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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Exposure and Health
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2451-9766 - ISSN (Online) 2451-9685
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Molecular Linkage of Dissolved Organic Matter in Groundwater with
           Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease with Unknown Etiology

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      Abstract: Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is receiving considerable attention throughout the world due to its severe threat to human health. However, the linkage between dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater to CKDu is still unclear, especially at molecular level. Herein, the molecular differences of DOM between groundwaters related to CKDu (CKDu groundwater) and to non-CKDu (non-CKDu groundwater) in CKDu-prevalence areas and control area from Sri Lanka were unraveled by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Compared with DOM in non-CKDu groundwater, DOM in CKDu groundwater was more unsaturated, oxidized, biologically refractory, and high-molecular-weight, and contained more aromatics (AS, 15.4%) and less aliphatics (AL, 8.2%), which was probably related to the recharge of surface water. The enrichment of biologically refractory DOM in CKDu groundwater might encompass toxic substances. Furthermore, the ratios of AS to AL (AS/AL) in groundwater were positively correlated with Ca2+, F−, and Si (r ≥ 0.66) that were generally associated with CKDu. It is explained that aromatic substances might be toxic by forming a complex with cation (Ca2+) and aliphatic substances could facilitate release of toxic anions (F−) in CKDu groundwater. According to the above findings and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the groundwater with AS/AL value larger than 1.43 are unsafe and likely to cause CKDu. The linkage between CKDu and specific DOM molecules provides scientific support for constructing a quick early screening of potential CKDu groundwater and helps ensure the safety of drinking water. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
       
  • Anthropogenic Organic Contaminants Analysed in Human Blood and Combined
           Risk

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      Abstract: Abstract The number of chemicals in the anthroposphere is increasing and some of them end up in humans. A literature search was made to assess which anthropogenic organic contaminants (OCs) that have been analysed in blood from the general population. The reviewed articles were used to create a database of studies [human blood database (HBDB), containing 559 OCs] reporting blood analyses made worldwide. All studies analysing blood from the Swedish population were compiled into a second database [Swedish exposure database (SEDB), containing 166 OCs] listing blood concentrations of OCs. Data from the SEDB showed decreasing levels of regulated chemicals in blood over time, indicating that regulation had made an impact. The Hazard Index (HI) approach was used as a qualitative mixture risk assessment of the OCs with established human biomonitoring guidance values (HBM-GVs) and blood levels in the SEDB. Nine HBM-GVs were found and the HI of the corresponding OCs/groups of OCs showed that a risk of adverse effects in the general population could not be excluded, which is a cause for concern considering that only a fraction of the analysed OCs in the SEDB were included. This study presents the OCs identified in human blood and concentration time trends. The study highlights the lack of HBM-GVs needed for mixture risk assessments to assess the combined risk of chemical exposure to the general population.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
       
  • Potentially Toxic Metals (PTMs) in Soil-Dust-Plant Total Environment and
           Associated Exposure Risks for Children (0–6) Based on Site-Specific
           Blood Lead Levels: A Comprehensive Investigation for the City of Lanzhou
           in Northwest China

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      Abstract: Abstract Systematic understanding of the status of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) in soil, dust and plant is of great need for their negative impacts on human and environmental health. Characterization and screening of PTMs will play an important role in health risk assessment and pollution control. In this study, a comprehensive investigation is conducted to explore the spatial occurrences, pollution status and health risks of 19 PTMs and 6 major elements (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na) in urban soil, street dust and plants in the City of Lanzhou in northwest China. Most PTMs in urban soil, dust and plant have similar spatial patterns and pose pollution to some extent. The priority metals Pb, Cu, Zn from traffic sources have similar tendency transferring among soil-dust-plant environment in comparison to other metals which prefer to accumulate in dust. PMF analyses confirm that coal combustion and industrial emission are important origins for metals in addition to traffic sources. Total carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in dust and soil for children are unacceptable compared to adults. Site-specific blood lead levels (BLLs) are predicted according to the occurrences of priority contaminant Pb in the urban environment. Children of less than three years old have higher BLLs than those of 4–6 years old. The highest BLL for children of 1–2 years old is up to 90 μg·L−1, which is almost twice the US CDC Acceptable Threshold (50 μg·L−1) even though it is still below the China Acceptable Limit (100 μg·L−1). Therefore, attention to Pb contaminant prevention and measurement including complete environmental cleaning and screening of BLLs periodically for children 0–6 years old.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Effects of Glyphosate Exposure on Reproductive Health: A Systematic Review
           of Human, Animal and In-Vitro Studies

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      Abstract: Abstract Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world. We examined whether and how human populations exposed to glyphosate at any age are at risk of developing reproductive health effects. Protocol was developed following the recommendations of the PRISMA guidelines. Original research published in indexed journals was included with direct and indirect exposure to glyphosate, from any country/region, without publication year restriction, in English or Spanish. We included observational studies in humans, as well as experiments in vitro or in animal models. Studies were searched in four databases. The scoring assignments were based on the guidelines for conducting systematic reviews in the development of toxicity factors. The findings on the agent and exposure assessment were retrieved and summarized in a narrative synthesis. After eliminating duplicates among the identified articles and reviewing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 80 were included in the narrative synthesis, i.e., 20 human studies, 44 animal studies, and 16 using in vitro models. This review shows strong experimental evidence, in animal models and in vitro studies, of glyphosate toxicity in reproduction and development as well as related metabolic and disease consequences. Several of these studies show significant health consequences for mothers, fetuses, and offspring, even several generations after exposure. Human studies, in contrast, are scarce and controversial. Nevertheless, we believe that the evidence is sufficient to, under the precautionary principle, define policies to prevent exposure of women, their partners, and their children to glyphosate.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Modification of DNMTs Gene Expressions by GST O1 and GST O2 Polymorphism
           in Chronic Arsenic Exposed People With and Without Malignancy from West
           Bengal, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Chronic Arsenic exposure causes skin manifestations and even cancer. However, the response varies widely among persons despite receiving similar cumulative exposure through their food or drinking water or both. These differentiations in manifestations may be due to polymorphic distribution of arsenic metabolizing genes among exposed people. Polymorphism of GSTO1, GSTO2 and their frequency distribution may modify skin manifestations and development of arsenic-induced cancer in exposed persons through food chain. Polymorphic variations of GSTO1 and GSTO2 have been studied on 112 subject including control. They were recruited from one of major arsenic affected district, Nadia of West Bengal, India, having high arsenic content in their food. Exposed subjects were categorized into three groups, i.e., with arsenical skin lesions and without arsenical skin lesions and arsenic-induced cancer. Control subjects were 33 in number. Concentration of arsenic in their urine, hair, drinking water, food, extent of clinical manifestations, GST O1and O2status was determined. DNMT1, 3A, and 3B were studied for their expression profile and analyzed with GSTO1 and O2 polymorphisms. Genetic polymorphism of GSTO1 gene polymorphism is significantly associated with arsenic-induced skin scores in skin lesion positive cases and arsenic-induced cancer cases and also significant increase is seen in DNMT expression and MDA level in exposed cases with homozygous wild type variants. Total urinary arsenic decreases significantly in wild type GSTO1 genotype, although, GSTO2 polymorphism showed no statistically significant differences in skin manifestations, and DNMTs expression. Frequency of GSTO1 and O2 polymorphic variety showed prevalence of wild type homozygous in arsenic-induced cancer cases. GSTO1 polymorphism shows significant association with DNMT expression profile in arsenic exposed people.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Arsenic and Cadmium and Associated Risk in Farm Soils of the Dry Zone Sri
           Lanka where Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) is Endemic

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      Abstract: This study reports on a wide-scale, systematic sampling program over two consecutive years investigating As and Cd and associated implications for human health in farming areas of the dry zone, Sri Lanka, where chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu) is endemic. Surface soil (0–15 cm), fertilizer and rice seed samples were collected in 2017 and 2018 from three CKDu affected areas [Medawachchiya (M), Padaviya (P) and Giradurukotte (G)], and a non-affected control site [Hambanthota (H)]. All inorganic fertilizer samples showed low As (< 30 mg kg−1) and Cd (< 1.25 mg kg−1) concentrations, less than European Union guideline values, and no correlation with soil concentrations. Arsenic (≤ 3.8 mg kg−1) and Cd (≤ 3.0 mg kg−1) in the 400 soil samples analyzed were low at all four locations, and soils were considered suitable for sensitive and agricultural use. A human health risk assessment demonstrated the As and Cd concentrations in surface soil provided no concern for non-carcinogenic risk, and negligible or acceptable carcinogenic risk for all locations sampled. The As and Cd in rice seeds harvested were also less than detection limits (< 0.1 mg kg−1). This work provides clarity around As and Cd baseline values in certain farm soils of the dry zone Sri Lanka, and no substantive evidence that the levels of As and Cd in the surface soils contribute to CKDu in local agricultural populations. Additional sampling of subsurface soil and water resources would satisfy some uncertainties with the risk assessment described. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Timing of Toenail Collection and Concentrations of Metals in Pancreatic
           Cancer. Evidence Against Disease Progression Bias

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      Abstract: Abstract Trace elements such as cadmium, arsenic, zinc or selenium increase or decrease risk of a wide range of human diseases. Their levels in toenails may provide a measure of mid-term intake of trace elements for studies in humans. However, in biologically and clinically aggressive diseases as pancreatic cancer, the progression of the disease could modify such concentrations and produce reverse causation bias. The aim was to analyze the influence of specific time intervals between several clinical events and the collection of toenails upon concentrations of trace elements in patients with pancreatic cancer. Subjects were 118 incident cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma prospectively recruited in eastern Spain. Toenails were collected at cancer diagnosis, and soon thereafter interviews were conducted. Information on cancer signs and symptoms was obtained from medical records and patient interviews. Levels of 12 trace elements were determined in toenail samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General linear models adjusting for potential confounders were applied to analyze relations between log concentrations of trace elements and the time intervals, including the interval from first symptom of cancer to toenail collection (iST). Toenail concentrations of the 12 trace elements were weakly or not influenced by the progression of the disease or the diagnostic procedures. Concentrations of aluminum were slightly higher in subjects with a longer iST (age, sex and stage adjusted geometric means: 11.44 vs. 7.75 µg/g for iST > 120 days vs. ≤ 40 days). There was a weak inverse relation of iST with concentrations of zinc and selenium (maximum differences of about 20 and 0.08 µg/g, respectively). Conclusions: concentrations of the trace elements were weakly or not influenced by the development of the disease before toenail collection. Only concentrations of aluminum increased slightly with increasing iST, whereas levels of zinc and selenium decreased weakly. Even in an aggressive disease as pancreatic cancer, toenail concentrations of trace elements may provide a valid measure of mid-term intake of trace elements, unaffected by clinical events and disease progression.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Environmental Exposure to Metals and Metalloids in Primary School-Aged
           Children Living in Industrialised Areas of Eastern South Asian Megacity
           Dhaka, Bangladesh

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      Abstract: Abstract Chemical pollution arising from heavy metals and metalloids is a growing global concern and a major cause of pollution-related diseases in the world today, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The present study investigated the urinary concentrations of metals and metalloids in primary school-aged children (N = 142), living in three different industrialised areas, namely the textile, tannery, and multiple industries dominated areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh and compared with a control area. The accurate measurement of urinary concentrations of twenty-two elements was accomplished using a simple and robust ICP-MS method; hydration variations were adjusted by osmolality. Results revealed that children living in these industrialised areas were exposed to a greater extent the environmental pollutants arsenic, chromium, iron, selenium, molybdenum, tin, caesium, thallium, and lead when compared to control children, after adjusting of confounding factors such as age, sex, and nutritional status. The higher concentrations of manganese in urine (3.81 µg/L, p < 0.0001) and in drinking water samples (131.0 µg/L, p < 0.05) of the textile area, suggest an elevated risk of adverse health effects for the exposed children noting that about 70% of the drinking water samples exceeded the national recommended limit. In addition, the concentration of copper was positively correlated between drinking water and urine samples which may potentially indicate the source of exposure. This study represents the prevailing situation of metals and metalloid pollution in industrialised areas where children may be at a higher risk of heavy metal-induced health problems.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Fluoride Exposure and Age of Menarche: Potential Differences Among
           Adolescent Girls and Women in the United States

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      Abstract: Abstract Fluoride exposure is associated with later pubertal development and decreased testosterone production in adolescent and adult males. However, its effects on female reproductive health and pubertal development are unclear. Therefore, we examined associations of fluoride exposure with reproductive health outcomes among adolescent girls and women in the United States. Participants were from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2013 to 2016), aged 16–19 and identified as female. There were 524 and 460 participants with measures of plasma fluoride and household tap water fluoride respectively, who had at least one reproductive health outcome examined, and complete covariate data. We applied covariate adjusted survey-weighted linear or logistic regression to examine associations of fluoride exposure with age of menarche, menstrual cycle regularity, or serum sex steroid hormone levels. Median interquartile range (IQR) water and plasma fluoride concentrations were 0.48 (0.53) mg/L and 0.34 (0.30) µmol/L respectively. An IQR increase in water fluoride was associated with a 3.3 month earlier first menstrual period (B =  − 0.28, 95%CI − 0.54, − 0.02, p = 0.05). Additionally, we observed a significant interaction between plasma fluoride and race/ethnicity in association with age of menarche (p = 0.01). Among Non-Hispanic Black adolescents, each IQR increase in plasma fluoride was associated with a 5-month earlier age of menarche (B =  − 0.42, 95%CI − 0.61, − 0.23, p < 0.001). Potential impacts of chronic low-level fluoride exposure on reproductive health outcomes are an important area of study. Current study findings, as well as potential health disparities due to disproportionate fluoride exposure should be examined in prospective studies.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Primary Soil Contaminants and Their Risks, and Their Relationship to
           Myocardial Infarction Susceptibility in Urban Krakow (Poland)

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      Abstract: Abstract We recorded the concentrations, distributions and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), in soils from different areas of Krakow––the city-centre, industrial and residential zones––and from outside the city. Their relationships to the soil properties were examined, and associations were established between the soil pollution in the different areas and myocardial infarction (MI) incidences in 5054 hospitalised patients who had lived in Krakow for more than 30 years. The PAH and Cd concentrations exceeded threshold-effect levels in the city-centre and industrial zones, while Zn, Pb and phenanthrene exceeded probable-effect levels. Industrial incineration processes, coal combustion and petrol-powered vehicles are the main sources of the PAHs, Zn and Cd, while the Pb originates mainly from historical accumulation and the use of Pb-enriched petrol. The mean number of MI incidences in Krakow equated to 0.72% of the residents, while in the city-centre and industrial zones it was ~ 2.8 and 1.2%, respectively. In the residential zone, the mean number of MI incidences was < 0.5% of the residents. These results may suggest that differences in MI incidence in Krakow residents is, at least in part, linked to chronic PAH and heavy-metal exposure.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Assessment of Dioxin-Like POP’s Emissions and Human Exposure Risk from
           Open Burning of Municipal Solid Wastes in Streets and Dumpyard Fire
           Breakouts

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      Abstract: India, a highly populated economy in transition generates huge quantity of municipal solid wastes and its management is posing great challenges. Infrastructural limitations force the urban local bodies to rely on traditional routes such as open dumpyards and landfills, where incidents of massive fire breakouts are often reported. In places where the collection system fails, the public seeks a much easier option of open burning of wastes in streets and households. The study reports a comparative assessment of 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 dl-PCBs emitted to air and residue during the repetitive incidents of massive fire breakouts at a municipal solid waste dumpyard and localized street waste burning in cities of India. The study also evaluated the direct exposure routes viz. inhalation as well as dermal and predicts the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks to the receiving population. The observed PCDD/F levels in the ambient air and burned residue samples ranged from 2.7 to 41.4 pgTEQ/m3 and 79.8 to 860 ngTEQ/kg, while that of dl-PCB varied from 0.2 to 2.3 pgTEQ/m3 and 6.0 to 46.2 ngTEQ/kg respectively. The dermal, as well as the inhalation daily exposure doses were estimated and the non-carcinogenic hazard indices of the children were found to be in levels of concern at two of the street burning sites while for adults the levels were found to be within the threshold limit. The cumulative Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) values ranged from 2 × 10–6 to 2 × 10–4 suggesting moderate to low risk to cancer or cancer-linked illnesses to exposed individuals. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Public Health Vulnerability Due to the Exposure of Dissolved Metal(oid)s
           in Tap Water from a Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh): Source and Quality
           Appraisals

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      Abstract: Abstract The south Asian megacity, Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh) encounters drastic water pollution resulting mainly from anthropogenic factors. Consumption of such polluted water distributed to residents by pipelines can trigger health risks. Therefore, this study investigated the public health vulnerability associated with dissolved metal(oid)s in tap water collected across Dhaka City. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in measured tap water ranged from 8–156, 7–73, 400–20,100, 12–110, 7–101, 12–136, 12–908, 0.03–9.75, 1–5, 0.22–1.30, and 8–118 µg/L, respectively. Among the observed elements, Pb, Cr, and Fe concentrations in 18%, 26%, and 75% of sampling sites, respectively, exceeded the standard guideline criteria of Bangladesh. Entropy-based water quality index demonstrated that ~ 12% of sampling sites possessed water unsuitable for drinking and other household works. The dominant sources of water pollution in this region are industrial effluents and domestic sewage. Both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks are invoked mostly from ingestion of water with high concentration of Co and Pb. Regular consumption of this tap water without further pretreatment may result in detrimental health consequences to both children and adults due to the physiological accumulation of toxic elements over time. This study highlighted a comprehensive scenario of the potentially toxic elements in the tap water of Dhaka City, which will allow policymakers to take adequate measures for sustainable water quality management.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Mediation Effect of Metal Mixtures in the Association Between
           Socioeconomic Status and Self-rated Health Among US Adults: A Weighted
           Quantile Sum Mediation Approach

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and self-rated health (SRH) among US adults and the extent to which blood and urinary metal mixtures explain this association. We used 14 years of repeated cross-sectional data that consists of seven consecutive NHANES cycles from 2003 to 2016 (n = 9497). SRH was measured using a 5-point Likert scale, and SES was measured by family income to poverty ratio (FMPIR), levels of education, and employment status. Blood concentration of lead, mercury, and cadmium, and urinary concentrations of ten heavy metals (arsenic, barium, cadmium, cesium, cobalt, lead, mercury, molybdenum, thallium, tungsten) were used as metal mixtures. The total effect of SES on SRH was examined by linear regression model. The direct effect of SES on blood and urinary metal mixtures was examined by the weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression with repeated holdout validation method, and the average causal mediation effects of blood and urinary metal mixtures were examined by model-based causal mediation technique. Results showed that SES indicators [education β: 0.17; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.15, 0.18; employment β: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.21; and FMPIR β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.11] were significantly positively, and the WQS indices of blood and urine metal mixtures (blood β: −0.04; 95% CI: − 0.05, − 0.03, urine β: − 0.07; 95% CI: − 0.13, − 0.004) were significantly inversely associated with SRH in the US adults. The novel finding was the mechanism between SES and SRH that exposure to heavy metals may explain socioeconomic inequalities in SRH in the US general population. Longitudinal studies are needed to corroborate this study results.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Evaluation of Maternal Exposure to Multiple Trace Elements and Their
           Detection in Umbilical Cord Blood

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      Abstract: Abstract Due to the recognized harmful effects of some trace elements on fetal development after long-term exposures, it is first important to address their basic/physiological levels before monitoring toxicological effects and clinical outcomes on prenatal and postnatal health. This research aimed to define, for the first time, reference values for multiple (ultra) trace elements in umbilical cord blood (UCB) plasma samples of a notable number of healthy pregnant women (n = 125). All samples were collected during 2020–2021 and all participants were from Belgrade and two regions (Šumadija and Podunavlje). Following trace elements were enrolled in this study: essential (Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo), toxic (Be, Al, Ni, As, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl, Pb, Th, U), rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm), and noble metals (Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Ir, Os, Pt). UCB plasma samples were diluted with suitable solvents and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analytical technique used was validated by the standard addition method and using certified reference materials. Zn was found in the highest amount and Tm in the least amount. Be, Co, Ag, Sb, La, and Ce exhibited statistically significant differences in the four age groups (20 to 41 years), whereas Ag and Ce showed a tendency to increase with age. Furthermore, our participants had notably higher As, Ni, and Co, levels and lower Zn levels compared to other populations. This is the first study that, in addition to analyzing essential and toxic trace elements, also provided an analysis of noble and rare earth elements in UCB plasma samples. Presented results can be used as a starting point or database for further studies, in terms of predicting the pregnancy outcome and postnatal development.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Gender Differences in the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Among Chronic
           Arsenic-Exposed Individuals in Bangladesh

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      Abstract: Abstract Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that causes cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome (MeS) is a cluster of conditions associated with the future risk of CVDs and diabetes. Although CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related mortality, the association between arsenic exposure and MeS remains elusive. Recently, we have reported that arsenic exposure increases hyperglycemia and insulin resistance with greater susceptibility in females than in males. Therefore, we explored the associations of arsenic exposure with the risk of MeS and its components focusing on gender differences. MeS was defined by the modified NCEP ATP III guidelines. A total of 569 adults were recruited from high- and low-arsenic-exposure areas in Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in drinking water, hair, and nails were determined as exposure markers. Among 569 subjects, 156 were found to have MeS. Levels of arsenic and the components of MeS were significantly higher in MeS group than those in non-MeS group. Prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of MeS were increased with increasing exposure to arsenic showing more precise dose-dependent association in women than in men. Except hypertriglyceridemia, the changes in ORs for other components of MeS such as hyperglycemia, hypo-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterolemia, hyper-systolic blood pressure, and abdominal obesity with arsenic exposure were more pronounced in women than in men. Thus, the higher risk of arsenic-related MeS in women than in men suggests a greater susceptibility of women to CVDs that warrant more future investigations on the gender-based distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms of arsenic-related CVDs and diabetes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Comprehensive Assessment of Local Population Chemical Exposome by
           Combination of Organic Pollutant- and Metal-Multi-Residue Analysis in Hair
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Awareness of the adverse effects of exposure to pollutant mixtures, possibly much more severe than individual chemicals, has drawn attention towards the necessity of using multi-residue methods to obtain the most possible comprehensive information on exposome. Among the different biological matrices used for exposure assessment, hair enables to detect the largest number of chemicals, including many classes such as persistent pollutants, hydrophilic metabolites and metals. Most biomonitoring studies are however focused on a limited number of pollutants and only give a partial information on exposure. Combining several multi-residue methods, the present study aimed at assessing the exposure of a population to an extensive variety of chemicals by hair analysis. One hair sample was collected from each participant (55 children and 134 adults). Samples were analysed with three different multi-residue methods, targeting, respectively, 152 organic pollutants (pesticides, PCBs, bisphenols, PBDEs), 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metabolites, nicotine and cotinine and 36 metals. From 33 to 70 organic chemicals were detected in each child’s hair sample, and from 34 up to 74 in adults. From 7 to 26 PAH were detected per child, and 7 to 21 in adults. Twenty-three to 27 metals were detected per child and 21 to 28 per adult. The highest median concentration were observed for zinc (143 μg /mg in children; 164 μg /mg in adults), bisphenol A (95.9 pg/mg in children; 64.7 pg/mg in adults) and nicotine (66.4 pg/mg in children; 51.9 pg/mg in adults). The present study provides the most comprehensive exposure assessment ever and highlights the simultaneous exposure to multiple classes of pollutants in the general population. The results support the use of multi-residue methods for future studies on exposure-associated effects, to document exposome and better consider the effect of chemical mixtures.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Environmental Cadmium Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk: An
           Overview of Systematic Reviews

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      Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious metabolic disorder impacting millions globally. A full understanding of the mechanisms implicated in diabetes genesis remain elusive, but exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors has emerged as a potential association of diabetes. Cadmium (Cd) has been investigated for its diabetogenic potential, yet the reported evidence is inconsistent. This overview of systematic reviews reports the association between Cd exposure and T2DM risk globally. Systematic reviews were identified by searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GEOBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers independently completed screening, data abstraction, risk of bias evaluation, and confidence in level of evidence assessments using GRADE. The primary outcome involved estimating the association between Cd exposure, defined through measurement of Cd in urine (U-Cd) or blood (B-Cd), and T2DM. The quantitative data synthesis was conducted at the primary study level. While there was a trend for U-Cd (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.68) association with diabetes risk, B-Cd (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.02–1.83) levels were associated with diabetes risk. The risk of bias was high in 4 out of 5 included systematic reviews, and GRADE rating was very low. In conclusion, while current evidence suggests a link between cadmium levels and T2DM in the general population, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the methodological limitations of current studies, and additional studies should be undertaken to clarify this question. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42019125956.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Relationships Between Dietary Patterns and Low-Level Lead Exposure Among
           Children from Hunan Province of China

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      Abstract: Abstract Lead (Pb) is a potent environmental toxic metal. Few studies have focused on low-level Pb exposure in children. This study evaluated the relationships of dietary patterns with low-level Pb exposure in children from Hunan province of China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a single primary school, located in Hunan Province. In total, 425 children were recruited. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured. Multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate the associations of BLLs with dietary patterns. Three dietary patterns were identified: balanced, plant, and beverage and snack. The concentration of blood lead (median (IQR)) was 2.00 (2.00, 15.96) μg/L. Only 0.24% children’s BLLs were  ≥100 µg/L and 1.18% children’s BLLs were ≥ 50 µg/L. There was a significant difference for BLLs in gender of children (p = 0.007). No significant associations were found between dietary patterns and BLLs by logistic regression analysis based on 50th percentile (P50) of blood lead. The plant pattern had a positive association with blood log-Pb (B = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.08, p = 0.035) in group of > P50 by linear regression analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) (B = 7.44, 95% CI: 2.80, 12.09, p = 0.002) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (B = 5.46, 95% CI: 1.53, 9.40, p = 0.007) were positively associated with blood log-Pb in group of > P50. BLLs were low among children aged 4–7 years in Hunan province of China. There was a significant difference for BLLs in gender of children. Low BLLs had no associations with dietary patterns. However, the plant pattern may become an important source of blood lead with increasing BLLs. Increasing BLLs may contribute to elevated blood pressure of children.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • The Effect of Co-Exposure to Glyphosate, Cadmium, and Arsenic on Chronic
           Kidney Disease

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      Abstract: Abstract The usage of glyphosate is increasing worldwide. Glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern in unknown chronic kidney disease (CKDu). As with Cd and other elements, glyphosate exposure has been reported as risk factor for CKDu in farmers. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of co-exposure to glyphosate and metals or metalloids in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, the urine samples from 55 patients with CKD and 100 participants without CKD were analyzed for glyphosate, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) concentrations, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Negative associations between glyphosate, AMPA, As, and Cd concentrations in the urine and eGFR were found for study subjects (p < 0.05). With regard to the effect of co-exposure, the odds ratios (OR) for subjects with an eGFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was significant because of the high Cd concentration (> 1 μg/g creatinine; OR = 7.57, 95% CI = 1.91–29.95). With regard to the effect of co-exposure, the OR for subjects with an of eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 was significant at high glyphosate concentration (> 1 μg/g creatinine; OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.13–2.16) and As concentration (> 1 μg/g creatinine; OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00–1.02). These results showed that glyphosate, AMPA, As, and Cd have an effect on CKD; notably, Cd, As, and glyphosate exposure can be important risk factors after stage 3a of CKD, and that there was a co-exposure effect of As and glyphosate in CKD after stage 3b. The potential health impacts of glyphosate should be considered, especial for patients with CKD and eGFR below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Correction: Recommended Guidance and Checklist for Human Health Risk
           Assessment of Metal(loid)s in Soil

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      PubDate: 2022-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12403-022-00497-x
       
 
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