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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Water Conservation Science and Engineering
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-3340 - ISSN (Online) 2364-5687
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Correction to: Performance Evaluation of Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme: a
           

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      PubDate: 2022-09-24
       
  • Assessing Farm Water Management and Performance of Koga Irrigation Scheme:
           a Case Study of Inguti Unit, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: The principal objective of this study was to assess field water management and performance of Koga irrigation scheme specifically Inguti unit using performance indicators based on the selected performance indicators such as conveyance efficiency, application efficiency, distribution efficiency, storage efficiency, and deep percolation ratio. Primary data such as discharge, soil moisture content, field surveys, and group discussions among the farmers/beneficiaries and Water User Associations (WUA) and secondary data such as crop data, climate data, and design documents were collected. CROPWAT 8.0 models and GIS were used for data analysis in this research. Average conveyance efficiency values ranged from 81 to 86.5% for lined (secondary and tertiary canals) and about 64% for unlined tertiary canals. The maximum water losses observed were 0.19 and 0.2 l/s/m on lined (secondary and tertiary) canals, respectively. The maximum water loss observed in unlined tertiary canals was 0.26 l/s/m. The average distribution uniformity, field storage efficiency, and field water application efficiency were 79.6%, 78.9%, and 53.5%, respectively. Average values of the scheme, cropped area ratio, and infrastructural effectiveness were 94% and 96.2%, which was good sustainability based on the standards. The overall efficiency of scheme in the Inguti unit was found to be 46.3%. In general, the performance of the irrigation scheme was weak due to poor field water managements as indicated by the above indicators due to illegal water abstraction, unequal distribution of irrigation water, sedimentation of canals and lack of institutional support service, and inadequate operation and canal maintenance.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
       
  • Fluoride Toxicity in Rajasthan, India: Water Filter Distribution,
           Monitoring and User Perception

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the dissemination of porous cement water filters (PCWFs) to 99 households and their on-field efficiency. The water filters used cement and sand as the primary material with sugarcane bagasse and activated carbon as filler. For the study, the district of Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India, was chosen. Water quality parameters like pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, and fluoride were monitored for the village water sources. While all the village samples had TDS exceeding 500 mg/l, only Dheendhwa Aguna had a pH exceeding 8.5. For all the water sampled, the recorded hardness was below 200 mg/l. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the lower margins of 1 mg/l but were within the permissible threshold of 1.5 mg/l. Of the 99 households, 42 relied primarily on a common village source, whereas 57 participants had access to discretely owned tube wells. Also, 26.3% (n = 26) of households had access to an advanced water treatment system constituting Jeeni (31.57%), Dheendhwa Aguna (22.22%), and Ramnath Pura (50%). In a similar vein, the PCWF’s performance was investigated after 3 and 6 months of distribution using pH, TDS, hardness, and fluoride as qualitative indicators. Designed for ease of operation, maintenance, and disposal, the filters can function even in the absence of electricity or continuous water flow. Constant communication with the study area participants before, during, and after the filter distribution successfully comprehended the participant’s demand for potable water and the adaptability of the filter. Comprehensively, the PCWF generated a favorable verdict from the participants, primarily women.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
       
  • Effective Adsorption of Pb2+ on Porous Carbon Derived from Functional
           Octadecahedron ZIF-8

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      Abstract: Abstract An adsorbent ZO (oxidized ZIF-8-derived carbon) was prepared on the ZIF-8-derived carbon (ZC) by modified Hummer’s method. The removal rate and adsorption amount of Pb2+ were measured on the different molar ratios of 2-Hmim to 2, 2′-bipyridine in ZO, including 1:1 (1:1 ZO) and 1:2 (1:2 ZO). The adsorption experiments show that the best condition to adsorb Pb2+ in Pb2+ solution for 1:1 ZO is an adsorbent dosage of 20 mg, adsorption time of 16 h, initial Pb2+concentration of 15 mg/L, and pH = 3; that for 1:2 ZO is the adsorbent dosage of 15 mg, adsorption time of 18 h, initial Pb2+ concentration of 15 mg/L, and pH = 4. The adsorption data fits the quasi-second-order kinetics (R2 = 0.99998), indicating that chemical adsorption plays a leading role. The fitted isotherm adsorption curve is more consistent with the Langmuir adsorption model (1:1 ZO, R2 = 0.95058; 1:2 ZO, R2 = 0.97488). The competitive adsorption results show that the removal rate of Pb2+ by 1:1 ZO and 1:2 ZO is more than 98%, indicating that 1:1 ZO and 1:2 ZO have a superior selectivity for Pb2+ competing with Cu2+ and Fe2+. The maximum adsorption amount of Pb2+ is 15.52 mg/g by 1:1 ZO and 18.09 mg/g by 1:2 ZO. This study shows that 1:2 ZO is more helpful for the removal of Pb2+ than 1:1 ZO.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
       
  • Land Use and Climate Change Impacts on Streamflow Using SWAT Model, Middle
           Awash Sub Basin, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Assessing the impact of land use and climate change on streamflow is important for watershed management. This study aims to examine the possible impacts of land use and climate change on the streamflow of the Jewaha catchment. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is used to simulate streamflow by integrating complex interactions between climate and land use/cover. The past land-use changes were determined by classifying the Landsat images from 1990, 2000, and 2018 with Earth Resource Development System (ERDAS) Imagine 2015. The potential of climate change impact was examined under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios for 2041–2070 time horizon with the baseline 1971–2000. Climate change scenarios over the catchment indicated an increasing trend in temperature, in both RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5, and variability in rainfall patterns in the catchment. The average annual temperature will increase by 0.1 °C and 0.15 °C for the RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively. Generally, the result indicated that in the future summer streamflow highly increases due to climate and land-use change and a decrease in the dry season because of the changes in the climate variables.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Sediment Yield Modeling and Evaluation of Best Management Practices Using
           the SWAT Model of the Daketa Watershed, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract High soil erosion rates, sediment transport, and loss of agricultural nutrients have been caused by poor land-use practices and management systems. This study mainly focuses on sediment yield modeling and evaluation of best management practices of the Daketa sub-basin using the SWAT model. Calibration and validation were done using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in Daketa sub-basin. The coefficient of determination (R2), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (ENS), and percent bias (PBIAS) were used to evaluate the model performance. During the calibration and validation, monthly sediment yield R2 values of 0.80 and 0.85, ENS values of 0.74 and 0.81, and PBIAS values of 0.0829 and 0.124 were obtained. The mean annual sediment yield of the Daketa watershed is 14.43 t/ha/year. Basin management scenarios were applied to reduce sediment production in the sub-basins. Four scenarios were developed such as (i) baseline, (ii) 5 and 10 m wide filter strip, (iii) waterway grass, and (iv) terraces to select the best management practices in the basin. The result shows that grassy waterway reduces sediment yield with an efficiency of 74.6% relative to the baseline scenario. Generally, the results indicated that grass waterways have a high potential for reducing the volume and velocity of runoff, sediments, and agrochemicals from agricultural catchments.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • An Innovative Approach for Groundwater Quality Assessment with the
           Integration of Various Water Quality Indexes with GIS and Multivariate
           Statistical Analysis—a Case of Ujjain City, India

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      Abstract: Abstract In India, a majority of the populace relies on groundwater for drinking. For this, the determination of groundwater quality (GWQ) is of great importance. The water quality index (WQI) is an effective technique that determines the suitability of water for drinking. In the present study, 54 groundwater samples consisting of eight physicochemical parameters were evaluated to assess water quality using four indexing methods: Numerow’s pollution index (NPI), Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index (WA WQI), Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI), and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI). A Geographic Information System (GIS) was employed to outline the spatial distribution maps of eight physicochemical parameters and WQI maps using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) technique. Multivariate statistical analysis such as correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CA) were used for the evaluation of large and complicated groundwater quality data sets in the study. The results of the WQI indicate that 43% (NPI), 96% (WAWQI), 74% (GWQI), and 94% (CCME WQI) of groundwater samples had poor to unsuitable drinking water quality. Using Karl Pearson’s correlation matrix, correlation analysis reveals a strong positive correlation of 0.9996 between EC and TDS. The application of PCA resulted in three major factors with a total variance of 72.5%, explaining the causes of water quality degradation. With the help of dendrogram plots, CA classifies eight groundwater parameters and 54 sampling locations into three major clusters with similar groundwater characteristics. According to the integrated approach of different water quality indexes with GIS, it is concluded that samples from wards 20, 44, and 47 are the most common and in the excellent-to-good category, and samples from wards 17, 34, and 43 are the most common and in the poor-to-very poor category. In view of the above, it is recommended to monitor the physicochemical parameters on a regular basis in order to safeguard groundwater resources and to prioritize management strategies in order to maintain the drinking quality of water.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Evaluation of Blue and Green Water Using Combine Stream Flow and Soil
           Moisture Simulation in Wunna Watershed, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Quantitative assessment of water availability using blue and green water will enhance water resource management at the local scale. Wunna watershed is a crucial water resource of the Godavari river basin. Calibration and validation are the essential procedure for hydrological modelling assessment. This current study used the combined monthly streamflow and reanalysis derived soil moisture data to estimate blue and green water availability and spatial and temporal variability using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and percent of bias (PBIAS) were used to assess the model performance. It was found that monthly observed streamflow and soil moisture data were well simulated during calibration and validation with NSE greater than 0.50 and less PBIAS value. Blue water and green water storage has been increased from 2001 to 2016, whereas green water flow declined from 2001 to 2016. A higher amount of blue water and green water storage was observed in the southeast region except green water flow and less in the northwest area. This study promotes the use of soil moisture for sustainable water management.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Evaluation of Hydraulic Performances Modeling of Water Distribution
           Systems and Physicochemical Water Quality Analysis, in the Case of Dangila
           Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract The existing water distribution system was insufficient for all parts of the study town due to rapid population growth, hydraulic performance issues, and water quality of Dangila town. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic performance modeling of water distribution systems and physicochemical water quality analysis of Dangila town using WaterGEMS and on-site and off-site water quality analyses. Sampling sizes of physicochemical water quality analysis were 240 at twelve distribution network stations from different pipes, high- and low-pressure zones using systematic random sampling techniques. The results of this study indicate that the water loss of the systems is 34%, which is very high. However, the average daily per capital water consumption was 18.1 l/c/d and the level of connections per family was 41.4%. Simulation of existing water distribution systems at nodes and pipes have 19% and 28.7% of lower pressures and velocities during peak hourly consumption, respectively. Hydraulic performances of distribution systems were evaluated by calibration and validation models of pressure, tank level, and link flow. The values of R2 during calibration and validation of pressure, tank level, and link flow were 0.98, 0.96, and 0.988%, respectively. The results of all physicochemical water quality parameters were within the acceptable limits of WHO and Ethiopia standards, except turbidity, total dissolved solid, and residual chlorine from some station during the dry and wet seasons. In general, the results of this study indicated that simulation of the hydraulic performance of existing distribution networks and water quality were inadequate.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Coupled Analysis of Seepage and Slope Stability: a Case Study of Ribb
           Embankment Dam, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract An earth-fill dam must be stable against seepage and slope failure for its intended function to be sustained throughout its service life. This study assesses the seepage and slope stability of the Ribb embankment dam. The stability of an embankment dam is determined by its shape, components, materials, qualities of each component, and thus the forces to which it is subjected. PLAXIS 2D software was used to conduct the analyses. The analysis covers the entire dam body, including 20 m of foundation depth, and the Mohr–Coulomb criterion was used to explain the behavior of both the body and the foundation of the dam. At various critical loading circumstances, the factor of safety, the quantity of seepage through the main body of the dam, and the foundation were tested. The flow rate, pore water distribution, and location of the phreatic line were all determined in this investigation. The phreatic line has appeared beneath the dam’s toe. This suggests that the dam is not vulnerable to sloughing difficulties, which are the most common cause of dam failure downstream. According to the simulation results, the average rate of seepage through the dam’s body at normal pool level was 5.05*10–6 m3/s/m, and the average rate of seepage through the dam’s foundation was 3.00*10–6 m3/s/m. The seepage results are within the permissible range, according to Look (2014). The results of the factor of safety were deemed insufficient due to the wide range of loading situations. The factor of safety values for both static and dynamic stability analyses at the end of construction were 1.3063 and 1.2226, respectively. Static stability analysis yielded a factor of safety of 1.2604 for steady-state conditions, and dynamic stability analysis yielded a factor of safety of 1.1803. The rapid drawdown condition is analyzed with a normal pool level of 1940 m lowered to 1900 m or rapidly reduced by 57% of the reservoir water. The static and dynamic evaluations revealed that the factor of safety was 1.2021 and 1.0662, respectively. The slope stability study of the Ribb embankment dam is safe under all critical loading circumstances, according to different approved design standards: United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), British Dam Society (BDS), and Canadian Dam Association (CDA).
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Evaluating Moisture Distribution and Salinity Dynamics in Sugarcane
           Subsurface Drip Irrigation

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      Abstract: Abstract The average sugarcane cultivation area in Iran’s southwestern farms is 12,000 hectares wherein irrigation is by the furrow method and the average water consumption is about 30,000 m3 per hectare. Therefore, the feasibility of subsurface irrigation method was examined to reduce the water consumption in this area. As records of earlier researches have shown that the subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) can be useful for the sustainable development of agriculture and conservation of the available water resources. This study applied it to cultivate two rows of sugarcane with supply pipes to report the moisture and salinity distribution in heavy-texture (clay-silt) soils. Finding the optimal conditions, as regards the drippers’ distance, discharge and frequency, irrigation time and duration and wet bulb development, is important for the subsurface drip irrigation. Besides, due to the limitations of field studies, numerical models can be used to simulate the prevailing conditions. Therefore, this study has evaluated the accuracy of the 2D HYDROS model for simulating the wetting pattern. The results were then used to determine the pipes’ best installation depth and the drippers’ distance on them. Tests were done for a dripper discharge of 1.2 lit/hr; supply pipe installation depths of 15, 20 and 30 cm; and dripper distances of 50 and 60 cm in three iterations. Results showed that the moisture content in all treatments varied between the field capacity limit and the permanent wilting point in horizontal and vertical distances of up to 60 and 90 cm, respectively, from the supply pipes. During the study period, the soil salinity increased in the 0–30 cm layer and decreased in the 30–60 and 60–90 cm depths. The highest salinity occurred at the furrow bottom and the lowest was on the ridge. Finally, considering the extension of moisture distribution and salinity in soil, the best supply-pipe installation depth and dripper distance were found to be 20 and 50 cm, respectively. Using HYDRUS 2D, the moisture distribution around supply pipes was estimated at three installation depths for an inter-dripper distance of 60 cm. To evaluate the software accuracy, a TDR (time-domain reflectometer) was used to measure the moisture content at 15 points around the supply pipes; according to the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) criterion, the accuracy was, respectively, fair, good and fair for a 60-cm inter-dripper distance and 15, 20 and 30 cm pipe installation depths.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Groundwater Potential Zone Mapping Using an Integrated Approach of
           GIS-Based AHP-TOPSIS in Ujjain District, Madhya Pradesh, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Groundwater is the world’s most significant natural source for ensuring dependable and long-term water supplies. Various variables, like as population explosion, urbanization, and modernization, are putting groundwater supplies in jeopardy. The use of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) to evaluate groundwater resources has become widespread. In the current research, groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) of the Ujjain district were estimated using the Integrated RS-GIS-based Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) approaches. Various thematic layers were obtained from appropriate sources, including land use–land cover, soil, slope, geology, geomorphology, drainage density, lithology, elevation, and rainfall. The AHP and TOPSIS approaches were used to assign weights to the parameters and their characteristics, and discovered that the geomorphology layer has the most influence of all. Finally, the final GWPZ map was created by combining the selected theme maps using a weighted overlay analysis in ArcGIS software. For both AHP and TOPSIS, the resultant groundwater potential (GWP) map has been categorized into five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high: based on the results obtained using AHP, very low potential zone (1.78%), low (26.54%), moderate (45.76%), high (26.96%), and very high (1.48%), similarly using TOPSIS, very low potential zone (4.67%), low (24.42%), moderate (35.53%), high (32.16%), and very high (3.22%). The study’s findings can be used to create an effective groundwater action plan for the study area, assuring the long-term usage of significant groundwater resources. This research will be extremely useful to water managers in terms of long-term groundwater supply.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Developing a Water Treatment Filter by Integrating Slow Sand Filtration
           Technology with Polypropylene Nonwoven and Activated Carbon and Testing
           Its Performance

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      Abstract: Abstract Scarcity of fresh drinking water has become a major concern in various parts of the world recently. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a sustainable polymer (polypropylene) and carbon (activated carbon from coconut shell) based water treatment filter. The filter was made by integrating polypropylene nonwoven fabric on the top of a two-inch layer of activated carbon and the traditional slow sand filter. The filter showed a significant reduction in turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, and concentration of heavy metals (HM) in the water samples collected from Turag River, Bangladesh. The reduction efficiencies were more than 85%. The higher value of reducing heavy metals, TDS, BOD, and pH might be explained by a higher particle retention and adsorption capacity of the filter due to the notable higher specific surface area of activated carbon and the pore size of the polypropylene filtration layer. The concentrations of lead, zinc, iron, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and copper were examined in which the filter showed a promising result; however, the removal efficiency of other potential heavy metals is yet to be tested.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Estimation of Basaka Lake Dilution Process and Its Neutralization Periods,
           Oromia Region, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Lake Basaka is a shallow saline lake in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. This study was carried out to estimate the dilution process of Lake Basaka and its maximum neutralization period to use the water resource for various purposes. Eight sampling points were chosen to reflect consideration of all possible activities that may affect lake water quality. Sampling points were taken in the dry and wet seasons of the Awash River and Basaka Lake to verify the current status of water quality in the years 2021 The water quality of Awash River showed that almost all selected parameters concentration was below the permissible limits of [20]. This indicates the water quality of Awash River has good quality. The water quality of Lake Basaka result showed that there was a higher concentration of electric conductivity, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sodium which indicates poor quality. The dilution of the lake with Awash River was the best alternative to neutralize the lake water and use it for different purposes. The mixing ratio of the Awash River and Lake Basaka was fixed in the laboratory. As a result, 5:95 is the best ratio to neutralize Lake Basaka. Lake Basaka neutralization period was fixed in lake water and Awash River dilution. By considering the quality and quantity of lake and River water, the lake water would be restored in a period of 4 years. The study concluded that dilution and control of external loading restore the lake in to good condition within four years.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Dye Wastewater Treatment Using Wheat Straw Biochar in Gadoon Industrial
           Areas of Swabi, Pakistan

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      Abstract: Abstract With growing industrialization, the dye industries release a huge quantity of dye-contaminated water to the surrounding environment which affects the agricultural land and crop productivity. The present study was carried out to apply the wheat straw-pyrolyzed biochar to the dye industry wastewater to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and other toxic metals. For the application of biochar, wastewater samples were collected and analyzed for various parameters, namely, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sulfate, sodium, nitrate, calcium, potassium, chloride, and chemical oxygen demand. All the results were below the National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan (Pak-NEQs 1997/2008) and US-EPA except COD (i.e., 236 mg/L). For the reduction of COD, the wastewater samples were treated with wheat straw biochar through a group of experiments under variable adsorbent dosage and contact time. The biochar application, i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 in g/L, removed the COD up to 19.5, 34, 44.5, 56, and 62% with a significance of p < 0.05. The results stated that COD was reduced ~ 62% (up to 90 mg/L) with 2.5 g of adsorbent for 2-h contact time, and found below the permissible limit of Pak-NEQs (1997/2008); that is, 150 mg/L was considered as an optimum dose. Findings from the present study suggested that biochar derived from agro-waste could be a promising option to reduce the COD and other element concentrations from dye industry wastewater and improve the water quality. Reducing COD and other water quality parameters through biochar will surely limit the hazardous impacts of wastewater on the surrounding environment.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Performance Evaluation of Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme: Case Study of
           Selamko Irrigation Scheme, Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Selamko small-scale irrigation scheme using internal and external performance indicators. The irrigation scheme command area was 63 ha and during the study season, the irrigated area was 42 ha. Overall activities in the primary data collected included: field observation, discharge measurements in the canals, soil moisture before irrigation and after irrigation, depth of water applied at the field, and interviewing beneficiary farmers. Secondary data was collected from secondary sources that were the South Gondar Small Scale Irrigation coordination office, SGBoWR, and WUA of the scheme. In order to evaluate the irrigation water and use efficiency of the scheme, nine farmer fields were selected from the scheme concerning their location: at the head, middle, and tail end water users. The internal process indicators which include conveyance efficiency and application efficiency were used to evaluate the performance of the scheme. From the analyses of internal performance indicators, the conveyance efficiencies were found to be 9% in the main canal, 57.09 at secondary canal 1, and 54.55% at secondary canal 2. The canals supply less water than the demand of the delivery points. And the application efficiencies were estimated to be 56.994%. The overall efficiency was 35.268%. The output per command area has to be calculated as 60,198.14 Birr/ha and 89,738.1 Birr/ha during the 2017 and 2016 irrigation seasons, respectively. The output per cropped area was estimated as 90,297.62 Birr/ha and 99,621.1 Birr/ha in the 2017 and 2016 irrigation seasons, respectively. The output per water consumed has to be determined as 17.66 Birr/m3 and 20.14 Birr/m3 in the 2017 and 2016 irrigation seasons, respectively. The water supply and irrigation supply were found as 1.71 and 1.47, respectively. From the analysis of the physical performance of the scheme, during the study period, the irrigation ratio of the scheme was 66.67%, and the sustainability of the scheme was 62.69% but in the 2016 irrigation season, the irrigation ratio was 84.7% and sustainability of the scheme was 90.08%. During the study period, the total effectiveness of the scheme infrastructure was 20.69%. It displayed that high system maintenance is required. Generally, the performance of the irrigation scheme is poor. Therefore, scheme monitoring, capacity building of the users and the water user associations, providing the flow control measurement structures, and adequate operation and maintenance of the system are required to improve the irrigation scheme performance.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
       
  • Performance Evaluation of Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme: a Case Study of
           Golina Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme, North Wollo, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to assess the performance of the Golina small-scale irrigation scheme using performance indicators. The primary data collected were discharge measurements in the canals, measurement of water applied to the farmers’ fields, field observations, interviewing beneficiary farmers, determination of moisture content measurement before and after irrigation, and soil physical properties determination. The secondary data were also taken from the designed document and journals. This study was carried out for one irrigation season from February to May. The collected data were analyzed using empirical equations and statistical analysis on a percentage basis. The application efficiency result on three sample plots in farmers’ fields located at the head, middle, and tail reaches of the command area was found to be 46.30%, 65.87%, and 76.07%, respectively. The maintenance indicator investigation showed the main canal transports 82% of its design objective. The value of the effectiveness of infrastructure was 61.64%. Whereas the sustainability of the irrigated area was 86.5%. Therefore, the overall performance evaluation of the Golina small irrigation scheme was poor. Therefore, this study aims to strengthen water user association and create awareness for users to adapt and practice routine maintenance to achieve good performance of the scheme.
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
       
  • ANN-based Rainfall-Runoff Model and Its Performance Evaluation of
           Sabarmati River Basin, Gujarat, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Water is the most essential natural resource and pillar constitutes in the socio-economic development of a country. Over the passage of time, water resources are experiencing a wide variation. To cope up with this, hydrological modeling is the need of the hour. Rainfall-runoff (R-R) models are essential for planning, development, and management of the water resources. In this paper, hydrological modeling was done using the artificial neural network (ANN) tool for the Sabarmati River Basin. ANN is an efficient tool that has the potential to identify complex non-linear relationships among a set of input and output data. The hydrological parameters considered for the modeling are daily rainfall, average temperature, evaporation, and discharge of four stations, i.e., Ganapipali, Khedbrahma, Kabola, and Ambaliyara of Sabarmati River basin. Among this daily rainfall, average temperature, and evaporation data were considered as input and discharge as the output parameter. The access to the hydrological data was granted by State Water Data Centre, Gandhinagar for monsoon seasons, i.e., June to September, of 5 years (2001–2005). The neural network was created and the simulation results shows a good correlation of 0.82 for Ganapipali, Kabola, and Ambaliyara station each and 0.68 for Khedbrahma station with the observed data. The RMSE value, i.e., root mean square error value corresponding to the above stations, was also observed to be small obtaining a value of 0.11. It was evident from the results that ANN models are facile to generate and do not need a thorough analysis of the watershed’s geological and hydrological parameters which are the essence of any deterministic, conceptual, and other physically based parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
       
  • Toward Practical Analysis of Wastewater Contaminants Employing Dual
           Spectroscopic Techniques

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      Abstract: Abstract Water is the basic component for all living creatures, yet it is quantitatively and qualitatively wasted. Wastewater, however, is a part of the world’s storage of water which needs to be recycled in order to be reused. However, upon recycling, water needs a rapid and precise analysis in the field rather than in a laboratory. This study presents a quantitative analysis of organic contaminants in laboratory-simulated industrial wastewater for field operation. In the analysis, two techniques were contrasted: spectrophotometry and hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometry is a principal analytical technique; however, it is rarely used outdoors and is less accurate in detecting low concentrations of organic dyes such as methylene blue (< 20 ppm) in water. Thus, growing demand is arising for an alternative technique to overcome the detriments of UV–Vis spectrophotometry. HSI is potentially suitable to meet this demand because it spectrally identifies and spatially images the object of interest. Moreover, HSI’s instrumentation enables itself to be employed in both indoor and outdoor applications. In this study, HSI proved to be an efficient technique for the analysis of organic dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) in wastewater. The results of the UV–Vis spectrophotometer and HSI methods were compared using Bland and Altman’s limit of agreement. The study shows a great promise for employing HSI in the on-site analysis of industrial wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
       
  • Sprinkler Irrigation Efficiency in Relation to Water Surface Tension:
           Pesticide and Fertilizer Effect on Drop Size and Soil Water Uptake

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      Abstract: Abstract Increasing pressure on water resources in semi-arid regions is forcing farmers to use more effective pressurized water application. Sprinkler irrigation efficiency is directly related to the droplet size, which its contributing factors have mostly been studied macroscopically (e.g., nozzle size, flow pressure). As a result, the importance of microscopic phenomena such as molecular interactions in water drop formation has been overlooked. In this study, the role of surface tension in water atomization has been investigated. Using drop volume method, two conventional surfactants, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and two commercial fertilizers and pesticides have been employed to investigate the mechanisms via which dissolved materials can affect the water drop size during atomization. Experimental results from this study revealed the commercial fertilizers and pesticides can significantly reduce the surface tension of water and, therefore, size of water droplets (up to 60%). It is also identified that flow rate is a critical factor affecting droplet size when commercial fertilizers and pesticides are present in the system. Furthermore, it was found that fertilizers and pesticides can reduce overall soil water adsorption up to 10%. Consideration of these outcomes in the design of sprinkle irrigation systems can substantially improve water conservation and the environmental sustainability in the areas adversely affected by global warming.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00124-x
       
 
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