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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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International Journal of Energy and Water Resources
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2538-3604 - ISSN (Online) 2522-0101
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Analysis of flow past a submerged vane using computational fluid dynamics

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      Abstract: Abstract Analysis was carried out in a straight open channel with an approximate discharge of 0.22 cubic meters per second (m3 s−1). Pattern of the circulation was found at different vertical section and its intensity was found along the flow direction using the second invariant of the velocity vector. Effect of the secondary current on the channel bed was found by studying the transverse bed shear stress at different transverse locations. From the downstream of the vane, two minor counter-rotating vortices are formed near the sides of the channel, and single major vortexes are formed near the centerline of the vane. Further, going far away from the vane in the downstream direction, the minor vortices tend to move toward the suction side, and the major vortex tends to move away from the vane toward the pressure side slightly. The strength of the circulation is generally found to be negative on the upstream side of the vane and positive on the downstream side, attaining a maximum positive value near the location of the vane. The variation of transverse bed shear stress along the transverse direction was found at the vane location, with negative values of bed shear on the suction side and positive bed shear values on the pressure side. Further going along the flow in the downward direction away from the vane, bed shear variation shows an approximate bell-shaped curve having positive values everywhere and attaining the maximum positive values near the vane on the pressure side.
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
       
  • Predicting the amount of salt deposition in the solar desalination pond
           experimentally and mathematically

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      Abstract: Abstract Today, economic crises and issues such as the limitation of fossil resources, environmental concerns, population congestion and high energy consumption are important topics that have engaged the minds of researchers in finding suitable solutions to solve energy problems. The access of developing countries to all kinds of new sources of energy is essential for economic development. New researches have shown that there is a direct relationship between the level of development of a country and its energy consumption. Considering the limited resources of fossil energy and increase in energy consumption in the world, it is no longer possible to rely on existing energy sources. Despite all these problems, more energy is needed to achieve industrial development and more prosperity. This energy can be provided by using solar ponds. As can be seen in the results of this research, the maximum and minimum average ambient temperature occurs in the months of July and January. The results of this research show that the maximum radiation intensity occurred in June. The laboratory data show that the maximum and minimum average temperature of the saline effluent is related to the months of July and December. The obtained theoretical results from the mathematical model state that the maximum and minimum average temperature of the effluent occurs in the months of July and December, respectively. This shows a good agreement between the results of the mathematical model and the experimental data.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Contamination of potable water supply sources in the lead–zinc mining
           communities of Mkpuma Akpatakpa, Southeastern Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract Mining for lead–zinc, and associated minerals has been going on for decades in the Mkpuma Akpatakpa area, and the release of accumulated metallic trace elements (MTEs) and potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is unavoidable. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method was used to analyze potable water supply sources in communities via mine tailings, stream sediments, mine wastewater discharge, impounded pond water, rivers, streams, and groundwater sources. This is to assess the effects of mining and mineralization in the area, as well as the concentrations of MTEs and PHEs in public and domestic water supply sources. Surface water sources, including mine ponds and rivers, had high levels of Pb, Cr, Hg, Ni, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn, and As, surpassing the drinking water threshold, especially in the mining zones and downstream. High quantities of Pb, Mn, Cd, Ag, Hg, Co, As, and Fe (upstream and downstream) were found in groundwater sources, exceeding drinking water limits. This shows that mineralization has had a significant impact in the area. High quantities of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and As were found in mine tailings and stream sediments, respectively, as well as Zn, Cd, As, and Pb. Both anthropogenic and geogenic factors are responsible for the contamination in the area. A pipe-borne water supply is needed to alleviate the health status of the inhabitants.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modeling for wind
           resource assessment

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      Abstract: Abstract This investigation pertains to the appraisal of wind resources through statistical time series models, with a view toward ascertaining economic feasibility by means of financial analysis. The development of an autoregressive integrated moving average model draws on wind speed data from 2015–2019 for three Pakistani locations, namely Hawksbay, Nooriabad, and Keti Bandar, all of which serve as case studies. Upon validation, this model is utilized to forecast wind speeds and determine wind power densities for each site. Furthermore, the financial feasibility of the project is assessed through the application of the RETScreen software, a tool designed to evaluate renewable energy projects. Optimal models are selected based on the degree of deviation between predicted and actual wind speeds, with two of the three sites exhibiting characteristics that are amenable to wind power generation, namely wind class 4. Importantly, the financial parameters, including a benefit-to-cost ratio of 1.2 for both Keti Bandar and Nooriabad, as well as a positive net present value, suggest the feasibility of the project at these two technically viable locations.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Performance evaluation of existing water supply system: a case study

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      Abstract: Abstract The water supply system is one of the important hydraulic infrastructures in providing water to consumers. In Nepal, most of the water supply systems are managed by the water supply users’ committee (WSUC). In the present study, it is aimed to evaluate its institutional performance as the system reaches close to the end of design periods. Three water supply systems located in the three different wards are considered in the study. To gather relevant information as per methodology, water quality tests and field observations were carried out to collate primary data and various published field and research reports and related publications were reviewed for secondary data. Furthermore, the technical performance of the water supply system was analyzed based on water supply coverage, per capita consumption, water production for population, water quality test, and physical structure index. The analysis of the results indicates that 69.43% of the area is covered by piped water supply with per capita supply of 50.44 lpcd. The production of water was found as 0.13 m3/day/person. The quality of water at the source is found within National Drinking Water Quality Standards (NDWQS) limit and physical structure efficiency is worked out as 51%.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Evaluation of the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes
           using irrigation water quality indices and geographical information
           systems (GIS) at Patna (Bihar), India

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      Abstract: Abstract Patna, the state capital of Bihar, is primarily reliant on groundwater to meet its daily requirements, and overexploitation has placed significant strain on the quality and quantity of groundwater resources. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigational purposes can be useful to detect any undesirable change in its ionic composition. Therefore, the study has been put forward with an objective to monitor the current status of groundwater and give a comprehensive account of spatial and seasonal variation in its physico-chemical characteristics and irrigational suitability using GIS-based approach. Sixty groundwater samples were collected seasonally (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) from 20 (twenty) different locations of Patna, Bihar in 2019–2020 and analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics using standard procedures. All the parameters were compared with the Bureau of Indian Standards 2012. Significant spatial variation was observed in pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Mg2+, Na+, HCO3−, and Cl− between sampling sites, whereas ANOVA revealed significant seasonal differences in pH (p = 0.000), Ca2+ (p = 0.000), Mg2+ (p = 0.000) and Na+ (p = 0.028). The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated with the help of sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, residual sodium bicarbonate, magnesium hazard, Permeability Index and potential salinity. Based on different irrigational indices, all groundwater samples were found to be suitable for irrigation purposes. USSL diagram has classified nearly 75% of overall groundwater samples features medium salinity with low sodium hazard, while Doneen’s plot reveals 98.3% of samples are characterized with maximum permeability.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Development of machine-learning-based models for identifying the sources
           of nitrate and fluoride in groundwater and predicting their human health
           risks

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      Abstract: Abstract This research aimed to identify the main sources of groundwater pollution and assess the non-carcinogenic human health risk resulting from nitrate and fluoride contamination. These goals were achieved by employing unsupervised and supervised machine algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP-ANN). Thirty-seven groundwater samples were analyzed for twelve physical and chemical parameters, including pH, EC, TDS, TH, Cl, F, SO4, NO3, Ca, Mg, Na, and HCO3, and the initial investigation indicated that except for Cl, F, Ca, and Mg, all the parameters are above the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO). PCA indicated that mineral dissolution is the main source of F, while high NO3 concentration primarily resulted from agricultural operation due to extensive use of nitrogen and calcium-based fertilizers. Consequently, the non-carcinogenic human health risk (HHR) for children and adults is evaluated based on NO3 and F. The conventional approach for assessing HHR is time-consuming and often associated with errors in calculating hazard quotients (HQ) and hazard indices (HI). In this research, MLP-ANN is suggested to overcome these limitations. In the MLP-ANN modeling, the data were divided into two parts training (80%) and validation (20%), with NO3 and F concentration as inputs and HQ and HI as outputs. The performance of the resulting models was tested using root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The model provided a satisfactory result with a maximum RMSE of 4% and R2 higher than 97% for training and validation. As a result, obtained HIs suggested that 97.3% of the groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for human consumption. The non-carcinogenic HHR is successfully assessed using machine learning algorithms, and the results have led to the conclusion that this approach is highly recommended for effectively managing groundwater resources.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Affordable ESP32-based monitoring system for microbial fuel cells:
           real-time analysis and performance evaluation (ESP32-based data logger as
           a monitoring system for microbial fuel cell)

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      Abstract: Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bioelectrochemical instruments that exploit living microbes as biocatalysts for the conversion of chemical energy stored in the bonds of substrates into electrical energy. Monitoring of current or voltage generation in microbial fuel cells at rigid time intervals is noteworthy. Unfortunately, bioelectrochemical studies are often constrained due to the need for expensive and precise devices for electrochemical measurements. Utilization of low-cost microcontroller as monitoring system can be a considerable solution, compared with data logger that is a high-cost device, or compared with commercial multimeter that have to be used manually in collecting data. In this present work, microbial fuel cells electricity generation was successfully online monitored and the voltage data was also successfully collected using an ESP32 based-data logger. Statistically, there was no significant difference between ESP32 and multimeter in voltage reading, and the average of absolute and relative error values were 0.85 mV and 2.72%, respectively. It suggested that ESP32 could be a possible and low-cost monitoring system for microbial fuel cells bioelectricity generation. Additionally, ADS1115 (an external analogue to digital converter interface to ESP32) has up to four analogue channels, whereas multimeter has just one. In this research, microbial fuel cell powered by isolate KCf1 generated highest voltage value of 789 mV and power density of 541 mW m−2.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Physicochemical evaluation and irrigation quality assessments of water
           resources: a case study of Okigwe and its environs Southeastern Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract The physicochemical properties of water in Okigwe and its environs were evaluated in other to determine the factors controlling its quality and changes, accessing its usage for irrigation purpose. A total of 15 water samples were collected including 5 surface and 10 groundwater samples. The water samples were analyzed using standard methods. The results showed that the water is slightly alkaline (mean pH = 7.05) and fresh, having a total dissolved solid value ranging from 8.96 to 28.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity values between 5.15 and 23.5 μS/cm and a mean concentration of 1.011 mg/L and 5.505 mg/L for iron and phosphate, respectively. The mean values of the major cations are in the order of Mg2+˃Ca2+˃Na+˃ K+ and Mg2+ ˃Ca2+˃ K+˃Na+ for ground and surface water while the major anions are HCO3−˃Cl−˃ SO42− ˃ NO3− and HCO3− ˃Cl− ˃NO3−˃ SO42−, respectively. Irrigation quality assessment indicated that sodium absorption ratio was between 12 0.23 and 0.35 meq/L (mean values = 0.29 meq/l and 0.25 meq/L), magnesium hazard was between 47.71 and 70.58% (mean values = 54.36 and 52.99%) and Kelly’s ratio was between 0.07 and 0.15 (mean values = 0.13 and 0.12) for ground and surface water, respectively. Piper trilinear plots in conjunction with stiff diagrams revealed two hydrogeochemical facies and three water types. The study revealed that the changes in the water chemistry within the study area were due to anthropogenic activities and that the water was polluted with iron though still within the limits that are suitable for industrial and irrigation purposes.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Multivariate statistical analysis of Vaniyar sub-basin, Dharmapuri
           district, Tamil Nadu

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      Abstract: Abstract Water quality evaluation is necessary to guarantee that resources should be used safely for drinking, agriculture, and industry. Twenty three groundwater samples were collected systematically according to the standard procedure during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in Vaniyar sub-basin, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. The main objective of the study is to understand the spatial and statistical variation of groundwater geochemistry seasonal-wise. Vaniyar sub-basin lies between the latitudes 12° 11′ 46″ N and 12° 09′ 39″ N and longitudes 78° 12′ 27″ E and 78° 36′ 65″ E covering an area of 982.25 km2. Out of which plain land covers an area of 591.43 km2. The study area is mostly underlain by Archaean crystalline rocks, the majority of which are charnockite. Quartz and feldspar are the most predominant minerals present in this rock formation. Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated formations, as well as worn and broken crystalline rocks, are the main aquifer formation in this area. The physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater analysis findings were compared to the Bureau of Indian Standards’ (New Delhi, 2012) guidelines were used to find out the suitability of groundwater for drinking, irrigational and domestic purposes. ARC GSI 10.1and SPSS software is used to find out the spatial and statistical variation of the study area. From the correlation matrix, TDS and EC showing a high positive correlation toward the major cation and anion indicate that origin of major ions in groundwater samples has occurred from rock–water interaction. Factor analysis of two major monsoons shows that Factor 1 pre- and post-monsoon is having a high positive loading strongly suggests that the geogenic process is the main factor that influences the chemistry of groundwater in the area. Most of the major ions are formed by the dissolution of the host rock. Most of the major cation and anion are fall within the permissible limit and the spatial variation of pre- and post-monsoon indicate a high concentration of an ion in the north and northwestern part of the study area. Fluoride concentration in the study area is high, due to the presence of fluoride-bearing minerals in the host rock. In this location, it is required to remove excessive levels of fluoride from drinking water, and efforts should be done to provide water once the fluoride has been removed to improve the area’s life.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Enhancement of methane potential in fractionated biogas stream through
           composite-hybrid biochemical pathway processes: a review

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      Abstract: Abstract Biomass (substrates) is a sustainable organic material that, when degraded anaerobically, yields methane. Anaerobic degradation of organic waste is a century old technique which was engineered and brought into commercial application for energy utilization purpose. In the recent past years, extensive research has been carried out all around the world to enhance the percentage of methane composition in biogas and to increase the yield of biogas from anaerobic degradation. This paper mainly depicts detailed review of the four phases of anaerobic degradation and how bacteria itself plays a rate-limiting role of anaerobic degradation system. It also reviews about the key parameters of anaerobic degradation system and its impacts in the system. To overcome the disadvantage of conventional anaerobic degradation process, many process modifications, pretreatments, and co-digestions are followed. The current study deciphers comprehensive review about the pretreatment methods available for various substrates and compares the efficiency of methane enhancement of various pretreatment methods adopted and its recent advancements; co-digestion of substrates and their methane production efficiencies were studied.
      PubDate: 2024-06-01
       
  • Multicriterial techniques for wetland identification using geospatial
           analyses: the case of the Mefou Basin, Centre Region, Cameroon

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      Abstract: Abstract The rapid urbanisation and anthropisation of wetlands have caused the disappearance of the already fussy wetland boundaries of the Mefou Basin. This has made wetland identification very challenging. The diverse perceptions of stakeholders involved in wetlands management led us to main objective which was to multi-criteria approach for delineating wetlands of the Mefou basin. The specific objective was identifying wetland susceptible sites from topography, slope gradient, presence of water and vegetation. The weighted overlay method was used in a Geographic Information System-based environment to delimit the wetlands. The following data sets were used, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model, a multispectral Landsat 8 image of the 21/01/2022 and administrative shapefiles from the National Institute of Cartography. The layers were classified in order of importance following Windy and saaty (Wind and Saaty, Management Science 26:641–658, 1980) Saaty (Saaty, Springer, Berline Heidelberg., 1987). The topography, slope gradient, topographic wetness index and vegetation were attributed to the weights of 40, 27.5, 20, and 12.5%, respectively. The results showed that wetlands covered a surface area of 90.03 Km2, constituting 11.20% of the total surface area of the Mefou basin (803.78 km2). Most wetlands of the urbanised northern section of the Mefou basin had been encroached on by human settlement contrary to the rural south, thereby raising the need for conservation. The results showed that the multi-criteria analysis is a good method for identifying wetlands. This result will guide the management of these wetlands and is recommended to ensure the wise use as required by the Ramsar Convention on wetlands.
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
       
  • Correction: Black glass balls as thermal enhancers in conical solar
           distillation: performance optimization and comparative insights

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      PubDate: 2024-05-29
       
  • Perspective assessment of effects of industrial effluent discharge on
           stream water in Enugu urban, Enugu state

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      Abstract: This study assessed the effects of industrial effluent discharge on stream water quality on the residents and users of the streams in Enugu Urban. During the study, six streams that received effluent discharged from industries were selected. Questionnaires, checklists, and unstructured and in-depth interviews were used to abstract information from 1345 household units around the streams and 645 users of streams. Criteria for the selection of respondents were based on the number of household units and stream users in the area. Data were analyzed using percentages, mean, standard deviation, and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that female (57.1%), single (50%), aged between 26 and 38 years (36.2%), unemployed (53.8%), and educational level (51.2%) accounted for a greater percentage of the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents in the area. The mean scores of < 3 reveal negative impacts on health and biophysical and socio-economic activities of the 75% variables. PCA extracted three and four components, which explained 87.06% and 82.89% of the total variance of the effects of the effluent discharge into streams on health and biophysical and socio-economic activities in the area, respectively. This study has shown that effluents discharged into stream water quality in the study area exerted rub-on negative effects on the livelihood of residents and users of the streams. Users of the streams, the government, industrialists, researchers, and other stakeholders in water resources would use the findings of this study for water resource management and planning. The study recommends treating effluents to acceptable standards before discharge.
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
       
  • Relative prioritizing of sub-watersheds of Barak River built on,
           morphometric parameters, LULC and SCS-CN model

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      Abstract: Abstract Management of water resources has become critical due to reduction in the shortage of water. Hence, it is vital to assess the geometry of watershed to determine its influence of such process on its hydrology. This study was conducted in the Barak watershed to prioritize its sub-watersheds using morphometric analysis (MA), land use/land cover (LULC) analysis and soil conservation service curve number method (SCS-CN). Entire watershed was divided into eleven sub-watersheds (SW’s). Three important parameters (Arial, Linear, and Relief aspects) were found for each SW ranging from the MA and finally rank was allocated to each of the SW based on the value with erodibility so as to attain a compound value for the final ranking of the SW. From analysis of LULC mapping (1988–2018) it was found that substantial changes have occurred such as reduction in dense vegetation by 3.48%, water bodies by 23.48%, increase of built-up 73.76%, cultivated area by 8.08%, and significant increase in river bed deposition by 53.37%. For a given rainfall event, to predict the direct runoff volume, (SCS-CN) was used. The surface runoff varies from 594.16 mm to 1276.58 mm. All SW were categorized as low, medium and high based on priority. Among all SW’s, SW2, SW3, SW9 and SW10 were on high priority based on MA, SW3, SW5 SW-9 and SW10 based on LULC analysis and SW2, SW4, SW6, and SW8 based on SCS-CN method. Most vulnerable SW’s are those with high priority and therefore, Government should pay more attention to them in creation of decision for the conservation of watersheds.
      PubDate: 2024-05-15
       
  • Comparative study of different estimation approaches to quantify suspended
           sediment transport at hydrometric stations: case of the wadi Mina basin,
           Northwest Algeria

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      Abstract: Abstract The lack of sediment transport concentration measurements at the hydrometric stations justifies the choice of the methodological approach adopted. This is based essentially on statistical models for the homogenization of data and their extension to quantify the water erosion of the basin area. The Oued Abtal and Sidi Abdelkader Djillali hydrometric stations, each controlling the wadi Mina and wadi Haddad sub-basins upstream of the Sidi M’hamed Ben Aouda dam, were the subject of this evaluation methodology. This article aims to find the best approach among the seven proposed. Model results were tested using the Pearson correlation coefficient, root mean square error, index of agreement, and mean absolute error. Based on the comparison of statistical metrics, it is evident that the 6th and 7th approaches stand out as the top performers, providing results that closely resemble reality. The approach that employs homogenization and extension of data from instantaneous water level measurements to liquid flows, utilizing the solid flow-liquid flow relationship developed at flood scale, seems to outperform the alternative approaches. Moreover, we found that these approaches fall into three categories: one that gives values close to the reference approach and two others that underestimate and overestimate the suspended solids transport values. The difference between approaches is strongly related to the variation of the flood ratio (FR), the ratio of observed (gauged) floods to recorded floods.
      PubDate: 2024-05-09
       
  • Feasibility study for a mini geothermal power plant in the WoulndĂ© area,
           Adamawa, Cameroon: environmental and socio-economic impacts

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper unveils a feasibility study for a 5 MW geothermal power plant in the Woulndé area of Adamawa, Cameroon. The objective of this project is to investigate the design of a mini power plant that may produce electricity from the Earth’s temperature while adhering to environmental regulations and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. It highlights some of the socio-economic and environmental impacts, as well as the parameters relevant to the design of the power plant, together with an economic assessment of the project. The design of the geothermal power plant includes two production boreholes and an injection borehole. These boreholes, with a depth of 2650 m, have flow rates of 2 × 67.5 l/s for production and 135 l/s for injection. The utilization of geothermal energy, which is a sustainable resource, complies with global initiatives to mitigate the release of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, the plant’s operation is expected to generate considerable carbon credit revenues, estimated at $457,380 annually, accumulating to approximately $4,573,800 over ten years. These revenues contribute to global carbon reduction initiatives while also supporting the project’s financial sustainability. The utilization of clean, renewable energy sources improves the reliability and security of the energy supply in the region. Moreover, the project is likely to create job prospects during both the construction and operational phases, stimulating economic growth in the Adamawa region. However, potential obstacles, such as the substantial initial capital investment need and the rationale for the management of geothermal brines and gases, are also acknowledged in the study. To ensure environmental sustainability, it is suggested that the Organic Rankine Cycle be implemented. As a result, the feasibility study concludes that the ambitious mini-geothermal power plant in Woulndé is a viable project that will generate substantial environmental and socio-economic benefits. This is consistent with Cameroon’s objectives for renewable energy and worldwide sustainability initiatives.
      PubDate: 2024-05-07
       
  • An integrated multi-criteria decision analysis and geographic information
           system-based assessment of groundwater potentiality and stress zones for
           sustainable agricultural practices: a case study of agriculture-dominating
           Koch Bihar District, West Bengal

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      Abstract: Abstract Groundwater is considered an essential natural resource due to its greater resilience to natural catastrophes than surface water. A systematic strategy for groundwater exploration using modern technologies is necessary for the long-term sustainability of this vital resource. Overexploitation of groundwater for paddy cultivation has had a long-term, detrimental impact on groundwater levels in the Koch Bihar district. Previously, the scope of groundwater potential zones was not extensively evaluated, specifically focusing on groundwater stress zones. The primary objective of this present work is to assess the groundwater potential zones and groundwater stress zones of the Koch Bihar district. For this, 18 parameters for groundwater potential and 12 for groundwater stress zones were chosen after a multicollinearity analysis with a tolerance value of more than 0.1 and a variance inflation factor value of less than 10 for each parameter at p < 0.05. Three systematic and comprehensive Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis methods (Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacijaik Ompromisno Resenje, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution and Evaluation Based on Distance from Average Solution) have been used in the present study to evaluate the groundwater condition. The Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve has been used to validate the groundwater potential zone maps produced by the three models. The result shows that all three models have considerable discrimination ability. Among the three models, Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacijaik Ompromisno Resenje has manifested an excellent outcome with an acceptable level of discrimination determined by the area under curve value of 0.844. The study area’s riverine regions have been found to have greater groundwater potentiality, while urbanised areas have lower potentiality. Furthermore, the results indicate that increased agricultural and irrigation intensities have put Sitai, Haldibari, Mekhliganj, Dinhata-II, Sitalkuchi, Mathabhanga-I, and Tufanganj-II blocks under significant stress. The findings are significant, and decision-makers and local authorities might utilise the resulting maps to develop a proper groundwater extraction and management plan.
      PubDate: 2024-05-02
       
  • Electricity demand dichotomy in Rajasthan and Maharashtra: an economic
           comparative analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract There is a significant regional variation in India's consumption patterns of electricity despite a steady rise in electrical demand. Utilizing hourly, daily, and annual data, this study analyzes electricity demand trends in Rajasthan and Maharashtra. These predictions represent a confluence of historical data analysis and advanced machine learning techniques, offering insights into future electricity demand that can inform policy-making, infrastructure development, and energy planning in the context of growing environmental and economic challenges. Despite Maharashtra's larger industrial and residential base, Rajasthan's moderate growth contrasts with its high, fluctuating demand. Detailed investigation reveals increasing annual consumption in both states, with seasonal peaks likely linked to cooling load. Moreover, the findings highlight the need for energy policies and infrastructure that are aligned with the socioeconomic composition of each state. Linkages with tourism are also explored. This comparative analysis provides valuable insight into how electricity infrastructure should be planned for future sustainable development.
      PubDate: 2024-04-26
       
  • Black glass balls as thermal enhancers in conical solar distillation:
           performance optimization and comparative insights

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, the main aim is to determine the most effective spacing for 1.6 cm-diameter black glass balls, utilized as a cost-efficient energy storage solution to enhance the performance of a conical solar distillation system. Three identical conical stills were utilized over a two-day experimental period to evaluate various setups. The first distiller, denoted as the conventional conical solar distiller (CCSD), operated without black glass balls on the initial day and served as the reference for comparison on the second day. The second and third distillers, labeled CSD-BGB3 and CSD-BGB4, featured black glass balls spaced 3 cm and 4 cm apart, respectively, while another set of experiments on the subsequent day involved CSD-BGB5 and CSD-BGB6, with black glass balls spaced 5 cm and 6 cm apart. The brine depth in the basins remained constant at 1.6 cm throughout the experiments. The study revealed that CSD-BGB3 achieved the highest yield from the distillation process, reaching 8250 g/m2, while the maximum yields for CSD-BGB4, CSD-BGB5, CSD-BGB6, and CCSD were 7600, 7100, 6600, and 5750 g/m2, respectively. The optimal spacing of 3 cm between the black glass balls led to a significant improvement in accumulated yield and daily efficiency by 43.48% and 42.59%, respectively, compared to conical solar stills without black glass balls. The findings suggest that a conical solar distiller equipped with 1.6 cm-diameter black glass balls spaced 3 cm apart offers the most efficient and cost-effective energy storage solution among the configurations examined.
      PubDate: 2024-04-22
       
 
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