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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Exposure and Health
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2451-9766 - ISSN (Online) 2451-9685
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Potential Factors Associated with the Blood Metal Concentrations of
           Reproductive-Age Women in Taiwan

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      Abstract: Exposure of reproductive-age women to toxic trace elements warrants attention because of their negative effects. This study aimed to investigate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in the blood of 837 Taiwanese childbearing-age women and establish the correlation between their dietary pattern and heavy metal concentration. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in nonpregnant women than in pregnant women (Cd: 2.41 µg/L vs. 2.12 µg/L; Pb: 0.83 µg/dL vs. 0.73 µg/dL), whereas the concentration of Cr was significantly lower in nonpregnant women than in pregnant women (Cr: 0.98 µg/L vs. 1.05 µg/L). Otherwise, no significant differences in As (9.02 µg/L vs. 9.51 µg/L) and Hg (3.71 µg/L vs. 3.79 µg/L) were found between the nonpregnant and pregnant women. Overall, the blood metal concentrations of Cd and Hg showed a decreasing trend in the different pregnancy stages. The levels of As and Hg were highly correlated with seafood intake. Finally, lifestyle habits, such as burning incense usage and Chinese herb intake may contribute to metal accumulation in maternal or reproductive-age women. Preventive risk communication and educational strategies should be applied to these subgroups in view of food safety and public health concern. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
       
  • Speciated and Total Urinary Arsenic Levels in Belo Horizonte, the Largest
           Brazilian City within the Mineral-Rich Region “Iron Quadrangle”

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      Abstract: The “Quadrilátero Ferrífero” (Iron Quadrangle) is a mineral-rich province in Brazil, where arsenic anomalies are associated with gold mining and tailings dam failures. Urine samples were randomly collected from residents of Belo Horizonte (BH) city (N = 506 total/138 speciation) and the metropolitan area (N = 35 total/10 speciation), with stratifications in age, female-male and geopolitical regions. Creatinine, acid-digested total arsenic (TAs), and five inorganic and organic arsenic species were measured: arsenobetaine (AsB); arsenous (AsIII) and arsenic (AsV) acids and their dissociation products; monomethylarsonic acid (MMA); and dimethylarsinic acid DMA). Overall, the TAs GM (μg/g creat) of all stratification groups indicated no statistical difference. The TAs geometric mean (GM) of BH was 9.68 [9.17–10.2] μg/g creat, being AsB (43.8%) and DMA (20.7%) the major components. The toxic arsenic (ToxAs) fraction (i.e., AsIII + AsV + MMA + DMA) was 5.23 [4.45–6.15] μg/L. These TAs and ToxAs values are lower than international benchmarks and the Brazilian legislated standard of 35 μg/L for ToxAs. The TAs GM (μg/L) and creatinine were 36% higher for males than for females (p < 0.0001), making TAs GMs comparable, after creatinine correction. Similarly, though the 10–19 age group showed significantly higher ToxAs GM (12.7 [6.49–24.8] μg/L) (p = 0.048) and creatinine (p < 0.001), the ToxAs GM (7.22 [2.92–17.9] μg/g creat), was not statistically different than those from the other age groups. The study, the first one in Brazil, identifies the relative contribution of inorganic and organic arsenic and provides a baseline level for clinical reference and bio-monitoring studies, particularly applicable to both occupational and non-occupational populations in a mineral-rich region. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
       
  • Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking
           Water Supplied to the Mega City of Vietnam and Assessment of the
           Associated Risks

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the characteristics (levels, profiles, seasonal variations) of disinfection by-products (DBPs) including four trihalomethanes (THMs) and six haloacetic acids (HAAs) in two water supply systems (zones A and B) of Ho Chi Minh City and assessed their human health risk via daily exposure. THMs and HAAs were analyzed simultaneously using GC/MS coupled with a headspace. The results indicated that the levels of total DBPs measured in zone B (419 ± 223 and 204 ± 153 µg/L in dry and rainy seasons, respectively) were significantly higher than those in zone A (101 ± 49.7 and 48.9 ± 15.0 µg/L in dry and rainy seasons, respectively). Significant correlations (p < 0.05) between DBPs indicated similar formation pathways and variations of these DBPs in the pipeline. The findings also showed significant correlations (p < 0.05) of DBPs with not only regular parameters (TOC, UVA254, residual chlorine, Cl−) but also soluble ions (SO42−, Na+, K+, and Ca2+). THMs were the main contributors to the total DBPs (86.8 ± 7.4% and 91.4 ± 10% for zones A and B, respectively). Among four THMs, trichloromethane (TCM) was the predominant compound, accounting for 83.7 ± 4.8% (zone A) and 91.4 ± 10.0% (Zone B). For the HAA group, monochloroacetic (MCAA) was the major contributor (86.3 ± 8.2% and 60.5 ± 23% for zones A and B, respectively). Non-cancer and cancer risks caused by DBPs for the population using drinking water in Ho Chi Minh City were notably high. The study suggested that water should be pretreated before use in households to eliminate the level of DBPs and reduce their impacts on human health.
      PubDate: 2023-03-04
       
  • Exposure to Bisphenol A, S, and F and its Association with Obesity and
           Diabetes Mellitus in General Adults of Korea: Korean National
           Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2015–2017

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      Abstract: Abstract Health concerns on bisphenol A (BPA) have led to the increasing use of its substitutes, such as bisphenol S (BPS) and F (BPF), worldwide. While association of BPA with obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported, those of BPS and BPF are not well understood. We employed an adult population (n = 3780) participating in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2015–2017 (Cycle 3), and assessed the associations of urinary BPA, BPS, and BPF concentrations with obesity, DM, and metabolic parameters. The detection frequencies of BPA, BPS, and BPF in the urine of the adult population were 99.8%, 55.2%, and 44.1%, respectively. Survey-weighted geometric means (geometric standard errors) were 1.180 (1.058), 0.032 (1.045), and 0.111 (1.043) μg/L, respectively. After adjusting for relevant covariates, a unit increase of the covariates-standardized urinary BPA level (1 μg/L) was associated with the increase of BMI by 1.28 kg/m2 (95% CI 1.15–1.45) in the current population. Among the participants with detectable levels of urinary BPS, the odds of a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 increased as the BPS tertile increased (p = 0.048). For DM, urinary BPA level showed a borderline significance (p for trend = 0.049). Among the participants with concentrations above LOD, BPS in the highest tertile also showed significantly elevated DM odds (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.29–3.50, p = 0.003) compared to the lowest tertile. For BPF, however, association with DM was not observed. In addition, BPA levels were positively associated with serum triglyceride levels (β = 0.02, p = 0.049), and BPS levels with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (β = 0.80, p = 0.015). Our observation on a representative adult population of Korea supports significant association of BPA with obesity, and to lesser extent with DM. Moreover, urinary BPS levels are associated with obesity and DM among the participants with the concentrations above LOD. As the use of alternative bisphenols is expected to rise, further studies are warranted to confirm these observations.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater Aquifers and Associated Health
           Hazard Risk Mapping Using Ensemble Data Driven Model in a Water Scares
           Plateau Region of Eastern India

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      Abstract: Abstract Health hazard risk mapping (HHRM) is an important technique used to estimate the potential health risk of an individual, a group, or an entire community of a region. To further progress this work, 67 samples were collected through field investigation in the dry season i.e., from March to early June of 2021 from different parts of hardy rock dominated Purulia district. In this study, 14-health hazard causative factors were considered such as Depth (m), pH, EC (μS/cm), HCO3 (mg/L), As (μg/l), Ca2+ (mg/L), Cl− (mg/L), F− (mg/L), K+ (mg/L), Mg2+ (mg/L), Na+ (mg/L), NO3 (mg/L), PO42−(mg/L), SO42− (mg/L). All of these parameters are selected using multi-collinearity and Pearson’s correlation test. Furthermore, three important machine learning algorithms namely bagging, random forest (RF), and an ensemble of bagging and RF were employed to assess the HHRM. The outcome of the learning models were evaluated by statistical validating methods such as AUC-ROC, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, F-score, kappa, and Taylor diagram. The result of validating techniques ensure that ensemble technique is more reliable in training (AUCROC-0.934, sensitivity-0.917, specificity-0.925, accuracy-0.921, precision-0.925, F-score-0.922 and kappa-0.851) and validating dataset (AUCROC-0.911, sensitivity-0.904, specificity-0.905, accuracy-0.902, precision-0.907, F-score-0.907 and kappa-0.819) with Taylor diagram (r = 0.94) followed by bagging and RF. The produced result shows the central part of the study area especially the districts of Bagmundi, Balarampur, Arsha, Purulia I and II, Raghunathpur are significantly susceptible to the health hazard due to poor water quality that covers around 15% of the total area.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • A High Concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Umbilical Cord
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have detrimental effects on human health. Embryos are particularly susceptible to environmental insults such as PAHs. We examined the association between prenatal exposure to PAHs and the risk for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). A case–control study was conducted with 119 NTD cases and 119 controls. A total of 16 PAHs in umbilical cord tissue, determined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, were used as in utero exposure markers. Logistic regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were performed to evaluate the individual and overall effects of PAH exposure on the risk for NTDs, respectively. Median concentrations of 10 PAHs were significantly higher in cases than in controls. In logistic regression, concentrations of four PAHs above the median of all participants were significantly associated with an increased NTD risk, even when potential covariates were adjusted for: phenanthrene, 2.35-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–5.34); fluoranthene, 2.37-fold (95% CI 1.02–5.48); pyrene, 2.41-fold (95% CI 1.04–5.62); and benzo(b)fluoranthene, 2.95-fold (95% CI 1.27–6.86). In BKMR, although the risk for NTD was increased with PAH concentrations above the 50th percentile, it was only when PAH concentrations exceeded the 65th percentile, the association between PAH concentration and risk for NTDs became statistically significant, while no statistical association between a single compound and NTD risk was observed when the remaining nine PAHs were taken into consideration simultaneously. The use of an indoor stove for heating and use of coal or wood for cooking were positively correlated with PAH levels in cord tissue. In conclusion, these results show that prenatal PAH exposure may be a risk factor for NTDs in offspring.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Occurrence and Exposure Assessment of Bisphenol Analogues Through
           Different Types of Drinking Water in Korea

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      Abstract: Presence of endocrine disruptors in drinking water is a public and global concern. Bisphenol A (BPA) has been primarily used for polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Due to domestic and global regulations on BPA, other bisphenol analogues (BPs) have been introduced as alternatives. Despite this, few studies have been conducted for human health risks of BPA and their alternatives, such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), through the consumption of drinking water. The present study aimed to determine seven BPs in three types of drinking water (tap water, purified water, and bottled water) to assess the occurrence, regional differences, source tracking, and potential health risks of BPs. BPA and BPF were detectable in almost all drinking water samples. The BPA concentration in tap water was significantly higher than that observed in purified water, whereas the BPF concentration in purified water was higher than those observed in tap water and bottled water. This result provides a wake-up call to improve the safety of purified water for emerging contaminants, such as BPF. The highest BP concentrations were observed for regions with intensive industrial activities and human populations. The concentration ratios of BPF/BPA in all tap water samples were greater than 1, indicating replacement of BPA with BPF in industrial markets. Boiling increased BPA and decreased BPF and BPS concentrations in tap water. The estimated daily intakes of BPA through consumption of drinking water for all age groups and scenarios (0.36–0.72 ng/kg bw/day) were lower than the tolerable daily intake (4.0 µg/kg bw/day) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority, implying a limited health risk. Toddlers were the highest exposure group for all BPs and scenarios. This is the first comprehensive survey of several BPs in different types of drinking water. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Seasonal Hydrochemical Characteristics, Geochemical Evolution, and
           Pollution Sources of Lake Sha in an Arid and Semiarid Region of Northwest
           China

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      Abstract: Abstract Lakes are important water sources and significantly support the local ecological and environmental balance, especially in arid and semiarid regions. For this study, the seasonal hydrochemical characteristics of Lake Sha, which are used for recreation and aquaculture, were analyzed using statistical analysis. Ionic ratio analyses, Pearson correlation analysis, saturation index (SI), and PHREEQC hydrogeochemical simulations were applied to reveal its evolution and pollution sources. Some parameters (chlorophyll-a, CODMn, TP, TN, petroleum, F−, and As) showed seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer and/or autumn due to higher temperatures, more intense human activity during the tourist season, and surface runoff during the rainy season. However, the levels of K+, Hg, and Cr6+ were not impacted by temperature and human activities, showing only slight seasonal variations. The lake water chemistry was mainly controlled by evaporation. The high concentrations of CODMn, TP, TN, and F− are mainly a result of the release of pollutants from sediment, intense evaporation, human activities, the input of Yellow River water, and surface runoff. The simulation results showed that TN increased from 8.61E-05 to 1.06E-04 mol/L, and TP increased from 1.49E-06 to 2.20E-06 mol/L due to the recharge of the Yellow River. Evaporation caused an increase in TP, TN, and F from 1.49E-06, 8.61E-05, and 4.76E-05 mol/L to 2.71E-06, 1.57E-04, and 8.66E-05 mol/L, respectively. This study provides a scientific basis for the sustainable management of Lake Sha and similar inland dry lakes.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Phthalate Mixture Exposure is Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure in
           Chinese Children: A Panel Study

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      Abstract: Abstract There is unclearly epidemiological evidence regarding relations of phthalates (PAEs) with children’s blood pressure (BP) and its potential mechanism. We designed a panel study with up to 3 repeated visits over 3 seasons. Total of 103 children aged 4–13 years were available with 287 measurements of urinary PAEs metabolites (mPAEs), BP and serum cytokines. We evaluated associations of mPAEs, either as individual or as mixture, with systolic/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and hypertension, and in which the role of serum cytokines played. After multiple comparisons, positive associations of mono-iso-butyl phthalate with SBP, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) with DBP, MEP with MAP were the most robust (P-FDR < 0.05), while a marginal relation of MECPP and hypertension was also observed (P-FDR = 0.07). Such relationships showed in a dose–response manner and were stronger in children with dyslipidemia. Meanwhile, weighted quantile sum regression analyses indicated the associations of mPAEs mixture with DBP and MAP elevation, which were dominated by MEP, MECPP and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP). Furthermore, BP-related mPAEs were positively linked with multiple cytokines, however, only PDGF, IL-16 respectively mediated 7.76% and 12.23% in MEP-related MAP elevation. Accordingly, urinary PAEs were dose-responsive related to elevated BP and risk of hypertension with the highest weight in MEP, MECPP and MEHHP, in which PDGF, IL-16 might be partly involved among children.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in
           Later Life

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      Abstract: Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases, involves a complex interaction among genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors. The incidence and prevalence of T2DM are rapidly increasing globally. In recent years, increasing body of evidences from both human and animal studies have displayed an association between exposure to early unfavorable life factors such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the prevalence of T2DM in later life. The exogenous EDCs can lead to disadvantageous metabolic consequences because they interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, and metabolism of endogenous hormones. EDCs also have long-term adverse effects on newborns, children, and adolescents by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. This review summarizes the most recent advances in this field, including diabetes-related EDCs (bisphenol A, phthalates, chlordane compounds, parabens, pesticides, and other diabetes-related EDCs), EDC exposure and gestational diabetes mellitus, prenatal and perinatal EDC exposures and T2DM, adult EDC exposure and T2DM, transgenerational effects of EDCs on T2DM as well as the possible diabetogenic mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Trace Elements and Arsenic Speciation of Field and Market Rice Samples in
           contrasting Agro-climatic Zones in Sri Lanka

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      Abstract: Abstract Rice is a major source for micro-elements for the Sri Lankan population, across all agro-climatic zones. This current study was conducted to investigate the variation of the metal(loid)s and As speciation in rice grains collected from wet, intermediate and dry zones of Sri Lanka. Field rice (brown rice) and market rice (polished rice) samples were analysed for total elemental profile and As speciation using ICP-MS and IC-ICP-MS, respectively. As, Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn in field grain samples varied across climatic zones. Highest median Cd, Cu, Mo, P, Rb, Se and Zn from wet zone; Co, Fe, Mn from intermediate zone; and As and Sr from dry zone were reported. Field rice (As, 0.3%; Cd, 1%) and market rice (As, 0%; Cd, 3%) samples exceeded maximum permissible levels of As and Cd. However, higher concentrations of both fields, 18% samples for As and 21% samples for Cd, and market, 7% samples for As and 38% samples for Cd, rice exceeded the recommended permissible levels of As and Cd in infant food according to EU regulations. The high per capita consumption and the chronic exposure to As and Cd through rice may cause adverse effects on Sri Lankan children and adults.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Human Exposure Assessment of Mixed Metal/Loids at and Near Mega-Scale Open
           Beaching Shipwrecking Activities in Bangladesh

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      Abstract: Abstract Pollution from shipwrecking is growing into a major occupational and environmental health concern worldwide, especially in the lower-middle-income countries where workers and residents may be exposed to potentially high levels of dispersed metal/loids due to decades of improper waste disposal. This study is the first to report the urinary biomarkers estimating the exposure of metal/loids and associated significant determinants in residents working and/or living at and near a major open beaching shipwrecking yard in Bangladesh. The concentrations of 17 elements were measured in urine and drinking water samples (125 each) using a validated ICP-MS method. Hydration variations of urine were best adjusted by specific gravity. Significantly higher (p < 0.001) urinary metal/loids load including cadmium and molybdenum in the occupational (70–80% of shipwrecking workers) and environmental exposure groups (72–75% of the local population) compared to the control site and international reference values suggest a significant health threat. Gender and age effects on the variation of urinary metal/loid concentrations were insignificant. However, fertilizer/pesticide users had higher nickel concentrations. Quantile regression analyses suggested the impacted locations with shipwrecking activities are significant predictors of exposure. The participants from the shipwrecking yards and the adjoining east, north, and south sites experienced significant exposure to metal/loids, which may be largely governed by wind-associated dispersion of contaminants. Water metal/loid concentrations were lower than the guideline values set by WHO and Bangladesh except for manganese in 63% of water samples. However, the elevated urinary concentrations of cadmium and thallium were significantly correlated to their concentration in water. This biomonitoring approach could be used as a background study to facilitate a more detailed exposure and health risk assessment to inform a management strategy for residents exposed to contaminated environmental matrices and dietary sources.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Variability, Clearance, and Concentration of Multiple Metals and Risk of
           Kidney Function Abnormality: A New Integrative Metal Exposure Assessment
           Approach

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      Abstract: Metal exposure contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of kidney dysfunction. However, most studies have focused on metal concentration in a single matrix (i.e., blood or urine), and few have explored the associations of metal clearance and visit-to-visit variability with renal function. We conducted a three-wave repeated-measures study of 201 older adults. Metal clearance and visit-to-visit variability were calculated to reflect, respectively, the body burden and homeostasis of meals. Renal function was measured as the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Linear mixed-effects and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression models were used to evaluate the effects of single metals and metal mixtures. The blood metal mixture was negatively associated with eGFR, and urinary Cu was positively associated with UACR (β = 0.417). The metal clearance ratios of Cu, Ni, and Sr were significantly and negatively associated with eGFR, and Cu had the largest effect estimate. The variability independent of the mean of urinary Cs was negatively associated with eGFR after adjustments for the individual metal mean concentration (IMM) of urinary Cs. Furthermore, the visit-to-visit variability of blood Sr was significantly and positively associated with UACR and independent of IMM. Among eight meals in blood and urine, urinary Cu contributed the most to the increase in UACR. We firstly proposed metal clearance and visit-to-visit variability, and found the new indicators are associated with kidney dysfunction. This study revealed real-world metal exposure from the perspective of metal mixtures and improved the understanding of the pathophysiology of metal exposure-induced kidney dysfunction. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Dietary Exposure to Essential and Non-essential Elements During Infants’
           First Year of Life in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Even the low levels of non-essential elements exposure common in the US may have health consequences especially early in life. However, little is known about the infant’s dynamic exposure to essential and non-essential elements. This study aims to evaluate exposure to essential and non-essential elements during infants’ first year of life and to explore the association between the exposure and rice consumption. Paired urine samples from infants enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) were collected at approximately 6 weeks (exclusively breastfed) and at 1 year of age after weaning (n = 187). A further independent subgroup of NHBCS infants with details about rice consumption at 1 year of age also was included (n = 147). Urinary concentrations of 8 essential (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Se) and 9 non-essential (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and U) elements were determined as a measure of exposure. Several essential (Co, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Se) and non-essential (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, and V) elements had higher concentrations at 1 year than at 6 weeks of age. The highest increases were for urinary As and Mo with median concentrations of 0.20 and 1.02 µg/L at 6 weeks and 2.31 and 45.36 µg/L at 1 year of age, respectively. At 1 year of age, As and Mo urine concentrations were related to rice consumption. Further efforts are necessary to minimize exposure to non-essential elements while retaining essential elements to protect and promote children’s health.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Integrated Geochemical and Mineralogical Investigation of Soil from the
           Volcanic Fogo Island (Cape Verde): Implications for Ecological and
           Probabilistic Human Health Risks

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      Abstract: Abstract Volcanic regions are associated with increased environmental and human health risks due to elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Fogo Island, Cape Verde, experienced recent volcanic eruptions, which raised the questions around the potential for local soils to pose such risks. In order to better understand the relationships between local mineralogy and geochemistry, and environmental and probabilistic human health risks, we (i) present the distribution of selected PTEs based on 136 soil samples, (ii) determine major associations between minerals and geological units based on a principal component analysis, (iii) calculate the potential ecological risk index and potential ecological risk and (iv) model human health risks based Monte Carlo simulations. The soils overlaying the older units yield higher contents of secondary minerals, with relative enrichment is some PTEs. The soils covering more recent units are enriched with primary minerals and show elevated concentrations of Pb. The results show that (i) As, Pb, Cd and Hg pose considerable to very high ecological risks, (ii) metal(oid)s are unlikely to cause a non-carcinogenic health risk, although As may pose a cancer risk for children. This research also provides health and environmental authorities with a toll to manage such risks.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Non-carcinogenic Health Outcomes Associated with Polycyclic Aromatic
           Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Exposure in Humans: An Umbrella Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected as human carcinogens and have been associated with various types of cancer. However, less is known for their non-carcinogenic health effects and available evidence is often inconsistent. We conducted this umbrella review to synthesize the findings of selected eligible reviews on the non-carcinogenic health outcomes associated with PAH exposures in human populations. PubMed and Scopus were searched to identify eligible reviews according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria developed a priori. Following the quality assessment of each identified review, their findings were categorized by the type of the health outcomes and synthesized. A total of 29 review papers were determined eligible for this study, and these included 4 meta-analysis papers, 7 systematic reviews, 16 literature reviews, and 2 scoping reviews. Key non-carcinogenic health outcomes of humans associated with PAH exposure could be grouped as neurodevelopment, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), reproduction related effects, and endocrine outcomes. Overall, the selected reviews supported the associations of PAH exposure with lowered IQ, impaired cognitive development, decreased pulmonary function, hypertension, preterm birth, and delayed fetal growth. However, association was either null or inconsistent for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), behavioral problems, asthma, and hypertension (only in occupational setting). For other health effects such as some respiratory diseases (bronchitis, allergic reactions), CVDs (myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, heart rate variation, cardiac autonomic dysfunction), obesity, and infertility, only least amount of information is available, and more evidence are warranted. Several challenges were identified: many primary studies were based on the exposure to mixtures with other chemical groups and hence did not represent the outcomes associated with PAHs alone. Moreover, exposure assessment based on biomonitoring data failed to include many PAHs that have been frequently found in food and other major sources. Therefore, exposure is likely to be underestimated and the conclusion could be biased. This definitive, comprehensive analysis of the reported evidence showed clear associations of PAHs with some adverse reproduction and neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans. Knowledge gaps in exposure assessment, e.g., difficulties in interpreting mixture exposure and limited coverage of biomonitoring data, were identified and should be considered for design and interpretation of the association studies.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Model Evaluation of Indoor Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins
           and Dibenzofurans and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Household Fuel
           Combustion in Rural Areas of Tibetan Plateau

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      Abstract: Abstract Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic pollutants produced by incomplete combustion. Household fuel combustion in rural homes is an understudied and potentially highly exposing source. We constructed a model of indoor exposure of Tibetan herdsmen and villagers to PCDD/Fs and PAHs, evaluated against measurements. Indoor PCDD/F concentrations for herdsmen and villagers are predicted to be 198–8912 and 313–5700 fg m−3 (95% confidence interval [CI]), respectively. For PAHs, these ranges are 793–9483 and 509–5497 ng m−3 (95% CI), respectively. The PCDD/F values are higher than those encountered in ambient air of Beijing on haze days. Daily intakes of PCDD/Fs for children (4.17–111 fg toxic equivalent (TEQ) d−1 kg–1) were higher than those for adolescents (1.88–50.0 fg TEQ d−1 kg−1) and adults (1.63–43.4 fg TEQ d−1 kg−1). Cancer risks associated with PCDD/F exposure for rural Tibetan residents ([0.18–7.08] × 10−5 for herdsmen and [0.36–4.92] × 10−5 for villagers; 95% CI) were similar to those for workers in metallurgical plants ([1.44–4.19] × 10−5). The family income and lifestyle were identified as key factors influencing household fuel use. Rural Tibetans are exposed to indoor POP pollution produced by household fuel combustion and the risks associated with this should be mitigated.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Arsenic Exposure, Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation, and the
           Risk for Neural Tube Defects: A Case–Control Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Arsenic induces neural tube defects (NTDs) in laboratory animals, but evidence in human populations is scarce. We examined the association between arsenic exposure and the risk for NTDs and explored whether folic acid supplementation could attenuate the risk posed by arsenic exposure. Based on a population-based birth defects surveillance program, this case–control study of 408 women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 593 women with healthy pregnancies was recruited in northern China between 2003 and 2016. Arsenic concentrations in placental tissues were quantified by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometers. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated with logistic regression to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and the occurrence of NTDs while adjusting for confounding factors. Potential modification effects of folic acid supplementation on the association between arsenic exposure and NTD risk were examined. Placental median arsenic concentrations were higher in NTD cases (13.32 ng/g) than in controls (10.51 ng/g). An arsenic concentration above the median of all participants was associated with an increased risk for NTDs with an OR of 1.63 (95% CI 1.13–2.35). Among women who reported not taking folic acid supplements during the periconceptional period, arsenic exposure showed an NTD risk of 1.68 (95% CI 1.09–2.58), while there was no association between arsenic exposure and NTD risk among women who reported taking folic acid supplements [adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.30 (0.58–2.92)]. Arsenic exposure is a risk factor for NTDs, but this risk could be alleviated by folic acid supplementation.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • To Waste or Not to Waste: Questioning Potential Health Risks of Micro- and
           Nanoplastics with a Focus on Their Ingestion and Potential Carcinogenicity
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) are recognized as emerging contaminants, especially in food, with unknown health significance. MNPs passing through the gastrointestinal tract have been brought in context with disruption of the gut microbiome. Several molecular mechanisms have been described to facilitate tissue uptake of MNPs, which then are involved in local inflammatory and immune responses. Furthermore, MNPs can act as potential transporters (“vectors”) of contaminants and as chemosensitizers for toxic substances (“Trojan Horse effect”). In this review, we summarize current multidisciplinary knowledge of ingested MNPs and their potential adverse health effects. We discuss new insights into analytical and molecular modeling tools to help us better understand the local deposition and uptake of MNPs that might drive carcinogenic signaling. We present bioethical insights to basically re-consider the “culture of consumerism.” Finally, we map out prominent research questions in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
  • Health Risk of Infants Exposed to Lead and Mercury Through Breastfeeding

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      Abstract: Donor milk from the human milk bank is important for vulnerable infants without their mothers’ own milk. Longitudinal changes in toxic metals in donor milk has not been reported. This study aimed to assess the effect of donors’ demographic characteristics, life habits and dietary habits on the concentration of metals in breastmilk donated to a human milk bank and to assess the health risk of lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) exposure of donor mothers’ offspring through breastfeeding and the vulnerable recipients. A total of 228 samples, which were longitudinally donated to the human milk bank by 39 donors, were selected specifically to assess the levels of Pb, Hg, and MeHg. Donors’ offspring were also enrolled as mother-infant-dyads to monthly obtain the milk consumption and body weight. The results showed significant differences in the infant risk in exclusive breastfeeding months. The average Pb level of breast milk was 6.49 ± 5.23 µg/L (mean ± standard deviation), and the Hg level was 0.76 ± 0.98 µg/L. The sources of these toxins—residential districts, cleaning products, cosmetics, drinking water, viscera, eggs, seafood, and canned food—have a significant influence on the concentration of toxic metals in human milk. This study showed an unacceptable non-cancerous health risk (95th percentile hazard index, HI = 1.37 > 1) for Pb and Hg. In the future, the breast milk offered by the bank should be strictly monitored, especial for Pb, to ensure high-quality donor milk for vulnerable recipients but also donor mothers’ offspring who depend on it. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
       
 
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