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Journal of Delta Urbanism
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2666-7851
Published by TU Delft Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Longue Durée

    • Authors: Fransje Hooimeijer, Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin, Baukje Kothuis
      Pages: 04 - 11
      Abstract: New approaches to combine flood protection, soil regeneration and water management strategies with urban design, landscape architecture and spatial planning in delta regions cannot do without knowledge and understanding of history. To find a new balance between urbanization, climate change, geopolitical shifts, the energy transition in deltas it is crucial to understand the evaluation of the system from the past to what it is today and can be in the future. The logic of the relationship between design, engineering, science and governance on the one hand, and the logic with the natural system on the other, determined the current conditions and its performance. In the development of cities, at any time, there is the concept of Longue Durée recognizing the formative forces of nature and the relevance of historic concepts to take into account (Braudel, 1949). The main question of this issue is: How can interdisciplinary approaches of design, engineering, science and governance respond to the environmental crisis and steer upon the Longue Durée of the delta' 
      PubDate: 2022-01-02
      DOI: 10.48438/jdu.2.2021.6222
       
  • Megaform as Urban Landscape

    • Authors: Kenneth Frampton
      Pages: 12 - 23
      Abstract: Kenneth Frampton closed the honorable Raoul Wallenberg Memoria lecture in 1999 with an address by Vittorio Gregotti in 1983 wherein he asserted that, "The origin of architecture is not the primitive hut, but the marking of ground, to establish a cosmic order around the surrounding chaos of nature." Frampton stated that the technological urbanised region is the new chaos but as architects and urbanists we still have the same task, bringing harmony between the chaos of the technological urbanised space and the chaos of nature. The lecture by Frampton is extremely relevant today. The megaform is an urban landscape, which could be an answer to reverse the altered and controlled nature, or the environmental crisis, towards a new harmony. This is especially urgent in delta regions, which have 12 times the global mean of 47 people per sq km, resulting in a population density of 580 people per sq km. Especially here the inclusion of delta dynamics and at the same time as Frampton proposes: “sustaining a sense of place but also of serving as an effective catalyst for the further development of the region” could offer purpose for the megastructure as human response to the longue durée of the natural system. Frampton mentions in his lecture two deltaic megaforms created by Kenzo Tange in Tokyo and Jaap Bakema the Plan Pampus in Amsterdam. These examples are contextualized and visualized in the section Project by sharing the project Mammoth of Jaap Bakema more in depth that is a megastructure response to the soft and wet soil conditions in the Netherlands: thick water. This reprint of the Raoul Wallenberg Memoria lecture by Kenneth Frampton (1999) is done with permission of the The University of Michigan A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning and Kenneth Frampton, New York.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.48438/jdu.2.2021.6224
       
  • Building with Nature: A nineteenth century concept

    • Authors: Fransje Hooimeijer, Dennis Lambert
      Pages: 24 - 47
      Abstract: The concept of “Building with Nature” refers to a harmonious way of creating environments for new living, working and recreation spaces with respect to nature. It also builds resilience to natural events such as storm surges and thus involves the design of infrastructure. This is done with the intention of ensuring the preservation or expansion of environmental and ecological resources, nature, and landscape. Moreover, it considers climate change and sea level rise as well as more frequent and intense storms, resulting in floods and land subsidence. The concept of Building with Nature is strongly connected to an industrialized society. Before the Industrial Revolution, technological advances and engineering, people were forced to live and work according to the rules of nature. This paper seeks to discover what we can learn from 19th century concepts on Building with Nature that are rooted in the pre-industrial era. The paper explores the history of the science of soil and water, in deltaic regions and focuses on the United States and the Netherlands during the nineteenth century. Within these contexts, two key historic figures are positioned, Joseph Raymond Thomassy and Willem Antonie Scholten. By reflecting on the communication between Thomassy and Scholten, the paradigm shift diverging from Building with Nature is exposed and takes on a new and compelling meaning of both an industrial approach and a natural solution to water management.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.48438/jdu.2.2021.6223
       
  • Models over time: Waterloopbos and Mississippi River Basin

    • Authors: Baukje Kothuis, Luca Iuorio
      Pages: 58 - 69
      Abstract: The development of knowledge about the mechanism in the delta has had a high dependency on projects and techniques available. During the period from 1930 to 1939, there is a consolidation of the achievements and further development of hydraulic engineering techniques, based on model-based and mathematical analyses and prognoses (Schot et al., 1998). In this time two of the physical models were built, the Waterloopbos in the Netherlands and the Mississippi River basin in the USA. Both models have been used extensively to expand knowledge and build projects, but both became out of use when computers appeared in the 1980s. Then the calculation models were favoured, as they can be done faster, and are also capable of handling complex problems. Computer technology became increasingly dominated by measurement, prognosis, calibration, verification and validation. For this project section, the current state of the two models is brought forth as a new technique in which maybe the Longue Duree of the relation between humans and nature can become evident. 
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.48438/jdu.2.2021.6232
       
  • Deltaic Megaforms

    • Authors: Fransje Hooimeijer
      Pages: 70 - 75
      Abstract: Kenneth Frampton presented in the Raoul Wallenberg Memoria lecture in 1999 an overview of megastructures over time and space. He showed how megastructures respond to the landscape and are related to infrastructures. Especially the two examples in the Netherlands and Japan are interesting for relating the history and conceptualisation of megastructures to the deltaic conditions. Due to the technological approach in urbanisation the natural conditions have been neglected creating a new chaos between humans and nature. Besides the fact that the lecture by Frampton is extremely relevant today, it is also a lens towards this typology that we elaborate on by highlighting the history of the realisation of a deltaic megastructure. This can be taken as an example of extreme (landscape) engineering, which can be a way to respect and not trying to disturb nature. The megaform is therefore an urban landscape in its own merits, having a balanced but distant relation to nature. In this project section we elaborate the project by Jaap Bakema for Lage Land in Rotterdam. Here the original megastructure of the “mammoth” as a concept has been elaborated and developed as an urban neighborhood which is built in a typical ‘thick water’ polder of the Netherlands.
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.48438/jdu.2.2021.6226
       
  • The value of historical and archaeological data in understanding patterns
           of long term coastal change

    • Authors: Garry Momber, Julie Satchell, Jan Gillespie, Brandon Mason, Jasmine Noble-Shelly
      Pages: 78 - 95
      Abstract: The historical evolution of the coastline has been determined by the fluctuating relationship between land and sea. This process can be assessed to provide valuable information on trends that contribute to our understanding of past and current coastal change scenarios. These changes were initially dominated by the marine transgression following the last Ice Age, but the pace of sea level rise slowed and an equilibrium became established. This natural balance remained relatively stable until it was influenced by humans.  Where early archaeological material can be dated and contextualised within the landscape it provides evidence of the changing physical environment. Prehistoric structures act as datums that can be used to demonstrate how settlements were overwhelmed by rising sea level and they can indicate how populations reacted to the loss of land. In historical times, when sea levels were comparable to modern conditions, humans became more proactive along the coastline. Some of the alterations they made did not take into account weathering and as a consequence storm events could be destructive. These incidents were often recorded within historical, and artistic sources, that, along with the archaeological data, can be used to interpret the long-term impact of natural and human influences along the coast. Additionally, artistic representations can be used to make the story accessible to a wide range of people.  This paper will assess the under-used archaeological, historical and palaeo-environmental information within the English Channel and southern North Sea coast as data sources to provide insights into the impact of human activities along the coastline from the early Holocene, into the Anthropocene and to the mid-twentieth century. This research is being conducted within the Sustainable and Resilient Coastal Cities project (SARCC) and it concludes that while some human interventions have been positive, many have been counterproductive.
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.48438/jdu.2.2021.6227
       
  • Spatial water calendar: An illustrative workbook for adaptive
           transformation

    • Authors: Inge Bobbink, Naeema Ali, María José Zúñiga
      Pages: 96 - 111
      Abstract: In this paper, concepts for deploying climate resilient design in deltaic regions which encounter environmental challenges are explored. Today, most deltas experience persistent flooding and long-term waterlogging which adversely affects the livelihood of its inhabitants. A new approach was formulated to rethink design and planning pedagogies in the discipline of landscape architecture at Delft University of Technology, to visualize open-ended spatial transformations involving both the landscape architect and the inhabitants over longer periods of time. The graduates proposed flexible spatial frameworks that integrate time and people1. This results in design interventions that do not rely on a fixed plan, but rather propose and visualize a process using a ‘water calendar’ as the driving force. The spatial water calendar is a chart that helps to represent time linked to space and water which can be useful to enumerate, elucidate, and determine time-based fluctuations in a landscape and make decisions accordingly. The idea was prompted by ancient calendars that were based on the rhythm of seasons – a method which farmers often used. However, the spatial water calendar also integrates other processes which are influenced by water, focussing specifically on the spatial impact, thereby becoming a design tool for landscape architects. The calendar developed in the Circular Water Stories lab is an open-ended framework stirred by a sequence of spatial drawings showing the temporal and social processes in relation to human-made interventions, resulting in spatial transformations through time and scale. Because working with a calendar is highly participatory in nature, the spatial water calendar will be more meaningful in vulnerable geographies2 where there is still a strong connection between people and landscape. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world, we imagine that this approach also opens new possibilities for landscape architects to engage with dynamic sites. 
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.48438/jdu.2.2021.6228
       
  • Delta

    • Authors: Antonia Sebastian
      Pages: 114 - 115
      Abstract: Dictionary entry: Delta
      by Antonia Sebastian 
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.48438/jdu.2.2021.6229
       
  • Urbanism

    • Authors: Kanako Iuchi
      Pages: 116 - 117
      Abstract: Dictionary entry: Urbanism
      by Kanako Iuchi
      PubDate: 2021-12-30
      DOI: 10.48438/jdu.2.2021.6230
       
 
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