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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Water Conservation Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-3340 - ISSN (Online) 2364-5687
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Quantitative Assessment of Channel Planform Dynamics Across Satluj River
           in North India Over 45 Years: Analysis Using Geospatial Techniques

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      Abstract: Abstract Climate change along with anthropogenic modifications affects river channel dynamics to a large extent. Therefore monitoring channel planform dynamics becomes essential for efficient management of river and associated flood plain. Time series analysis was done for a period of 45 years between the time frame 1975 and 2020 along the middle course of Satluj an important river of North India to understand its dynamics. This study reports spatial and temporal shifting along the middle course of Satluj. The entire middle course was extensively studied by dividing the region into three reaches according to its geomorphological setup. It is interesting to find that the middle reach showed maximum shift in its course at a rate of 17.35 m/year whereas 7.15 m/year was witnessed in the lower reach and 3.64 m/year in the upper reach. Shift has been minimum in upper reach due to the sloping landform along both sides of the river, whereas it is higher in the middle reach as the river enters the plains. The shift is minimum in the lower reach as the water is diverted to the twin canals for irrigation due to construction of engineering structures (barrage).
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • Assessment of Irrigation Scheme Failure Factors: a Case Study on Marza
           Irrigation Scheme Fogera, Amhara, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract The failure factors of Marza small-scale irrigation schemes were used to evaluate the Marza small-scale irrigation system. Primary and secondary data were used to identify important failure variables in this investigation. Primary data included field observations and measurements, GPS data, and focus group discussions, while secondary data included design documentation, Woreda annual reports, and rainfall data. The research area’s watershed discharge was estimated using ArcGIS 10.5 software and Soil Conservation System methodologies. In the laboratory, the physical features of the soil at the weir location were investigated. The project’s structural components have already deteriorated, including the gates, main canal, crossing structures, division boxes, upstream wing walls, and riverbank, rendering the system unusable. The main causes of this failure were improper weir site planning, weir component design, bad construction, floods from the catchment and canal section, sedimentation, structural instability, and foundation challenges, which were all investigated in the scheme. Lack of effective community participation, the absence of water users’ associations, and a lack of training and monitoring were all factors. Institutional, social, and operational factors all play a role in some of the issues. As a result, this research provides recommendations on how to maintain current irrigation schemes as well as how to evaluate the causes of scheme failure while developing a new one.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • Numerical Approach for Channel Flood Routing in an Ungauged Basin: a Case
           Study in Kulsi River Basin, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Flood is the most devastating and frequent disaster in North-East India, resulting in loss of human life and damage of properties. Its deleterious effects can be minimized by appropriate modeling, analysis, and management methods. Such modeling and analyzing techniques are hindered in flood prediction in an ungauged basin due to the lack of hydro-meteorological data. The main objective of this work is to develop a numerical approach for flood routing in an ungauged basin using the rainfall-runoff model and the flood routing models (Muskingum approach, Cunge-Muskingum model, KWM, VPKWM, DWFRM, and MDWMP). The Geographic Information System software has been used to extract the geographical information of the study area. The SCS-CN rainfall-runoff model is employed to obtain the inflow, and lateral inflow hydrographs of the ungauged sub-basins and the routing models are employed to anticipate the flood hydrograph at the outlet of the ungauged basin. The modeling approach is employed to the Kulsi River Basin, India, hypothetically considered an ungauged basin, and the results obtained from the various routing models are compared with the observed data at the outlet of the basin. The performance of the flood routing models is validated by considering nine statical parameters, i.e., RMSE, E-peak, peak flow time error, E-volume, MAE, R-squared, RE, NSE, and KGE. The results reveal that out of all the abovementioned models, MDWMP shows better performance as far as the predictions in ungauged basin is concerned. The Muskingum approach (MA) and DWFRM routing models can also suitably be used in prediction of flood hydrograph at the downstream of an ungauged basin in less gauged river basin reaches.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
  • Phosphate Removal from Agricultural Drainage Using Biochar

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      Abstract: Abstract Industry development and population growth around the world produce toxic pollutants such as inorganic anions and metal ions. As the latter highly affect the water toxicity and human health and endanger animal and aquatic lives, it is quite necessary to remove phosphate from water. Adsorption is a simple, practical, economical, and nature-friendly process that removes phosphate from agricultural drainage and enables the recycling and reuse of water and phosphorus. Since nanoadsorbents have been quite popular in recent years because of their high specific surface area, simple performance, and high reactivity, this study has used the activated nanobiochar of sugarcane bagasse to examine the rate of phosphate removal from agricultural drainages. To this end, a total of 81 experiments were performed to examine the effects of the following: (1) biochar production time, (2) microwave power and (3) potassium hydroxide (KOH)-to-biochar (BC) weight ratio (KOH/BC), on activating the biochar to remove the phosphate from the polluted drainage. Results of the abovementioned tests, which were used to determine the optimal conditions to provide the sugarcane bagasse adsorbent, revealed that 0.2 g adsorbent in 150 ml of phosphate solution, a biochar production time of 7 h at 600° C, and a pH equal to 7 resulted in an average phosphate removal efficiency of higher than 47.8%. Results also showed that increasing the activation time up to 10 min and the microwave power up to 400 W, and assuming KOH/BC = 3, increased the average phosphate removability, and increasing them above the optimal value reduced it.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • A Comparative Evaluation of Seepage and Stability of Embankment Dams Using
           GeoStudio and Plaxis Models: the Case of Gomit Dam in Amhara Region,
           Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an evaluation and comparative study on the seepage and slope stability analysis of the Gomit earth dam found in the Amhara Region, South Gondar Zone, Estie woreda. The analysis was performed using limit equilibrium (LE) and finite element (FE) methods in GeoStudio 2012 and Plaxis 2D 8.2 models. Field data measurements and observatory investigations were also carried out. Seepage analysis such as seepage magnitude, pore water pressure distribution, and location of the phreatic line has been determined using SEEP/W and Plaxis models. From the simulated results of SEEP/W and Plaxis models, the average seepage rate for the entire length of the dam at full reservoir conditions was found to be 2.632 × 10−5 m3/s and 7.497 × 10−4 m3/s, respectively. Three different loading conditions (end-of-construction, steady-state seepage, and rapid drawdown) have been studied for stability analysis. The factor of safety results of SLOPE/W at the end of construction, steady-state, and rapid drawdown conditions were 1.045, 1.473, and 1.012 and the corresponding results of Plaxis model were 0.818, 1.402, and 0.945, respectively. The stability analysis results for the designed conditions show that the slopes are unstable under all loading conditions. The actual site investigations of the dam, in line with the model results, indicated that the downstream slope is facing a stability problem. From this model and actual site investigation studies, we understand that currently the dam safety and performance are not satisfactory (high leakage and slope instability). Hence, it is recommended to conduct critical monitoring and surveillance of the dam and the stability results of the Plaxis model are generally smaller than the results of the SLOPE/W model. For the slope stability analysis of embankment dams, where there is high uncertainty in the soil data of dam construction, the Plaxis model may be better since it gives conservative factor of safety results based on this study. However, still additional evaluation of the models is necessary and designers have to note the different considerations of the models in applying and selecting the models.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
       
  • Controlled Drainage and Irrigation Regime for Improving Some Soil
           Properties and Wheat Production, Sahl El-Tina, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

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      Abstract: Abstract  The integrated water management is essential for sustainable agriculture, especially in countries suffering from water shortages. A pilot experimental field was carried out in Sahl El-Tina, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt (latitude 31°1¯47= N and longitude 32°33¯57= E) to assess the effect of water table depth (WTD) at 60, 80, 100 and 120 cm integrally with irrigation regimes (IR) that practiced at 25, 50 and 75% from the total available water capacity (AWC) on soil properties, water relationships and wheat growth. The results revealed that there was significant effect on electrical conductivity (EC), bulk density (Bd), total porosity (TP), hydraulic conductivity (HC), field capacity (FC), available water (AWC), available nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and straw dry weight values. Wheat grains yield increased as the available water depletion (AWD) increased up to 50% and with WTD down to 100 cm. On average basis and regardless WTD, the crop water productivity (CWP) values were 1.00, 0.93 and 0.84 kg/ m3 at 25, 50 and 75% of AWD, respectively. The amount of saved irrigation water (SIW) significantly differed according to WTD and IR. The lowest value of SIW was 136 m3 at 25% AWD with WTD of 100 cm, while the highest value was 503.0 m3 at 75% AWD with WTD of 60 cm. It can be recognized that wheat crop irrigated at 50% AWD with WTD of 60 cm (CD60) realized the best management practice. It attained the highest CWP and high amount of SIW which reflected on a good wheat grain quality.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
       
  • Cu(II) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Ultrafiltration Assisted with
           Chestnut Shell Pigment

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      Abstract: Polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF) is emerging as a competent technique for removing heavy metal contaminants from effluents. Biopolymers are prospective size-enhancers due to their abundant biodegradable and renewable nature. Melanin is a type of biopolymer that binds heavy metal ions effectively. Chestnut shell pigment (CSP) is the melanin extracted from an agro-waste. This study evaluated the feasibility of employing melanin in PEUF for heavy metal removal from wastewater by using CSP and Cu(II) as the model melanin and heavy metal, respectively. The effects of pH, Cu(II), and CSP concentrations in the feed solution on the Cu(II) removal were investigated. At the optimized condition of pH 6 and a loading ratio of 33.3, more than 99% of the copper was removed by a polyethersulfone membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 50 kDa. The binding process was rapid, completed within 22 min, and fit well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The binding equilibrium data fit well with the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum binding capacity of 0.8733 mmol·g−1. Mg2+ and Ca2+ hindered the Cu(II) removal, while Na+ and K+ affected it negligibly. Before and after Cu(II) binding, the CSP samples were characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry. The cation exchange with H+ and NH4+ ions and complexation with the carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amine groups could have been the primary mechanisms of Cu(II) binding as forms of Cu2+ and CuOH+ onto the CSP. CSP could be a promising size-enhancing biopolymer for copper removal from aqueous solutions. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
       
  • Dye Wastewater Treatment Using Wheat Straw Biochar in Gadoon Industrial
           Areas of Swabi, Pakistan

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      Abstract: Abstract With growing industrialization, the dye industries release a huge quantity of dye-contaminated water to the surrounding environment which affects the agricultural land and crop productivity. The present study was carried out to apply the wheat straw-pyrolyzed biochar to the dye industry wastewater to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and other toxic metals. For the application of biochar, wastewater samples were collected and analyzed for various parameters, namely, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sulfate, sodium, nitrate, calcium, potassium, chloride, and chemical oxygen demand. All the results were below the National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan (Pak-NEQs 1997/2008) and US-EPA except COD (i.e., 236 mg/L). For the reduction of COD, the wastewater samples were treated with wheat straw biochar through a group of experiments under variable adsorbent dosage and contact time. The biochar application, i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 in g/L, removed the COD up to 19.5, 34, 44.5, 56, and 62% with a significance of p < 0.05. The results stated that COD was reduced ~ 62% (up to 90 mg/L) with 2.5 g of adsorbent for 2-h contact time, and found below the permissible limit of Pak-NEQs (1997/2008); that is, 150 mg/L was considered as an optimum dose. Findings from the present study suggested that biochar derived from agro-waste could be a promising option to reduce the COD and other element concentrations from dye industry wastewater and improve the water quality. Reducing COD and other water quality parameters through biochar will surely limit the hazardous impacts of wastewater on the surrounding environment.
      PubDate: 2022-05-28
       
  • A Data Visualisation Tool for Treatment Process Monitoring in Web Browsers

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      Abstract: Abstract Traditional water quality–based processes of assessment using grab samples are simple to implement but far too retrospective and intermediate to adequately deal with water quality change situation. This case study demonstrated a customised software package using a web-based prototype portal with data integration, visualisation, prediction, and anomaly detection functions for complex real-time field monitoring data sets as a visualisation and decision support tool for treatment plant operators. The prototype was developed to analyse two-dimensional data obtained from a spectrophotometer (absorbance against wavelength) and data integrated from other sources (such as rainfall and temperature). It supports normal functions of time series data visualisation, such as, raw data plotting, zooming, smoothing, Boolean band etc. More importantly, it is specialised in supporting real-time monitoring of data quality, time series data comparison, anomaly detection, and future value prediction. The application of the prototype revealed that if this was placed in an operational environment, it has the potential to inform better operational decision by early detection of changes in water quality and impacts on the treatment process. This work demonstrated the potential usefulness of such real-time display and visualisation of online water quality data and the feasibility for prediction tools to provide an early warning system for process upsets.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • An Innovative Approach for Groundwater Quality Assessment with the
           Integration of Various Water Quality Indexes with GIS and Multivariate
           Statistical Analysis—a Case of Ujjain City, India

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      Abstract: Abstract In India, a majority of the populace relies on groundwater for drinking. For this, the determination of groundwater quality (GWQ) is of great importance. The water quality index (WQI) is an effective technique that determines the suitability of water for drinking. In the present study, 54 groundwater samples consisting of eight physicochemical parameters were evaluated to assess water quality using four indexing methods: Numerow’s pollution index (NPI), Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index (WA WQI), Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI), and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI). A Geographic Information System (GIS) was employed to outline the spatial distribution maps of eight physicochemical parameters and WQI maps using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) technique. Multivariate statistical analysis such as correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CA) were used for the evaluation of large and complicated groundwater quality data sets in the study. The results of the WQI indicate that 43% (NPI), 96% (WAWQI), 74% (GWQI), and 94% (CCME WQI) of groundwater samples had poor to unsuitable drinking water quality. Using Karl Pearson’s correlation matrix, correlation analysis reveals a strong positive correlation of 0.9996 between EC and TDS. The application of PCA resulted in three major factors with a total variance of 72.5%, explaining the causes of water quality degradation. With the help of dendrogram plots, CA classifies eight groundwater parameters and 54 sampling locations into three major clusters with similar groundwater characteristics. According to the integrated approach of different water quality indexes with GIS, it is concluded that samples from wards 20, 44, and 47 are the most common and in the excellent-to-good category, and samples from wards 17, 34, and 43 are the most common and in the poor-to-very poor category. In view of the above, it is recommended to monitor the physicochemical parameters on a regular basis in order to safeguard groundwater resources and to prioritize management strategies in order to maintain the drinking quality of water.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Groundwater Potential Zone Mapping Using an Integrated Approach of
           GIS-Based AHP-TOPSIS in Ujjain District, Madhya Pradesh, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Groundwater is the world’s most significant natural source for ensuring dependable and long-term water supplies. Various variables, like as population explosion, urbanization, and modernization, are putting groundwater supplies in jeopardy. The use of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) to evaluate groundwater resources has become widespread. In the current research, groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) of the Ujjain district were estimated using the Integrated RS-GIS-based Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) approaches. Various thematic layers were obtained from appropriate sources, including land use–land cover, soil, slope, geology, geomorphology, drainage density, lithology, elevation, and rainfall. The AHP and TOPSIS approaches were used to assign weights to the parameters and their characteristics, and discovered that the geomorphology layer has the most influence of all. Finally, the final GWPZ map was created by combining the selected theme maps using a weighted overlay analysis in ArcGIS software. For both AHP and TOPSIS, the resultant groundwater potential (GWP) map has been categorized into five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high: based on the results obtained using AHP, very low potential zone (1.78%), low (26.54%), moderate (45.76%), high (26.96%), and very high (1.48%), similarly using TOPSIS, very low potential zone (4.67%), low (24.42%), moderate (35.53%), high (32.16%), and very high (3.22%). The study’s findings can be used to create an effective groundwater action plan for the study area, assuring the long-term usage of significant groundwater resources. This research will be extremely useful to water managers in terms of long-term groundwater supply.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
       
  • Developing a Water Treatment Filter by Integrating Slow Sand Filtration
           Technology with Polypropylene Nonwoven and Activated Carbon and Testing
           Its Performance

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      Abstract: Abstract Scarcity of fresh drinking water has become a major concern in various parts of the world recently. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a sustainable polymer (polypropylene) and carbon (activated carbon from coconut shell) based water treatment filter. The filter was made by integrating polypropylene nonwoven fabric on the top of a two-inch layer of activated carbon and the traditional slow sand filter. The filter showed a significant reduction in turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, and concentration of heavy metals (HM) in the water samples collected from Turag River, Bangladesh. The reduction efficiencies were more than 85%. The higher value of reducing heavy metals, TDS, BOD, and pH might be explained by a higher particle retention and adsorption capacity of the filter due to the notable higher specific surface area of activated carbon and the pore size of the polypropylene filtration layer. The concentrations of lead, zinc, iron, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and copper were examined in which the filter showed a promising result; however, the removal efficiency of other potential heavy metals is yet to be tested.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
       
  • Evaluating Moisture Distribution and Salinity Dynamics in Sugarcane
           Subsurface Drip Irrigation

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      Abstract: Abstract The average sugarcane cultivation area in Iran’s southwestern farms is 12,000 hectares wherein irrigation is by the furrow method and the average water consumption is about 30,000 m3 per hectare. Therefore, the feasibility of subsurface irrigation method was examined to reduce the water consumption in this area. As records of earlier researches have shown that the subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) can be useful for the sustainable development of agriculture and conservation of the available water resources. This study applied it to cultivate two rows of sugarcane with supply pipes to report the moisture and salinity distribution in heavy-texture (clay-silt) soils. Finding the optimal conditions, as regards the drippers’ distance, discharge and frequency, irrigation time and duration and wet bulb development, is important for the subsurface drip irrigation. Besides, due to the limitations of field studies, numerical models can be used to simulate the prevailing conditions. Therefore, this study has evaluated the accuracy of the 2D HYDROS model for simulating the wetting pattern. The results were then used to determine the pipes’ best installation depth and the drippers’ distance on them. Tests were done for a dripper discharge of 1.2 lit/hr; supply pipe installation depths of 15, 20 and 30 cm; and dripper distances of 50 and 60 cm in three iterations. Results showed that the moisture content in all treatments varied between the field capacity limit and the permanent wilting point in horizontal and vertical distances of up to 60 and 90 cm, respectively, from the supply pipes. During the study period, the soil salinity increased in the 0–30 cm layer and decreased in the 30–60 and 60–90 cm depths. The highest salinity occurred at the furrow bottom and the lowest was on the ridge. Finally, considering the extension of moisture distribution and salinity in soil, the best supply-pipe installation depth and dripper distance were found to be 20 and 50 cm, respectively. Using HYDRUS 2D, the moisture distribution around supply pipes was estimated at three installation depths for an inter-dripper distance of 60 cm. To evaluate the software accuracy, a TDR (time-domain reflectometer) was used to measure the moisture content at 15 points around the supply pipes; according to the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) criterion, the accuracy was, respectively, fair, good and fair for a 60-cm inter-dripper distance and 15, 20 and 30 cm pipe installation depths.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
       
  • Sediment Yield Modeling and Evaluation of Best Management Practices Using
           the SWAT Model of the Daketa Watershed, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract High soil erosion rates, sediment transport, and loss of agricultural nutrients have been caused by poor land-use practices and management systems. This study mainly focuses on sediment yield modeling and evaluation of best management practices of the Daketa sub-basin using the SWAT model. Calibration and validation were done using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in Daketa sub-basin. The coefficient of determination (R2), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (ENS), and percent bias (PBIAS) were used to evaluate the model performance. During the calibration and validation, monthly sediment yield R2 values of 0.80 and 0.85, ENS values of 0.74 and 0.81, and PBIAS values of 0.0829 and 0.124 were obtained. The mean annual sediment yield of the Daketa watershed is 14.43 t/ha/year. Basin management scenarios were applied to reduce sediment production in the sub-basins. Four scenarios were developed such as (i) baseline, (ii) 5 and 10 m wide filter strip, (iii) waterway grass, and (iv) terraces to select the best management practices in the basin. The result shows that grassy waterway reduces sediment yield with an efficiency of 74.6% relative to the baseline scenario. Generally, the results indicated that grass waterways have a high potential for reducing the volume and velocity of runoff, sediments, and agrochemicals from agricultural catchments.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Comparative Performance Evaluation of Small-Scale Irrigations by Using
           Internal Process and External Indicators on Chiro and Sewur Irrigation
           Schemes in North Shewa Zone, Amhara, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract This study ventured to evaluate the performance of two small-scale irrigation schemes in North Shewa Zone, Efratana gidim, and Kewet woreda. The schemes were Chiro with 175 ha of irrigable, 125 ha of irrigated land, and Sewur with 191 ha designed, and currently, it expands to 301 ha of irrigable. Primary and secondary data collection methods were used. Nine sample fields were selected from each irrigation scheme under their location to evaluate the irrigation water use efficiency at the field level (from the upper, middle, and lower water users). CROPWAT 8.0 software was used to estimate the crop water. The average application efficiencies were 63.36 and 69.52%, conveyance efficiencies were 82.73 and 77.94%, storage efficiencies were 77.55 and 82.22%, and the overall scheme efficiencies that were 54.07 and 53.25% were internal performance indicators at Chiro and Sewur irrigation scheme, respectively. In addition to this, the comparative performance indicator analysis, outputs per unit irrigated area of the two schemes were 3823.05 and 5568.60 US$/ha on Chiro and Sewur, respectively. The value of the output per unit command area of Chiro 3329.63US$/ha was too lower than the value of Sewur 14,737.85US$/ha. The output per unit irrigation supply for Chiro was 1.02, while in Sewur 1.93 US$/m3. Output per water consumed was 1.01 in Chiro and 1.32 US$/m3 for Sewur. The ratios of relative water supply and relative irrigation supplies were 2.33 and 2.66 for Chiro and 1.99 and 1.80 for Sewur irrigation projects, respectively. This indicates that irrigation water is not a constraint and a higher amount of water was diverted at Chiro, but the reverse is true for the Sewur irrigation scheme. The cropping intensity, irrigation ratio, and sustainable irrigated lands were 122, 7, and 51% in Chiro and 168, 100, and 158% in Sewur, respectively. To sustain the schemes, proper water and land management are mandatory.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00136-1
       
  • Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Physicochemical Parameters of the
           Water Quality of Lake Basaka, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract The water quality of Lake Basaka is currently influenced by natural and anthropogenic activities. The objective of this study was to examine the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical water quality parameters in Lake Basaka. The water sample was collected in the dry and wet seasons for the verification of some selected parameters. Laboratory analysis was performed at the Abbay Basin Development Authority Water and Wastewater Laboratory. Statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters was used in the dry and rainy seasons during the year 2021. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to measure the significant spatio-temporal variation of the physicochemical parameters of water quality. The ANOVA results indicated that the physicochemical indicators of water quality have a significant variation with time and space. Spatial maps were also generated using the GIS (interpolation) tool to understand the spatial distribution of each water quality indicator in Lake Basaka. The result shows a high spatial variation of PH, EC, Na, F, and bicarbonate in the Abadir and Addis Ababa roadside. The temporal variation of the quality of Lake Basaka shows a decreasing trend due to the dilution of freshwater (runoff or hot springs) towards Lake Basaka. The water quality index (WQI) was used to assess the general state of the water quality of the lake for irrigation purposes. Lake Basaka’s water quality index is 103.97, indicating poor water quality in the lake. In general, this document revealed that the water status of Lake Basaka is currently not suitable for any purpose due to poor quality, as a result, the expansion of the lake becomes a great challenge for the city of Metahara and the sugar plantation of Metahara from time to time.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00134-3
       
  • Analysis and Characterization of Hydrological Drought Under Future Climate
           Change Using the SWAT Model in Tana Sub-basin, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Climate variability leads to hydrological extremes (floods and droughts) in Ethiopia, regardless of their intensity, duration, and frequency of occurrence. Therefore, this study focuses on the analysis and characterization of hydrological droughts under the future impacts of climate change using the SWAT model in the Lake Tana sub-basin. Future projections of climate data were obtained from dynamically reduced daily precipitation and temperatures from the CORDEX-Africa Program. The potential impact of climate change was examined under the RCP 4.5 emission scenarios for the time horizon 2011–2031, 2032–2052, and 2053–2073 with the baseline 1986–2005. For this study, the widely used modified Mann–Kendall test was run at a 10% significance level on time series data for each of the seven stations. The result of the Mann–Kendall (S) statistical test indicates that the temperature increases by 0.85 °C per decade and the precipitation increases insignificantly in all seasons. The standard streamflow index (SSFI) was used to characterize hydrological drought under historical and future climate change in the Tana sub-basin. The severity, duration, and frequency of hydrological drought were calculated on time scales from 6 to 24 months. Hydrological drought occurred in the Tana sub-basin due to climate change. This was achieved through the development of drought indices that are capable of timely characterizing and evaluating drought at different temporal scales. Assessing the future impacts of climate change on the characteristics of hydrological droughts is one of the important measures to implement sustainable water resource management and effective disaster mitigation in the sub-basin.
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00133-4
       
  • Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Methods for Soil Moisture Conservation
           and Maize Grain Yield in Low Moisture Areas of SNNPR, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Conservation tillage is a promising tillage practice for enhancing soil moisture conservation. The objective of the study is to evaluate conservation tillage methods on soil moisture and maize grain yield in Silte and Gurage zone of Ethiopia. No tillage, one-time tillage, two times tillage, and conventional tillage methods were evaluated. The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications for three consecutive years (2018–2020). Besides soil moisture data, selected physical and chemical soil properties were collected. Economic analysis was also computed for each tillage method to select cost effective conservation tillage methods. The result reveals, conservation tillage methods had better soil infiltration and soil moisture content relative to conventional tillage. There was no significant difference between treatments in soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and phosphorus in the top 10 cm in the Mareko site. However, except for phosphorus, significant differences (p < 0.05) between treatments in soil organic carbon and nitrogen were detected in the 10–20 cm depth. The maize yield and yield components are significantly affected by treatments at the Mareko site and not significant at Mito. The results support that conservation tillage tested in this study could contribute to the improvement of soil properties and maize yield in study sites.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00129-0
       
  • Understanding the Impact of Spot Market Electricity Price on Wastewater
           Asset Management Strategy

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      Abstract: Abstract Development of an advanced pumping control scheme is one of the useful methods that can be applied in operational optimisation of wastewater pumps. Optimisation of pumping control can benefit the utility by overall cost saving using different electricity pricing schemes from the energy market. As electricity prices can be varied based on the spot market in some countries such as Australia, the consideration of operating the pumps at the most favourable electricity price, when managed correctly, can offer remarkable savings. This paper provides understanding on the electricity spot price behaviour of South Australia in the National Electricity Market (NEM). Half-hourly electricity spot price data of over 22 years from January 1999 to June 2021 were analysed to investigate the key characteristics of spot prices, including seasonality (intraday, intraweek and seasonal price patterns), spiky behaviour and occurrences of negative prices. In addition, the possible impacts of other factors on electricity spot prices such as electricity demand and weather conditions on pump control were examined. Results indicate a strong relationship between electricity demand and spot price with the Pearson correlation coefficient up to R = 0.95, and extreme high spot prices tended to occur on scorching days with the maximum temperature above 35 °C when air-conditioner usage was high. This paper also explains the importance of electricity spot prices in the wastewater pump on/off operations and analyses opportunities for cost savings by including electricity spot price forecasts as an input of the smart controller to enhance the efficiency of the real-time pumping control.
      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00132-5
       
  • Investigation of groundwater potential in quaternary undifferentiated
           geological formation in Fogera district, Amhara, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract In Ethiopia's Amhara Region's Fogera district, quaternary undifferentiated geological formations have critical layers for groundwater potential. The recent technology of Arc GIS-Tool and RS-data has vulnerable to groundwater potential study. Five major input criteria were used to evaluate groundwater potential: type of lithology, soil, land use, slope gradient and drainage density. The groundwater potential was evaluated using just a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in a GIS system. The outcome of this investigation can be categorized into three parts: good, moderate and poor, with occupied region of good 86.79 km2 (16.65%), moderate115.62 km2 (22.18%) and poor318.85 km2 (61.16%). The highest area was classified as poor potential zone, which accounted of 61.16% of the total area. The validation of the investigation has been conducted with well discharge and transmitivity of the materials in the study area. Average discharge and transmitivity values in lacustrine, alluvium and colluviums deposits are about 45.25 l/s and 285.11 m2 /d, respectively, while in basalt flow is about 1–2 l/s and2.9 m2/d in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-022-00130-7
       
 
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