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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Exposure and Health
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2451-9766 - ISSN (Online) 2451-9685
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Children’s Exposure to Lead from Tap Water in Child Care Centers and
           Estimation of Blood Lead Levels

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      Abstract: Abstract The continuous exposure of young children to low levels of lead is a public health concern since it is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental effects. Drinking water is a potentially important source of lead exposure for children. In the present study, lead concentrations from a public dataset that contains 27,734 regulatory water samples collected in child care centers across Ontario, Canada were analyzed to determine the water lead concentration distributions for each public health unit. The seasonal changes of the water lead concentrations were also assessed. Children’s blood lead levels (BLLs) were estimated using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model for children aged 1–5 years old. In this analysis, the median lead concentrations of the flushed samples were used to estimate the average exposure, and the 90th percentile of the standing samples was used to estimate the worst-case scenario. The results indicated that the geometric means of the modeled BLLs varied from 1.5 to 1.6 (GSD = 1.6) µg/dL for the average (median) exposure scenario which is significantly lower than the 5 µg/dL level of concern for children. However, the geometric means of the modeled BLLs varied from 3.9 to 4.9 (GSD = 1.6) µg/dL for the worst-case (90th percentile) scenario which indicate relatively elevated blood lead levels for children.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
       
  • Dietary Exposure to Essential and Non-essential Elements During Infants’
           First Year of Life in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Even the low levels of non-essential elements exposure common in the US may have health consequences especially early in life. However, little is known about the infant’s dynamic exposure to essential and non-essential elements. This study aims to evaluate exposure to essential and non-essential elements during infants’ first year of life and to explore the association between the exposure and rice consumption. Paired urine samples from infants enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) were collected at approximately 6 weeks (exclusively breastfed) and at 1 year of age after weaning (n = 187). A further independent subgroup of NHBCS infants with details about rice consumption at 1 year of age also was included (n = 147). Urinary concentrations of 8 essential (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Se) and 9 non-essential (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and U) elements were determined as a measure of exposure. Several essential (Co, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Se) and non-essential (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, and V) elements had higher concentrations at 1 year than at 6 weeks of age. The highest increases were for urinary As and Mo with median concentrations of 0.20 and 1.02 µg/L at 6 weeks and 2.31 and 45.36 µg/L at 1 year of age, respectively. At 1 year of age, As and Mo urine concentrations were related to rice consumption. Further efforts are necessary to minimize exposure to non-essential elements while retaining essential elements to protect and promote children’s health.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • Arsenic Exposure, Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation, and the
           Risk for Neural Tube Defects: A Case–Control Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Arsenic induces neural tube defects (NTDs) in laboratory animals, but evidence in human populations is scarce. We examined the association between arsenic exposure and the risk for NTDs and explored whether folic acid supplementation could attenuate the risk posed by arsenic exposure. Based on a population-based birth defects surveillance program, this case–control study of 408 women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 593 women with healthy pregnancies was recruited in northern China between 2003 and 2016. Arsenic concentrations in placental tissues were quantified by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometers. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated with logistic regression to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and the occurrence of NTDs while adjusting for confounding factors. Potential modification effects of folic acid supplementation on the association between arsenic exposure and NTD risk were examined. Placental median arsenic concentrations were higher in NTD cases (13.32 ng/g) than in controls (10.51 ng/g). An arsenic concentration above the median of all participants was associated with an increased risk for NTDs with an OR of 1.63 (95% CI 1.13–2.35). Among women who reported not taking folic acid supplements during the periconceptional period, arsenic exposure showed an NTD risk of 1.68 (95% CI 1.09–2.58), while there was no association between arsenic exposure and NTD risk among women who reported taking folic acid supplements [adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.30 (0.58–2.92)]. Arsenic exposure is a risk factor for NTDs, but this risk could be alleviated by folic acid supplementation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
       
  • Health Risk of Infants Exposed to Lead and Mercury Through Breastfeeding

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      Abstract: Donor milk from the human milk bank is important for vulnerable infants without their mothers’ own milk. Longitudinal changes in toxic metals in donor milk has not been reported. This study aimed to assess the effect of donors’ demographic characteristics, life habits and dietary habits on the concentration of metals in breastmilk donated to a human milk bank and to assess the health risk of lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) exposure of donor mothers’ offspring through breastfeeding and the vulnerable recipients. A total of 228 samples, which were longitudinally donated to the human milk bank by 39 donors, were selected specifically to assess the levels of Pb, Hg, and MeHg. Donors’ offspring were also enrolled as mother-infant-dyads to monthly obtain the milk consumption and body weight. The results showed significant differences in the infant risk in exclusive breastfeeding months. The average Pb level of breast milk was 6.49 ± 5.23 µg/L (mean ± standard deviation), and the Hg level was 0.76 ± 0.98 µg/L. The sources of these toxins—residential districts, cleaning products, cosmetics, drinking water, viscera, eggs, seafood, and canned food—have a significant influence on the concentration of toxic metals in human milk. This study showed an unacceptable non-cancerous health risk (95th percentile hazard index, HI = 1.37 > 1) for Pb and Hg. In the future, the breast milk offered by the bank should be strictly monitored, especial for Pb, to ensure high-quality donor milk for vulnerable recipients but also donor mothers’ offspring who depend on it. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Model Evaluation of Indoor Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins
           and Dibenzofurans and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Household Fuel
           Combustion in Rural Areas of Tibetan Plateau

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      Abstract: Abstract Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic pollutants produced by incomplete combustion. Household fuel combustion in rural homes is an understudied and potentially highly exposing source. We constructed a model of indoor exposure of Tibetan herdsmen and villagers to PCDD/Fs and PAHs, evaluated against measurements. Indoor PCDD/F concentrations for herdsmen and villagers are predicted to be 198–8912 and 313–5700 fg m−3 (95% confidence interval [CI]), respectively. For PAHs, these ranges are 793–9483 and 509–5497 ng m−3 (95% CI), respectively. The PCDD/F values are higher than those encountered in ambient air of Beijing on haze days. Daily intakes of PCDD/Fs for children (4.17–111 fg toxic equivalent (TEQ) d−1 kg–1) were higher than those for adolescents (1.88–50.0 fg TEQ d−1 kg−1) and adults (1.63–43.4 fg TEQ d−1 kg−1). Cancer risks associated with PCDD/F exposure for rural Tibetan residents ([0.18–7.08] × 10−5 for herdsmen and [0.36–4.92] × 10−5 for villagers; 95% CI) were similar to those for workers in metallurgical plants ([1.44–4.19] × 10−5). The family income and lifestyle were identified as key factors influencing household fuel use. Rural Tibetans are exposed to indoor POP pollution produced by household fuel combustion and the risks associated with this should be mitigated.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Spatial–Temporal Variation and Health Risk Assessment of Fluoride in
           Surface Water in the Tibetan Plateau

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      Abstract: Abstract The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is known as the “Asian Water Tower” and provides vital drinking water for residents of China and Southeast Asian countries. However, large-scale regional research on water quality in this climate-sensitive and ecologically-fragile area is still lacking. Considering that drinking from fluoride-contaminated water poses serious health concerns worldwide, especially in Asian counties, it is urgent to clarify the spatial–temporal distribution characteristics, influencing factors, and health risk of fluoride in surface water in the TP. In this study, a total of 2697 surface water samples from major rivers and typical lakes in the TP were systematically analysed. Overall, fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 6.240 mg L−1 and varied among water periods, water basins and even water types. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that the distribution of fluoride concentration was closely related to the regional climate and positively correlated with anthropogenic activities. Probabilistic health risk assessment revealed that potential hazards in the Inner Basin were the highest for all age groups (HR > 1), especially for infants and adults (HR > 3), while the risks in most other water basins were acceptable (HR < 1). Our findings can provide scientific support for fluorosis prevention, and guide water resource utilization in the TP and adjacent regions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Heavy Metals in Soils and Road Dust in Akure City, Southwest Nigeria:
           Pollution, Sources, and Ecological and Health Risks

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      Abstract: Abstract Urbanization has become a major problem because of their adverse consequences on the environment. This study was conducted to determine the extent of pollution, sources, and potential risks associated with heavy metals in Akure soils and road dust. Thirty-four samples including 16 soil and road dust each and two control samples were gathered. Chemical analysis of samples was carried out utilizing Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Metals analyzed were As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Fe. Contamination assessment using contamination factor and pollution load index (PLI) were carried out. Likewise, ecological and health hazard evaluations following the procedures outlined by USEPA were also employed. Potential sources were disentangle utilizing measurable technique like bivariate correlation using Pearson method, while T-test were used to the determine the significance of the results at a value of 0.01. Results uncovered that the mean amount of Pb and Zn in road dust were 32.33 mg/kg and 72.53 mg/kg each, while in soil it was 34.34 mg/kg and 67.76 mg/kg each which are lesser than their concentration in the background samples. Metals in samples were mostly from anthropogenic sources such as smelting and waste disposal. PLI in soil and road dust of this area were > 1 and suggests a deterioration of the area. Chromium presents high ecological dangers. Occupants of the area particularly kids are more inclined to non-cancer-causing health risks. It is suggested that proper monitoring of heavy metals in the area be carried out to forestall outbreak of diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Risk of Human Illness from Recreational Exposure to Microbial Pathogens in
           Freshwater Bodies: A Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Recreational use of natural freshwater bodies poses a risk to human health, although the risks associated with different types of exposure in freshwater are not clear. A systematic review was carried out to identify the risks of adverse health outcomes among individuals exposed through primary contact recreation compared to minimal contact recreation in different types of freshwater bodies. Among 5858 potentially relevant titles and abstracts, 35 were eligible for final inclusion. We included studies that reported the type of freshwater exposure and health outcomes, were peer-reviewed, and had full-text articles available in English. Across all studies, general gastrointestinal illness was the most commonly reported (77.1%), followed by skin (37.1%) and ear-related infection (34.3%), respiratory illness (31.4%), and eye-related illness (25.7%). Most studies reported adverse health outcomes from primary contact recreation (85.7%) in comparison to secondary contact activities (17.1%) and no-contact recreation (2.9%). More than half of the included studies (54.3%) focussed on lakes. The continued focus on primary contact recreation in lakes is a concern, given the growing global trend in secondary and non-contact recreation associated with urban wetlands. A better understanding of risks associated with recreational contact with freshwater in these settings is needed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Source Identification and Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy
           Metals in the Topsoil of the Weining Plain (Northwest China)

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      Abstract: Abstract The Weining Plain is an important area for agricultural production in northwest China. It is, therefore, imperative that stakeholders understand the status of topsoil heavy metal pollution, the sources of the metals, and the associated ecological risks. In this study, 71 topsoil (0–20 cm) samples were collected from the Weining Plain and analyzed for Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cr seriously exceeded the background values for Ningxia in the study area. Spatial analysis revealed that the six heavy metals all had elevated levels, especially near industrial zones. Based on the absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression model, the sources of heavy metals in topsoil were divided into anthropogenic, natural, and agricultural sources. Anthropogenic sources of pollution were the primary source of most of the heavy metals in the topsoil. The results of the heavy metal pollution index and the Hakanson potential ecological risk index showed that the topsoil quality is slightly polluted by the heavy metals except Ni. The concentrations of heavy metals in the study area as a whole represented a medium potential ecological risk, with Cd posing highest potential for ecological risk.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Effects of Toxic Metals in Chinese Traditional Glutinous Wine From
           Industrial and Commercial Areas: Spatial and Potential Health Risk

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      Abstract: Abstract Heavy metals in industrial areas threaten local resident health through multiple routes, in particular the contaminated food. Traditional glutinous rice wine (GRW) is a popular drink in China. However, the toxic metal pollution status of GRW remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to compare intake level and the effects of GRW on health risk among residents between industrial area and commercial area in the central of China. The results indicated the mean concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) of all GRW samples in industrial area were 0.78, 0.13 and 0.09 mg/L which had exceeded both of Chinese glutinous rice wine detection standard (DB46/T 120-2008) and National standard of Food safety (GB2762-2017), whereas the lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As)concentrations were normal in the commercial area. Health risk assessment showed industrial area had a higher risk of non-cancer health diseases via intake of lead (Pb), Cd and As in the order: Cd > lead (Pb) > As. The total hazard index (HI) in industrial area was 4.580 whereas in commercial area the HI was 0.491, respectively. Further, in the industrial area, the cancer risk (CR) of lead (Pb) was 9.523 × 10–6 and Cd was 6.53 × 10–2, whereas in commercial area, the CR of lead (Pb) was 1.286 × 10–6 and Cd was 2.60 × 10–3. The principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis further identified high concentration of lead (Pb), Cd and As in the industrial area is due to industrial-related activities. Our findings emphasize the importance of following consumer advice with respect to GRW and urgent action should be taken to reduce the detrimental health effects to the industrial residents.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Groundwater Quality and Its Regulating Geochemical Processes in Assiut
           Province, Egypt

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      Abstract: Abstract Groundwater is a vital water supply available in Egypt. Hydrogeochemical processes are important in regulating groundwater quality, impacting human health. In this paper, the relationships between diverse groundwater quality parameters, potential sources of groundwater pollution, and overall health risk were assessed in the Assiut Province, Egypt. For this study, 108 groundwater samples were collected randomly from the study area and analyzed to evaluate their quality. The obtained data were compared to the limit values recommended by the World Health Organization and the Egyptian water standards. The combination of hydrogeochemical and statistical methods proved that the groundwater salinity ranged between fresh and slightly saline. Furthermore, the water–rock interactions, the return flow of the irrigation water, and agricultural fertilizers are the main factors controlling groundwater compositions. Based on human health consideration, 3.7%, 2.8%, 5.6%, 5.6%, and 17.6% of the groundwater samples are rated as poor water due to the elevated concentrations of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3−, and SO42−, respectively. Ingesting this water presents a risk to human health and has a serious impact on the skin, hair, and eyes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Occurrence, Controlling Factors and Health Hazards of Fluoride-Enriched
           Groundwater in the Lower Flood Plain of Yellow River, Northern China

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      Abstract: Abstract High-fluoride groundwater is a major challenge to safe groundwater supply for global community. This study emphasized on the high-fluoride phreatic groundwater in the lower flood plain of Yellow River. A total of 86 phreatic groundwaters were sampled to elucidate the hydrochemistry, sources and driving forces of high-fluoride groundwater, and associated health hazards. Results indicate phreatic groundwaters in the study area are all slightly alkaline with TDS in a large variation of 559–4271 mg/L. High-fluoride groundwater is widespread in the study area with ~ 70% of groundwaters exceeding the Chinese drinking water permissible limit of 1 mg/L, and characterized by hydrochemical faces of HCO3− and Na+. Groundwater fluoride originates predominantly from the geogenic sources of fluorite dissolution and silicates weathering. Its release is retrained by the gypsum dissolution but stimulated by the precipitation of calcite, aragonite and dolomite. Groundwater fluoride enrichment is also facilitated by the alkaline condition, competitive adsorption of HCO3−, cation exchange process. The excessive fluoride in groundwater can pose non-carcinogenic risk to all populations at more than 50% of sampling sites via drinking water pathway, but mostly the medium risk category. Infants were more susceptible with 15.12% of groundwaters demonstrated high health risk. The high health risk to other populations is limited. Differential water supply and defluorination are recommended to effectively utilize groundwater resource and safeguard residents’ health.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Humates and Chlorides Synergistically Increase Cd Phytoaccumulation in
           Strawberry Fruits, Heightening Health Risk from Cd in Human Diet

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      Abstract: Abstract Salt-affected and sandy pedospheres low in complex organic and mineral matrices critical for metal sorption (e.g. humics, aluminosilicates) could exacerbate metal transfer into the food chain. To test this hypothesis, a 3-factor study with salinity (0–50 mM NaCl), humates (HA; 0–150 mg/kg) and Cd contamination (0–9 mg/kg) was conducted in sandy substrate with strawberry. Cadmium phytoaccumulation decreased in the order roots > crowns > leaves > fruits. In comparison to the control, tissue Cd concentration was influenced by the NaCl × HA × Cd interaction, increasing Cd in leaves (up to 241-fold) and fruits (up to 135-fold) and exceeding the European maximum limit of 0.05 mg Cd/kg w wt. Surface analyses (XRD, SEM–EDX, FTIR, SIMS) revealed that the growth substrate rich in SiO2 (> 87% w/w) had uniform, nonporous and chemically unreactive surface structure. In contrast, the more complex HA matrix featuring abundant and heterogeneous micro-porosity and a large content of reactive radicals. Chemical speciation modelling of the rhizosphere solutions showed that almost all Cd was dissolved and distributed among the bioavailable Cd2+, Cl-complexed and HA-complexed pools, with small amounts of Cd adsorbed to K/Na-aluminosilicates. Slightly acidic pH (5.4–6.2) and complexation with Cl and HA in the rhizosphere favoured Cd solubility and its transfer to plants. The assessment of health risk of strawberry fruit consumption indicated a relatively higher the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) in children (5% of provisional tolerable daily Cd intake) vs adults (< 1%), with the Dietary Risk Coefficient (DRC) < 0.1 in both populations, suggesting a low risk. However, given Cd intake from other sources and its cumulative effects, precautions are needed when consuming strawberries grown in salt-affected sandy soils.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Recommended Guidance and Checklist for Human Health Risk Assessment of
           Metal(loid)s in Soil

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      Abstract: Abstract Metallic elements are widely dispersed in the environment, especially in the soil. Although, several studies are available to human health risk assessment (HHRA) of metal in the soil, there is no uniformity in parameters used among authors. However, reliability and replicability are based on clearly emphasizing the information necessary for the application of HHRA. Thus, this study aimed to develop a checklist with the essential parameters for conducting HHRA of metallic elements in the soil and apply this tool in articles selected through a systematic review, in order to reveal whether these articles clearly bring the information necessary to conduct HHRA. The checklist was based on planning section and the four basic steps on HHRA (including hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment and risk characterization). This review was carried out in electronic databases, including original survey reporting HHRA of metallic elements in soil according to the USEPA or similar method (based on the risk/hazard ratio between the dose of exposure and the reference dose). Two hundred ninety-four studies were included. After applying the checklist, it was found that there is a lack of information on values and parameters in the HHRA studies, mainly in planning (information about collection and soil parameters), exposure assessment (concentration of substance used in risk assessment) and hazard identification (information on carcinogenicity or not the substances) sections. The checklist proposed by this study can be fundamental to standardize and improve the quality of HHRA data, highlighting the importance of transparent and reproducible results for the management of areas contaminated by trace elements.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Association Between Arsenic Metabolism and Hypertension Among
           Population with Varying Arsenic Exposure Levels in China

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      Abstract: Abstract High-level arsenic exposure is widely considered to be associated with hypertension. However, the relationship between arsenic metabolism and hypertension under high-level exposure remains controversial. In addition, the evidence at low-to-moderate levels remains unelucidated. This research aims to evaluate the relationship between arsenic metabolism and the risk of hypertension in a Chinese population under different levels of arsenic exposure. A cross-sectional survey of 1932 participants exposed to different arsenic concentrations through contaminated drinking water was conducted in epidemic areas in southwest and northwest China. Based on the World Health Organization’s drinking-water standards, the study population was stratified into two subgroups: high-exposure (water As concentration (wAs) ≥ 50 μg/L) and low-to-moderate (10 ≤ wAs < 50 μg/L) exposure. Arsenic metabolism capacity was evaluated by the relative fractions of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA) in urine (denoted by iAs%, MMA%, DMA%, primary methylation index and the secondary methylation index). The relationship between arsenic metabolism and hypertension was evaluated by the leave-one-out approach, which modeled the dynamics of arsenic metabolism. There were significant differences and associations between individual factors and the distribution of urinary arsenic metabolites at different arsenic exposure levels. Increased MMA% was associated with higher risk of hypertension when either iAs% or DMA% decreased at different arsenic exposures. iAs% was associated with lower risk of hypertension only when MMA% decreased in both subgroups. In addition, higher DMA% was both associated with lower hypertension prevalence when either iAs% or MMA% decreased only at low-to-moderate arsenic exposure. In summary, arsenic metabolism, particularly higher MMA%, was associated with increased risk of hypertension in the Chinese arsenic-exposed population with both high and low-to-moderate levels, which provides additional evidence for the assessment of arsenic-induced hypertension incident.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Groundwater Geochemistry and its Impacts on Groundwater Arsenic
           Enrichment, Variation, and Health Risks in Yongning County, Yinchuan Plain
           of Northwest China

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      Abstract: Abstract High arsenic (As) groundwater is a serious environmental problem in Yinchuan Plain, northwest China. Though some measures have been taken to alleviate it, the detection rate of high As in groundwater is still high. In order to understand the occurrence and enrichment of As in groundwater and the hydrochemical evolution, correlation analysis and interpolation approach were used to interpret the spatiotemporal variation of major ions and contaminants in phreatic groundwater at 30 sampling sites during the dry season (March) and wet season (July). Some suggestions on the treatment of groundwater As pollution in the study area were put forward. The results reveal that the predominant hydrochemical type of groundwater in the study area is SO4·Cl-Ca·Mg, followed by HCO3-Ca·Mg type, and rock weathering is the main process regulating the hydrochemical characteristics. The content of groundwater As is low in the dry season but high in the wet season. However, the difference of As concentration between the dry and wet seasons is relatively small in the areas where surface water percolation is intense. The concentrations of HCO3−, NH4+, PO43−, and Mn have a significantly positive correlation with the As enrichment in the dry season, while HCO3−, Fe, and Mn have a strongly negative correlation with As in the wet season. The content of As in surface water influences greatly to the As enrichment in groundwater. In the dry season, high arsenic is enriched in areas close to surface water, while in the wet season, the infiltration of irrigation water makes arsenic expand to the western agricultural irrigation area. The mean lung cancer risk caused by As is higher than the maximum acceptable level in the study area. As such, necessary actions such as adopting nanocomposites as As removal material are to be carried out.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Impact of Fluoride Exposure on Male Reproductive Parameters: A Pilot
           Case–Control Study in Sri Lanka

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      Abstract: Abstract Excessive fluoride levels in drinking water poses serious global health issues. Decreased male fertility rates are reported from fluorosis endemic regions globally. This study aimed to examine potential impacts of chronic exposure to fluoride in drinking water on male reproductive parameters. The case–control study was based on recruits from a fluorosis endemic region, Anuradhapura, and a non-endemic region, Colombo, (n = 15 fertile with proven paternity and 15 subfertile, from each region) in Sri Lanka. Seminal fluid analysis (SFA) was performed according to WHO guidelines. Fluoride ion-selective electrodes quantified serum fluoride levels, while sandwich ELISAs assayed seminal IL-4 and IL-1β cytokines. SFA between the fertile groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Compared to the non-endemic subfertile group (NESG), the endemic subfertile group (ESG) manifested highly significant higher serum fluoride concentration, percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa (p < 0.001), and liquefaction time (p < 0.02), while the contrary was true of semen volume (p < 0.001). Significantly lower spermatozoa count (p < 0.02), motility (p < 0.001), and viability (p < 0.002) detected in the ESG compared to the NESG, was reiterated by significant negative correlation established between serum fluoride concentration and aforementioned three spermatozoa parameters in ESG (p < 0.05). Seminal plasma IL-4 and IL-1β levels did not significantly differ between ESG and NESG (p > 0.05). The source of drinking water significantly differed in ESG (67% well water) and NESG (60% pipe-borne water) (p < 0.02). These findings were indicative of serum fluoride concentration as an important contributory factor for male factor subfertility in a fluorosis endemic region in Sri Lanka.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Occurrence, Controlling Factors and Health Risks of Cr6+ in Groundwater in
           the Guanzhong Basin of China

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      Abstract: Abstract Recently, high levels of Cr6+ in groundwater have been found and are threatening public health in the Guanzhong Basin of China. For this reason, this study aims to specify the occurrence and spatial distribution of groundwater Cr6+ and to analyze the favorable hydrogeochemical environment elevating its concentration in the Guanzhong Basin. The impacts of Cr6+ on human health were also estimated based on the health risk assessment model recommended by the USEPA. Results show that 45.40% and 37.36% of the groundwater samples contain Cr6+ concentration lower than 10 μg/L and ranging within 11–50 μg/L, respectively. And they are predominantly of HCO3-Ca and HCO3-Ca(Mg) water type. About 17.24% of the total water samples present Cr6+ concentrations exceeding the acceptable limit for drinking purpose of 50 µg/L, and are mainly classified as HCO3-Na water type. Low Cr6+ groundwater is mainly observed in the alluvial aquifer. Cr6+ concentration in the samples from the loess aquifer is higher due to low groundwater velocity caused by the low permeability of loess, as verified by the relationship between Cr6+ and major ions. The relationship between Cr6+ and pH and molar ratio of Na+/(Na+ + Ca2+) suggest that alkaline environment and cation exchange are beneficial to high concentration of Cr6+ in groundwater. Industrial activities are also responsible for the elevation of Cr6+ to some extent. Health risk assessment results show that the adults and children in the study area face higher carcinogenic risks than non-carcinogenic risk induced by Cr6+.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Medical Geology and Medical Geochemistry: An Editorial Introduction

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      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Associations Between Essential Elements in Fingernails and Bone Quality in
           Populations Exposed to Chronic Fluoride in Drinking Water

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      Abstract: Abstract Many essential/beneficial elements including Ca, Mg, Sr, B, and F− play an important role in bone health. While elevated levels of F− are known to cause adverse health effects on bone, variations of these elements in nails that can be influenced by F− toxicity are unclear. This study aims to assess the relationship between the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sr, and B in fingernails and bone quality of F−exposed individuals in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Bone quality was determined using an ultrasonic method that measures the magnitude of speed of sound (SOS) conduction in cortical bones. We collected fingernails of individuals aged 10 to 70 years old (144 males and 123 females) in 25 communities drinking water from wells with F− concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 15.5 mg/L (mean 7 ± 4.7 mg/L). Fluoride concentrations in drinking water were measured using the ion selective electrode (ISE) method. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sr, and B in fingernails were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mean Ca, Mg, Sr, and B concentrations (mg/kg) in fingernails were 740 ± 425, 98 ± 89, 1.33 ± 1.6, and 0.63 ± 1.2, respectively. Each element was categorized by F− concentrations (mg/L) in drinking water as groups: 1 (< 2), 2 (> 2–6), 3 (> 6–10), and 4 (> 10–15.5). The mean concentrations of these elements in fingernails increased with the increase in F− concentrations in drinking water, and significant differences were observed in the means of groups 1 and 4 for all elements, group 2 for Sr, and group 3 for B. The correlation trends for SOS measurements with these elements in fingernails at different age groups decrease with high F− exposure and the negative associations are more pronounced at older (51–70) ages. These associations suggest F−related bone deterioration in the studied subjects, which is noticeable with the increase in age. The study demonstrates the effect of F− exposure on bone quality, and the studied fingernail elemental variations in populations chronically exposed to F− in drinking water.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-022-00474-4
       
 
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