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Frontiers in Water
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9375
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Rapid Urbanization and the Growing Water Risk Challenges in Ethiopia: The
           Need for Water Sensitive Thinking

    • Authors: Tesfay Abraha, Assefa Tibebu, Gebremariyam Ephrem
      Abstract: Water connects all kinds of life like a thread. However, despite its indispensable roles, little attention has been paid to its effective management for generations. Water as a nonrenewable natural resource, combined with a fast-growing urban population and climate change, has exposed countries to increasing water-related risks. Even though the water-related risk is becoming a fast-expanding worldwide concern, it is largely ignored and understudied in Ethiopia. As a result, this research aims to explore water-related risks at the country and basin levels, as well as to generate information on how water-related risks may influence current and future urbanization and urban settlement so that land use and water resource management planners can make better strategic decisions. To do this, the researchers employed a deductive exploratory (quantitative) research strategy that primarily centered on desk review and spatial analysis, utilizing GIS and remote sensing. As a result, this study found that water availability per person per year is 1,109 m3, indicating that Ethiopia is experiencing water stress. According to the study, 41.6% of Ethiopians live in basins, receiving
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Influence of Hydrology and Sanitation on Groundwater Coliform
           Contamination in Some Parts of Western Bengal Basin: Implication to Safe
           Drinking Water

    • Authors: Uttiya Dey, Soumyajit Sarkar, Srimanti Duttagupta, Animesh Bhattacharya, Kousik Das, Sumedha Saha, Abhijit Mukherjee
      Abstract: Access to clean water has been identified as one of the primary Sustainable Development Goals. Rapid urbanization is going on in developing nations creating additional pressure on water resources in most of these places which in turn also affects individuals which is largely reliant on proper sanitation and drinking water quality. In addition, open sanitation practice is becoming major public health problem in rural and in some urban areas in India. Groundwater contamination by pathogenic bacteria sourced from both sanitation system and surface water is becoming one of the major concerns now-a-days. The residents of the Ganges river basin in India are already stressed with natural arsenic pollution as well as other various types of water pollution, and microbial pollution from sanitation is a new addition to it. A field-based hydrogeological investigation with the identification of sanitation sites (surface and subsurface) was conducted in some parts of the Ganges basin, in and around a lower order distributary river, River Churni in West Bengal state, to identify the natural and human influences on sanitation drinking water pollution in a highly populated part of South Asia. Groundwater was found to be contaminated severely with total (TC) and fecal (FC) coliform bacteria. The abundance of TC was found to be the highest in monsoon season (78%) than in pre-monsoon (48%) and post-monsoon (29%) seasons. The results revealed that the groundwater samples from shallow depths and close to sanitation sites were highly contaminated with coliform bacteria than the deeper and higher distant (>30 m distance) ones. Shallow groundwater samples near to surface water (River Churni) source, other than sanitation sites, showed elevated TC levels. The occurrence of coliform bacteria in studied groundwater samples was observed to be positively correlated with conductivity, TDS, TOC, chloride, and sulfate, while the abundance was restricted by pH and temperature of groundwater. Thus, improper sanitation systems and contaminated surface water were identified as one of the major sources of pathogenic contamination of groundwater-sourced drinking water in the studied area, whereas improper human practices further complicate the scenario which needs to be managed properly.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Best Management Practices for Teaching Hydrologic Coding in Physical,
           Hybrid, and Virtual Classrooms

    • Authors: Christa A. Kelleher, John P. Gannon, C. Nathan Jones, Şule Aksoy
      Abstract: As the field of hydrologic sciences continues to advance, there is an increasing need to develop a workforce with tools to curate, manage, and analyze large datasets. As such, undergraduate and graduate curricula are beginning to regularly incorporate scientific programing in the classroom. However, there are several key challenges to successfully incorporating scientific programming into a hydrology course or curriculum, such as meeting disciplinary outcomes alongside teaching students to code, equity issues with access to computing power, and effective classroom management. While these challenges were exacerbated by the global pandemic, shifting to online and hybrid learning formats provided an opportunity to explore and re-evaluate the way we facilitated our hydrology courses and integrated coding exercises and learning. In this article, we reflect on these experiences in three very different hydrology courses (e.g., courses housed in geoscience/engineering, environmental science, and biology programs) with an eye toward identifying successes and opportunities for improvement. We explore this by presenting ten best management practices (BMPs), representing a series of recommendations we have for teaching a virtual, hybrid, or in-person hydrology course that incorporates coding. While all recommendations provided can be applied to many programming languages, the focus of the paper (given the expertise of the authors) is on R. Our BMPs focus on technological facilitation, managing the virtual classroom, and instructional resources, with lessons learned that are applicable to in-person instruction. We also summarize the ways that the authors of this article integrate coding into our coursework to serve as a framework for prepping new courses or those revising existing hydrologic coursework. Above all, we hope these series of recommendations will evolve as hydrology courses continue to emphasize computational skills alongside disciplinary learning.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • A Comparative Review of Trenchless Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) With Spray
           Applied Pipe Lining (SAPL) Renewal Methods for Pipelines

    • Authors: John Hicks, Vinayak Kaushal, Koosha Jamali
      Abstract: Pipes have been used for thousands of years, the first record of copper piping dates to the Egyptians in 3000 BC. In today's time, pipelines play a dramatic role in our everyday life and is a backbone of our society. Replacing and renewing our vast piping system is extremely important to maintain and grow the infrastructure around us. Trenchless methods (TM) can renew pre-existing piping, replace, and offer installation of new pipe(s). Two very common TMs are cured-in-place piping (CIPP) and spray-applied pipe lining (SAPL). These are great alternatives compared to open cut pipeline installation (OCPI) due to minimizing environmental impact and the total cost associated with renewing or replacing a pipe. Owners and engineers involved in a project which contain pipe renewal and or replacement should consider the time and social cost associated with each method. Cost alone should not be the one and only deciding factor. The objective of this review is to compare and contrast CIPP and SAPL pipeline renewal methods with references found over these renewal methods. This will be demonstrated with the use of a table that will consist of these parameters; environmental, mechanical properties, performance, cost, and methods. The method used for selecting specific articles/papers is intended to locate major factors that play a role in pipeline renewal using publications from the past years. Results show that reviewing, comparing, and understanding current research relating to pipeline renewal will allow for safer applications, increased efficiency, and pipeline longevity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • High Daily and Year-Round Variability in Denitrification and Nitrogen
           Fixation in a Northern Temperate River

    • Authors: Kevin C. Nevorski, Amy M. Marcarelli
      Abstract: Rates of nitrogen (N) cycling processes like denitrification and dinitrogen (N2) fixation, which together are the primary contributors to N2 flux rates from surface waters, may change at different time scales from seasons to weeks to days. Yet, we know little about the magnitude, mechanisms or drivers of these temporal changes, especially at shorter daily and weekly timescales. Quantifying variation in rates and drivers across temporal scales is essential to understand how nutrient cycling processes operate in aquatic ecosystems and predict how they may respond to shifting seasonal dynamics caused by global change (i.e., earlier snowmelt and extreme weather events). This study quantified denitrification and N2 fixation rates seasonally and daily in a northern temperate river, and explored how environmental conditions such as discharge, light, and N and phosphorus (P) concentrations were related to that variation at different time scales. We measured denitrification and N2 fixation rates on biweekly and daily intervals at a single 20-m long sampling reach in the Pilgrim River in Michigan's Upper Peninsula from May 2017 through May 2019. We found high rates of daily change (difference in rate from one day to the next) for both processes in all seasons (maximum daily change 5,690 μg N/m2/h for denitrification and 38 μg N/m2/h for N2 fixation). No detectable differences in rates among seasons were detected using Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP). Day-to-day variation did not change before and after elevated discharge events, including a 1,000-year flood that occurred in June 2018. Partial least squares (PLS) regression identified total dissolved N, dissolved organic N, and ammonium as important predictors of denitrification and N2 fixation, but explained only 15–28% of the variation in all measured rates. The unexpectedly high daily variation and lack of seasonal difference in rates found in this study demonstrate the need to use caution when studying these processes and/or extrapolating rates across time scales, as discrete and infrequent measurements may be misleading.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Estimating Lake Water Volume With Regression and Machine Learning Methods

    • Authors: Chelsea Delaney, Xiang Li, Kerry Holmberg, Bruce Wilson, Adam Heathcote, John Nieber
      Abstract: The volume of a lake is a crucial component in understanding environmental and hydrologic processes. The State of Minnesota (USA) has tens of thousands of lakes, but only a small fraction has readily available bathymetric information. In this paper we develop and test methods for predicting water volume in the lake-rich region of Central Minnesota. We used three different published regression models for predicting lake volume using available data. The first model utilized lake surface area as the sole independent variable. The second model utilized lake surface area but also included an additional independent variable, the average change in land surface area in a designated buffer area surrounding a lake. The third model also utilized lake surface area but assumed the land surface to be a self-affine surface, thus allowing the surface area-lake volume relationship to be governed by a scale defined by the Hurst coefficient. These models all utilized bathymetric data available for 816 lakes across the region of study. The models explained over 80% of the variation in lake volumes. The sum difference between the total predicted lake volume and known volumes were
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Assessing the Role of Irrigation as an Adaptive Measure to Climate Change
           Induced Water Insecurity: Case Study of the Market Gardening Sector in
           Parts of the Northwest and West Regions of Cameroon

    • Authors: Nyong Princely Awazi
      Abstract: Climate change induced extreme weather events are having major repercussions on availability and accessibility to water and water resources especially for farmers across the globe. This is more so for small-scale farmers in the developing world who largely depend on rain-fed agriculture. The market gardening sector in particular is known for its high dependence on suitable weather conditions for adequate productivity. However, in recent years, market garden crop cultivation has been severely threatened by climate change induced extreme weather events such as prolong dry spells, scanty and erratic rainfall, rising temperatures, extreme sunshine and storms. This study was undertaken to understand the role of irrigation as an adaptive measure to climate change induced water insecurity, with focus on the market gardening sector in parts of the west and northwest regions of Cameroon. Data were collected through a survey of 260 market gardeners involved in different irrigation practices geared toward countering water insecurity problems induced by climate change. Findings indicated that water insecurity is induced by extreme weather events such as prolong dryness, scanty and erratic rainfall, extreme sunshine and rising temperatures. A majority of the market gardeners surveyed reported the existence of water insecurity which has led to crop failure in many instances placing them in financial difficulties and seriously hampering their livelihood. Market gardeners were involved in different types of irrigation practices including sprinkler, drip, furrow, and manual with some taking to no irrigation practice. The main factors influencing market gardeners' practice of irrigation in the face of extreme weather induced water scarcity/insecurity were household income, age of market gardeners, educational level, farm size, number of farm plots, proximity to source of water, gender, water requirement of crop, support from government and NGOs, extension services, access to credit, membership in farming group and membership in common initiative group (CIG). Climate change has therefore induced water insecurity forcing market gardeners to indulge in different irrigation practices all year round in a bid to improve crop productivity and reduce recurrent crop failures. On the basis of these findings, the use of more sustainable irrigation methods in order to conserve water and water resources is recommended as this will go a long way to phase out the problem of water insecurity induced by climate change. Policy makers need to craft and implement favorable policies that encourage more market gardeners to adopt sustainable irrigation practices in the face of climate change induced water scarcity/insecurity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Response to Water Scarcity: Gender Analysis of the Motivation Factors
           Toward Water Conservation Behavior in the Workplace

    • Authors: Lobina Gertrude Palamuleni, Yvonne du Plessis, Rhoda Cynthia Bakuwa
      Abstract: Provision and availability of water continue to be a major socio-economic challenge in many countries. The problem is prevalent particularly in arid and semi-arid regions which are affected by droughts and wide climate variability, combined with high population growth and economic development. Shortages and compromised water availability are causes of concern to food security (agricultural sector), performance of businesses, and economic growth among others. The study adopted a quantitative research approach and was underpinned by a positivist research paradigm. Data were collected from 72 managers at North West University—Mahikeng (NWU-Mahikeng), South Africa using an online self-administered survey questionnaire. This study evaluates the factors related to predictors of water-conservation motivation behavior at work. The study used the Chi-square statistics (Phi and Cramer's V-tests) to test the relationship between Manager's gender and motivation predictors of water conservation at work. Findings from the statistical results showed that the Phi and Cramer's V-test gave a P-value < 0.05 (P < 0.05), which shows that within the sample of managers, there is significant relationship between Manager's gender and the motivation to conserve water. These results highlight that gender orientation affects one's response to water scarcity and motivation for conservation. The variations underscored gender as an important component of sustainable development goals which must be included when implementing policies and programs to promote water conservation consciousness and efficient water use at work.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Corrigendum: Extreme Drought in the Brazilian Pantanal in 2019–2020:
           Characterization, Causes, and Impacts

    • Authors: Jose A. Marengo, Ana P. Cunha, Luz Adriana Cuartas, Karinne R. Deusdará Leal, Elisangela Broedel, Marcelo E. Seluchi, Camila Miranda Michelin, Cheila Flávia De Praga Baião, Eleazar Chuchón Angulo, Elton K. Almeida, Marcos L. Kazmierczak, Nelson Pedro António Mateus, Rodrigo C. Silva, Fabiani Bender
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • An Integrated Multi-Risk Assessment for Floods and Drought in the
           Marrakech-Safi Region (Morocco)

    • Authors: Davide Cotti, Mostapha Harb, Abdessamad Hadri, Mohammed Aboufirass, Khalid Rkha Chaham, Andrea Libertino, Lorenzo Campo, Eva Trasforini, Elke Krätzschmar, Felicitas Bellert, Michael Hagenlocher
      Abstract: Multi-risk assessments are being increasingly proposed as a tool to effectively support policy-makers in reducing impacts from natural hazards. The complexity of multi-risk requires assessment approaches capable of capturing multiple components of risk (e.g., different hazards, exposed elements, and dimensions of vulnerability) in a coherent frame of reference, while at the same time providing an intuitive entry point to allow participation of relevant stakeholders. Contributing to the emerging multi-risk literature, we carried out a multi-risk assessment for the Marrakech-Safi region (Morocco)—an important economic and demographic hub in the country that is prone to multiple natural hazards, most notably floods and droughts. Through multiple consultations with local experts and stakeholders, a multi-risk assessment framework was constructed based on a set of single-risks related to flood and drought hazards. For each risk, spatial analysis was employed to assess the hazard exposure component of multi-risk, while a set of vulnerability indicators and stakeholder-informed weights were used to construct a composite indicator of vulnerability at the municipal level. For each municipality, the set of indicators and weights contributing to the composite indicator was designed to be dependent on the combination of risks the municipality is actually confronted with. The two components were aggregated using a risk matrix approach. Results show a significant proportion of municipalities (28%) reaching very high multi-risk levels, with a large influence of drought-related risks, and a prominent contribution of the vulnerability component on the overall multi-risk results. While the approach has allowed the exploration of the spatial variability of multi-risk in its multiple sub-components and the incorporation of stakeholders' opinions at different levels, more research is needed to explore how best to disentangle the complexity of the final multi-risk product into a tool capable of informing policy-makers in the identification of entry points for effective disaster risk governance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Sustainable WEF Nexus Management: A Conceptual Framework to Integrate
           Models of Social, Economic, Policy, and Institutional Developments

    • Authors: Ebun Akinsete, Phoebe Koundouri, Xanthi Kartala, Nikos Englezos, Jonathan Lautze, Zeray Yihdego, Julie Gibson, Geeske Scholz, Caroline van Bers, Jan Sodoge
      Abstract: Rapid population growth along with increased rates of economic growth around the globe are placing valuable natural resources, water in particular, under unprecedented stress; this in turn drives the pursuit of innovative tools to support integrated Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus management. This paper presents a framework for the integrated management of the WEF nexus, which brings together four separate models that address the less well-examined socio-anthropological aspects of the nexus. The proposed framework provides insight into the human element as part of the wider ecosystem in terms of socio-cultural and economic activities, the laws and policies that govern these activities, as well as their potential socio-economic impacts and consequences. This paper outlines each individual model, before going on to present a conceptual framework for the integration of the various models for the purpose of supporting more robust decision-making. The framework, which is grounded in systems thinking, adopts the principles of sustainable development as structural foci in order to position the various models in relation to one another; harmonizing their inputs as well as outputs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Groundwater-Seawater Exchange and Environmental Impacts

    • Authors: Xuejing Wang, Xiaolong Geng, Mahmood Sadat-Noori, Yan Zhang
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Risk Assessment of Personal Care Products, Pharmaceuticals, and Stimulants
           in Mgeni and Msunduzi Rivers, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    • Authors: Bhekumuzi P. Gumbi, Brenda Moodley, Grace Birungi, Patrick G. Ndungu
      Abstract: In this work, environmental occurrence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs), and stimulants are presented. A quantitative technique is described for ultrasonic-assisted solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by GC-MS after derivatization of PPCPs; propylparaben, triclosan, carbamazepine, chloramphenicol, and stimulant caffeine. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction together with centrifugation were used to extract sediment samples collected from the Mgeni and Msunduzi rivers. An SPE procedure was used for cleanup and to concentrate selected compounds from diluted aqueous extracts. The final extracts were derivatized and analyzed with GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recoveries of the analytes ranged from 66 to 108%. The method detection limits were (0.08–1.82 ng g−1 for solid and 0.08–10 μg L−1 for liquid) and quantification limits (0.42–5.51 ng g−1 for solid and 0.25–25 μg L−1 for liquid). The optimized method was applied in the evaluation of two rivers over 3 months in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. All targeted compounds were present in the environment at concentration levels between not detected to 174 ng g−1 and not detected to 30 μg L−1 for solids and aqueous environmental samples, respectively. A comparison of predicted no environmental effect concentration (PNECs) with measured environmental concentration (MECs) showed that these PPCPs present a high ecological risk to the receiving environment (agricultural lands and households). Our work is close to reality because we used MECs as opposed to using predicted environmental concentration (PECs) values, which are normally calculated from consumption, production of compound per year, and various estimated factors.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Performance Modeling and Simulation for Wastewater Collection Networks

    • Authors: Amin Ganjidoost, Mark A. Knight, Andre J. A. Unger, Carl T. Haas
      Abstract: This study develops a framework for asset management strategy of wastewater collection networks comprised of three interconnected decision-making layers: (1) Visions & Values, (2) Function, and (3) Performance, which are set according to the established concepts of strategic targets, policy levers, sustainability and life cycle. The asset management strategy framework is implemented and validated through demonstration of functionality and value by using the wastewater collection networks of three utilities in Ontario, Canada, to drive management simulations. A borrowing management strategy is used to benchmark the utilities against each other in terms of infrastructure, sociopolitical, and financial performance over a 100-year benchmarking period. It is found that a borrowing management strategy can enable the utility to accelerate their capital works, reduce the volume of inflow and infiltration and their associated expenses and sustainably meet their strategic targets over the life cycle of the assets. Using contour plots, the impact of maximum debt capacity on two infrastructure and financial benchmarking performance indicators is also investigated to explore the “optimal” combination of allowable fee hikes and preferred rehabilitation rates. Furthermore, using a borrowing management strategy, a business case for asset management of wastewater collection networks is developed to explore the “optimal” combination of allowable fee-hike and rehabilitation rates, using a developed inflow and infiltration expenditures (I&IEx) saving ratio contour plots. The results indicate that a borrowing management strategy competes as long as the combinations of allowable fee-hike and preferred rehabilitation rates lead to a positive value of I&IEx saving ratio.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • Relationship Between Particle Properties and Immunotoxicological Effects
           of Environmentally-Sourced
           Microplastics|Background|Objectives|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Nick R. M. Beijer, Alexandre Dehaut, Maxim P. Carlier, Helen Wolter, Ron M. Versteegen, Jeroen L. A. Pennings, Liset de la Fonteyne, Helge Niemann, Henk M. Janssen, Belinda G. Timmermans, Wim Mennes, Flemming R. Cassee, Marcel J. B. Mengelers, Linda A. Amaral-Zettler, Guillaume Duflos, Yvonne C. M. Staal
      Abstract: BackgroundConcerns on microplastics (MPs) in food are increasing because of our increased awareness of daily exposure and our knowledge gap on their potential adverse health effects. When particles are ingested, macrophages play an important role in scavenging them, potentially leading to an unwanted immune response. To elucidate the adverse effects of MPs on human health, insights in the immunotoxicity of MPs are essential.ObjectivesTo assess the effect of environmentally collected ocean and land weathered MP particles on the immunological response of macrophages using a state-of-the art in vitro immunotoxicity assay specifically designed for measuring particle toxicity.MethodsEnvironmentally-weathered macroplastic samples were collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and from the French coastal environment. Macroplastics were identified using (micro)Raman-spectrometry, FT-IR and Py-GC-MS and cryo-milled to obtain size-fractionated samples up to 300 μm. Physiochemical MP properties were characterized using phase contrast microscopy, gel-permeation chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and differential scanning colorimetry. Macrophages (differentiated THP-1 cells) were exposed to particles (
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • Transcriptomic Adaptation of Legionella pneumophila to Transient Heat
           Shock

    • Authors: Jeffrey Liang, Sebastien P. Faucher
      Abstract: A natural inhabitant of freshwater microbial ecology, Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistically pathogenic bacteria that has found a niche in hot water distribution systems (HWDS) where it challenges hospitals with the spread of nosocomial infection. Superheat-and-flush is a high-temperature pasteurization which can be temporarily effective, but systems often test positive for contamination soon after pasteurization. Because of the centrality of pasteurization in HWDS sanitation schemes, an understanding of the L. pneumophila intrinsic heat shock response may help improve the strategies used to counter its proliferation and ability to trigger nosocomial outbreaks. We tested a group of strains to assess differences in heat shock tolerance between clinical, laboratory, and environmental strains of different origin. The transcriptome of a model Philadelphia-1 L. pneumophila strain in response to heat shock was determined using microarray as an exploratory analysis of the heat shock response: 401 genes were induced, including genes involved in determining protein fate and ribosome biosynthesis while 43 genes were downregulated. Mutants of 3 individual genes were tested to find their direct effects on heat shock tolerance. Deletions of dksA or rpoS, genes involved in the regulation of life cycle switching and important for surviving long-term nutrient deprivation in freshwater lowered heat shock tolerance, suggesting an overlap in the pathways required to tolerate these stressors. Surprisingly, the deletion of htpG, the 90-kilodalton heat shock protein, was found to increase the ability to survive under transient heat shock. Taken altogether, our results show that L. pneumophila exhibits most components of the conserved bacterial heat shock response. Based on this exploratory transcriptomic study, we have provided data that can act as a platform for the research of L. pneumophila's survival to pasteurization in hot water systems.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: (10 Years) Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Advances in W-E-F Nexus
           Approaches From the Global South: From Theory to Practice

    • Authors: Janez Sušnik
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T00:00:00Z
       
  • Water and Sanitation as a Wicked Governance Problem in Brazil: An
           Institutional Approach

    • Authors: Denise Moraes Carvalho, Rob van Tulder
      Abstract: The world is facing a large number of interrelated crises that have seriously increased the level of uncertainty and ambiguity in many areas. In 2018, the UN anticipated that the world was careering toward a global water crisis with a 40% shortfall in freshwater resources by 2030 coupled with a rising population. This nascent crisis represents a “connected challenge” for countries: it contains a multitude of causes and consequences, a multitude of actors and interests for which no “one-size-fits-all” solutions are available. The adequate approach to this type of complex—or “wicked”—problems is not to search for technological solutions only, but to consider new forms of governance that make use of complementary institutional logics. Effective governance depends on the extent of alignment with the complexity and the root causes of the issues. This paper applies wicked problem theory to identify the root institutional and governance causes of uncertainty in a developing country like Brazil, which provides insights to (also) identify approaches that could navigate change in less uncertain and ambiguous directions. We distinguish three types of relevant institutional constraints: logics, complementarities, and voids. Based on semi-structured interviews with representatives from Brazil's water and sanitation sector, we delineate institutional constraints precipitated by the plurality of the governance system. We argue why a tripartite partnership approach—as for instance pioneered by Dutch international water projects in the global South—presents a way out of the wicked water and sanitation problems in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Pore-Scale Microstructure, Mechanisms, and Models for
           Subsurface Flow and Transport

    • Authors: James E. McClure, Charlotte Garing, Anna L. Herring, Carl Fredrik Berg
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Water-Energy-Food Nexus Beyond “Technical Quick Fix”: The Case of
           Hydro-Development in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Detlef Müller-Mahn, Million Gebreyes, Jeremy Allouche, Annapia Debarry
      Abstract: This paper builds upon empirical material from a case study of two dam sites in Ethiopia to revisit nexus narratives from a political ecology perspective. The two dams on tributaries of the Upper Blue Nile are examples of the success of hydro-development in increasing food and energy production, but at the same time they are evidence of the controversial effects these developments have on local populations. The paper argues that conventional nexus thinking has often been too water- and economy-centric, and too much focussed on a “technical quick fix” instead of a holistic approach. The paper calls for a broadening of nexus perspectives in order to better acknowledge the social complexity of hydro-development in local contexts, to understand the political construction of scarcity, and to combine different knowledges at the science-practice interface.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T00:00:00Z
       
 
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