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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Environmental Processes : An International Journal
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2198-7491 - ISSN (Online) 2198-7505
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Dynamic Linkages between Environmental Factors and Carbon Emissions in
           Thailand

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      Abstract: Thailand is a tourist destination country experiencing continuous economic growth, rapid urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural production, which is causing higher energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study aims to investigate the dynamic effects of economic growth, renewable energy use, urbanization, industrialization, tourism, agricultural productivity, and forest area on CO2 emissions in Thailand. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach and the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) methodology were used to analyze time series data from 1990 to 2020. According to the estimates, a 1% rise in economic growth, urbanization, industrialization, and tourism will raise CO2 emissions by 0.97%, 0.17%, 0.06%, and 0.05%, respectively. Furthermore, a 1% increase in renewable energy use, agricultural productivity, and forest area may result in reductions in CO2 emissions of 0.71%, 0.22%, and 0.69%, respectively. This article makes policy recommendations on low-carbon economies, renewable energy use, sustainable urbanization, green industrialization, eco-friendly tourism, climate-smart agriculture, and sustainable forest management, all of which could help ensure environmental sustainability by lowering emissions. Furthermore, the findings of the study may guide other developing nations seeking to implement effective environmental sustainability approaches while also increasing climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. Highlights • This study investigated the nexus between environmental factors and carbon emissions. • Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares method has been applied by utilizing time series data. • Carbon emissions rise with economic growth, urbanization, industry, and tourism. • Renewable energy, agriculture, and forests showed emission reduction potential. • This article recommends sustainable development and emission reduction policies.
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
       
  • Chlorine Removal from Water by Biochar Derived from Various Food Waste
           Natural Materials

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this paper was to investigate the effectiveness of pyrolyzed low-cost food waste natural materials from the food industry on the removal of chlorine from water. Biochar was produced after pyrolysis at 850 oC from malt spent rootlets (MSR), walnut shells, and apricot, olive, carob and grape kernels. The biochars were characterized for their surface area, microporosity, functional groups and pH. Continuous flow column experiments were conducted at varying flow rates to evaluate the efficiency of biochars to remove free and total chlorine. The initial free and total chlorine concentrations in water fed to the columns were 2.0 and 2.2 mg/L, respectively. The chlorine removal of free and total chlorine of all materials tested ranged from 76 to 92% and 80 to 95%, respectively, with the MSR exhibiting the highest removal. MSR biochar was subjected to the highest cumulative water volume passed through the column (162 L/g) and exhibited the highest total chlorine removal capacity (6 to 330 mg/g). Olive kernel also reached high chlorine removal (99%), while apricot kernel, grape kernel, carob seed and pulp presented poor chlorine removals.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
       
  • Pathogens in Runoff Water Treated by a Sustainable Urban Drainage System
           in a Developing Country

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      Abstract: Abstract Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are commonly used to control flooding in urban areas. These structures store and treat stormwater runoff. Several studies in high-income countries have reported the presence of pathogens in runoff water, but it is expected that runoff water in developing countries contains higher pathogen concentrations given their lack of resources to properly manage sewage; this could result in higher risks of infection for people interacting with SUDS. In this study, we investigated pathogen concentrations (i.e., Salmonella spp. and E. Coli O157) at the micropool of a SUDS train composed of a grassed swale followed by a dry extended detention basin in Bogotá (Colombia) during a 25-week period. We also estimated the risk of infection with the analyzed pathogens, given the high level of exposure to the detention structure. Additionally, we investigated if any of the physicochemical or meteorological variables were associated with pathogen concentrations at the site. We found that pathogen concentrations greatly exceeded concentrations reported for stormwater runoff in developed countries, namely 1562 CFU/mL, on average, for Salmonella spp. and 9160 CFU/mL, on average, for E. Coli O157. The risk of infection from Salmonella spp. and E. Coli O157 greatly exceeded risks previously reported for recreational waters and SUDS. Pathogen concentrations were associated with precipitation and the concentration of suspended solids in the runoff. Given our findings, it is recommended that SUDS in developing countries should consider potential higher pathogen concentrations in stormwater runoff to reduce exposure.
      PubDate: 2022-12-17
       
  • Impact of Confinement on the Reduction of Pollution and Particulate Matter
           Concentrations. Reflections for Public Transport Policies

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      Abstract: Abstract Different initiatives have been implemented to improve air quality in large cities, such as encouraging travel by sustainable modes of transport, promoting electro-mobility, or the car-free day. However, to date, we have not found statistics that indicate to what extent the concentration levels of particulate matter PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutants decrease as a result of public policy. We used official data from the Chilean Government’s national air quality information system (SINCA) for the Santiago metropolitan region and estimated the impact of the confinement by COVID-19 on the ambient concentration average values of NOx gases and particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10, which are the main air pollutants produced by the transport sector after CO2. We found that in general there are significant differences between the average levels of gas emissions for 2020 compared to 2019. In particular, we found that, for the months of total confinement May-July, the monthly average levels decreased between 7% and 19% for particulate matter PM2.5, between 18% and 50% for PM10 and between 34% and 48% for NOx. With the return to the new normality, these improvements in ambient concentration levels may be affected by the increase in private transport trips, due to the reluctance of citizens to return to mass public transport. Our results, therefore, represent the maximum impact that can be expected in reducing ambient concentration levels in the city of Santiago of Chile when a mobility reduction of gasoline vehicles is implemented.
      PubDate: 2022-12-17
       
  • Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Nevirapine in Wastewater Using
           the UV/TiO2/H2O2 Process

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      Abstract: Abstract This work sought to study the elimination of nevirapine (NVP) from synthetic wastewater using the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system. The main objectives were to evaluate the influence of operating parameters, reaction kinetics, contributing reactive species, degradation pathway, and catalyst reusability. The research surface methodology (RSM) was utilized for optimizing process variables. Five process variables (pH, NVP concentration, TiO2 dosage, H2O2 concentration, and irradiation time) were optimized with the responses set as NVP and Total organic carbon (TOC) removals (%), respectively. 89.23% NVP and 85.71% TOC removals were achieved after 60 min of irradiation under optimum conditions. All the experimental factors were significant for NVP removal. pH was the most dominant factor, with the highest removals obtained under acidic conditions (pH 3). NVP removal conformed to the pseudo-first-order model with a rate constant (k1) of 0.03676 min− 1. Increasing pH reduced the rate constant by 75.38%, while there was an increase of 43.55% with H2O2. NVP degradation was primarily driven by the •OH and h+VB. The photocatalyst demonstrated good stability against NVP loss over four cycles. Although the UV/TiO2/H2O2 process has shown promising results in removing pharmaceuticals and dyes in wastewater, its application for the degradation of ARVs remains limited. As far as the authors know, the UV/TiO2/H2O2 process and RSM have not yet been reported for the degradation and optimization of NVP in wastewater, respectively. The findings of this work illustrate that the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system, applied with RSM optimization, can effectively degrade and mineralize NVP in wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-12-16
       
  • Role of Porous and Non-Porous Draft Tube in Photocatalytic Degradation of
           Toluene in Spouted Bed Reactors

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper aims to examine the effect of the porous and non-porous draft tube on the photocatalytic degradation of toluene in the spouted bed reactor. For this purpose, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used as photocatalysts, and UV lamps as radiation sources. Degradation efficiency and CO2 selectivity were compared. By-products were also detected in three spouted bed reactors with and without a porous and non-porous draft tube. The results revealed that the degradation efficiency of toluene in the spouted bed reactor without a draft tube was 30.75%. The insertion of porous and non-porous draft tubes in the spouted bed reactor increased the degradation efficiency to 54.88% and 47.63%, respectively. Meantime, CO2 selectivity decreased from 100 to 50.8% within 180 min irradiation time in the spouted bed reactor without draft tube, while in the spouted bed reactors with porous and non-porous draft tubes it was maintained at 89.85% and 84.35%, respectively. No by-products were detected in the spouted bed reactors with porous and non-porous draft tubes. However, the formation of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid in the spouted bed reactor without a draft tube revealed that the mineralization of toluene had not been completed in this reactor. This study demonstrated that the insertion of a draft tube in spouted bed reactors provides an appropriate contact between the toluene, photocatalyst and UV, and prevents the deactivation of the photocatalyst.
      PubDate: 2022-12-11
       
  • Inhibition Kinetics of Volatile Fatty Acid-rich Leachate on Substrate
           Utilization and Electricity Generation in an Earthen Microbial Fuel Cell

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      Abstract: Abstract Volatile fatty acid-rich (VFA) leachate obtained from kitchen waste was treated in an earthen microbial fuel cell (EMFC) to generate electricity. Leachate with various chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations was fed to the EMFC at a constant hydraulic retention time of 12 h, resulting in varying organic loading rates (OLR, 2–7 kg COD/m3·d). The highest organic matter removal was 74.5% at an OLR of 2 kg COD/m3·d. Whereas, the highest power and current densities of 0.76 W/m3 and 7.94 A/m2 were obtained at an OLR of 7 kg COD/m3·d, respectively. The experimental data illustrated that the performance started reducing once it reached an influent COD concentration of 3.0 g/L, which may be due to the substrate inhibition phenomenon. This behavior affected the substrate utilization rate (SUR) and power production from the EMFC and can be modeled with the help of kinetic models. Among the models studied, the Han-Levenspiel model predicted SUR and power density with a correlation coefficient of 0.947 and 0.953, respectively. For SUR, the kinetic parameters rmax, Ks and Sm were 5.56 kg COD/m3·d, 4.00 kg/m3 and 18.55 kg/m3, respectively. For power density, the parameter Pmax, Ks and Sm were, respectively, 0.97 W/m3, 6.21 kg/m3 and 11.0 kg/m3. The current generation followed a Nernst-Monod model with an R2 value of 0.945. The kinetic parameter Jmax, Ks and η were 8.81 A/m2, 1.42 kg/m3 and 0.192, respectively. The results demonstrate the capability of EMFC to treat leachate and predict response for the treatment of the complex substrates.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
       
  • Impacts of Pb-Induced Oxidative Stress on Morphological, Physiological and
           Biochemical Properties of Tree Species

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      Abstract: The aim is to analyze the Pb-tolerance of three commonly found tree species and determine the Pb-toxicity and impacts of Pb on growth, physiological and biochemical parameters. In the present study, we examine the response of Pb-induced stress in three commonly growing tree species i.e., Terminalia arjuna, Cassia fistula, and Pongamia pinnata based on various characteristics at an interval of 90 days for 360 days. Plant seedlings were exposed to 0 (control), 200, 450, and 600 mg of Pb/kg dry soil. Our results showed that Pb significantly reduced growth, photosynthetic pigments, and physiological parameters in all studied species. These reductions were highest in P. pinnata followed by C. fistula, and T. arjuna. Besides, Pb-induced toxicity caused many fold rise in biochemicals such as malondialdehyde, proline, phenolics, thiols, and others. These elevations were highest in T. arjuna followed by C. fistula and P. pinnata. Further, it was also observed that with an increase in the number of days of year (DOY) of Pb exposure, plants showed a reduction in physiological parameters but an increase in growth and biochemical parameters in all studied species. Furthermore, the physiological parameters showed a negative and the biochemical parameters showed a positive correlation with both DOY and treatments, while the growth parameters showed a negative correlation with treatments and a positive correlation with DOY. Hence, we can conclude that the three selected species are promising candidates to be recommended for plantation in Pb-polluted urban areas due to their Pb-tolerance. Overall, the study provides a better understanding of the impacts of Pb on tree species in the long-term and in assessing their potential for sustainable plantations in urban areas. Highlights • Pb reduced growth, and affected physiology and biochemistry in all studied species. • P. pinnata was most affected followed by C. fistula and T. arjuna. • Physiology was diminished with the number of days of Pb exposure and treatments. • Physiology had negative and biochemistry had positive correlation with Pb exposure. • Growth was decreased due to Pb exposure but increased with number of days.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
       
  • Performance Evaluation of Near-Real-Time Satellite Rainfall Estimates over
           Three Distinct Climatic Zones in Tropical West-Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract The performance of four Near-Real-Time Satellite-Based Rainfall Estimates (NRT_SREs) was evaluated across the Volta basin from January 2019 to December 2020: Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP_NRT), Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement-Early run (IMERG-E), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN)-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), and PERSIANN–Dynamic Infrared Rain Rate (PDIR_NOW). They were also compared to their post-real-time counterparts: PERSIANN, IMERG-Final run (IMERG-F), IMERG-Late run (IMERG-L) and GSMaP_MVK. Quantitative and categorical metrics were used in conducting hourly and daily evaluations at individual stations across the basin, as well as at zonal and seasonal scales. The results revealed that all the NRT_SREs had weak correlations (third quartile: 0.3625) at the hourly timescale. IMERG-F had the best correlation (R) of all the SREs, but it also had the worst Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and False Alarm Ratio (FAR), being outperformed by IMERG-E and IMERG-L. IMERG-E also outperformed the NRT_SREs in most cases. However, in the arid Sudano-Sahelian zone, PDIR_NOW had the highest probability of detecting rainfall of all SREs (at the daily timescale) and all NRT_SREs (at both timescales). This was most likely because of PDIR_NOW’s increased maximum temperature threshold. Seasonal analysis revealed that the RMSE of the NRT_SREs was significantly lower during the dry season than during the wet season, and vice versa for FAR. The findings of this study are expected to provide not only valuable feedback to algorithm developers in order to improve NRT_SREs, but also guidance to data users worldwide.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Continuous Quantity and Quality Modeling for Assessing the Effect of SUDS:
           Application on a Conceptual Urban Drainage Basin

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      Abstract: Abstract The development of computational tools based on urban drainage models is fundamental for the correct selection of SUDS. The present study proposes a systematic approach based on continuous modeling on USEPA SWMM. The objective was to select the most suitable Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) by evaluating several aspects related to their design and configuration. The proposed methodology was applied to a conceptual watershed with meteorological information from Santander, Spain. The analysis of SUDS design parameters showed that only the surface variables showed a sensitivity of ≈20% for berm height and vegetation volume. The optimal configuration for the case study was a SUDS train consisting of green roofs, permeable pavements, vegetated swales and rain gardens, with 1% of the total subcatchment area cover, one structure, and a semi-aggregated spatial distribution. The methodology proved efficient but also highly dependent on the case study parameters and the meteorological conditions. The SUDS proved to have different efficiencies (30%—90%) in reducing the total runoff volume, the peak flow, and the pollutant loads depending on the region where the conceptual watershed was modeled. The methodology proved to be efficient for studying the combinations and interconnection of seven different typologies, as well as the effect of SUDS configuration, design and distribution on their performance.
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00609-4
       
  • Enhanced Biodegradation of Phenanthrene by Comamonas testosteroni Strain T
           in the Presence of Limiting Concentration of Triton x-100

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      Abstract: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the by-products of natural and anthropogenic pyrolysis, are of widespread environmental concern. They must therefore be removed more rapidly than they are introduced into the environment. This present study aims at enhancing phenanthrene (PHE) biodegradation by a bacterium isolated from diesel-contaminated soils in the presence of varied concentrations (30–150 mg/L) of triton x-100. The bacterium was characterized using morphological, biochemical and 16 S rRNA gene analyses and identified as Comamonas testosteroni. Biodegradation activities were monitored daily using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and established with Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), and the metabolites were identified using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector (GCMS). In addition, two important enzymes in pollutant biodegradation (tyrosinase and laccase) were assayed. The HPLC evaluation showed that the bacterium achieved 26.20 ± 5.10 and 83.51 ± 4.75% removal of phenanthrene after 3 d and 7 d of incubation, and 63.30 ± 13.02 and 98.39 ± 0.20% with 60 mg/L triton x-100 after 3 d and 7 d, respectively. Also, the FTIR spectra showed phenanthrene biodegradation as observed in the removal of prominent peaks in the spectrum of the 7 d metabolites. The GCMS confirmed the PHE oxidation, hydroxylation and carboxylation, and there was evidence of ring cleavage. C. testosteroni strain T showed increasing laccase and tyrosinase activities for 6 d, thus confirming enzyme-dependent phenanthrene biodegradation. An indigenous organism that can effectively remove phenanthrene from the environment has been isolated; the activities of this organism can be enhanced in the presence of a calculated amount of triton x-100.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00608-5
       
  • Lepidium sativum Seed Powder: A Novel Biosorbent for Acid Orange 142 Dye
           Uptake

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, a novel Lepidium sativum seed powder (L-seed) was investigated for the adsorptive uptake of acid orange 142 dye. The different L-seed biosorbent samples were characterized via the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pHPZC approaches. The effect of the process variable on the process was investigated via batch adsorption mode. The FTIR measurement revealed the presence of functional groups necessary for dye uptake, while the surface micropores observed from the SEM micrographs were further confirmed from the pore size distribution result. The BET surface area, pore volume and average pore size of L-seed are estimated as 90.86 m2/g, 0.072 cm3/g and 1.93 nm, respectively. Batch adsorption investigations showed the following optimum process conditions: pH 4.0, 0.2 g/L adsorbent mass and time of 120 min. The experimental equilibrium and kinetic data were properly described by the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-first-order kinetics model, respectively. The thermodynamics studies confirmed the occurrence of external energy-driven adsorption. Therefore, the experimental results showed that the L-seed is an efficient and alternate low-cost biosorbent for acid orange 142 dye from aqueous media.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00607-6
       
  • Development of a Pilot-ecofriendly Process for Chitosan Production from
           Waste Shrimp Shells

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      Abstract: New results are presented on a pilot and ecofriendly process to produce chitosan from waste shrimp shells. The process comprises demineralization with citric acid, enzymatic deproteinization with papain or bromelain to produce chitin and deacetylation to obtain chitosan (yield of 1 kg chitosan/kg shrimp shell, 64% deacetylated, 87.5% deproteinized and 98% demineralized). Shell particles of 1–25 mm were used instead of the shell powder that has been used in many studies. The developed process showed important technical and environmental advantages compared to the conventional process. A 10% increment in chitosan yield was obtained due a lower chitin hydrolysis. The ecofriendly process has 24% lower consumption of water. Residual water from citric acid demineralization does not need to be neutralized and can be re-circulated after the citrate salts recovery. Citrate salts are value-added byproducts for nutritional supplements and are easily recovered due to their low solubilities. Residual water from enzymatic deproteinization does not require neutralization and can be treated easier than water from the conventional process. Dissolved solids could be recovered by evaporation and used as animal feedstock for pink-colored fishes. The use of organic acids and enzymes in chitin extraction, compared to HCl and NaOH, does not require special materials for the reactors, reducing investment costs. Highlights • Ecofriendly process uses citric acid and enzymes instead of HCl and NaOH • 10% increment in chitosan yield was obtained due a lower chitin hydrolysis • Ecofriendly process has a 24% lower consumption of water • Residual water does not need to be neutralized and can be re-used • Citrate salts, proteins and carotenoids are value-added byproducts
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00605-8
       
  • Book Review: “Mare Plasticum – The Plastic Sea: Combatting Plastic
           Pollution Through Science and Art”, Streit-Bianchi M, Cimadevila M,
           Trettnak W (Eds), Springer Nature Publishing

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      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00606-7
       
  • Improving Monthly Rainfall Forecast in a Watershed by Combining Neural
           Networks and Autoregressive Models

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      Abstract: Abstract The main aim of the rain forecast is to determine rain occurrence conditions in a specific location. This is considered of vital importance to assess the availability of water resources in a basin. In this study, several methods are analyzed to forecast monthly rainfall totals in hydrological basins. The study region was the Almendares-Vento basin, Cuba. Based on Multi–Layer Perceptron (MLP), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short–Term Memory (LSTM) neural networks, and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, we developed a hybrid model (ANN + ARIMA) for rainfall prediction. The input data were the one year lagged rainfall records in gauge stations within the basin, sunspots, the sea surface temperature and time series of nine climate indices up to 2014. The predictions were also compared with the rainfall records of a gauge station network from 2015 to 2019 provided by the Cuban National Institute of Hydraulic Resources. Based on several statistical metrics such as mean absolute error, Pearson correlation, BIAS, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency and Kling–Gupta efficiency, the CNN model showed higher ability to forecast monthly rainfall. Nevertheless, the hybrid model was notably better than individual models. Overall, our findings have proved the reliability of using the hybrid model to predict rainfall time series for water management and can be extensively applied to this sort of application. In addition, this work proposes a new approach to enhance the planning and management of water availability in watershed for agriculture, industry and population through improving rainfall forecasting.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00602-x
       
  • Levels of Persistent Organochlorine Compounds in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus) from Three Cage Aquaculture Farms on the Volta Basin of Ghana:
           Implications for Human Health

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      Abstract: Abstract Increased agrochemical-based agricultural activities along the Volta basin and cage aquaculture practices from the cage farms have raised concerns about the potential ecological risk to the aquatic ecosystem. To assess this, caged tilapia samples were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Fish samples in acetone/hexane (2:1v/v) solvent medium were sonicated in an ultrasonic bath, shaken electronically, cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysed using GC/ECD for OCPs and GC/MS for PCBs. The levels of OCPs reported in the fish ranged; ND – 2.31 µg/kg (fish farm A), <LOD – 4.3 µg/kg (fish farm B), <LOD – 6.11 µg/kg (fish farm C) and ND – 0.88 µg/kg (control). The highest concentration of 6.11 µg/kg was encountered for δ-HCH in tilapia from fish farm C, while p,p’-DDE recorded the lowest in fish from Farm A. The levels of the OCPs detected in cage tilapia were below the maximum residue limits (MRL) proposed by the EU. Six PCBs congeners, i.e., PCB 18, PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB153 and PCB 180 were detected and concentrations ranged from 0.288 to 0.931 µg/kg dw, 0.042–1.321 µg/kg dw, 0.260-10.657 µg/kg dw, and ND − 0.298 µg/kg dw in fish Farms A, B, C and control, respectively. Risk assessment of POPs indicated that ∑PCBs in Farm C fish may pose health risk to consumers. Further analysis revealed that Farms B and C fish polluted with endrin may pose cancer risk to children consumers. Frequent monitoring of PCBs, OCPs and other contaminants is needed to mitigate the impacts on human health.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00600-z
       
  • Evaporation Mitigation Assessment by Self-assembled Nano-thickness Films
           in Shallow Fresh Water Lake Using Fixed and Semi-Floating Pans

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      Abstract: Abstract Controlling evaporation plays an essential role in arid and semi-arid water resources systems where it accounts for a considerable amount of reservoirs outflow. In this study, we have evaluated evaporation reduction efficiency of different kinds of self-assembled nano-thickness films. The films consist of six different combinations of stearyl and cetyl alcohols with additives such as jojoba oil, stearic acid, and calcium hydroxide. The study lasted from July to August and utilized two pairs of class A evaporation pans: one pair was semi-floating on Chitgar lake water surface while the other one was located on the shore. The experimental results showed that a monolayer containing 3:1 stearyl to cetyl alcohols with 60% weight of calcium hydroxide had the best performance and could reduce evaporation up to 50% during its three-day lifetime. The study indicated that while the films had no significant side effects on lake water pH, turbidity, and total suspended solids, a slight increase in water surface temperature was observed. It can be concluded that application of such monolayers in areas suffering from high evaporation could be conducive to better water resources management.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00599-3
       
  • Use of an Effective Variance Chemical Mass Balance Model for Source
           Apportionment of Metal Elements in a Polluted River

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to determine the sources of water pollution in a major river in northern Taiwan using the characteristics of actual industrial wastewater and the effective variance chemical mass balance (EV-CMB) model. River water samples from 9 sampling sites and 14 profiles of potential sources were collected once on May 15, 2019, and 52 metal elements were analyzed. The metal index (MI) was used to monitor the levels of 11 hazardous pollutants in the water samples. The model results indicated that tungsten discharged by semi-conductor manufacturing (SCM) and copper discharged by bare printed circuit boards (BPCB) were the major sources of river pollution in the upstream and downstream areas, with contributions of 78% and 19%, respectively. In addition to SCM and BPCB, a high pollutant load was apportioned to domestic wastewater in the metropolitan area, corresponding to the distribution of the population. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying the receptor model for the strategic investigation of river pollution and highlights the need for a comprehensive source profile database.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00601-y
       
  • Assessment of Ecological State of Soils Contaminated by Petroleum
           Hydrocarbons after Bioremediation

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      Abstract: Abstract Soils of different types have different recovery potential after pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC). The use of ameliorants helps to restore the condition of soils and improve soil fertility. The purpose of the work is to assess the ecological state of soils polluted by PHC after the use of biochar, sodium humate and “Baikal M-1”. There were three types of soils tested: Chernozem Haplic (CHha), Haplic Cambisols (CMha) and Haplic Arenosols (ARha). For modelling PHC contamination of soils, the prepared types of soils were placed in vegetable pots and ameliorants were introduced into the contaminated by PHC soil samples. After incubation (30 days), the residual content of PHC, the number of soil bacteria, and CO2 emissions were determined. The residual PHC content in the PHC-contaminated soils was reduced after the addition of biochar and sodium humate. At the same time, CO2 emission was maximum in ARha and CMha. The addition of “Baikal M-1” stimulated the emission of CO2 during PHC pollution of CHha. Sodium humate and biochar stimulated the total number of bacteria in CMha and ARha. The residual PHC content correlated with CO2 emission in CHha and ARha. The residual petroleum hydrocarbon content correlated with the number of soil bacteria in CMha and ARha after remediation. In conclusion, the addition of biochar and sodium humate can be recommended for bioremediating petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated CHha, CMha and ARha.
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00604-9
       
  • Seasonal Variations and Effect of COVID-19 Lockdown Restrictions on the
           Air Quality in the Cities of Kazakhstan

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on different air pollutants in eight cities of Kazakhstan by employing the data from the National Air Quality Monitoring Network. We selected eight cities located in different regions of the country with varied climatic and geographic conditions and emissions sources, providing good conditions for studying the differences in responses of air quality to COVID-19. Due to severe winters, the heating season in Kazakhstan has a significant impact on air quality; therefore, annual winter/spring changes in air quality were also compared. The positive effect of the COVID-19 lockdown (spring 2020) on NO2 and CO levels was observed in 5 and 3 cities, respectively (out of 8). Total Suspended Particles and SO2 exhibited a more complicated response to COVID-19 lockdown: cities had a varying effect. No impact of lockdown measures was observed in industrial cities (Ust-Kamenegorsk and Karagandy), but seasonal changes were significant. In addition, despite some improvements during the lockdown period, the air quality in seven out of eight cities was still below the safety levels. The atmospheric quality in urban areas of Kazakhstan has not improved significantly due to the lockdown measures. This study underscores the importance of imposing stricter air quality emission control over industrial enterprises and coal-fired power plants.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00603-w
       
 
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