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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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International Journal of Energy and Water Resources
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2538-3604 - ISSN (Online) 2522-0101
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Cognizance about sea water intrusion by chemical analysis in coastal
           aquifer of southeast coast of India

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      Abstract: Abstract Water is an unavoidable natural resource on this planet that can be used for a variety of purposes, including drinking, domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities. Throughout the world, the human population is high along the coastal regions where groundwater acts as a major source for all their needs. The excess withdrawal of groundwater to serve such a huge population in coastal aquifers led to seawater intrusion. This research work focuses on tracing the signature of seawater ingress into the coastal aquifers of the southeast coast of the Puducherry region lying along the southwest coast of the Bay of Bengal. To study the effect of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers, 48 groundwater samples were collected in three seasons, namely, Pre-Monsoon (PRM, N = 16), Monsoon (MON, N = 16), and Post-Monsoon (POM, N = 16). The collected water samples were analyzed for hydrochemical parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Chloride (Cl−), Sulphate (SO42−), Bicarbonate (HCO−3), Total Hardness (TH), and Total Alkalinity (TA). According to the analysis, it is found that Na+ and Cl− are the dominant cation and anion in groundwater samples of the study area, respectively. The mixing of seawater with freshwater in the study area was evaluated using the Piper diagram, Chadha’s plot, and groundwater quality index for seawater intrusion (GQISea). Based on the ratio of Na+/Cl−, it is found that 25%, 13%, and 19% of samples in PRM, MON, and POM show a strong signature of seawater ingress. The plot of Simpson’s ratio vs. distance shows that the groundwater of the study area has been affected by seawater intrusion for about 3 km from the sea shore.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
       
  • Impact of climate change on the full spectrum of future low flows of
           Budhigandaki River Basin in Nepal using Gumbel distribution

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      Abstract: Abstract Climate change (CC) will most likely alter the future low flows and adapting to its impact is the key to successful management of water resources. This study investigates CC impact on the full spectrum of low flows by taking the case of Budhigandaki River Basin under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, considering baseline flows (1983–2012) and ensembled future flows (2021–2099). Gumbel distribution is found to be the best fit for 1-day, 7-day, 30-day, and monthly low flow series and the same is used to compare the future 2, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 50-year return period low flows against the corresponding baseline flows for three time windows: Near (2021–2050), Mid (2046–2075) and Far Future (2070–2099). Our results analyzing 72 scenarios show that future low flows are expected to increase compared to the corresponding baseline flows for all return periods, emission scenarios and time windows. It can be attributed to higher anticipated future rainfall in the basin. The respective changes are higher under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5. The change in the projected low flows compared to the baseline for different durations increases with the return period under both RCPs in all the time windows. Contrary to the popular belief, CC is expected to have positive implications on low flows in this region.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
       
  • Performance analysis of evacuated tube type solar air heater with
           parabolic trough type collector

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      Abstract: Abstract Solar energy is a most promising resource of non-conventional energy to utilize for heating. Based on the application there are two kinds of utilization one is water heating and the second one is air heating. This is generally done by flat plate solar collector but due to its limitations to use in higher temperature ranges (i.e., 70–95 °C) and poor performance led to introduce the application of evacuated tube and parabolic trough collector. To fabricate the solar air heater, one ended evacuated tube is used as a receiver of the parabolic trough and U-tube copper pipe is inserted within the evacuated tube. The air heating process is done at various mass flow rates and it was found that the average outlet temperature was more at the minimum mass flow rate, but the average efficiency was less. At maximum mass flow rate, the average outlet temperature was minimum, and the average thermal efficiency was maximum. The maximum thermal efficiency obtained was 24.1% at the 0.0082 kg/s mass flow rate and the maximum temperature that was obtained was 151 °C at 0.0062 kg/s mass flow rate. Hot air being used for different application in space heating, food processing, fruits and vegetable drying and in regeneration of desiccant.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Groundwater potential and aquifer characterization within Unilorin campus,
           Ilorin, Southwestern Nigeria, using integrated electrical parameters

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      Abstract: Abstract Electrical resistivity investigation was carried out at different sections of University of Ilorin main campus, Ilorin Southwestern Nigeria with the aim of evaluating groundwater potential and properties of the aquifers. Data were acquired at different locations using vertical electrical sounding (VES) method. Hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, transverse unit resistance, longitudinal conductance, fracture contrast and reflection coefficient were estimated and used for evaluating the groundwater potential and aquifer vulnerability. The results revealed three–five geo-electric layers which correspond to the top soil, lateritic layer, weathered rock layer, fractured rock layer and the fresh basement rock. The top soil has apparent resistivity values ranging from 72.0 to 8117.3 Ωm and thickness range of 0.4–1.6 m while the last geo-electric layer is the infinite fresh basement having apparent resistivity greater than 300 Ωm. The VES curve types obtained are KH, H, A, AKH, HKH and HA with the H curve type covering about 50% of the study area. Aquifers in most part of the study areas are prone to contamination because of low protective capacity of the overburden material. Low groundwater potential covers about 56.79% of the total area and limited to northwestern corner, parts of the north, southwest and northeast. High potential for groundwater was observed at the eastern, northern and southern part of the study area covering about 12.35%. All areas that have thick overburden, high transmissivity, low fracture contrast and reflection coefficient are characterized by intense fracture. These areas are recommended for exploration for water at optimum yield.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Assessment of groundwater quality in hard rock terrain of Mandavi River
           basin, Rayalaseema region, Andhra Pradesh, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Hygienic drinking water is limited, not only in India, but also worldwide. Groundwater is a major source for domestic and irrigation use in the area of the Mandvi River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. Therefore, this paper is mainly focused on it. In this study, 55 groundwater samples were collected and various geochemical parameters were analyzed, such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, sulfates, hardness, alkalinity, fluoride, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, and nitrate. From the analysis, results are interpreted with various geochemical indices such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), potential salinity (Ps), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), permeability index (PI), Kelly’s ratio (KR), magnesium ratio (MR) and percent sodium (PS). From Chadha’s geochemical classification, most of the sample’s hydrochemical facies were Na–Cl (66%) and Ca–Mg–Cl (20%). The results of the study showed that 12.5% and 51.7% of the groundwater samples exceeded the permissible limits for fluoride and nitrate, respectively. Hence, all these interpretations indicated that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for domestic and irrigation use. Rainwater harvesting, water quality improvement plans, regular monitoring of water quality, and multidisciplinary water research programs are recommended as measures for sustainable groundwater management in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • CFD-thermal analysis of flat plate solar collector for different
           temperature variations

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, performance of solar collector will be appraised using FEA technique. Different analyses have been performed to evaluate the performance of solar collector. Fluent based approach has been employed to understand the heat exchanging capability of different materials used in solar collectors. Maximum output temperature can be predicted accurately at different time of the day. Collectors are not usually too thick so the selection of material for the pipe is very important. After obtaining output temperatures, nodal temperatures will be calculated. The purpose of this work is to simulate the performance of solar collector under certain condition, understand the temperature distribution along collector, and analyze the deformation can be obtained at different temperatures.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Gross alpha and beta radioactivity in surface water and groundwater in
           Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract The gross alpha and beta activities in samples of surface water and groundwater in Kaduna metropolis, following perpetual exposure of employees and inhabitants to petrochemical processing and other industrial activities, was determined using Protean Instrument Corporation (MPC-2000DP) device. The gross alpha and beta activities in surface water (Kaduna River) ranged from 1.17 ± 6.81–3.30 ± 1.25 Bq/l to 0.00 ± 6.89–3.30 ± 1.85 Bq/l respectively, while the range in groundwater is from 1.16 ± 1.38–7.81 ± 4.12 Bq/l to 2.35 ± 3.49–8.85 ± 8.09 Bq/l respectively. The results revealed that apart from beta activity downstream of Kaduna River (R2 = 0.00 ± 6.89 Bq/l), all other alpha and beta activities concentrations in both surface and groundwater were above the reference level for potable water. The annual total effective committed dose due to water consumption is 0.2392 to 5.9417 mSv respectively. All values of the total effective committed dose were above the recommended level (0.1 mSv) for intake dose from drinking water and as such require further screening to determine the actual radionuclides responsible for the pollution.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Techno-economic analysis and viability assessment of concentrating solar
           power under climatic conditions of Rwanda

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      Abstract: Abstract This study performs a techno-economic analysis of concentrated solar power (CSP) in Rwanda, by modelling two technologies, solar tower power plant (STPP) and parabolic trough power plant (PTPP). A 100 M plant for each technology was simulated at two different locations (Nyanza and Kayonza) using system advisor model (SAM) software. The main objective is to obtain suitable designs for the selected sites and to evaluate the viability of CSP in Rwanda, as no such study has been done so far. Optimization of solar field size and thermal energy storage (TES) is performed to obtain minimum levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Results showed that solar multiple (SM) of 2.8 with TES of 8 h were the optimal configuration for the STPP, and SM of 3.2 with TES of 6 h for the PTPP. The LCOE under the optimized configurations could then be minimized to 11.33 ¢/kWh and 12.92 ¢/kWh for the STPP at Nyanza and Kayonza, respectively; and 10.51 ¢/kWh and 11.30 ¢/kWh for the PTPP. Moreover, sensitivity analysis shows that the financing conditions significantly affect the economic feasibility of CSP in Rwanda. Finally, major barriers hindering the development of CSP are highlighted, together with policy recommendations. This study may assist policymakers to make appropriate decisions during CSP development in Rwanda and many other countries in Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Hydrogeochemical evolution, water quality indices, irrigation suitability
           and pollution index of groundwater (PIG) around eastern Niger Delta,
           Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract The study was done to assess groundwater for different uses. Groundwater samples were collected from 17 locations and analyzed for physicochemical attributes. Hydrogeochemical data identified three significant Principal Components; PC1, 53.8% loadings, PC2, 46.2% loadings, PC3, 30.8% positive loadings. Correlation matrix analysis observed strong correlations in the majority of the parameters. Contamination Factor results reveal that HCO3, NO3, Na, Ca, and Mg had relatively low concentration < 1; Fe had a mean concentration of 1.18 (moderate contamination), while SO4, and Cl, had mean concentrations of 6.43 and 9.41, respectively. PLI result reveals that the samples had values less than 1. WQI result revealed that 11.7% of the samples are excellent, 82.4% of the water is of good quality, 5.9% are of poor quality. PIG result shows insignificant pollution of groundwater. The hydrogeochemical evolution shows Ca + Mg and Cl are the dominant ionic species in the cation and anion areas, respectively; and they are within the geochemical zone of 6 (calcium chloride water type) with a trend of Cl > SO4 > Ca > Mg > HCO3 > Na + K. From the Gibbs plot, rock-dominance zone is dominant in the groundwater samples. The suitability for irrigation analysis reveals that SAR, %NA, KR, and SSP in the entire study area are 100% suitable and fit for irrigation purposes, while MH had 88.2% of the sample as good and 11.8% as unsafe. The Wilcox plot shows that 70.6% of the entire sample belong to the excellent category whereas, 29.4% are of good to permissible category. Normal observing of groundwater in the review region is of major significance.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Hydropower potentials in Bangladesh in context of current exploitation of
           energy sources: a comprehensive review

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      Abstract: Abstract In this review article, we have demonstrated the present scenario of renewable and conventional energy in Bangladesh. We also have presented the requirement for renewable energy in the context of the upcoming energy crisis. Hence, we have put the possible contribution of hydropower on show which can meet the projected future energy demand with extensive investigation and assessment of the potentials of this form of energy throughout the country. This study can enable policy makers in finding sustainable solutions to energy problems in Bangladesh, which is aiming to be in the way of development with increased power production. Being a riverine country, Bangladesh shows good possibilities in the field of hydropower generation. It is unfortunate that we are availing a very short portion of this low-cost and environment-friendly potential. Along with the major rivers, which may contribute largely to the national level, small rivers, canals, or falls may keep contributing to the electrification of distant or un-electrified parts of the country. According to our investigation, there is a fair possibility of establishment of small or micro-hydropower plants with indigenous technologies and thereof electrification of a very good portion of the Chattogram Hill Tracts could be possible through this. The study also finds the importance of persuasion from the Bangladesh government and other national or international organizations to further study new sites along with technologies regarding this field.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Ion chemistry and quality assessment of a post-glacial sacred lake in
           Sikkim Himalaya: source identification and conservation measures

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      Abstract: Abstract The present research work aims to investigate the seasonal variations in hydrochemistry and water quality of Khacheopalri Lake, a recognized Ramsar site in Sikkim Himalayas, along with determining the dissolved ion sources and the mechanisms influencing lake water chemistry. The result has shown the acidic nature of lake water with distinct seasonal variation (mean pH 5.61 and 6.02 in the dry and wet seasons). Elevated values for EC, TDS, DO, HCO3−, Cl− in the lake water during the wet season are due to the precipitation, dissolution, and diffusion of O2/CO2 in the lake system. The hydrochemical facies of lake water is of Ca2+–HCO3− type, depicts dominance of Ca2+ and HCO3− in ionic composition. Cross plot analyses elucidate that lake water chemistry is majorly governed by bicarbonate weathering, with minor contributions from silicate weathering. Principal component analysis of hydrochemical dataset has confirmed that major cations and anions in lake water have mainly arrived from geogenic sources as a result of weathering and erosion in the lake catchment area. However, run-off water from adjacent croplands, human settlements, and temporal factors also contributed to determining lake water characteristics. Evaluation of water quality index (WQI) has ascertained that the lake water is “good to excellent” in type and pertinent to aquatic life and human uses. The findings from present study can provide essential baseline information which would be crucial for effective management and conservation of this sacred ecological site and can be a good reference for further study on glacial-formed Lesser Himalayan lakes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Unravelling the water-energy-economics-continuum of hydroelectricity in
           the face of climate change

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      Abstract: Abstract This study is aimed at evaluating the impacts of climate change (CC) on the water-energy-economics-continuum considering a storage type hydroelectricity project (STP). Inflows from ensembled CC scenarios for two RCPs (4.5 and 8.5) and three time-windows (near-future, mid-future, far-future) until the end of this century, generated from an earlier study by the same team, was used for the analysis. The proposed 1200 MW Budhigandaki Hydropower Project in Nepal is taken as a case. A set of reservoir operating rules were derived considering the baseline data which was then used to generate future energy and revenue at the monthly, seasonal and annual timescales. Results show that future annual energy is expected to increase by about 9–13% from the baseline. Furthermore, future revenue generation is projected to increase in the range of 20–28 million USD annually. This overall gain in the revenue due to additional energy generation is an anticipated positive impact of CC which is capable of contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and minimizing fossil-fuel laden trade deficit. This study recommends that: STPs with the provision of flexible operating rules are desirable for climate resiliency in hydroelectricity; areas expected to witness decreased future hydroelectricity generation need to explore other alternative sources of renewable energy; and the policy instruments pertaining to the financial aspects of hydroelectricity should be continuously updated considering future conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Trace metal enrichment and sediment quality in coastal-urban rivers along
           the Indian Ocean coast, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated sediments quality in coastal-urban rivers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania along the Indian Ocean coast, that are strongly influenced by human activities. Sediment samples were seasonally collected from fifteen sites and one control location, treated as appropriate, and analyzed by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for Cd, Sn, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Al, Mn, Fe, and Zn. Concentrations ranged from 0.06 (Cd) to 92,479 (Al) mg/kg dry weight. Levels were higher during dry season than wet season. Cd, Sn, Pb, Co, Cr, and Zn were enriched in > 50% of the sites. Comparison with risk-based regulatory sediment quality thresholds depicted considerable ecological risk in > 70% of the sites. Evaluation by sediment quality indices identified two hotspots that require intervention. The highest contributors to the Risk Index were Pb and Cd (> 60%). These findings indicate risks to human health and river ecology that call for measures to protect the rivers from further contamination.
      PubDate: 2022-08-27
       
  • Spatial variation in groundwater quality with respect to surface water
           seepages in Kadhan area District Badin (Indus Delta), Sindh, Pakistan

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      Abstract: Abstract The main objective behind this study was to explore the freshwater aquifers at shallow depth in the Kadhan area of district Badin on the left bank of river Indus, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were carried along two profiles with 05 VES at each profile. The Wenner array configurations were used for data collection. Total depth of penetration was 67 m. IPi2-win and Log plot software were used for data processing and modeling, three lithological layers i.e., Alluvium, Sandy Clay, and Sand were identified. On the basis of collected data, it is concluded that; after the upper layer of alluvium, freshwater aquifers of shallow depth were explored at four location points (VES 2, 3, 4, and 5 in northeast of Kadhan city) in the sand with resistivity values ranging from 30 to 37 Ωm, the thickness of water-bearing horizon was 11 m in profile 1. While, Brackish and Saline water aquifers were also present with resistivity values ranging from 1 to 3Ω m in Sand and Sandy Clay, respectively. In the southwest of Kadhan city profile 2 three distinct lithological layers were demarcated; an alluvium with apparent resistivity of 19 Ωm, Sandy Clay with computed resistivity of 1.5 Ωm bearing thickness of 49 m containing brackish water aquifer, and Sand with resistivity value of 4.2 Ωm bearing thickness of 14 m. Shallow freshwater aquifers were explored in only those areas where surface water reached and shallow aquifers got recharged by infiltration through agricultural land and fish hatcheries. The only possible way to stop saline water intrusion in coastal area to introduce a canal water system in the whole coastal area of the Badin, Sujawal and Thatta districts.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
       
  • Assessment of surface water quality within Cape Town, South Africa using
           NSF water quality index

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      Abstract: The health of surface water systems is a product of the cumulative contributing variables that interact with the surface water. Water quality monitoring programmes, which evaluate surface water systems, are crucial in regulating and maintaining the health of water bodies. This study characterised 19 surface water samples from streams and rivers traversing some urban metropolitan areas within Cape Town, South Africa. Standard procedures were used to assess the physicochemical properties and show temporal and spatial water quality variations. Seasonal mean concentrations of pH (6.79–8.36), temperature (14.3–27.6 °C), nitrates (0.55–20.0 mg/L) and phosphates (0.25–3.37 mg/L) were within set local and international standards for freshwater. Other parameters such as the total dissolved solids, TDS (3.72 × 10–6–1080 mg/L), turbidity (0.11–452.7 NTU), dissolved oxygen, DO (1.07–14.89 mg/L), and biochemical oxygen demand, BOD (1.07–15.64 mg/L) recorded various degrees of deviations. The National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) temporal water quality indices were better during winter season than for autumn and spring. Statistical interrogation showed that TDS, temperature, phosphate, and turbidity contributed to poor water quality. Anthropogenic factors such as inflow of effluent from treatment plants, golf course run-offs and indiscriminate dumping of refuse by informal local settlers were possible reasons for the spatial variability of the overall water quality. Thus, there is a need to mitigate pollution from the discharge sources, as they may threaten humans and other life forms that depend on the water resources for livelihood and recreational use. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
       
  • Role of agricultural land practices in the behaviour of nitrates in
           groundwater

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      Abstract: Abstract Nitrate contamination is a major issue in aquifers that are being exploited for drinking water. Exceeding maximum contamination levels (MCL) of nitrates in drinking water can cause acute and chronic health problems. In agricultural areas, aquifers are vulnerable to nitrate contamination due to the excessive use of fertiliser. This research study investigated the potential impacts of anthropogenic nitrates on the giant Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in Brazil, where nitrogen-based fertiliser use had doubled from 2005 to 2016. The study results indicated that there exists two different systems for the behaviour of nitrates in groundwater, above and below a 150 m depth of the aquifer. For the aquifer depth above 150 m, Cl− (positive influence) and F− (negative influence) were found to significantly influence NO3− contamination (p < 0.05). However, statistically significant relationships between NO3− and other influential factors were not found for the aquifer depth below 150 m. Even though agricultural practices do not pose a direct impact on NO3− contamination of groundwater, it was evident that anthropogenic inputs of NO3− could elevate the concentrations in the aquifer depth reaching 150 m.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
       
  • Hydro-geochemical characterization and water quality appraisal of
           groundwater in areas adjoining primordial landfills in the Maastrichtian
           Lafia Formation, Middle Benue Trough

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      Abstract: Abstract This study assessed the groundwater quality in areas adjoining primordial landfills in Lafia town and its suitability for drinking purposes. Physico-chemical properties of twenty groundwater samples collected from boreholes, unlined and lined hand-dug wells at twenty different locations around three dumpsites were analysed for the appraisal of the water quality. Results of measured physical parameters show pH values in the range of 5.13–7.30, electrical conductivity (EC) values as between 89 and 7754 µS/cm and total dissolved solids (TDS) values that ranges from 59.63 to 5195 mg/L. The major cation and anions have mean concentrations in the order Ca2+  > Na+  > K+  > Mg2+ and SO42− > HCO3− > Cl− > CO3−. The Piper plot reveals three dominant water types (Ca–Cl–SO4, Ca–Na–HCO3−, and Na–Cl–SO4). Heavy metal pollution assessment reveals relatively higher modified heavy metal index (m-HMI) values for wells of close proximity to the landfills. The water quality index (WQI) classification reveals 35% of the groundwater sampled locations have water categorized as unsuitable for drinking purposes, 30% of the groundwater samples categorized as very poor and 25% of the groundwater samples classified as poor. While groundwater categorized as good to excellent constituted only 10% of the total groundwater samples analysed.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
       
  • Study of surface water quality for domestic use near a municipal solid
           waste dumping site in Bhuasuni, Odisha, India

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      Abstract: Abstract The solid waste has become an urgent public health and environmental problem worldwide. In India, most of the rural and urban areas are facing issues like pollution of environment as well various health problems for people living nearer areas. In India, one of the developing state Odisha is also facing municipal solid waste disposal. Current capital city of Odisha, i.e., Bhubaneswar, is one of the smart city and total generated municipal solid wastes (MSW) are dumping at Bhuasuni area located within the city. The open disposal of MSW is posing various pollutions (water, air, etc.) in surrounding areas. In this study, the surface water quality clearly shows various 2007 Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) quality class parameters [pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total coliform count (TC)] are higher due to the disposal of MSW in the nearby area of Bhuasuni dumping sites, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. As per water quality index (WQI) classification, Bhuasuni area indicates that overall surface water samples were 60% poor, 40% good quality at sampling locations SW1, SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5, SW6, SW7, SW8, SW9, SW10. The water quality at some locations poor (SW1, SW2, SW4 and SW8), very poor (SW10) and unfit (SW9) for domestic purpose. A correlation study between WQI and physico-chemical parameters showed higher WQI values mainly due to sulfate (SO42−), total hardness (TH), nitrate (NO3−), and BOD with correlation co-efficient, r = 0.502, 0.539, 0.832, 0.626, respectively. The study found that a clear variation in the mean concentrations of above-mentioned parameters is higher at surface water sampling locations (SW9 and SW10), 80% of the samples belong to quality class ‘C’ as per drinking water source after conventional treatment and disinfection (CPCB in Guidelines for water quality monitoring, MINARS/27/2007-08, 2007).
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
       
  • Hydrochemical evaluation of subsurface water in the aquaculture region of
           coastal India using multivariate statistics, GWQI and GIS

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      Abstract: Abstract The present work was carried out to evaluate subsurface water quality for drinking purposes in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were collected from 80 locations covering in pre-monsoon season (PRM) and post-monsoon season (POM) during 2018–2019. The groundwater mainly consists of Na-Mg-Cl-HCO3 and Na-Cl-HCO3 type explaining the influence of seawater intrusion, marine sediments, and leaching of minerals in clay horizons. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed Na+ and Cl− have positive loads on both PC 1 and PC 2 corroborating reverse ion exchange and the anthropogenic activities. Evaporation dominance and dissolved carbonates of clay soils in the groundwater are indicated by Gibbs plots. PCA scores were taken into consideration in developing a groundwater quality index (GWQI) to classify water quality as excellent to good (4%), poor to very poor (92% in PRM and 70% in POM), and unfit (4% in PRM and 30% in POM) for drinking. Geospatial techniques have been used in preparing spatial and temporal distribution maps for various water quality parameters. The integrated approach adopted in the study are a cost-effective and time saving tool involved in assessing environmental problems more precisely. This study is expected to provide reliable information for stakeholders in understanding various types of pollutants in groundwater chemistry.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
       
  • Assessing the surface and bottom river water quality for irrigation: a
           study of Damodar River, India

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study examines the suitability of water (surface and bottom) of the Damodar River and its tributaries for irrigation purposes. Irrigation water quality index (IWQI) and indices related to irrigation hazards (salinity, alkalinity, sodicity, and permeability) were measured at 14 stations located around the confluence of the tributaries with the trunk stream to assess the point-specific as well as spatial variations of river water quality and its degree of suitability to irrigation. The degree of salinity hazard (both the surface and bottom water) ranges from low to medium along with a low degree of sodium hazard for both the surface and bottom water. Doneen’s permeability diagram has found 7.14% of the surface and 14.29% of the bottom water samples unsuitable for irrigation. Moreover, the alkali hazard indicates that all of the water samples (both the surface and bottom water) are suitable for irrigation due to the lesser concentration of sodium in the river water. Furthermore, the IWQI ranges from 37.83 to 47.01 on the surface and 42.1 to 53.02 in the bottom water samples of the river. Thus, the poor water quality is mainly driven by the mixing of polluted water from the urban-industrial complex in the Damodar region. The spatial variation in downstream river water quality and the point-specific assessment of the river water quality around the confluences contributes to locating the potential pollutant bearing segments within the watershed. The study bears a valuable understanding of sustainable irrigation development within a watershed.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
       
 
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