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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Environmental Processes : An International Journal
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2198-7491 - ISSN (Online) 2198-7505
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Assessment of the Coastal Sensitivity in the Southern Mediterranean Using
           the CSI

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      Abstract: Abstract Assessment of the coastal erosion risk using the coastal sensitivity index (CSI) in the microtidal environment (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia) shows that 78.6% of the coast is under low to moderate sensitivity. Moderate sensitivity class includes the sheltered zones and the stable sea cliffs. The highest sensitivity was recorded in sandy beaches (12.7%) where the drift actions amplify littoral fragility and flood risk. The CSI resulted from the combination of eight ranked variables: (a) geomorphology; (b) hinterland topography; (c) coastal slope; (d) facies; (e) shoreline exposure; (f) shoreline changes; (g) tide and (h) sea-level trend. A flexible remotely sensed database has been generated including numerical values of the ranked parameters. Fifty-six morphodynamic cells were deduced from a strict morphologic classification of the studied coast. The obtained database presents a basis to classify each specified cell according to its sensitivity to erosion. The beaches are immediately disturbed, once the touristic infrastructures are installed in the backshore. The application of coastal sensitivity assessment may introduce a sustainable remediation for use in the coastal zone.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Dynamic Impacts of Economic Growth, Renewable Energy Use, Urbanization,
           and Tourism on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to investigate the dynamic impacts of economic growth, renewable energy use, urbanization, and tourism on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Argentina. Time series data from 1990 to 2019 were utilized by applying the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach followed by the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) method. The ARDL bounds test revealed evidence of cointegration among the variables. The DOLS findings revealed that an increase in economic growth, urbanization, and tourism by 1% for each variable would increase CO2 emissions by 0.51%, 0.45%, and 0.04%, respectively. Conversely, a 1% increase in renewable energy use may lead to CO2 emissions reduction by 0.14% in the long run. The estimated results are robust to alternative estimators such as fully modified least squares (FMOLS) and canonical cointegrating regression (CCR). In addition, the pairwise Granger causality test was utilized to capture the causal linkage between the variables. This article puts forward policy recommendations in the areas of low-carbon economy, promoting renewable energy use, sustainable urbanization, and eco-friendly tourism which would ensure environmental sustainability by reducing emissions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • A Review of Soil Injection of Liquid Organic Wastes: Potentials and
           Challenges

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      Abstract: Abstract The goal of this review was to disseminate information on current technological advancements and strategic initiatives integrating liquid organic wastes (LOWs) in the soil. A systematic literature review methodology was used to carry out this research. We reviewed 200 papers published between 2000 and 2020. We limited our search to high-ranking journals (Scopus), excluding articles from lower-ranking journals. Only English-language papers were covered. The review discusses the different types of LOWs, along with their physiochemical characteristics, composition and benefits, as well as their applications and contribution to achieve Sustainable Development Goals. Odor production, pathogens, heavy metals, synthetic pollutants, and varying LOW compositions are all major constraints. To optimize LOW injection, precautions and appropriate management methods are highlighted. The use of a variety of equipment and injection procedures in the application of environmentally friendly LOWs is acknowledged. The review also addresses the knowledge gap by highlighting the benefits, drawbacks, opportunities, and risks associated with LOWs soil injection. Future challenges that will aid in the promotion of LOW soil injection are identified.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
       
  • Influence of Rainfall Pattern and Traffic Variability on the Occurrence of
           PAHs in Road Surface Runoff

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to investigate the phase distribution, structure characteristics and ecological risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in runoff from typical traffic roads, as well as the influences of rainfall pattern and traffic variability. An improved wash-off calculation method of PAHs, which incorporates the total number of vehicles, was established. Seventy-five runoff samples in 35 rainfall events were collected and analyzed in a suburban freeway (JJ) and an urban traffic road (CB) in Shanghai. Results showed that the average event mean concentrations (EMCs) and load densities (LDs) of Σ16PAHs in the runoff in JJ were 22.8 times and 37.2 times those in CB, mainly due to the high proportion of coaches and trucks, the dry antecedent time before rainfall events and the high traffic volume in JJ. LDs of PAHs in runoff were predominantly present in the particulate phase (69%-98%) with 4–6 rings (83%-86%). Among the 16 individual PAHs in CB and JJ, those of high ecological risk accounted for 15% and 74%, respectively. The factors influencing the EMCs and LDs of Σ16PAHs during a rainfall included the total rainfall depth, rainfall duration, dry antecedent time, and total traffic volume. According to dry antecedent time, total rainfall depth, rainfall duration and traffic volume for each event in 2020, the total LDs for the Σ16PAHs in CB and JJ were calculated at 653 μg∙m−2 and 17,619 μg∙m−2, respectively, using the improved wash-off load calculation method. This indicated that PAHs in JJ runoff have a more cumulative pollution effect on the surrounding farmland and the ecological risk cannot be ignored. Intercepting particles of traffic runoff is very important for the control of PAHs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
       
  • VOCs in Ambient Air and Community Odour Assessment before and after the
           Closure of an Animal Rendering Plant

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      Abstract: Abstract Despite its significant positive impact on environmental quality, rendering industry still suffers, on a global basis, from nuisance odour problems that can contribute to public complaints about health problems, social and individual life disruption. This study was carried out in the surroundings of the animal rendering plant in Southwest Greece, after compulsory cessation of operation in May 2020. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined in the ambient air in four sampling campaigns and the Odour Activity Values (OAVs) were calculated for odorants. Past and present odour nuisance perceived by residents was assessed through a questionnaire. The results revealed a significant reduction by half in the total concentration of VOCs. Main offensive odorants totally disappeared. The sum of OAVs decreased by 89% in 2020 and 71% in 2021, in relation to the operation period. Residents reported a significant reduction in the frequency, intensity, duration and annoyance of the odour after termination of the rendering activities. Non-specific health symptoms (nausea, respiratory problems, etc.) that participants were experiencing in the past, no longer occurred. Given that the rendering industry follows by default the concept of circular economy, and adds to environmental safety, economy and public health protection, its operation should be kept pursued but under odour abatement strategies. Rendering facilities should be settled at industrial areas and utilize existing modern and environmentally friendly technologies to effectively control odour emissions and eliminate health and social impact.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
       
  • Comparative Experimental Study of Flow through Various Types of Simulated
           Vegetation

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      Abstract: Abstract The paper aims at providing detailed data of main flow characteristics in a vegetated channel. Experiments were performed in a laboratory flume with three types of artificial vegetation elements, simulating submerged small plants with or without foliage: (a) simple rods; (b) compound elements consisting of spheres fixed on top of thin rods; (c) compound elements consisting of flexible (plastic) needles arranged axisymmetrically on top of the same rods. For all types of elements, two patterns of placement were tested, on a parallel and a staggered mesh, at respective plan densities of 100 and 200 stems/m2. Measurements were made using a three-dimensional ADV probe at selected locations within the vegetation array in the middle part of the channel. Vertical profiles of the (temporal mean) longitudinal velocities, turbulent intensities and turbulent shear stresses were obtained and are compared. The results show considerable differences in the flow conditions, depending on the location in the array, density/pattern and type of element. The velocity reduction within the canopy is more pronounced for the compound elements regardless of the type of foliage. The turbulent shear stresses are considerably higher above the top of the canopy than below for all cases. The presence of vegetation also affects the flow downstream.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
       
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Accumulation Performances of Monophasic
           Butyl Rubber Passive Samplers

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      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation performances of four butyl rubber (BR) monophasic passive samplers with different pore structures were investigated and the results were compared with monophasic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) samplers and biphasic semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Stainless steel cages containing passive samplers were deployed in the water column in Istinye Bay, Istanbul Strait, and retrieved after 7 and 28 days. Collected samplers were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine their PAH contents. Results showed that BR passive samplers have sampled all PAHs for both short- and long-term sampling periods while SPMD samplers only collected twelve and thirteen PAHs after 7 and 28 days, respectively. PDMS samplers showed the poorest performance, having only sampled seven and ten PAHs after 7 and 28 days, respectively. Among the BR samplers, a monophasic BR sampler with a single pore network (SN10) showed the most feasible performance in terms of PAH sampling and its preparation cost. Results highlighted that the SN10 sampler with a wide absorption range and monophasic structure can be used as an alternative passive sampler for pollution monitoring in marine environments.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
       
  • Grey Relational Modelling of Land Surface Temperature (LST) for Ranking
           Indian Urban Cities

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      Abstract: Abstract Landsat data (L8, L7 and L5) of ten Indian cities were selected for spatial estimation of land surface temperature (LST) to understand the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. LST was estimated using two methods (a) the spectral radiance model; and (b) an automatic mapping algorithm developed in the ERDAS Imagine platform. LST values were normalized between 0 and 1 using an UHIindex for understanding the UHI scenario of cities during 1995–2017. The estimated average UHIindex values of nine cities were > 0.5, with the highest being 0.89, which forced in identifying the parameter influencing the tremendous rise in LST. To study this behavior, the role of different land cover changes (built-up, water bodies, or barren land) was considered and satellite-derived indices were adopted for classification instead of supervised classification looking at medium/low resolution freely available spatial data. The decision of which index mostly affected LST was solved by assigning a grade to each index generated from using the grey relational approach. With a highest grade of 5.8 and other two being 4.8 and 4.7, the built-up satellite index suggested that human activities severely altered the surface temperature in the cities. A realistic and practical "Living index (LI)" approach was implemented for ranking the cities in the study area based on the numeric of built-up index and UHIindex values encountered in day-to-day life.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Impact of Inorganic Arsenic (III and V) on Growth and Development of Rice
           (Oryza sativa L.) with Special Emphasis on Root and Coleoptile Growth

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      Abstract: Abstract Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil is a prime concern for food security and human health. A short-term phytotoxicity experiment was conducted on four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under the influence of arsenic (III)-arsenite and arsenic (V)-arsenate to evaluate the impact on root and coleoptile growth. Four varieties (GB-1, IET-4786, IET-4094, and MTU-1010) of rice were tested with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/L) of arsenic (As(III) and As(V)). Germination along with mean daily germination (MDG), length of root and length of coleoptiles, water holding capacity of both root and coleoptiles, fresh and dry weight, arsenic accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) and root ion leakage were evaluated. Results highlighted that the percent germination of IET-4094 and MTU-1010 varieties of rice seed compared to control decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing concentration of both arsenite and arsenate. Similarly, biomass of shoot was less affected than root under different concentration of arsenite and arsenate. The variety IET-4786 and MTU-1010 accumulated lower level of arsenic and the variety GB-1 accumulated higher level of MDA in roots under both arsenite and arsenate treatments. Therefore, it can be concluded that the varieties IET-4786 and MTU-1010 are more suitable varieties towards tolerance under both arsenite and arsenate. Farmers of arsenic contaminated areas are suggested to cultivate IET-4786 and MTU-1010 varieties.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • Mean Flow and Mixing Properties of a Vertical Round Turbulent Buoyant Jet
           in a Weak Crosscurrent

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      Abstract: This paper deals with the mean flow and mixing properties of a vertical round turbulent buoyant jet in a weak crosscurrent, through an implementation of the integral method. The phenomenon is described by the Reynolds averaged partial differential equations of continuity, momentum and conservation of tracer mass formulated in a curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system. Applying second order mathematical approximations, the equations are integrated on a reduced cross-sectional area of the jet under the similarity assumption and the boundary conditions. The reduced area by a cyclical sector provides increased entrainment due to the increase of its perimeter, which reduces the fluxes and affects the dilution, and the model predictions, mainly the dilutions, are considerably improved. A system of ordinary differential equations is produced, which is solved numerically using a 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The results obtained for several values of the normalized ratio of ambient over buoyant-jet exit velocity are compared with experimental data of normalized trajectories and dilutions available in the literature. The satisfactory performance of the integral model for weak current velocities makes it suitable for research, for studying effluent discharges in water bodies or in the atmosphere, as well as for design purposes. Article Highlights • A curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is used. • Reduced cross-sectional area is used in the bent-over phase. • The integral model predictions for weak currents agree well with experimental data.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Indices of Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change: a Review

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this paper is to identify and analyze relevant research of index-based methods for the evaluation of climate change vulnerability and resilience of coastal areas. We searched, retrieved, classified and reviewed papers on climate-change hazards, impacts, vulnerability and resilience of coastal water systems and relevant infrastructure. For this, Scopus, Science Direct, Thompson-Reuters Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed and other relevant databases were used. The analysis of the state-of-the-art presented in this paper acknowledges that using vulnerability and resilience indices in climate vulnerability research is effective, providing a solid, efficient and user-friendly framework. However, selection of index variables should be part of a holistic as well as dynamic approach to identify not only areas in danger, but also the level of social vulnerability.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Air Quality during the COVID–19 Lockdown and Unlock Periods in India
           Analyzed Using Satellite and Ground-based Measurements

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      Abstract: A nationwide lockdown was imposed in India from 24 March 2020 to 31 May 2020 to contain the spread of COVID-19. The lockdown has changed the atmospheric pollution across the continents. Here, we analyze the changes in two most important air quality related trace gases, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) from satellite and surface observations, during the lockdown (April–May 2020) and unlock periods (June–September 2020) in India, to examine the baseline emissions when anthropogenic sources were significantly reduced. We use the Bayesian statistics to find the changes in these trace gas concentrations in different time periods. There is a strong reduction in NO2 during the lockdown as public transport and industries were shut during that period. The largest changes are found in IGP (Indo-Gangetic Plain), and industrial and mining areas in Eastern India. The changes are small in the hilly regions, where the concentrations of these trace gases are also very small (0–1 × 1015 molec./cm2). In addition, a corresponding increase in the concentrations of tropospheric O3 is observed during the period. The analyses over cities show that there is a large decrease in NO2 in Delhi (36%), Bangalore (21%) and Ahmedabad (21%). As the lockdown restrictions were eased during the unlock period, the concentrations of NO2 gradually increased and ozone deceased in most regions. Therefore, this study suggests that pollution control measures should be prioritized, ensuring strict regulations to control the source of anthropogenic pollutants, particularly from the transport and industrial sectors. Highlights • Most cities show a reduction up to 15% of NO2 during the lockdown • The unlock periods show again an increase of about 40–50% in NO2 • An increase in tropospheric O3 is observed together with the decrease in NO2
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • MicroAlgal Biofilm Reactor (MABR) – Evaluation of Biomass Support
           Materials and Nitrate Removal Performance

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      Abstract: Microalgal biofilms have attracted a good deal of attention as highly beneficial systems capable of reducing the cost of dewatering operations, the costliest component of suspended-growth systems. The support material is a key factor for algal biofilms generating high solids biomass slurries. This study presents results from screening experiments for algae biofilm support materials in a stationary flood-and-drain system (FDS) and a rotating biological contactor (RBC). Areal biomass productivity served as the selection criterion for attachment while nutrient removal performance was also monitored. Batch experiments tested the attachment capability of Scenedesmus obliquus ATCC®11,477 on the surface of several materials, (e.g., cotton duck, PVC foam, ceramic et.) with BG11 as growth medium. The highest average biomass productivity of 3.4±0.7 g·m− 2·d− 1 was recorded in the FDS using cotton duck as a support material. Comparable total nitrogen (TN) uptake rates of 3.51 and 3.14 mg L− 1d− 1were obtained under low P conditions (N:P = 35:1) in the FDS and RBC, respectively. Under high P conditions (N:P = 5:1), the TN uptake rate and removal efficiency increased to 16.04 mg L− 1d− 1 and 99.8%, respectively. In addition, nitrate removal experiments were carried out in a continuous flow microalgal biofilm reactor (MABR) with cotton duck support material operating at steady state and high effluent recirculation rates. The reactor was modeled using first order nitrate uptake kinetics in a completely mixed regime. The applied model fitted the experimental data adequately and allowed for determination of the nitrate uptake rate constant (K = 58.1 d− 1) via linear regression (R2 = 0.967). Highlights • Attached algal biomass support materials are evaluated in FDS and RBC systems. • Among all materials tested, cotton duck supports the highest biomass productivity. • Nitrogen uptake in MABR is adequately described by first order kinetics.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • An Ecofriendly Approach for Methylene Blue and Lead (II) Adsorption onto
           Functionalized Citrus limetta Bioadsorbent

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      Abstract: The aim of this study is to eliminate dye and heavy metal ions from their aqueous solution simultaneously. A modified Citrus limetta (MCL) bioadsorbent was synthesized utilizing hexamethylene diisocyanate as crosslinking agent. The synthesized bioadsorbent has been utilized in successful removal of organic and inorganic pollutants with high efficacy and recycling efficiency. The effect of several adsorption parameters such as concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH and temperature was investigated to assess the optimum adsorption conditions. The bioadsorbent shows maximum removal efficiency of 99.02% for methylene blue and 91.9% for lead ions. The maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue was found to be 250 mg/g and for lead ions 200 mg/g. The adsorption process was fitted well into the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption equilibrium was described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The regeneration study suggested that MCL could be effectively regenerated and has good recyclability upto five cycles. The removal of methylene blue and lead ion was found of spontaneous and endothermic nature by the thermodynamic study of adsorption. MCL could be an ideal, sustainable and eco-friendly bioadsorbent for environmental pollution cleanup because of excellent organic and inorganic pollutant removal efficiency with good reusability. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Screening of Atrazine Distribution in Groundwater and Modeling of Leaching
           Potential to the Unconfined Aquifer in the Pampean Plain of Cordoba,
           Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze atrazine (ATZ) spatial distribution in groundwater and present the factors related to its leaching potential in an area under intensive agricultural activity within the fluvio-Aeolian plain of the province of Córdoba, Argentina. Using tools such as soil and groundwater sampling and analysis, batch tests and numerical modeling, the variables that control the atrazine sorption and leaching potential were evaluated. The herbicide was detected in 14.7% of groundwater samples (0.14 to 1.26 μg L−1) becoming a leachable herbicide with moderate potential for groundwater pollution according to the calculated GUS (Groundwater Ubiquity Score) index. Hydrogeological characteristics influenced its distribution in the unconfined aquifer. Areas with a thin vadose zone (VZ) showed the highest atrazine levels, while the lithology of the vadose zone was also critical. In areas with a predominance of coarse-textured sediments (sands and gravels), low clay percentages and lower Koc, atrazine exhibits high mobility, which makes possible its transport to the unconfined aquifer at sites with a deep water table (≈25 m below surface). Herbicide spray application generally coincides with the rainy seasons, which contributes to high leaching rates. Numerical modeling indicated that transport of water and ATZ occurs both through micropores continuously, and macropores episodically. Groundwater has become a secondary environmental subsystem affected by the presence of ATZ due to advective, dispersive and reactive processes which allow its transport through the VZ. Even at relatively low concentrations, the presence of atrazine in groundwater requires long-term planning to monitor and control.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • Quaternary Ammonium Impregnated Chitosan for the Decontamination of
           Wastewater from Carcinogenic Dyes

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      Abstract: Abstract Chitosan, a well-known biopolymer, has been impregnated with tetrabutylammonium bromide using the reflux method. The synthesized adsorbent, tetrabutylammonium impregnated chitosan(C-TBA) was subjected to intense characterization using various spectral techniques which confirms impregnation. The pH point of zero charge was found to be 8.2 which indicate the suitability of the material for both anionic and cationic dyes. C-TBA was employed as adsorbent for the removal of two potent carcinogenic dyes, namely, Congo red (CR) and Crystal violet (CV). Batch experiments were carried out to study the effects of pH of dye solution, contact time, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration and temperature. A number of adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, R-P, D-R, Temkin, and Harkin-Jura were studied. The best fit isotherm model was judged by plotting the non-linear plots. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of C-TBA towards adsorption of CR was found to be 12.66 mg g−1 and for CV 0.86 mg g−1. Adsorption kinetics was well fitted to pseudo-second-order model and thermodynamics show that the process of adsorption was spontaneous. Statistical analysis as well as column adsorption studies was also carried out.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
       
  • Mixing of Vertical Plane Fountains in a Calm Uniform Ambient

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      Abstract: Maximum and steady-state terminal penetration heights of vertical plane fountains have been studied in laboratory experiments using shadowgraph and planar, laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques. The initial Froude numbers of the flow were in the range 20 to 130 and Reynolds numbers 180 to about 700. The normalized, terminal rise height was computed numerically from the equations of motion and found congruent to findings of earlier and present measurements. The entrainment coefficient function used in modeling is derived from analytical, closed-form solutions regarding the momentum and mass flux of plane buoyant jets, and is expressed as a function of the local Richardson number and a jet width parameter proposed by List and Imberger J Hydraul Div 99:1461–1474 (1973). Article  Highlights Flow visualization via shadowgraph and PLIF experiments of vertical plane fountains were conducted. Normalized maximum penetration and terminal rise height of plane fountains have been considered. An entrainment function derived from analytical solution of vertical buoyant jets is introduced.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Energy, Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Hybrid Power Plant for
           Electrification, and Drinking and Irrigation Water Supply

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      Abstract: The objective of this study consists of examining whether the coupling between wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic modules (PV) with batteries (BT) or pumped hydro-storage (PHS) can produce a sufficient amount of energy in order to cover the electricity demands in an island, as well as the demand for producing desalinated water for drinking and irrigation purposes, in an effort to avoid the consumption of conventional fuels. A methodology for the simulation and assessment of such a Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES) is presented, combining various Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and covering both the energy and the water demands of the study area. A sensitivity analysis for the examination of how certain parameters affect energy, economic and environmental indices was also conducted. The results present the reliability of each storage system. The comparison shows a reduced use of the Local Production Station (LPS) from 25 to 16% and an increase of the months of autonomy in the case of use of BT technology. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) is estimated at 0.473 € for battery storage technology and 0.464 € for PHS, while the price drops to 0.349 € if an upper reservoir already exists in the island. Also, when coupling with battery, 27 more tons of CO2 are eliminated compared to PHS. Coupling with PHS leads to lower LCOE and fewer eliminated CO2 quantities, while coupling with BT leads to increased autonomy and the coverage rate of the storage system is less affected by variations in wind and solar potential. Article Highlights • Higher Levelized Cost of Energy and Payback Period for battery storage technology. • More eliminated CO2 quantities when coupling with batteries. • Less use of costly and polluting conventional fuels when coupling with batteries.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00575-x
       
  • Integration of Large-Scale Electrical Imaging into Geological Framework
           Development and Refinement

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      Abstract: Abstract Geologic framework models (GFMs) are critical to the construction of reliable simulation models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. To support GFM development, direct information (e.g., core samples, fluid samples, hydraulic testing) tends to be sparse and separated by large distances relative to the spatial scales of aquifer heterogeneity. There are additional challenges associated with highly contaminated legacy waste sites, where drilling is particularly costly, and invasive sampling requires specialized handling and disposal of hazardous materials. At these sites in particular, non-invasive geophysical imaging can play an important role in filling spatial gaps between boreholes and reducing characterization costs by optimizing and minimizing the number of necessary boreholes. This paper presents a case study demonstrating the use of large-scale (>30 km2) electrical mapping to identify hydrostratigraphy and potential paleochannels at the Hanford Site, located in Washington State, USA. In two field campaigns, over 36 line-kilometers of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data were collected along 14 transects. ERT surveys were sited based on available site data and performed to image critical aspects (e.g., paleochannels, stratigraphic contacts) of the subsurface, demonstrating a general workflow for integrating ERT with GFM development and refinement. Inconsistencies between the GFM and ERT were catalogued to provide a basis for future site characterization using complementary geophysical methods and (or) direct sampling.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00570-2
       
  • Enhanced Performance of Natural Polymer Coagulants for Dye Removal from
           Wastewater: Coagulation Kinetics, and Mathematical Modelling Approach

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      Abstract: Abstract This study explores the potentials of Brachystegia eurycoma coagulant (BEC) and Vigna subterranean coagulant (VSC) as natural organic polymers (NOPs) for the decolourisation of Crystal Ponceau 6R (AR 44) in wastewater. Materials characterisation studies were done on the precursors. A detailed kinetics study was employed. The decolourisation procedures were evaluated through time-dependent reduction in the concentration of particles, with the variation of the independent parameters. The proximate analysis showed protein contents of 19.77% and 18.15% for BEC and VSC, respectively. The functional test showed the presence of –OH, N–H, and C=H. The surface morphological study revealed some rough surfaces, different pores sizes, and compact-net structures. The order of removal efficiency was VSC > BEC with an optimum of 88.8% and 73.3%, respectively. The values of the coagulation rate constant (K) and coagulation order (α) obtained for BEC and VSC were 6.38 × 10− 4 L mg− 1 min− 1, 1.8 and 4.03 × 10− 3 L mg− 1 min− 1, 1.9, respectively. The coagulation time, T ag of 31.35 and 26.96 min for BEC and VSC, respectively, disclosed quick coagulation. The coagulation-flocculation kinetics demonstrated that the process conforms to the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 >0.997, suggesting that the rate-controlling mechanism is governed by chemisorption. In the mass transfer study, experimental data were well predicted by the cross-validation test, with a percentage mean relative deviation modulus (M%) of 3.26 and 2.54 for BEC and VSC, respectively. These coagulants added meaningful progress in wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation while displaying significant adsorption features. Likewise, the usage of kinetics studies and particle behaviour modelling should be a prerequisite in water treatment processes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00561-3
       
 
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