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Environmental Processes : An International Journal
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2198-7491 - ISSN (Online) 2198-7505
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Lepidium sativum Seed Powder: A Novel Biosorbent for Acid Orange 142 Dye
           Uptake

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, a novel Lepidium sativum seed powder (L-seed) was investigated for the adsorptive uptake of acid orange 142 dye. The different L-seed biosorbent samples were characterized via the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pHPZC approaches. The effect of the process variable on the process was investigated via batch adsorption mode. The FTIR measurement revealed the presence of functional groups necessary for dye uptake, while the surface micropores observed from the SEM micrographs were further confirmed from the pore size distribution result. The BET surface area, pore volume and average pore size of L-seed are estimated as 90.86 m2/g, 0.072 cm3/g and 1.93 nm, respectively. Batch adsorption investigations showed the following optimum process conditions: pH 4.0, 0.2 g/L adsorbent mass and time of 120 min. The experimental equilibrium and kinetic data were properly described by the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-first-order kinetics model, respectively. The thermodynamics studies confirmed the occurrence of external energy-driven adsorption. Therefore, the experimental results showed that the L-seed is an efficient and alternate low-cost biosorbent for acid orange 142 dye from aqueous media.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
       
  • Development of a Pilot-ecofriendly Process for Chitosan Production from
           Waste Shrimp Shells

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      Abstract: New results are presented on a pilot and ecofriendly process to produce chitosan from waste shrimp shells. The process comprises demineralization with citric acid, enzymatic deproteinization with papain or bromelain to produce chitin and deacetylation to obtain chitosan (yield of 1 kg chitosan/kg shrimp shell, 64% deacetylated, 87.5% deproteinized and 98% demineralized). Shell particles of 1–25 mm were used instead of the shell powder that has been used in many studies. The developed process showed important technical and environmental advantages compared to the conventional process. A 10% increment in chitosan yield was obtained due a lower chitin hydrolysis. The ecofriendly process has 24% lower consumption of water. Residual water from citric acid demineralization does not need to be neutralized and can be re-circulated after the citrate salts recovery. Citrate salts are value-added byproducts for nutritional supplements and are easily recovered due to their low solubilities. Residual water from enzymatic deproteinization does not require neutralization and can be treated easier than water from the conventional process. Dissolved solids could be recovered by evaporation and used as animal feedstock for pink-colored fishes. The use of organic acids and enzymes in chitin extraction, compared to HCl and NaOH, does not require special materials for the reactors, reducing investment costs. Highlights • Ecofriendly process uses citric acid and enzymes instead of HCl and NaOH • 10% increment in chitosan yield was obtained due a lower chitin hydrolysis • Ecofriendly process has a 24% lower consumption of water • Residual water does not need to be neutralized and can be re-used • Citrate salts, proteins and carotenoids are value-added byproducts
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
       
  • Book Review: “Mare Plasticum – The Plastic Sea: Combatting Plastic
           Pollution Through Science and Art”, Streit-Bianchi M, Cimadevila M,
           Trettnak W (Eds), Springer Nature Publishing

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      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Improving Monthly Rainfall Forecast in a Watershed by Combining Neural
           Networks and Autoregressive Models

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      Abstract: Abstract The main aim of the rain forecast is to determine rain occurrence conditions in a specific location. This is considered of vital importance to assess the availability of water resources in a basin. In this study, several methods are analyzed to forecast monthly rainfall totals in hydrological basins. The study region was the Almendares-Vento basin, Cuba. Based on Multi–Layer Perceptron (MLP), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short–Term Memory (LSTM) neural networks, and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, we developed a hybrid model (ANN + ARIMA) for rainfall prediction. The input data were the one year lagged rainfall records in gauge stations within the basin, sunspots, the sea surface temperature and time series of nine climate indices up to 2014. The predictions were also compared with the rainfall records of a gauge station network from 2015 to 2019 provided by the Cuban National Institute of Hydraulic Resources. Based on several statistical metrics such as mean absolute error, Pearson correlation, BIAS, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency and Kling–Gupta efficiency, the CNN model showed higher ability to forecast monthly rainfall. Nevertheless, the hybrid model was notably better than individual models. Overall, our findings have proved the reliability of using the hybrid model to predict rainfall time series for water management and can be extensively applied to this sort of application. In addition, this work proposes a new approach to enhance the planning and management of water availability in watershed for agriculture, industry and population through improving rainfall forecasting.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Levels of Persistent Organochlorine Compounds in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis
           niloticus) from Three Cage Aquaculture Farms on the Volta Basin of Ghana:
           Implications for Human Health

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      Abstract: Abstract Increased agrochemical-based agricultural activities along the Volta basin and cage aquaculture practices from the cage farms have raised concerns about the potential ecological risk to the aquatic ecosystem. To assess this, caged tilapia samples were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Fish samples in acetone/hexane (2:1v/v) solvent medium were sonicated in an ultrasonic bath, shaken electronically, cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysed using GC/ECD for OCPs and GC/MS for PCBs. The levels of OCPs reported in the fish ranged; ND – 2.31 µg/kg (fish farm A), <LOD – 4.3 µg/kg (fish farm B), <LOD – 6.11 µg/kg (fish farm C) and ND – 0.88 µg/kg (control). The highest concentration of 6.11 µg/kg was encountered for δ-HCH in tilapia from fish farm C, while p,p’-DDE recorded the lowest in fish from Farm A. The levels of the OCPs detected in cage tilapia were below the maximum residue limits (MRL) proposed by the EU. Six PCBs congeners, i.e., PCB 18, PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB153 and PCB 180 were detected and concentrations ranged from 0.288 to 0.931 µg/kg dw, 0.042–1.321 µg/kg dw, 0.260-10.657 µg/kg dw, and ND − 0.298 µg/kg dw in fish Farms A, B, C and control, respectively. Risk assessment of POPs indicated that ∑PCBs in Farm C fish may pose health risk to consumers. Further analysis revealed that Farms B and C fish polluted with endrin may pose cancer risk to children consumers. Frequent monitoring of PCBs, OCPs and other contaminants is needed to mitigate the impacts on human health.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Evaporation Mitigation Assessment by Self-assembled Nano-thickness Films
           in Shallow Fresh Water Lake Using Fixed and Semi-Floating Pans

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      Abstract: Abstract Controlling evaporation plays an essential role in arid and semi-arid water resources systems where it accounts for a considerable amount of reservoirs outflow. In this study, we have evaluated evaporation reduction efficiency of different kinds of self-assembled nano-thickness films. The films consist of six different combinations of stearyl and cetyl alcohols with additives such as jojoba oil, stearic acid, and calcium hydroxide. The study lasted from July to August and utilized two pairs of class A evaporation pans: one pair was semi-floating on Chitgar lake water surface while the other one was located on the shore. The experimental results showed that a monolayer containing 3:1 stearyl to cetyl alcohols with 60% weight of calcium hydroxide had the best performance and could reduce evaporation up to 50% during its three-day lifetime. The study indicated that while the films had no significant side effects on lake water pH, turbidity, and total suspended solids, a slight increase in water surface temperature was observed. It can be concluded that application of such monolayers in areas suffering from high evaporation could be conducive to better water resources management.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Use of an Effective Variance Chemical Mass Balance Model for Source
           Apportionment of Metal Elements in a Polluted River

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to determine the sources of water pollution in a major river in northern Taiwan using the characteristics of actual industrial wastewater and the effective variance chemical mass balance (EV-CMB) model. River water samples from 9 sampling sites and 14 profiles of potential sources were collected once on May 15, 2019, and 52 metal elements were analyzed. The metal index (MI) was used to monitor the levels of 11 hazardous pollutants in the water samples. The model results indicated that tungsten discharged by semi-conductor manufacturing (SCM) and copper discharged by bare printed circuit boards (BPCB) were the major sources of river pollution in the upstream and downstream areas, with contributions of 78% and 19%, respectively. In addition to SCM and BPCB, a high pollutant load was apportioned to domestic wastewater in the metropolitan area, corresponding to the distribution of the population. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying the receptor model for the strategic investigation of river pollution and highlights the need for a comprehensive source profile database.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Assessment of Ecological State of Soils Contaminated by Petroleum
           Hydrocarbons after Bioremediation

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      Abstract: Abstract Soils of different types have different recovery potential after pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC). The use of ameliorants helps to restore the condition of soils and improve soil fertility. The purpose of the work is to assess the ecological state of soils polluted by PHC after the use of biochar, sodium humate and “Baikal M-1”. There were three types of soils tested: Chernozem Haplic (CHha), Haplic Cambisols (CMha) and Haplic Arenosols (ARha). For modelling PHC contamination of soils, the prepared types of soils were placed in vegetable pots and ameliorants were introduced into the contaminated by PHC soil samples. After incubation (30 days), the residual content of PHC, the number of soil bacteria, and CO2 emissions were determined. The residual PHC content in the PHC-contaminated soils was reduced after the addition of biochar and sodium humate. At the same time, CO2 emission was maximum in ARha and CMha. The addition of “Baikal M-1” stimulated the emission of CO2 during PHC pollution of CHha. Sodium humate and biochar stimulated the total number of bacteria in CMha and ARha. The residual PHC content correlated with CO2 emission in CHha and ARha. The residual petroleum hydrocarbon content correlated with the number of soil bacteria in CMha and ARha after remediation. In conclusion, the addition of biochar and sodium humate can be recommended for bioremediating petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated CHha, CMha and ARha.
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
       
  • Seasonal Variations and Effect of COVID-19 Lockdown Restrictions on the
           Air Quality in the Cities of Kazakhstan

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on different air pollutants in eight cities of Kazakhstan by employing the data from the National Air Quality Monitoring Network. We selected eight cities located in different regions of the country with varied climatic and geographic conditions and emissions sources, providing good conditions for studying the differences in responses of air quality to COVID-19. Due to severe winters, the heating season in Kazakhstan has a significant impact on air quality; therefore, annual winter/spring changes in air quality were also compared. The positive effect of the COVID-19 lockdown (spring 2020) on NO2 and CO levels was observed in 5 and 3 cities, respectively (out of 8). Total Suspended Particles and SO2 exhibited a more complicated response to COVID-19 lockdown: cities had a varying effect. No impact of lockdown measures was observed in industrial cities (Ust-Kamenegorsk and Karagandy), but seasonal changes were significant. In addition, despite some improvements during the lockdown period, the air quality in seven out of eight cities was still below the safety levels. The atmospheric quality in urban areas of Kazakhstan has not improved significantly due to the lockdown measures. This study underscores the importance of imposing stricter air quality emission control over industrial enterprises and coal-fired power plants.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
       
  • Kinetics and Thermodynamic Study of Laponite Application in Caffeine
           Removal by Adsorption

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      Abstract: This work aims to study caffeine removal from an aqueous solution through adsorption on laponite. Experimental analysis of adsorption in batch scale was performed to verify the influence of pH (2 to 10), the concentration of solid adsorbent (0.5 to 5.0 g L−1), and the contact time (1 to 150 min). The adsorption equilibrium was analyzed using Bayesian Information Criteria metric statistics to define the isotherm model of caffeine removal. The Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique estimated the main isotherm parameters. The thermodynamics tests were performed at three different temperatures (303, 313, and 323 K) using concentrations from 10 to 4000 g L−1. The results showed that the kinetics study at pH 4 and 5 g L−1 of laponite was efficient, exceeding 90% of caffeine removal even in a short period of adsorption time (after 1 min). The equilibrium state was reached at about 20 min of contact time. Redlich-Peterson and Sips were the isotherm models that best fit the experimental data. The thermodynamics study suggested that the caffeine adsorption on laponite was spontaneous, exothermic, and mainly was governed by physisorption. The results showed that adsorption is a suitable method for removing emerging pollutants like caffeine. Furthermore, laponite is a promising material to remove them. Article Highlights • Laponite is mesoporous and there was no change in structure after adsorption • Parameters from the isotherms studied shows smooth dependence of the temperature • The Sips and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models best described the experimental data
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
       
  • Assessment of Environmental Degradation due to Processing of Cassava into
           Garri Flakes Using Pollution Indices

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      Abstract: Abstract Processing of cassava into garri is a multi-staged process that causes adverse environmental impacts. This study aimed at assessing the environmental impact of various stages of cassava processing into garri flakes. A detailed sanitary study of the processing plants was undertaken to ascertain their immediate and remote environmental impacts. Wastewater and soil samples were collected from four garri processing plants and analysed for physico-chemical parameters. The data was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis and various pollution indices were calculated. The results indicate that hydrogen cyanide, total suspended solids and electrical conductivity, which ranged from 8.6 to 42.8 mg/L, 11,900–40,800 mg/L and 4006–5240 µS/cm, respectively, were above the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) effluent discharge guideline values. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg and As were: 0.23, 0.06, 0.03, 0.15, 0.09, 0.75 and 2.09 mg/L in the wastewater sample; 0.07, 0.04, 0.33, 0.15, 0.09, 3.75 and 4.85 mg/L in sludge; and 0.10, 0.14, 0.31, 0.15, 0.03, 2.25 and 3.05 mg/L in soil. The average pollution load index of the recipient soils ranged from moderately polluted (2.48) to highly polluted (4.56). Nemerow’s pollution index (NPI) indicated that soil samples from three locations were severely polluted (> 3.0), while one was moderately polluted (2 < NPI < 3). The geo-accumulation indices ranged from − 0.03 (uncontaminated) to 2.59 (heavy contamination). The order of ecological risk of various metals was: As > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni with corresponding ecological risk values of 50.63 (moderate risk), 34.43 (low risk), 15.93 (low risk), 10.51 (low risk), 8.93 (low risk) and 5.63 (low risk). Hence, cassava effluent exerts adverse impacts on the immediate premises of cassava processing plants.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
       
  • Correction to: Integration of Large-Scale Electrical Imaging into
           Geological Framework Development and Refinement

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      PubDate: 2022-07-27
       
  • The Use of Mandarin-Biochar-O3-TETA (MBT) Produced from Mandarin Peels as
           a Natural Adsorbent for the Removal of Acid Red 35 (AR35) Dye from Water

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      Abstract: Abstract A new biochar was produced from mandarin peel residues and its ability to remove Acid Red 35 (AR35) dye from wastewater was investigated. The production was achieved by dehydration with 50% sulfuric acid followed by decoration with oxidation, and then reaction with Triethylenetetramine (TETA). The prepared Mandarin-Biochar-O3-TETA (MBT) was characterized by FT-IR, BJH, BET, SEM, DSC, TGA, XRD and EDX analyses. The data obtained were analyzed with Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Jovanovic isotherm models. The data obtained from these isotherm models were tested using different error functions (HYBRID, APE, EABS, X2, RMS and MPSD). Kinetic data were evaluated by pseudo-first-order (PFO), pseudo-second-order (PSO), Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and film diffusion models. The optimum pH value for AR35 dye adsorption was determined as 1.5. The highest removal percentage of AR35 dye was 97.50% using 300 mg L− 1 AR35 dye initial concentration and 2.5 g L− 1 MBT dose. The MBT had a maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) of 476.19 mg g− 1. The Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model was best fitted to the experimental data of MBT. The adsorption rate was primarily controlled by a pseudo-second-order rate model (R2 > 0.99). The adsorption mechanism process mainly involves the adsorption of anions via the electrostatic attraction forces that develop with the increase in the number of positively charged regions at acidic pH values. The results indicate that MBT is promising for the removal of AR35 dye from water and could be repeatedly used without significant loss of adsorption efficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
       
  • Influences of Elevated Nutrients and Water Temperature from Wastewater
           Effluent on River Ecosystem Metabolism

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      Abstract: Abstract River ecosystem metabolism (REM) is a measure of ecological function which integrates gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). Urban rivers often receive effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) which frequently alter nutrient concentrations and modify temperature regimes of receiving water bodies. To investigate how variations in nutrients and water temperature affect REM, we applied the night-time slope modelling to estimate diurnal REM at sites above and below a wastewater outfall on the River Wandle, UK. Overall, estimated GPP (0–21.2 mgO2·L− 1·d− 1) and ER (5.5–10.1 mgO2·L− 1·d− 1) from our study sites were similar to those of urban impacted rivers in other countries. GPP values were similar between sites, but downstream ER values were significantly higher affected by the WWTP effluent. GPP/ER ratios were < 1 indicating heterotrophic conditions and the river as a carbon source during the study. We found that sites had similar activation energy associated with ER suggesting our work provides a useful reference for estimating temperature corrected metabolic processes for other urban rivers in the region. Furthermore, structural equation modelling revealed that nutrient supply, water temperature and light availability were the main factors driving REM. This research highlights the major environmental factors affecting REM, which helps to understand the response of river metabolism and river regulation of regional carbon cycle to future climate change and provide evidence to inform river restoration and future in-stream management.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00597-5
       
  • Festival Ushered Pollutants in Indian Metropolitan Cities: Resemblance,
           Variance, and Concerns

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      Abstract: The current study is designed to simultaneously assess for the first time similarities and differences in pollutant escalation (especially fireworks) in four mega and metro cities in India, i.e., Delhi, Ahmedabad, Mumbai and Pune, during the most important Indian festival, Diwali. The four cities are networked in the System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting And Research (SAFAR). The data was collected through online and cumulative sampling. Particulates were analyzed for concentration trends, chemical speciation, and trace gas variations. The attitude and culture of the inhabitants in each city decided the amplitude and duration of the event. On Diwali day, PM2.5 and PM10 (maximum) in Delhi increased by 353% and 213%, respectively, compared to pre-Diwali day. The increment in PM2.5 in Pune and Ahmedabad is 50% of that in Delhi, whereas, in Mumbai, it is 1/7th of Pune. NO2 in Delhi surpassed the permissible concentration during Diwali night. Metal content (K, Mg, Na, Mn and Pb) in PM2.5 nearly doubled in all cities due to firecrackers. Prevailing meteorological conditions controlled the dispersal of pollutants. 'Ventilation Coefficient' appears to be deterministic as a pollutant sink except for wet removal. The health concern is assessed through inhalation dose (6–12 pm peak period), Delhi faced quadruple dose on Diwali day over pre-Diwali day, and it reduced close to triple on post-Diwali day. The study elucidates the need for city-specific multi-mode information to design effective control measures to curb festivity-related air pollution. Article Highlights • The networked cities showed specific peak times and concentrations on the event day • Online and gravimetric samplings of PM2.5 agree well • Weather and peak pollution magnitude determine dispersion efficiency at each station • Post-Diwali inhalation dose remains considerably high in Delhi and Ahmedabad Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00593-9
       
  • Kinetics of Lead Remobilization from Montmorillonite by Glutamate
           Diacetate (GLDA), Methylglycine Diacetate (MGDA), and Ethylenediamine
           Tetraacetate (ETDA) Chelating Agents

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      Abstract: Abstract Green chelating ligands are being increasingly produced and commercialized globally because conventional ligands such as ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) are poorly biodegradable and persistent in the environment. The study of toxic metal remobilization processes from minerals by new chelating ligands is crucial to better understand the fate and transport of metals in soil and sediment environments. In this research, the effects of two green alternatives of EDTA, i.e., glutamate diacetate (GLDA) and methylglycine diacetate (MGDA), on lead (Pb) remobilization kinetics from Pb-loaded montmorillonite (MMT) were studied at two ligand concentrations of 0.25 and 1.0 mM. The effects of a 30-day residence time on the rate and quantity of Pb remobilization were also evaluated. The results showed that the time-dependent Pb remobilization was biphasic with an initial rapid phase lasting 3 h followed by a slow phase taking 12 h. The degree of Pb remobilization was governed by the nature and concentration of the chelating ligands presented in the systems. The capacity of the ligands to remobilize Pb from MMT was in the order EDTA > > MGDA > GLDA, according to the decreasing order in the stability constants of their complexes with Pb ions. The aging of the MMT systems caused a significant reduction in both Pb remobilization quantity and rate parameters. The results suggest that GLDA and MGDA have a significantly lower Pb-remobilizing impact than EDTA in contaminated soil and sediments containing MMT as a major clay constituent.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00595-7
       
  • Concentration Levels, Spatial Distribution and Source Identification of
           PAHs, n-Alkanes, Hopanes and Steranes in Deposited Dust of Mashhad, Iran,
           and Potential Health Risk Assessment

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the carcinogenic contamination level of deposited dust (DD) on the roof near heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), which can greatly affect the indoor air quality. Forty samples of roof DD were collected, and organic compounds (16 PAH compounds, 20 n-alkane homologs, 8 hopanes, and 6 steranes) were extracted using Soxhlet and analyzed by GC-MS. Source identification of organic compounds was conducted by ring classification, diagnostic ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA) was done. The results showed that the average ± SD of total PAHs, n-alkanes, hopanes and steranes in DD were 1356.00 ± 291.45 µg.kg− 1, 3211.65 ± 969.18 µg.g− 1, 146.37 ± 79.45 µg.g− 1 and 469.76 ± 188.25 µg.g− 1, respectively. Also, the highest concentration of organic compounds was measured in the city center, where traffic congestion is expected. Diagnostic ratios of n-alkanes results revealed the vehicular emission as dominant source. On the other hand, PCA indicated vehicular and biogenic emission as the primary sources. Sterane and hopane profiles also confirm these results. Moreover, PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated petroleum combustion as the primary source and PCA showed that vehicular emissions, and natural gas and wood combustion were the main factors. The incremental lifetime cancer risk of PAHs was calculated as 8.45 × 10− 12 for children and 9.80 × 10− 7 for adults, and the imposed risk is considered negligible. Based on the results, diesel and gasoline-powered vehicles are responsible for a significant proportion of the hydrocarbon pollution in Mashhad.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00591-x
       
  • Assessment of the Coastal Sensitivity in the Southern Mediterranean Using
           the CSI

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      Abstract: Abstract Assessment of the coastal erosion risk using the coastal sensitivity index (CSI) in the microtidal environment (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia) shows that 78.6% of the coast is under low to moderate sensitivity. Moderate sensitivity class includes the sheltered zones and the stable sea cliffs. The highest sensitivity was recorded in sandy beaches (12.7%) where the drift actions amplify littoral fragility and flood risk. The CSI resulted from the combination of eight ranked variables: (a) geomorphology; (b) hinterland topography; (c) coastal slope; (d) facies; (e) shoreline exposure; (f) shoreline changes; (g) tide and (h) sea-level trend. A flexible remotely sensed database has been generated including numerical values of the ranked parameters. Fifty-six morphodynamic cells were deduced from a strict morphologic classification of the studied coast. The obtained database presents a basis to classify each specified cell according to its sensitivity to erosion. The beaches are immediately disturbed, once the touristic infrastructures are installed in the backshore. The application of coastal sensitivity assessment may introduce a sustainable remediation for use in the coastal zone.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00584-w
       
  • Dynamic Impacts of Economic Growth, Renewable Energy Use, Urbanization,
           and Tourism on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to investigate the dynamic impacts of economic growth, renewable energy use, urbanization, and tourism on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Argentina. Time series data from 1990 to 2019 were utilized by applying the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach followed by the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) method. The ARDL bounds test revealed evidence of cointegration among the variables. The DOLS findings revealed that an increase in economic growth, urbanization, and tourism by 1% for each variable would increase CO2 emissions by 0.51%, 0.45%, and 0.04%, respectively. Conversely, a 1% increase in renewable energy use may lead to CO2 emissions reduction by 0.14% in the long run. The estimated results are robust to alternative estimators such as fully modified least squares (FMOLS) and canonical cointegrating regression (CCR). In addition, the pairwise Granger causality test was utilized to capture the causal linkage between the variables. This article puts forward policy recommendations in the areas of low-carbon economy, promoting renewable energy use, sustainable urbanization, and eco-friendly tourism which would ensure environmental sustainability by reducing emissions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00590-y
       
  • A Review of Soil Injection of Liquid Organic Wastes: Potentials and
           Challenges

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      Abstract: Abstract The goal of this review was to disseminate information on current technological advancements and strategic initiatives integrating liquid organic wastes (LOWs) in the soil. A systematic literature review methodology was used to carry out this research. We reviewed 200 papers published between 2000 and 2020. We limited our search to high-ranking journals (Scopus), excluding articles from lower-ranking journals. Only English-language papers were covered. The review discusses the different types of LOWs, along with their physiochemical characteristics, composition and benefits, as well as their applications and contribution to achieve Sustainable Development Goals. Odor production, pathogens, heavy metals, synthetic pollutants, and varying LOW compositions are all major constraints. To optimize LOW injection, precautions and appropriate management methods are highlighted. The use of a variety of equipment and injection procedures in the application of environmentally friendly LOWs is acknowledged. The review also addresses the knowledge gap by highlighting the benefits, drawbacks, opportunities, and risks associated with LOWs soil injection. Future challenges that will aid in the promotion of LOW soil injection are identified.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00587-7
       
 
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