an average Willmott’s index of agreement (IA) of 0.96 and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.88. The evaporation coefficient (Ke) was significantly increased under BFM by 30.9% compared with that under PFM, during the middle and late crop growth stages, whereas the basal crop coefficient (Kcb) and water stress coefficient (Ks) decreased owing to low soil moisture under the large disintegrated area of biodegradable film. The corresponding soil evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) under BFM were increased and decreased, respectively. Moreover, there were significant differences in Kc and actual evapotranspiration (ETc) components under different colors of agricultural film during the crop growth season. Kc, T, and E under black film mulching (plastic film and biodegradable film) were on average 5.1%, 4.3%, and 5.6% lower than those under transparent film mulching. In general, black biodegradable film mulching (BBFM) is recommended as a viable option to replace transparent biodegradable film mulching (TBFM) in arid regions due to its low soil evaporation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Optimizing the allocation of irrigation water for multiple crops based on
           the crop water allocation priority

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      Abstract: Abstract There is an urgent need to ensure regional food security and increase irrigation water productivity in response to water shortages in arid and semi-arid regions. Previous studies of the optimal allocation of irrigation water did not consider simultaneously optimizing across multiple crops or at different growth stages. This paper describes the development of an irrigation water optimization model that uses a crop water allocation priority (CWAP) model. The CWAP value was determined by quantifying the changes in three indicators: yield, economic benefits, and irrigation water productivity. Maximum yield, maximum economic benefits, and minimum irrigation shortage (at the critical crop and growth stage) were used as the objective functions of a non-linear multi-objective optimization model. The largest irrigation district in the northern arid area of China, Hetao Irrigation District (HID), was chosen to prototype this model. The optimization results, using CWAP, showed that yield, economic benefits, irrigation water productivity, and water productivity could be increased, respectively, by up to 13.38%, 13.40%, 2.30%, and 6.29%, for most crops when compared with optimization results without CWAP. Comparison of the optimized net irrigation quantities with the actual net irrigation quantities showed that optimization reduced water usage by up to 60.77% for wheat, 51.24% for corn, and 63.59% for sunflower. Blue water utilization under optimal irrigation conditions decreased by 1.12% for wheat, 2.91% for corn, and 9.91% for sunflower, compared with those in actual irrigation scenario. This method of optimizing irrigation water allocation in arid areas using CWAP provides decision-makers with accurate water-saving irrigation protocols that will reduce demand for water resources and promote sustainable agriculture.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • Application of the vineyard data assimilation (VIDA) system to vineyard
           root-zone soil moisture monitoring in the California Central Valley

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      Abstract: Abstract Efforts to apply gridded root-zone soil moisture (RZSM) products for irrigation decision-support in vineyards are currently hampered by the difficulty of obtaining RZSM products that meet required accuracy, resolution, and data latency requirements. In particular, the operational application of soil water balance modeling is complicated by the difficulty of obtaining accurate irrigation inputs and representing complex sub-surface water-flow processes within vineyards. Here, we discuss prospects for addressing these shortcomings using the Vineyard Data Assimilation (VIDA) system based on the assimilation of high-resolution (30-m) soil moisture information obtained from synthetic aperture radar and thermal-infrared (TIR) remote sensing into a one-dimensional soil water balance model. The VIDA system is tested retrospectively (2017–2020) for two vineyard sites in the California Central Valley that have been instrumented as part of the Grape Remote sensing Atmospheric Profile and Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX). Results demonstrate that VIDA can generally capture daily temporal variations in RZSM for vertical depths of 30–60 cm beneath the vine row, and the assimilation of remote sensing products is shown to produce modest improvement in the temporal accuracy of VIDA RZSM estimates. However, results also reveal shortcomings in the ability of VIDA to correct biases in assumed irrigation applications—particularly during well-watered portions of the growing season when TIR-based evapotranspiration observations are not moisture limited and, therefore, decoupled from RZSM. Prospects for addressing these limitations and plans for the near-real-time operational application of the VIDA system are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
       
  • Vine water status mapping with multispectral UAV imagery and machine
           learning

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      Abstract: Abstract Optimizing water management has become one of the biggest challenges for grapevine growers in California, especially during drought conditions. Monitoring grapevine water status and stress level across the whole vineyard is an essential step for precision irrigation management of vineyards to conserve water. We developed a unified machine learning model to map leaf water potential ( \({\psi }_{\mathrm{leaf}}\) ), by combining high-resolution multispectral remote sensing imagery and weather data. We conducted six unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flights with a five-band multispectral camera from 2018 to 2020 over three commercial vineyards, concurrently with ground measurements of sampled vines. Using vegetation indices from the orthomosaiced UAV imagery and weather data as predictors, the random forest (RF) full model captured 77% of \({\psi }_{\mathrm{leaf}}\) variance, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.123 MPa, and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.100 MPa, based on the validation datasets. Air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and red edge indices such as the normalized difference red edge index (NDRE) were found as the most important variables in estimating \({\psi }_{\mathrm{leaf}}\) across space and time. The reduced RF models excluding weather and red edge indices explained 52–48% of \({\psi }_{\mathrm{leaf}}\) variance, respectively. Maps of the estimated \({\psi }_{\mathrm{leaf}}\) from the RF full model captured well the patterns of both within- and cross-field spatial variability and the temporal change of vine water status, consistent with irrigation management and patterns observed from the ground sampling. Our results demonstrated the utility of UAV-based aerial multispectral imaging for supplementing and scaling up the traditional point-based ground sampling of \({\psi }_{\mathrm{leaf}}\) . The pre-trained machine learning model, driven by UAV imagery and weather data, provides a cost-effective and scalable tool to facilitate data-driven precision irrigation management at individual vine levels in vineyards.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Design and characterization of a pneumatic micro glass beads matrix sensor
           for soil water potential threshold control in irrigation management

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      Abstract: Abstract Soil moisture porous matrix sensors may be good alternatives to tensiometers for measuring soil–water matric potential (SMP) for irrigation scheduling based on soil–water status approaches. The objective of this paper is to present and evaluate a new porous matrix sensor (IGstat) for detecting specific SMP thresholds for possible application in irrigation scheduling regulated by the SMP threshold concept. The IGstat sensor uses a non-sintered, glass bead microspheres (microGB) core and an outer ceramic cup, having larger air bubbling pressure (BP), to establish hydraulic contact with the soil. Pneumatic, optical, or electrical properties of the microGB porous medium can be then measured to infer the SMP. This paper describes and evaluates the performance of IGstat sensors for SMP threshold detection, using the pneumatic mode with a small air flow applied and air pressure monitored in the sensor tubing. Five IGstat sensors were built with different microGB diameters (15–125 µm) having air BP varying from 6 to 40 kPa. A power function was fitted to the data, which can be used to select microGB diameters to build IGstat sensors of required air BP. The experimental setup proposed to determine the sensor BP by incremental air injection provided air BP values in good agreement with those observed in a soil evaporation experiment (average relative error of 7.6%). The sensor responses in soil, with a small air pressure applied to them, showed a sharp pressure decreases when the SMP approached the sensor air BP, decreasing to about zero for SMP equal to the sensor air BP. The proposed sensors and approach showed potential for irrigation scheduling.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
       
  • Inter-annual variability of land surface fluxes across vineyards: the role
           of climate, phenology, and irrigation management

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      Abstract: Abstract Irrigation and other agricultural management practices play a key role in land surface fluxes and their interactions with atmospheric processes. California’s Central Valley agricultural productivity is strongly linked to water availability associated with conveyance infrastructure and groundwater, but greater scrutiny over agricultural water use requires better practices particularly during extended and severe drought conditions. The future of irrigated agriculture in California is expected to be characterized neither by perpetual scarcity nor by widespread abundance. Thus, further advancing irrigation technologies and improving management practices will be key for California’s agriculture sustainability. In this study, we present micrometeorological observations from the Grape Remote Sensing Atmospheric Profile and Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX) project. Daily, seasonal, and inter-seasonal surface flux patterns and relationships across five vineyards over three distinct California wine production regions were investigated. Vineyard actual evapotranspiration showed significant differences at the sub-daily and daily scale when comparisons across wine production regions and varieties were performed. Water use in vineyards in the Central Valley was about 70% greater in comparison to the vineyards at the North Coast area due to canopy size, atmospheric demand, and irrigation inputs. Inter-annual variability of surface fluxes was also significant, even though, overall weather conditions (i.e., air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, wind speed, and solar radiation) were not significantly different. Thus, not only irrigation but also other management practices played a key role in seasonal water use, and given these differences, we conclude that further advancing ground-based techniques to quantify crop water use at an operational scale will be key to facing California’s agriculture present and future water challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
       
  • Crop coefficients and water use of young almond orchards

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      Abstract: Abstract An observational study was conducted in the northern Sacramento Valley in California, United States to determine crop water use and crop coefficients of three adjacent young Nonpareil/Monterey almond orchards. Methods used to quantify evapotranspiration estimates of crop water use include (1) a soil water balance and (2) a land surface energy balance using eddy covariance. Three adjacent almond orchards that were planted in 2016, 2017, and 2018 were monitored from 2018 to 2020. Actual crop coefficients were determined using actual evapotranspiration estimates from each orchard and short grass reference evapotranspiration from the Gerber South California Irrigation Management Information System station. Results showed that crop water use and crop coefficients increased until the 4th year, indicating the need to closely consider tree development and orchard age as factors in irrigation scheduling of young almond trees. The results led to the conclusion that farmers should use development or age-specific crop coefficients in developing orchards for irrigation scheduling until the 4th year when they can start using mature almond crop coefficients. The mid-season actual crop coefficients were 0.35, 0.55, 0.88, 1.04, and 0.99 for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old almond orchards. This study has generated baseline data on crop water requirements of young almond orchards that could be useful for (1) developing irrigation scheduling tools for young almond orchards, and (2) determining water budgets for areas with new almond orchards.
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
       
  • Application of a remote-sensing three-source energy balance model to
           improve evapotranspiration partitioning in vineyards

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      Abstract: Abstract Improved accuracy of evapotranspiration (ET) estimation, including its partitioning between transpiration (T) and surface evaporation (E), is key to monitor agricultural water use in vineyards, especially to enhance water use efficiency in semi-arid regions such as California, USA. Remote-sensing methods have shown great utility in retrieving ET from surface energy balance models based on thermal infrared data. Notably, the two-source energy balance (TSEB) has been widely and robustly applied in numerous landscapes, including vineyards. However, vineyards add an additional complexity where the landscape is essentially made up of two distinct zones: the grapevine and the interrow, which is often seasonally covered by an herbaceous cover crop. Therefore, it becomes more complex to disentangle the various contributions of the different vegetation elements to total ET, especially through TSEB, which assumes a single vegetation source over a soil layer. As such, a remote-sensing-based three-source energy balance (3SEB) model, which essentially adds a vegetation source to TSEB, was applied in an experimental vineyard located in California’s Central Valley to investigate whether it improves the depiction of the grapevine-interrow system. The model was applied in four different blocks in 2019 and 2020, where each block had an eddy-covariance (EC) tower collecting continuous flux, radiometric, and meteorological measurements. 3SEB’s latent and sensible heat flux retrievals were accurate with an overall RMSD ~ 50 W/m2 compared to EC measurements. 3SEB improved upon TSEB simulations, with the largest differences being concentrated in the spring season, when there is greater mixing between grapevine foliage and the cover crop. Additionally, 3SEB’s modeled ET partitioning (T/ET) compared well against an EC T/ET retrieval method, being only slightly underestimated. Overall, these promising results indicate 3SEB can be of great utility to vineyard irrigation management, especially to improve T/ET estimations and to quantify the contribution of the cover crop to ET. Improved knowledge of T/ET can enhance grapevine water stress detection to support irrigation and water resource management.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • Assessing different methodologies for irrigation scheduling in protected
           environment: a case study of green bell pepper

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      Abstract: Abstract This research aimed at assessing four different methodologies to estimate daily irrigation depth, based on the monitoring of soil water status (soil water content sensors, SWS, and tensiometers, TS) and atmospheric evaporative demand (weighing lysimeter, WL, and Piché evaporimeter, PE), of green bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) cultivated in a greenhouse. Furthermore, two different strategies to apply the daily irrigation depths, i.e., single watering (at 8:00 a.m.) or split into two equal applications (at 8:00 a.m. and at 4:30 p.m.), were also investigated. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design and according to a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with eight replications. The statistical analysis showed that total water volume (TWV), commercial yield, and crop water use efficiency (WUE) were influenced by the method used to estimate crop water requirement and the irrigation strategies. The TWV applied during the whole crop cycle was 562.7 mm, 731.2 mm, 769.4 mm, and 843.1 mm for treatments with WL, PE, SWS, and TS, respectively. The highest commercial yield was obtained in treatments in which the highest irrigation depth was applied (SWS, 11.55 t ha−1, and TS, 10.09 t ha−1). On the other hand, relatively higher WUE was achieved in treatments managed with SWS (1.63 kg m−3) and WL (1.55 kg m−3). Splitting the estimated daily irrigation depth into two applications promoted the commercial productivity and WUE (9.24 t ha−1 and 1.60 kg m−3) compared to the single application (7.06 t ha−1 and 1.22 kg m−3). Splitting the daily irrigation depth is, therefore, a promising strategy to increase WUE for green bell pepper crops in protected environments.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
       
  • Evapotranspiration uncertainty at micrometeorological scales: the impact
           of the eddy covariance energy imbalance and correction methods

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      Abstract: Abstract Under ideal conditions, evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes derived through the eddy covariance (EC) technique are considered a direct measure of actual ET. Eddy covariance flux measurements provide estimates at a temporal frequency that allows examining sub-daily, daily, and seasonal scale processes and relationships between different surface fluxes. The Grape Remote Sensing Atmospheric Profile and Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX) project has collected micrometeorological and biophysical data to ground-truth new remote sensing tools for fine-tuning vineyard irrigation management across numerous sites since 2013. This rich dataset allows us to quantify the impact of different approaches to estimate daily ET fluxes, while accounting for energy imbalance. This imbalance results from the lack of agreement between the total available energy and turbulent fluxes derived by the EC technique. We found that different approaches to deal with this energy imbalance can lead to uncertainty in daily ET estimates of up to 50%. Over the growing season, this uncertainty can lead to considerable biases in crop water use estimates, which in some cases were equivalent to ~ 1/3rd of the total growing season applied irrigation We analyzed ET uncertainty relative to atmospheric meteorological, stability, and advective conditions, and highlight the importance of recognizing limitations of micrometeorological observational techniques, considered state of the art, to quantify ET for model validation and field-scale monitoring. This study provides a framework to quantify daily ET estimates’ uncertainty and expected reliability when using the eddy covariance technique for ground-truthing or model validation purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
       
  • A new method for the mathematical modelling of water movement in a surface
           irrigation system: method and application

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      Abstract: Abstract Surface irrigation methods need less capital investment and energy than pressurized systems, and therefore they have a wide range of use in many regions. However, inaccurate system design and irrigation applications lead to non-uniform distribution of water in the soil profile. Therefore, the water loss caused by deep percolation increases, and the water application efficiency decreases. In this investigation, a new method was devised for the optimum design of a blocked end furrow system. The new method simulates the movement properties of water in the soil. It analyzes interactively and simultaneously the infiltration characteristics of the soil, the inflow to the furrow and the irrigation water requirement of the crop. The spatio-temporal variation of the wetting pattern which occurs during the water application period and of the components of the wetting pattern can be determined momentarily for any time point during the irrigation application. This process is carried out by running the movement equations of water in the soil, which are described in this investigation. The proposed method was run for two different sample applications of blocked end furrow systems without slope. In the verification process of the model, the sample applications were compared with the results of the USDA SCS method. The results from the two different methods were compared and analyzed in detail. In conclusion, the results from the proposed method gave the optimum solution for different conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
       
  • Development of a simulation model for sugar beet growth under water and
           nitrogen deficiency

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      Abstract: Abstract Sustainable and profitable production of sugar beet requires information on knowing the effect of applied water and nitrogen (N), which is typically provided by simulation models. Considering limited information, it is essential to develop simulation models that can address irrigation water and N deficiencies for sugar beet production. The sugar beet simulation model (SSM) was developed for the simulation of storage root dry matter, plant-top dry matter, and the yield of white sugar under different applied N fertilizer and irrigation. The SSM simulates water, N, and soil heat flux under unsteady state conditions by applying numerical analysis in the root zone. Dry matter production and partitioning into plant top and root dry matter for different plant growth stages were simulated based on intercepted solar radiation, air temperature, and the amounts of N uptake. 2 years of field experiments data (2013 and 2014) were used to conduct model calibration and validation, respectively. In 2013, irrigation treatments were 130, 100, 85, 75, 66, and 44 percent of full irrigation, and N treatments were 0, 60, 120, and 180 kg N ha−1 in the form of urea under line source sprinkler irrigation system. In 2014, irrigation treatments were 120, 100, 80, and 60 percent of full irrigation and N treatments were 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 kg N ha−1 in the form of urea under furrow irrigation system. Dry matter production was simulated according to radiation use efficiency (RUE) and was calibrated using the plant top and storage root dry matter production of treatment without water and N deficiency, which was 0.97 (g MJ−1). The normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE) criterion was used to compare the simulation capability of the model with measured field data. White sugar yield, plant leaf area index, plant top dry matter, and storage root dry matter at harvest time and during the growing season showed acceptable NRMSE values. The values of the produced white sugar yield were simulated with NRMSE of 7.8% and 14.2% in calibration and validation data, respectively. The new and relevant information provided by the SSM was quite significant as it proved that possibility of management sugar beet under irrigation water and N deficiencies.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00271-022-00769-z
       
 
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